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Sample records for radiosensitizes glioblastoma cells

  1. Coculture with astrocytes reduces the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells and identifies additional targets for radiosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara H; Wahba, Amy; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing a model system for investigating the role of the microenvironment in the radioresistance of glioblastoma (GBM), human glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were grown in coculture with human astrocytes. Using a trans-well assay, survival analyses showed that astrocytes significantly decreased the radiosensitivity of GSCs compared to standard culture conditions. In addition, when irradiated in coculture, the initial level of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in GSCs was reduced and foci dispersal was enhanced suggesting that the presence of astrocytes influenced the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. These data indicate that astrocytes can decrease the radiosensitivity of GSCs in vitro via a paracrine-based mechanism and further support a role for the microenvironment as a determinant of GBM radioresponse. Chemokine profiling of coculture media identified a number of bioactive molecules not present under standard culture conditions. The gene expression profiles of GSCs grown in coculture were significantly different as compared to GSCs grown alone. These analyses were consistent with an astrocyte-mediated modification in GSC phenotype and, moreover, suggested a number of potential targets for GSC radiosensitization that were unique to coculture conditions. Along these lines, STAT3 was activated in GSCs grown with astrocytes; the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced the radiosensitivity of GSCs under coculture conditions and when grown as orthotopic xenografts. Further, this coculture system may also provide an approach for identifying additional targets for GBM radiosensitization. PMID:26518290

  2. EGFRvIII does not affect radiosensitivity with or without gefitinib treatment in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Struve, Nina; Riedel, Matthias; Schulte, Alexander; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Grob, Tobias J.; Gal, Andreas; Rothkamm, Kai; Lamszus, Katrin; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Kriegs, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas (GBM) are often characterized by an elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII). We used GBM cell lines with native EGFRvIII expression to determine whether this EGFR variant affects radiosensitivity with or without EGFR targeting. Methods Experiments were performed with GBM cell lines lacking (LN229, U87MG, U251, CAS-1) or endogenously expressing EGFRvIII (BS153, DKMG). The two latter cell lines were also used to establish sublines with a low (−) or a high proportion (+) of cells expressing EGFRvIII. EGFR signaling and the cell cycle were analyzed using Western blot and flow cytometry; cell survival was assessed by colony forming assay and double-strand break repair capacity by immunofluorescence. Results DKMG and BS153 parental cells with heterogeneous EGFRvIII expression were clearly more radiosensitive compared to other GBM cell lines without EGFRvIII expression. However, no significant difference was observed in cell proliferation, clonogenicity or radiosensitivity between the EGFRvIII− and + sublines derived from DKMG and BS153 parental cells. Expression of EGFRvIII was associated with decreased DSB repair capacity for BS153 but not for DKMG cells. The effects of EGFR targeting by gefitinib alone or in combination with irradiation were also found not to depend on EGFRvIII expression. Gefitinib was only observed to influence the proliferation of EGFRvIII− BS153 cells. Conclusion The data indicate that EGFRvIII does not alter radiosensitivity with or without anti-EGFR treatment. PMID:26418954

  3. Differential Radiosensitizing Potential of Temozolomide in MGMT Promoter Methylated Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nifterik, Krista A. van; Berg, Jaap van den; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leenstra, Sieger; Slotman, Ben J.; Hulsebos, Theo J.M.; Sminia, Peter

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitizing potential of temozolomide (TMZ) for human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines using single-dose and fractionated {gamma}-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Three genetically characterized human GBM cell lines (AMC-3046, VU-109, and VU-122) were exposed to various single (0-6 Gy) and daily fractionated doses (2 Gy per fraction) of {gamma}-irradiation. Repeated TMZ doses were given before and concurrent with irradiation treatment. Immediately plated clonogenic cell-survival curves were determined for both the single-dose and the fractionated irradiation experiments. To establish the net effect of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation, growth curves were determined, expressed as the number of surviving cells. Results: All three cell lines showed MGMT promoter methylation, lacked MGMT protein expression, and were sensitive to TMZ. The isotoxic TMZ concentrations used were in a clinically feasible range of 10 {mu}mol/L (AMC-3046), 3 {mu}mol/L (VU-109), and 2.5 {mu}mol/L (VU-122). Temozolomide was able to radiosensitize two cell lines (AMC 3046 and VU-122) using single-dose irradiation. A reduction in the number of surviving cells after treatment with the combination of TMZ and fractionated irradiation was seen in all three cell lines, but only AMC 3046 showed a radiosensitizing effect. Conclusions: This study on TMZ-sensitive GBM cell lines shows that TMZ can act as a radiosensitizer and is at least additive to {gamma}-irradiation. Enhancement of the radiation response by TMZ seems to be independent of the epigenetically silenced MGMT gen000.

  4. Cytosine Deaminase/5-Fluorocytosine Exposure Induces Bystander and Radiosensitization Effects in Hypoxic Glioblastoma Cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jennifer K.; Hu, Lily J.; Wang Dongfang; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Deen, Dennis F. . E-mail: dennisdeen@juno.com

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by therapeutic ratio; therefore, successful therapy must be specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells. Hypoxic cells are ubiquitous in GBM, and resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and, thus, are logical targets for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) enzyme/prodrug treatment induced a bystander effect (BE) and/or radiosensitization in hypoxic GBM cells. Methods and Materials: We stably transfected cells with a gene construct consisting of the SV40 minimal promoter, nine copies of a hypoxia-responsive element, and the yeast CD gene. During hypoxia, a hypoxia-responsive element regulates expression of the CD gene and facilitates the conversion of 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil, a highly toxic antimetabolite. We used colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and immunofluorescence assays to assess for BE in co-cultures of CD-expressing clone cells and parent, pNeo- or green fluorescent protein-stably transfected GBM cells. We also investigated the radiosensitivity of CD clone cells treated with 5-FC under hypoxic conditions, and we used flow cytometry to investigate treatment-induced cell cycle changes. Results: Both a large BE and radiosensitization occurred in GBM cells under hypoxic conditions. The magnitude of the BE depended on the number of transfected cells producing CD, the functionality of the CD, the administered concentration of 5-FC, and the sensitivity of cell type to 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: Hypoxia-inducible CD/5-FC therapy in combination with radiation therapy shows both a pronounced BE and a radiosensitizing effect under hypoxic conditions.

  5. Deubiquitylating enzyme USP9x regulates radiosensitivity in glioblastoma cells by Mcl-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wolfsperger, F; Hogh-Binder, S A; Schittenhelm, J; Psaras, T; Ritter, V; Bornes, L; Huber, S M; Jendrossek, V; Rudner, J

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a very aggressive form of brain tumor with limited therapeutic options. Usually, glioblastoma is treated with ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy after surgical removal. However, radiotherapy is frequently unsuccessful, among others owing to resistance mechanisms the tumor cells have developed. Antiapoptotic B-cell leukemia (Bcl)-2 family members can contribute to radioresistance by interfering with apoptosis induction in response to IR. Bcl-2 and the closely related Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 are often overexpressed in glioblastoma cells. In contrast to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 is a short-lived protein whose stability is closely regulated by ubiquitylation-dependent proteasomal degradation. Although ubiquitin ligases facilitate degradation, the deubiquitylating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9x) interferes with degradation by removing polyubiquitin chains from Mcl-1, thereby stabilizing this protein. Thus, an inability to downregulate Mcl-1 by enhanced USP9x activity might contribute to radioresistance. Here we analyzed the impact of USP9x on Mcl-1 levels and radiosensitivity in glioblastoma cells. Correlating Mcl-1 and USP9x expressions were significantly higher in human glioblastoma than in astrocytoma. Downregulation of Mcl-1 correlated with apoptosis induction in established glioblastoma cell lines. Although Mcl-1 knockdown by siRNA increased apoptosis induction after irradiation in all glioblastoma cell lines, USP9x knockdown significantly improved radiation-induced apoptosis in one of four cell lines and slightly increased apoptosis in another cell line. In the latter two cell lines, USP9x knockdown also increased radiation-induced clonogenic death. The massive downregulation of Mcl-1 and apoptosis induction in A172 cells transfected with USP9x siRNA shows that the deubiquitinase regulates cell survival by regulating Mcl-1 levels. In contrast, USP9x regulated radiosensitivity in Ln229 cells without affecting Mcl-1 levels. We conclude

  6. Effects of resveratrol and methoxyamine on the radiosensitivity of iododeoxyuridine in U87MG glioblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Samideh; Shoja, Mohsen; Mostaar, Ahmad; Faeghi, Fariborz

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination effect of resveratrol and methoxyamine on radiosensitivity of iododeoxyuridine in spheroid culture of U87MG glioblastoma cell line using colony formation and alkaline comet assays. Spheroids on day-20 with 350 µm diameters were treated with 20 µM resveratrol and/or 6 mM methoxyamine and/or 1 µM iododeoxyuridine for one volume doubling time (67 h), and then irradiated with 2 Gy gamma-radiation ((60)Co) in different groups. After treatment, viability of the cells, colony forming ability and DNA damages were obtained by blue dye exclusion, colony formation and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results showed that methoxyamine and resveratrol could significantly reduce colony number and induce the DNA damages of glioblastoma spheroid cells treated with iododeoxyuridine in combination with gamma-rays. Therefore, methoxyamine as base excision repair inhibitor and resveratrol as hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha inhibitor in combination with iododeoxyuridine as radiosensitizer enhanced the radiosensitization of glioblastoma spheroid cells. PMID:26748400

  7. Highly efficient radiosensitization of human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells by a G-quadruplex DNA binding compound.

    PubMed

    Merle, Patrick; Gueugneau, Marine; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Müller-Barthélémy, Mélanie; Amiard, Simon; Chautard, Emmanuel; Guetta, Corinne; Dedieu, Véronique; Communal, Yves; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Gallego, Maria; White, Charles; Verrelle, Pierre; Tchirkov, Andreï

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes which stabilize and protect them from nucleotidic degradation and end-to-end fusions. The G-rich telomeric single-stranded DNA overhang can adopt a four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA structure (G4). Stabilization of the G4 structure by binding of small molecule ligands enhances radiosensitivity of tumor cells, and this combined treatment represents a novel anticancer approach. We studied the effect of the platinum-derived G4-ligand, Pt-ctpy, in association with radiation on human glioblastoma (SF763 and SF767) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549 and H1299) cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatments with submicromolar concentrations of Pt-ctpy inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro with cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis. Non-toxic concentrations of the ligand were then combined with ionizing radiation. Pt-ctpy radiosensitized all cell lines with dose-enhancement factors between 1.32 and 1.77. The combined treatment led to increased DNA breaks. Furthermore, a significant radiosensitizing effect of Pt-ctpy in mice xenografted with glioblastoma SF763 cells was shown by delayed tumor growth and improved survival. Pt-ctpy can act in synergy with radiation for efficient killing of cancer cells at concentrations at which it has no obvious toxicity per se, opening perspectives for future therapeutic applications. PMID:26542881

  8. Highly efficient radiosensitization of human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells by a G-quadruplex DNA binding compound

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Patrick; Gueugneau, Marine; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Müller-Barthélémy, Mélanie; Amiard, Simon; Chautard, Emmanuel; Guetta, Corinne; Dedieu, Véronique; Communal, Yves; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Gallego, Maria; White, Charles; Verrelle, Pierre; Tchirkov, Andreï

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the end of chromosomes which stabilize and protect them from nucleotidic degradation and end-to-end fusions. The G-rich telomeric single-stranded DNA overhang can adopt a four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA structure (G4). Stabilization of the G4 structure by binding of small molecule ligands enhances radiosensitivity of tumor cells, and this combined treatment represents a novel anticancer approach. We studied the effect of the platinum-derived G4-ligand, Pt-ctpy, in association with radiation on human glioblastoma (SF763 and SF767) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549 and H1299) cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatments with submicromolar concentrations of Pt-ctpy inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro with cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis. Non-toxic concentrations of the ligand were then combined with ionizing radiation. Pt-ctpy radiosensitized all cell lines with dose-enhancement factors between 1.32 and 1.77. The combined treatment led to increased DNA breaks. Furthermore, a significant radiosensitizing effect of Pt-ctpy in mice xenografted with glioblastoma SF763 cells was shown by delayed tumor growth and improved survival. Pt-ctpy can act in synergy with radiation for efficient killing of cancer cells at concentrations at which it has no obvious toxicity per se, opening perspectives for future therapeutic applications. PMID:26542881

  9. MiR-26a enhances the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma multiforme cells through targeting of ataxia–telangiectasia mutated

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Pin; Lan, Jin; Ge, Jianwei; Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Liemei; Qiu, Yongming; Mao, Qing

    2014-01-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to radiation, and consequently, new radiosensitizers are urgently needed. MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous gene modulators with emerging roles in DNA repair. We found that overexpression of miR-26a can enhance radiosensitivity and reduce the DNA repair ability of U87 cells. However, knockdown miR-26a in U87 cells could act the converse manner. Mechanistically, this effect is mediated by direct targeting of miR-26a to the 3′UTR of ATM, which leads to reduced ATM levels and consequent inhibition of the homologous recombination repair pathway. These results suggest that miR-26a may act as a new radiosensitizer of GBM. - Highlights: ●miR-26a directly target ATM in GBM cells. ●miR-26a enhances the radiosensitivity of GBM cells. ●miR-26a could reduce the DNA repair capacity of GBM cells.

  10. β-elemene enhances both radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of glioblastoma cells through the inhibition of the ATM signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Yongshun; Yuan, Yuhui

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a tumor associated with poor prognosis, is known to be resistant to radiotherapy and alkylating agents such as temozolomide (TMZ). β-elemene, a monomer found in Chinese traditional herbs extracted from Curcuma wenyujin, is currently being used as an antitumor drug for different types of tumors including GBM. In the present study, we investigated the roles of β-elemene in the radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of GBM cells. Human GBM cell lines U87-MG, T98G, U251, LN229 and rat C6 cells were treated with β-elemene combined with radiation or TMZ. We used MTT and colony forming assays to evaluate the proliferation and survival of the cells, and the comet assay to observe DNA damage. Expression of proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. In the present study, we found that β-elemene inhibited the proliferation and survival of different GBM cell lines when combined with radiotherapy or TMZ via inhibition of DNA damage repair. Treatment of GBM cells with β-elemene decreased the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), AKT and ERK following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. These results revealed that β-elemene could significantly increase the radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of GBM. β-elemene may be used as a potential drug in combination with the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of GBM. PMID:26062577

  11. The G-quadruplex-stabilising agent RHPS4 induces telomeric dysfunction and enhances radiosensitivity in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, F; Siteni, S; Tanzarella, C; Stevens, M F; Sgura, A; Antoccia, A

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) interacting agents are a class of ligands that can bind to and stabilise secondary structures located in genomic G-rich regions such as telomeres. Stabilisation of G4 leads to telomere architecture disruption with a consequent detrimental effect on cell proliferation, which makes these agents good candidates for chemotherapeutic purposes. RHPS4 is one of the most effective and well-studied G4 ligands with a very high specificity for telomeric G4. In this work, we tested the in vitro efficacy of RHPS4 in astrocytoma cell lines, and we evaluated whether RHPS4 can act as a radiosensitising agent by destabilising telomeres. In the first part of the study, the response to RHPS4 was investigated in four human astrocytoma cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, T67 and T70) and in two normal primary fibroblast strains (AG01522 and MRC5). Cell growth reduction, histone H2AX phosphorylation and telomere-induced dysfunctional foci (TIF) formation were markedly higher in astrocytoma cells than in normal fibroblasts, despite the absence of telomere shortening. In the second part of the study, the combined effect of submicromolar concentrations of RHPS4 and X-rays was assessed in the U251MG glioblastoma radioresistant cell line. Long-term growth curves, cell cycle analysis and cell survival experiments, clearly showed the synergistic effect of the combined treatment. Interestingly the effect was greater in cells bearing a higher number of dysfunctional telomeres. DNA double-strand breaks rejoining after irradiation revealed delayed repair kinetics in cells pre-treated with the drug and a synergistic increase in chromosome-type exchanges and telomeric fusions. These findings provide the first evidence that exposure to RHPS4 radiosensitizes astrocytoma cells, suggesting the potential for future therapeutic applications. PMID:25467559

  12. Sustained Radiosensitization of Hypoxic Glioma Cells after Oxygen Pretreatment in an Animal Model of Glioblastoma and In Vitro Models of Tumor Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Ryon H.; Moosa, Shayan; Anzivino, Matthew; Wang, Yi; Floyd, Desiree Hunt; Purow, Benjamin W.; Lee, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain cancer and these tumors are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Radioresistance is thought to result from a paucity of molecular oxygen in hypoxic tumor regions, resulting in reduced DNA damage and enhanced cellular defense mechanisms. Efforts to counteract tumor hypoxia during radiotherapy are limited by an attendant increase in the sensitivity of healthy brain tissue to radiation. However, the presence of heightened levels of molecular oxygen during radiotherapy, while conventionally deemed critical for adjuvant oxygen therapy to sensitize hypoxic tumor tissue, might not actually be necessary. We evaluated the concept that pre-treating tumor tissue by transiently elevating tissue oxygenation prior to radiation exposure could increase the efficacy of radiotherapy, even when radiotherapy is administered after the return of tumor tissue oxygen to hypoxic baseline levels. Using nude mice bearing intracranial U87-luciferase xenografts, and in vitro models of tumor hypoxia, the efficacy of oxygen pretreatment for producing radiosensitization was tested. Oxygen-induced radiosensitization of tumor tissue was observed in GBM xenografts, as seen by suppression of tumor growth and increased survival. Additionally, rodent and human glioma cells, and human glioma stem cells, exhibited prolonged enhanced vulnerability to radiation after oxygen pretreatment in vitro, even when radiation was delivered under hypoxic conditions. Over-expression of HIF-1α reduced this radiosensitization, indicating that this effect is mediated, in part, via a change in HIF-1-dependent mechanisms. Importantly, an identical duration of transient hyperoxic exposure does not sensitize normal human astrocytes to radiation in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate that briefly pre-treating tumors with elevated levels of oxygen prior to radiotherapy may represent a means for selectively targeting radiation

  13. DNA damage response and anti-apoptotic proteins predict radiosensitization efficacy of HDAC inhibitors SAHA and LBH589 in patient-derived glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pont, Lotte M E Berghauser; Naipal, Kishan; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; Venkatesan, Subramanian; van den Bent, Martin; van Gent, Dik C; Dirven, Clemens M F; Kanaar, Roland; Lamfers, Martine L M; Leenstra, Sieger

    2015-01-28

    HDAC inhibitors have radiosensitizing effects in established cancer cell lines. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of SAHA, LBH589, Valproic Acid (VPA), MS275 and Scriptaid in the patient-derived glioblastoma model. In more detail, SAHA and LBH589 were evaluated to determine predictors of response. Acetylated-histone-H3, γH2AX/53BP1, (p)Chek2/ATM, Bcl-2/Bcl-XL, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and caspase-3/7 were studied in relation to response. SAHA sensitized 50% of cultures, LBH589 45%, VPA and Scriptaid 40% and MS275 60%. Differences after treatment with SAHA/RTx or LBH589/RTx in a sensitive and resistant culture were increased acetylated-H3, caspase-3/7 and prolonged DNA damage repair γH2AX/53BP1 foci. pChek2 was found to be associated with both SAHA/RTx and LBH589/RTx response with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90%. Bcl-XL had a PPV of 100% for LBH589/RTx response. Incubation with HDACi 24 and 48 hours pre-RTx resulted in the best efficacy of combination treatment. In conclusion a subset of patient-derived glioblastoma cultures were sensitive to HDACi/RTx. For SAHA and LBH589 responses were strongly associated with pChek2 and Bcl-XL, which warrant further clinical exploration. Additional information on responsiveness was obtained by DNA damage response markers and apoptosis related proteins. PMID:25305451

  14. The radiosensitivity index predicts for overall survival in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Fulp, William J.; Eschrich, Steven; Torres-Roca, Javier F.; Caudell, Jimmy J.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously developed a multigene expression model of tumor radiosensitivity (RSI) with clinical validation in multiple cohorts and disease sites. We hypothesized RSI would identify glioblastoma patients who would respond to radiation and predict treatment outcomes. Clinical and array based gene expression (Affymetrix HT Human Genome U133 Array Plate Set) level 2 data was downloaded from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). A total of 270 patients were identified for the analysis: 214 who underwent radiotherapy and temozolomide and 56 who did not undergo radiotherapy. Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 9.1 months (range: 0.04–92.2 months). Patients who did not receive radiotherapy were more likely to be older (p < 0.001) and of poorer performance status (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, RSI is an independent predictor of OS (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08–2.5; p = 0.02). Furthermore, on subset analysis, radiosensitive patients had significantly improved OS in the patients with high MGMT expression (unmethylated MGMT), 1 year OS 84.1% vs. 53.7% (p = 0.005). This observation held on MVA (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.19–3.31; p = 0.008), suggesting that RT has a larger therapeutic impact in these patients. In conclusion, RSI predicts for OS in glioblastoma. These data further confirm the value of RSI as a disease-site independent biomarker. PMID:26451615

  15. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. Methods The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Results BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. Conclusions These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells. PMID:21244709

  16. STAT3 Serine 727 Phosphorylation: A Relevant Target to Radiosensitize Human Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Zangbéwendé Guy; Müller-Barthélémy, Mélanie; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Dedieu, Véronique; Biau, Julian; Khalil, Toufic; Raoelfils, Lala Ines; Granzotto, Adeline; Pereira, Bruno; Beaudoin, Claude; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Berger, Marc; Morel, Laurent; Chautard, Emmanuel; Verrelle, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of glioma standard treatment. Glioblastomas (GBM), however, display an important radioresistance leading to tumor recurrence. To improve patient prognosis, there is a need to radiosensitize GBM cells and to circumvent the mechanisms of resistance caused by interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. STAT3 has been identified as a therapeutic target in glioma because of its involvement in mechanisms sustaining tumor escape to both standard treatment and immune control. Here, we studied the role of STAT3 activation on tyrosine 705 (Y705) and serine 727 (S727) in glioma radioresistance. This study explored STAT3 phosphorylation on Y705 (pSTAT3-Y705) and S727 (pSTAT3-S727) in glioma cell lines and in clinical samples. Radiosensitizing effect of STAT3 activation down-modulation by Gö6976 was explored. In a panel of 15 human glioma cell lines, we found that the level of pSTAT3-S727 was correlated to intrinsic radioresistance. Moreover, treating GBM cells with Gö6976 resulted in a highly significant radiosensitization associated to a concomitant pSTAT3-S727 down-modulation only in GBM cell lines that exhibited no or weak pSTAT3-Y705. We report the constitutive activation of STAT3-S727 in all GBM clinical samples. Targeting pSTAT3-S727 mainly in pSTAT3-Y705-negative GBM could be a relevant approach to improve radiation therapy. PMID:25736961

  17. The Search for New Hypoxic Cell Radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Carl M.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Cheng, C.C.; Abrahams, Iris L.; Podrebarac, Eugene G.; Wittek, Philip J.; Reddy, Eashwer K.

    1980-01-01

    A number of newly synthesized compounds whose chemical structure suggested possible or remotely possible ability to radiosensitize hypoxic mammalian cells were studied in an in-vitro system. Those compounds that were not excluded because of insolubility or extreme cytotoxicity were tested for radiosensitizing ability. The correlation between chemical structure and radiosensitizing ability will be used for the rational design of additional compounds with a high probability of being effective hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. It is hoped that this will contribute to attempts to improve the cure rate of patients with malignant tumors through the use of radiation therapy and hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. PMID:7401185

  18. 5-Iodo-2-Pyrimidinone-2'-Deoxyribose-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitization in U87 Human Glioblastoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Timothy J. Kinsella, Michael T.; Seo, Yuji; Berk, Gregory

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: 5-Iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (p.o.) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine. Because p.o. IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high-grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87. Methods and Materials: Groups of 8 or 9 athymic male nude mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted with s.c. U87 xenograft tumors (4 x 10{sup 6} cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of p.o. IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (q.d.) x 14 days with or without radiotherapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d x 4 days) on days 11-14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and after IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes. Results: IPdR alone at doses of {>=}500 mg/kg/d resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR plus RT resulted in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay, with the maximum radiosensitization using {>=}500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d resulted in transient 5-15% body weight loss during treatment. Conclusions: In U87 human glioblastoma s.c. xenografts, p.o. IPdR given q.d. x 14 days and RT given 2 Gy/d x 4 days (days 11-14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of p.o. IPdR plus RT holds promise for Phase I/II testing in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  19. Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-15

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. - Highlights: • Inactivation of STAT3 signaling radiosensitizes malignant glioma cells. • STAT3 inhibition triggers a significant increase of autophagy flux induced by ionizing radiation in glioma cells. • Suppression of autophagy further strengthens the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition in glioma cells. • Dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 induce massive apoptotic cells upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  20. Nodal Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Tanya; Ye, Gang; Liang, Yao-Yun; Fu, Guodong; Xu, Guoxiong; Peng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Recent studies in ovarian, breast, prostate, and skin cancer cells suggest that Nodal also regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cancer cells. However, it appears to exert both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting effects, depending on the cell type. To further understand the role of Nodal in tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of Nodal in glioblastoma cell growth and spheroid formation using U87 cell line. Treatment of U87 with recombinant Nodal significantly increased U87 cell growth. In U87 cells stably transfected with the plasmid encoding Nodal, Smad2 phosphorylation was strongly induced and cell growth was significantly enhanced. Overexpression of Nodal also resulted in tight spheroid formation. On the other hand, the cells stably transfected with Nodal siRNA formed loose spheroids. Nodal is known to signal through activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and ALK7 and the Smad2/3 pathway. To determine which receptor and Smad mediate the growth promoting effect of Nodal, we transfected siRNAs targeting ALK4, ALK7, Smad2, or Smad3 into Nodal-overexpressing cells and observed that cell growth was significantly inhibited by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3 siRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nodal may have tumor-promoting effects on glioblastoma cells and these effects are mediated by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3. PMID:22645523

  1. Adoptive Cell Therapies for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielamowicz, Kevin; Khawja, Shumaila; Ahmed, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard of care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients (1). Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly “self,” it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor or αβ T cell receptor grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system toward the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts. PMID:24273748

  2. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Justin D.; Mack, Stephen C.; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E.; Valentim, Claudia L.L.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  3. Genetic Alterations in Gliosarcoma and Giant Cell Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Ohta, Takashi; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Satomi, Kaishi; Capper, David; Pierscianek, Daniela; Sure, Ulrich; Vital, Anne; Paulus, Werner; Mittelbronn, Michel; Antonelli, Manila; Kleihues, Paul; Giangaspero, Felice; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The majority of glioblastomas develop rapidly with a short clinical history (primary glioblastoma IDH wild-type), whereas secondary glioblastomas progress from diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. IDH mutations are the genetic hallmark of secondary glioblastomas. Gliosarcomas and giant cell glioblastomas are rare histological glioblastoma variants, which usually develop rapidly. We determined the genetic patterns of 36 gliosarcomas and 19 giant cell glioblastomas. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were absent in all 36 gliosarcomas and in 18 of 19 giant cell glioblastomas analyzed, indicating that they are histological variants of primary glioblastoma. Furthermore, LOH 10q (88%) and TERT promoter mutations (83%) were frequent in gliosarcomas. Copy number profiling using the 450k methylome array in 5 gliosarcomas revealed CDKN2A homozygous deletion (3 cases), trisomy chromosome 7 (2 cases), and monosomy chromosome 10 (2 cases). Giant cell glioblastomas had LOH 10q in 50% and LOH 19q in 42% of cases. ATRX loss was detected immunohistochemically in 19% of giant cell glioblastomas, but absent in 17 gliosarcomas. These and previous results suggest that gliosarcomas are a variant of, and genetically similar to, primary glioblastomas, except for a lack of EGFR amplification, while giant cell glioblastoma occupies a hybrid position between primary and secondary glioblastomas. PMID:26443480

  4. Replication-Dependent Radiosensitization of Human Glioma Cells by Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Dungey, Fiona A.; Loeser, Dana A.; Chalmers, Anthony J.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: Current treatments for glioblastoma multiforme are inadequate and limited by the radiation sensitivity of normal brain. Because glioblastoma multiforme are rapidly proliferating tumors within nondividing normal tissue, the therapeutic ratio might be enhanced by combining radiotherapy with a replication-specific radiosensitizer. KU-0059436 (AZD2281) is a potent and nontoxic inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) undergoing a Phase II clinical trial as a single agent. Methods and Materials: Based on previous observations that the radiosensitizing effects of PARP inhibition are more pronounced in dividing cells, we investigated the mechanisms underlying radiosensitization of human glioma cells by KU-0059436, evaluating the replication dependence of this effect and its therapeutic potential. Results: KU-0059436 increased the radiosensitivity of four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, and U87-MG). Radiosensitization was enhanced in populations synchronized in S phase and abrogated by concomitant exposure to aphidicolin. Sensitization was further enhanced when the inhibitor was combined with a fractionated radiation schedule. KU-0059436 delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks and was associated with a replication-dependent increase in {gamma}H2AX and Rad51 foci. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that KU-0059436 increases radiosensitivity in a replication-dependent manner that is enhanced by fractionation. A mechanism is proposed whereby PARP inhibition increases the incidence of collapsed replication forks after ionizing radiation, generating persistent DNA double-strand breaks. These observations indicate that KU-0059436 is likely to enhance the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A Phase I clinical trial is in development.

  5. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-10-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

  6. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos A. Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G{sub 1} arrest, increase in sub-G{sub 1} fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios ({+-} SE) of 1.5 ({+-} 0.2) and 1.3 ({+-} 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53.

  7. DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitors radiosensitize human cancer cells by suppressing DNA repair activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Histone modifications and DNA methylation are two major factors in epigenetic phenomenon. Unlike the histone deacetylase inhibitors, which are known to exert radiosensitizing effects, there have only been a few studies thus far concerning the role of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors as radiosensitizers. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNMT inhibitors on the radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines, and to elucidate the mechanisms relevant to that process. Methods A549 (lung cancer) and U373MG (glioblastoma) cells were exposed to radiation with or without six DNMT inhibitors (5-azacytidine, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, hydralazine, epigallocatechin gallate, and psammaplin A) for 18 hours prior to radiation, after which cell survival was evaluated via clonogenic assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed via flow cytometry. Expressions of DNMT1, 3A/3B, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected via Western blotting. Expression of γH2AX, a marker of radiation-induced DNA double-strand break, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Results Pretreatment with psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine radiosensitized both A549 and U373MG cells. Pretreatment with psammaplin A increased the sub-G1 fraction of A549 cells, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone. Prolongation of γH2AX expression was observed in the cells treated with DNMT inhibitors prior to radiation as compared with those treated by radiation alone. Conclusions Psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine induce radiosensitivity in both A549 and U373MG cell lines, and suggest that this effect might be associated with the inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:22429326

  8. Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology. PMID:27148537

  9. Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F; Itinteang, Tinte

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM's cancer biology. PMID:27148537

  10. PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Echizen, Kanae; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Sabit, Hemragul; Furuta, Takuya; Nakai, Miyuki; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Nishimura, Yukiko; Taniue, Kenzui; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Terai, Kenta; Todo, Tomoki; Ino, Yasushi; Mukasa, Akitake; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Ohtani, Ryohei; Saito, Nobuhito; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • PCDH10 is required for the proliferation, survival and self-renewal of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 is required for glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma. - Abstract: Protocadherin10 (PCDH10)/OL-protocadherin is a cadherin-related transmembrane protein that has multiple roles in the brain, including facilitating specific cell–cell connections, cell migration and axon guidance. It has recently been reported that PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor and that its overexpression inhibits proliferation or invasion of multiple tumor cells. However, the function of PCDH10 in glioblastoma cells has not been elucidated. In contrast to previous reports on other tumors, we show here that suppression of the expression of PCDH10 by RNA interference (RNAi) induces the growth arrest and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that knockdown of PCDH10 inhibits the growth of glioblastoma cells xenografted into immunocompromised mice. These results suggest that PCDH10 is required for the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma.

  11. Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Veldore, Vidya; Sridhar, P. S.; Govindrajan, M. J.; Prabhudesai, Shilpa; Hazarika, Digantha; Ajaikumar, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV), the most frequent malignant brain tumor, can have varied morphologic variations like epithelial/glandular structures, granular cells, and lipidized cells. Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology is very unusual and can mimic a metastatic carcinoma. These rare tumors may be just a morphological variant or may signify a different carcinogenic pathway. PMID:27366281

  12. Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Veldore, Vidya; Sridhar, P S; Govindrajan, M J; Prabhudesai, Shilpa; Hazarika, Digantha; Ajaikumar, B S

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV), the most frequent malignant brain tumor, can have varied morphologic variations like epithelial/glandular structures, granular cells, and lipidized cells. Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology is very unusual and can mimic a metastatic carcinoma. These rare tumors may be just a morphological variant or may signify a different carcinogenic pathway. PMID:27366281

  13. Radiosensitization of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibition of TGF-β1 Signaling With SB431542 Is Dependent on p53 Status.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Wang, Longxiao; Huang, Qianyi; Jiang, Youqin; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Liyuan; Tian, Ye; Yang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Although medically inoperable patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) are often treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, its efficacy can be compromised due to poor radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) using LY364947 and LY2109761 has been demonstrated to radiosensitize cancer cells such as breast cancer, glioblastoma, and lung cancer. Our previous results have demonstrated that another potent and selective inhibitor of TGF-β1 receptor kinases, SB431542, could radiosensitize H460 cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether SB431542 could radiosensitize other NSCLC cell lines, trying to explore the potential implication of this TGF-β1 inhibitor in radiotherapy for NSCLC patients. The results showed that A549 cells were significantly radiosensitized by SB431542, whereas no radiosensitizing effect was observed in H1299 cells. Interestingly, both H460 and A549 cells have wild-type p53, while H1299 cells have deficient p53. To study whether the radiosensitizing effect of SB431542 was associated with p53 status of cancer cells, the p53 of H460 cells was silenced using shRNA transfection. Then it was found that the radiosensitizing effect of SB431542 on H460 cells was not observed in H460 cells with silenced p53. Moreover, X-irradiation caused rapid Smad2 activation in H460 and A549 cells but not in H1299 and H460 cells with silenced p53. The Smad2 activation postirradiation could be abolished by SB431542. This may explain the lack of radiosensitizing effect of SB431542 in H1299 and H460 cells with silenced p53. Thus, we concluded that the radiosensitizing effect of inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling in NSCLC cells by SB431542 was p53 dependent, suggesting that using TGF-β1 inhibitor in radiotherapy may be more complicated than previously thought and may need further investigation. PMID:27178816

  14. A paired comparison between glioblastoma "stem cells" and differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Matthias; Ströbele, Stephanie; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Siegelin, Markus D; Tepper, Melanie; Stroh, Sebastien; Hasslacher, Sebastian; Enzenmüller, Stefanie; Strauss, Gudrun; Baumann, Bernd; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2016-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated to be responsible for the key features of a malignancy and its maintenances, as well as therapy resistance, while differentiated cells are believed to make up the rapidly growing tumour bulk. It is therefore important to understand the characteristics of those two distinct cell populations in order to devise treatment strategies which effectively target both cohorts, in particular with respect to cancers, such as glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour in adults, with a mean patient survival of 12-15 months. Importantly, therapeutic improvements have not been forthcoming in the last decade. In this study we compare key features of three pairs of glioblastoma cell populations, each pair consisting of stem cell-like and differentiated cells derived from an individual patient. Our data suggest that while growth rates and expression of key survival- and apoptosis-mediating proteins are more similar according to differentiation status than genetic similarity, we found no intrinsic differences in response to standard therapeutic interventions, namely exposure to radiation or the alkylating agent temozolomide. Interestingly, we could demonstrate that both stem cell-like and differentiated cells possess the ability to form stem cell-containing tumours in immunocompromised mice and that differentiated cells could potentially be dedifferentiated to potential stem cells. Taken together our data suggest that the differences between tumour stem cell and differentiated cell are particular fluent in glioblastoma. PMID:26519239

  15. Glioblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common form of glioblastoma; it is very aggressive. Secondary: These tumors have a longer, somewhat slower growth history, but still are very aggressive. They may begin as lower-grade tumors which ...

  16. Radiation-induced Akt activation modulates radioresistance in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Fang; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is a primary treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a common and devastating brain tumor in humans. IR has been shown to induce PI3K-Akt activation in many cell types, and activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway has been correlated with radioresistance. Methods Initially, the effects of IR on Akt activation were assessed in multiple human GBM cell lines. Next, to evaluate a potential causative role of IR-induced Akt activation on radiosensitivity, Akt activation was inhibited during IR with several complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches, and radiosensitivity measured using clonogenic survival assays. Results Three of the eight cell lines tested demonstrated IR-induced Akt activation. Further studies revealed that IR-induced Akt activation was dependent upon the presence of a serum factor, and could be inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Inhibition of PI3K activation with LY294002, or with inducible wild-type PTEN, inhibition of EGFR, as well as direct inhibition of Akt with two Akt inhibitors during irradiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG cells. Conclusion These results suggest that Akt may be a central player in a feedback loop whereby activation of Akt induced by IR increases radioresistance of GBM cells. Targeting the Akt signaling pathway may have important therapeutic implications when used in combination with IR in the treatment of a subset of brain tumor patients. PMID:19828040

  17. Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Galanis, Evanthia; Weller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Defining histopathologic features are necrosis and endothelial proliferation, resulting in the assignment of grade IV, the highest grade in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors. The classic clinical term "secondary glioblastoma" refers to a minority of glioblastomas that evolve from previously diagnosed WHO grade II or grade III gliomas. Specific point mutations of the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2 appear to define molecularly these tumors that are associated with younger age and more favorable outcome; the vast majority of glioblastomas are IDH wild-type. Typical molecular changes in glioblastoma include mutations in genes regulating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/rat sarcoma (RAS)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p53, and retinoblastoma protein (RB) signaling. Standard treatment of glioblastoma includes surgery, radiotherapy, and alkylating chemotherapy. Promoter methylation of the gene encoding the DNA repair protein, O(6)-methylguanyl DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), predicts benefit from alkylating chemotherapy with temozolomide and guides choice of first-line treatment in elderly patients. Current developments focus on targeting the molecular characteristics that drive the malignant phenotype, including altered signal transduction and angiogenesis, and more recently, various approaches of immunotherapy. PMID:26948367

  18. Clonal cell populations unresponsive to radiosensitization induced by telomerase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Woo, Seon Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Han, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yoo, Young-Do; Park, Won-Bong; Cho, Myung-Haing; Park, Gil Hong; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} In our present manuscript, we have clearly showed an interesting but problematic obstacle of a radiosensitization strategy based on telomerase inhibition by showing that: Clonal population unresponsive to this radiosensitization occasionally arise. {yields} The telomere length of unsensitized clones was reduced, as was that of most sensitized clones. {yields} The unsensitized clones did not show chromosome end fusion which was noted in all sensitized clones. {yields} P53 status is not associated with the occurrence of unsensitized clone. {yields} Telomere end capping in unsensitized clone is operative even under telomerase deficiency. -- Abstract: A combination of a radiotherapeutic regimen with telomerase inhibition is valuable when tumor cells are to be sensitized to radiation. Here, we describe cell clones unresponsive to radiosensitization after telomere shortening. After extensive division of individual transformed clones of mTERC{sup -/-} cells, about 22% of clones were unresponsive to radiosensitization even though telomerase action was inhibited. The telomere lengths of unsensitized mTERC{sup -/-} clones were reduced, as were those of most sensitized clones. However, the unsensitized clones did not exhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion to the extent noted in all sensitized clones. Thus, a defense mechanism preventing telomere erosion is operative even when telomeres become shorter under conditions of telomerase deficiency, and results in unresponsiveness to the radiosensitization generally mediated by telomere shortening.

  19. Histone Deacetylation Critically Determines T-cell Subset Radiosensitivity1

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jason L.; Sukhina, Alona S.; Seed, Thomas M.; Manley, Nancy R.; Sempowski, Gregory A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Smithey, Megan J.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes are sensitive to ionizing radiation and naïve lymphocytes are more radiosensitive than their memory counterparts. Less is known about radiosensitivity of memory cell subsets. We examined the radiosensitivity of naïve (TN), effector memory (TEM), and central memory (TCM) T cell subsets in C57BL/6 mice, and found TEM to be more resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than either TN or TCM. Surprisingly, we found no correlation between the extent of radiation-induced apoptosis in T cell subsets and : (i) levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members; or (ii) the H2-AX content and maximal γH2-AX fold change. Rather, TEM cell survival correlated with higher levels of immediate γH2-AX marking, immediate break binding and genome-wide open chromatin structure. T cells were able to mark DNA damage seemingly instantly (30 s), even if kept on ice. Relaxing chromatin with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid following radiation or etoposide treatment, improved the survival of TCM and TN cells up to levels seen in the resistant TEM cells, but did not improve survival from caspase-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that an open genome-wide chromatin state is the key determinant of efficient immediate repair of DNA damage in T cells, explaining the observed T cell subset radiosensitivity differences. PMID:24990082

  20. Tumor cohesion and glioblastoma cell dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Foty, Ramsey A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma typically present when tumors are at an advanced stage. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy are currently the standard of care for glioblastoma. However, due to the infiltrative and dispersive nature of the tumor, recurrence rate remains high and typically results in very poor prognosis. Efforts to treat the primary tumor are, therefore, palliative rather than curative. From a practical perspective, controlling growth and dispersal of the recurrence may have a greater impact on disease-free survival, In order for cells to disperse, they must first detach from the mass. Preventing detachment may keep tumors that recur more localized and perhaps more amenable to therapy. Here we introduce a new perspective in which a quantifiable mechanical property, namely tissue surface tension, can provide novel information on tumor behavior. The overall theme of the discussion will attempt to integrate how adhesion molecules can alter a tumor’s mechanical properties and how, in turn, these properties can be modified to prevent tumor cell detachment and dispersal. PMID:23902244

  1. Radiosensitization of EMT6 cells by four platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Teicher, B A; Rockwell, S; Lee, J B

    1985-05-01

    The greatest research effort in producing radiation sensitizers has been directed toward organic compounds. However, platinum complexes also have radiosensitizing capabilities, perhaps because they bind to DNA. The compound described here are dichloro complexes of bivalent platinum with one or two potentially radiosensitizing ligands. The radiosensitization of oxygenated and hypoxic exponentially growing EMT6 cells in vitro was measured. The dose modifying factors obtained with 200 microM and 400 microM trans-bis(2-nitroimidazole)dichloroplatinum II (NIPt) in hypoxic cells were 1.5 and 2.1, respectively. For trans-bis(2-amino-5-nitrothiazole)dichloroplatinum II (Plant) under the same conditions, the dose modifying factor was 1.5 at 200 microM and 1.8 at 400 microM. Neither compound sensitized oxygenated cells when tested similar protocols. Unlike the trans complexes, (1,2-diamino-4-nitrobenzene)dichloroplatinum II (Plato) was cytotoxic toward the hypoxic cells in the absence of X rays. The time course of cytotoxicity for 100 microM Plato in exponentially growing cells showed rapid killing of hypoxic cells, and much less toxicity toward oxygenated cells. In radiosensitization studies, dose modifying factors of 1.6 and 2.0 were found with 200 microM and 400 microM Plato in hypoxic cells. The compound did not sensitize aerobic cells. The well-known platinum complex cis-dipyridinedichloroplatinum II (PyPt) represents a cis-platinum heterocyclic aromatic complex that does not have a nitro-functionality. The dose modifying factor obtained with 400 microM PyPt in hypoxic cells was 1.7. On a molar basis, the nitro-functional platinum complexes appear to be more effective as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers than the corresponding free ligands. PMID:4039304

  2. Radiosensitizing Effect of TRPV1 Channel Inhibitors in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Keisuke; Tanamachi, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Yuto; Ide, Shunta; Kojima, Shuji; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi

    2016-07-01

    Radiosensitizers are used in cancer therapy to increase the γ-irradiation susceptibility of cancer cells, including radioresistant hypoxic cancer cells within solid tumors, so that radiotherapy can be applied at doses sufficiently low to minimize damage to adjacent normal tissues. Radiation-induced DNA damage is repaired by multiple repair systems, and therefore these systems are potential targets for radiosensitizers. We recently reported that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel is involved in early responses to DNA damage after γ-irradiation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that TRPV1 channel inhibitors would have a radiosensitizing effect by blocking repair of radiation-induced cell damage. Here, we show that pretreatment of A549 cells with the TRPV1 channel inhibitors capsazepine, AMG9810, SB366791 and BCTC suppressed the γ-ray-induced activation of early DNA damage responses, i.e., activation of the protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and accumulation of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1). Further, the decrease of survival fraction at one week after γ-irradiation (2.0 Gy) was enhanced by pretreatment of cells with these inhibitors. On the other hand, inhibitor pretreatment did not affect cell viability, the number of apoptotic or necrotic cells, or DNA synthesis at 24 h after irradiation. These results suggest that inhibition of DNA repair by TRPV1 channel inhibitors in irradiated A549 cells caused gradual loss of proliferative ability, rather than acute facilitation of apoptosis or necrosis. TRPV1 channel inhibitors could be novel candidates for radiosensitizers to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with other types of radiosensitizers. PMID:27150432

  3. Investigation of Radiosensitivity Gene Signatures in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Senra, Joana; Taylor, Janet; Armenoult, Lucile; Oguejiofor, Kenneth; Li, Yaoyong; Stratford, Ian; Stern, Peter L.; O’Connor, Mark J.; Miller, Crispin J.; West, Catharine M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic radiosensitivity is an important factor underlying radiotherapy response, but there is no method for its routine assessment in human tumours. Gene signatures are currently being derived and some were previously generated by expression profiling the NCI-60 cell line panel. It was hypothesised that focusing on more homogeneous tumour types would be a better approach. Two cell line cohorts were used derived from cervix [n = 16] and head and neck [n = 11] cancers. Radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2) by clonogenic assay. Differential gene expression between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell lines (SF2 median) was investigated using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0ST (cervix) or U133A Plus2 (head and neck) arrays. There were differences within cell line cohorts relating to tissue of origin reflected by expression of the stratified epithelial marker p63. Of 138 genes identified as being associated with SF2, only 2 (1.4%) were congruent between the cervix and head and neck carcinoma cell lines (MGST1 and TFPI), and these did not partition the published NCI-60 cell lines based on SF2. There was variable success in applying three published radiosensitivity signatures to our cohorts. One gene signature, originally trained on the NCI-60 cell lines, did partially separate sensitive and resistant cell lines in all three cell line datasets. The findings do not confirm our hypothesis but suggest that a common transcriptional signature can reflect the radiosensitivity of tumours of heterogeneous origins. PMID:24466029

  4. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy enhances radiosensitivity through natural killer cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chau-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Shan; Yang, Chieh-Han; Chi, Kwan-Hwa

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether natural killer (NK) cells in the tumor microenvironment have a radiosensitization effect. The radiosensitization effect of combined CpG and Herceptin((R)) (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) (CpG/Herceptin), given before or after radiation, was evaluated by using a murine colon cancer cell line overexpressing human HER2/neu, CT26HER2/neu. In vitro radiosensitization effects were investigated by coculture of CT26HER2/neu with splenocytes, CpG, and Herceptin before applying radiation. Tumor cells, cocultured with CpG-pretreated splenocytes and Herceptin, were more vulnerable to radiation damage. In BALB/c mice injected with CT26HER2/neu, CpG/Herceptin administered before radiotherapy was associated with a better retardation of tumor growth than when administered after radiotherapy. The radiosensitization effect was significantly abrogated by NK-cell depletion, indicating that NK cells play an essential role in it. Further, surviving mice treated with CpG or CpG/Herceptin and reverse transcriptase were resistant to renewed tumor challenge, suggesting the presence of an induced immune response to the tumor. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with CpG/Herceptin may improve response to radiotherapy of HER2/neu-expressing tumors. PMID:20187795

  5. Targeted radiosensitization of cells expressing truncated DNA polymerase {beta}.

    PubMed

    Neijenhuis, Sari; Verwijs-Janssen, Manon; van den Broek, Lenie J; Begg, Adrian C; Vens, Conchita

    2010-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is an effective anticancer treatment, although failures still occur. To improve radiotherapy, tumor-targeted strategies are needed to increase radiosensitivity of tumor cells, without influencing normal tissue radiosensitivity. Base excision repair (BER) and single-strand break repair (SSBR) contribute to the determination of sensitivity to IR. A crucial protein in BER/SSBR is DNA polymerase β (polβ). Aberrant polβ expression is commonly found in human tumors and leads to inhibition of BER. Here, we show that truncated polβ variant (polβ-Δ)-expressing cells depend on homologous recombination (HR) for survival after IR, indicating that a considerable fraction of polβ-Δ-induced lesions are subject to repair by HR. Increased sensitization was found not to result from involvement in DNA-dependent protein kinase-dependent nonhomologous end joining, the other major double-strand break repair pathway. Caffeine and the ATM inhibitor Ku55933 cause polβ-Δ-dependent radiosensitization. Consistent with the observed HR dependence and the known HR-modulating activity of ATM, polβ-Δ-expressing cells showed increased radiosensitization after BRCA2 knockdown that is absent under ATM-inhibited conditions. Our data suggest that treatment with HR modulators is a promising therapeutic strategy for exploiting defects in the BER/SSBR pathway in human tumors. PMID:20978197

  6. Radiosensitization of EMT6 cells by four platinum complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Rockwell, S.; Lee, J.B.

    1985-05-01

    The compounds described here are dichloro complexes of bivalent platinum with one or two potentially radiosensitizing ligands. The radiosensitization of oxygenated and hypoxic exponentially growing EMT6 cells in vitro was measured. The dose modifying factors obtained with 200 ..mu..M and 400 ..mu..M trans-bis(2-nitroimidazole)dichloroplatinum II (NIPt) in hypoxic cells were 1.5 and 2.1, respectively. For trans-bis(2-amino-5-nitrothiazole)dichloroplatinum II (Plant) under the same conditions, the dose modifying factor was 1.5 at 200 ..mu..M and 1.8 at 400 ..mu..M. Neither compound sensitized oxygenated cells when tested similar protocols. Unlike the trans complexes (1,2-diamino-4-nitrobenzene)dichloroplatinum II (Plato) was cytotoxic toward the hypoxic cells in the absence of X rays. The time course of cytotoxicity for 100 ..mu..M Plato in exponentially growing cells showed rapid killing of hypoxic cells, and much less toxicity toward oxygenated cells. In radiosensitization studies, dose modifying factors of 1.6 and 2.0 were found with 200 ..mu..M and 400 ..mu..M Plato in hypoxic cells. The compound did not sensitize aerobic cells. The well-known platinum complex cis-dipyridinedichloroplatinum II (PyPt) represents a cis-platinum heterocyclic aromatic complex that does not have a nitro-functionality. The dose modifying factor obtained with 400 ..mu..M PyPt in hypoxic cells was 1.7. On a molar basis, the nitro-functional platinum complexes appear to be more effective as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers than the corresponding free ligands.

  7. [Cisplatin influence on: the radiosensitivity and recovery of yeast cells].

    PubMed

    Evstratova, E S; Petin, V G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the simultaneous combined action of ionizing radiation and cisplatin on the radiosensitivity and liquid holding recovery (LHR) of diploid yeast cells was studied. It was shown that regardless of the cisplatin concentration (0; 0.002; 0.01; 0.02 g/ml) the radiosensitivity of cells was increased by 1.3 times. The ability of a cell to the LHR was progressively decreased with the increasing cisplatin concentration up to the complete inhibition. It was shown that the LHR of yeast cells after a combined action of ionizing radiation and chemical agents is mainly inhibited due to formation of a greater proportion of irreversible damage. The constant of recovery, characterizing the probability of recovery per a unit of time, was independent on cisplatine concentration. PMID:25486742

  8. [Cisplatin influence on: the radiosensitivity and recovery of yeast cells].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the simultaneous combined action of ionizing radiation and cisplatin on the radiosensitivity and liquid holding recovery (LHR) of diploid yeast cells was studied. It was shown that regardless of the cisplatin concentration (0; 0.002; 0.01; 0.02 g/ml) the radiosensitivity of cells was increased by 1.3 times. The ability of a cell to the LHR was progressively decreased with the increasing cisplatin concentration up to the complete inhibition. It was shown that the LHR of yeast cells after a combined action of ionizing radiation and chemical agents is mainly inhibited due to formation of a greater proportion of irreversible damage. The con- stant of recovery, characterizing the probability of recovery per a unit of time, was independent on cisplatine concentration. PMID:25508873

  9. Radiosensitization effect of zidovudine on human malignant glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fuxiang; Liao Zhengkai; Dai Jing; Xiong Jie; Xie CongHua; Luo Zhiguo; Liu Shiquan; Zhou Yunfeng . E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com

    2007-03-09

    Telomeres are shortened with each cell division and play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and function. Telomerase, responsible for telomere synthesis, is activated in 90% of human tumor cells but seldom in normal somatic cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this study, we have investigated the effects of {gamma}-radiation in combination with AZT on telomerase activity (TA), telomere length, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the changes in radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cell line U251. The results showed that the TA was suppressed by AZT but enhanced by irradiation, resulting in a deceleration of restored rate of shortened telomere, decreased repair rate of DNA strand breaks, and increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Our results suggested that telomerase activity and telomere length may serve as markers for estimating the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, may be used clinically as a new radiosensitizer in cancer radiotherapy.

  10. Targeting Aggressive Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Nowak, Anna; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12–15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance, and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggest that GSCs share critical signaling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors, SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog homeobox, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse, and achieve a cure for these patients. PMID:26258069

  11. Emerging targets for glioblastoma stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Ahmad R.; Saadatzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.; Pollok, Karen E.; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), designated as World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV astrocytoma, is a lethal and therapy-resistant brain cancer comprised of several tumor cell subpopulations, including GBM stem cells (GSCs) which are believed to contribute to tumor recurrence following initial response to therapies. Emerging evidence demonstrates that GBM tumors are initiated from GSCs. The development and use of novel therapies including small molecule inhibitors of specific proteins in signaling pathways that regulate stemness, proliferation and migration of GSCs, immunotherapy, and non-coding microRNAs may provide better means of treating GBM. Identification and characterization of GSC-specific signaling pathways would be necessary to identify specific therapeutic targets which may lead to the development of more efficient therapies selectively targeting GSCs. Several signaling pathways including mTOR, AKT, maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), NOTCH1 and Wnt/β-catenin as well as expression of cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ALDH1A1 maintain GSC properties. Moreover, the data published in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) specifically demonstrated the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in GBM tumorigenesis. Studying such pathways may help to understand GSC biology and lead to the development of potential therapeutic interventions to render them more sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Furthemore, recent demonstration of dedifferentiation of GBM cell lines into CSC-like cells prove that any successful therapeutic agent or combination of drugs for GBM therapy must eliminate not only GSCs, but the differentiated GBM cells and the entire bulk of tumor cells. PMID:26616589

  12. HMGCR positively regulated the growth and migration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhihua; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Chenzhi; Liu, Chao; Huang, Yongkai; Han, Deqing; Huang, Qinghui

    2016-01-15

    The metabolic program of cancer cells is significant different from the normal cells, which makes it possible to develop novel strategies targeting cancer cells. Mevalonate pathway and its rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) have shown important roles in the progression of several cancer types. However, their roles in glioblastoma cells remain unknown. In this study, up-regulation of HMGCR in the clinical glioblastoma samples was observed. Forced expression of HMGCR promoted the growth and migration of U251 and U373 cells, while knocking down the expression of HMGCR inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that HMGCR positively regulated the expression of TAZ, an important mediator of Hippo pathway, and the downstream target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), suggesting HMGCR might activate Hippo pathway in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the oncogenic roles of HMGCR in glioblastoma cells and HMGCR might be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:26432005

  13. Radiosensitivity of testicular cells in the prepubertal mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Vergouwen, R.P.F.A.; Roepers-Gajadien, H.L.; Rooij, D.G. de; Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M. van; Huiskamp, R.; Bas, R.J.; Jong, F.H. de; Davids, J.A.G.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of total-body X-irradiation on the prepubertal testis of the CBA/P mouse have been studied. At either day 14 or day 29 post partum male mice were exposed to single doses of X-rays ranging from 15-6.0 Gy. At 1 week after irradiation the repopulation index method was used to study the radiosensitivity of the spermatogonial stem cells. A D{sub 0} value of 1.8 Gy was determined for the stem cells at day 14 post partum as well as for the stem cells at day 29 post partum, indicating that the radiosensitivity of the spermatogonial stem cells in the prepubertal mouse testis is already comparable to that observed in the adult mouse. One, 2 or 3 weeks after irradiation total cell number per testis of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, mesenchymal cells, macrophages, myoid cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, endothelium and perivascular cells were determined using the disector method. The Sertoli cells and interstitial cell types appeared to be relatively radioresistant during the prepubertal period. No significant changes in plasma testosterone levels were found, indicating that there is no Leydig cell dysfunction after exposure to doses up to 6 Gy during the prepubertal period. Taken together, the radioresponse of the prepubertal mouse testis is comparable to that of the adult mouse testis. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. SU11657 Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Meningioma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie Bois, Angelika Zabel-du; Ranai, Gholamreza; Trinh, Thuy; Unterberg, Andreas; Debus, Juergen; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Abdollahi, Amir; Huber, Peter E.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of the multireceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU11657 (primarily vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor) in combination with irradiation in freshly isolated primary human meningioma cells. Methods and Materials: Tumor specimens were obtained from meningioma patients undergoing surgery at the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg, Germany. For the present study only cells up to passage 6 were used. Benign and atypical meningioma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with SU11657 alone and in combination with 6-MV photons (0-10 Gy). Clonogenic survival and cell proliferation were determined alone and in coculture assays to determine direct and paracrine effects. Results: Radiation and SU11657 alone reduced cell proliferation in atypical and benign meningioma cells as well as in HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner. SU11657 alone also reduced clonogenic survival of benign and atypical meningioma cells. SU11657 increased radiosensitivity of human meningioma cells in clonogenic survival and cell number/proliferation assays. The anticlonogenic and antiproliferative effects alone and the radiosensitization effects of SU11657 were more pronounced in atypical meningioma cells compared with benign meningioma cells. Conclusion: Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors like SU11657 are capable of amplifying the growth inhibitory effects of irradiation in meningioma cells. These data provide a rationale for further clinical evaluation of this combination concept, especially in atypical and malignant meningioma patients.

  15. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W.; Basse, Per H.; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  16. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W; Basse, Per H; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A; Greenberger, Joel S; Socinski, Mark A; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  17. Intrinsic Radiosensitivity and Cellular Characterization of 27 Canine Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Froning, Coral E.; Brents, Colleen A.; Rose, Barbara J.; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Canine cancer cell lines have progressively been developed, but are still underused resources for radiation biology research. Measurement of the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity is important because understanding the difference may provide a framework for further elucidating profiles for prediction of radiation therapy response. Our studies have focused on characterizing diverse canine cancer cell lines in vitro and understanding parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity. First, intrinsic radiosensitivity of 27 canine cancer cell lines derived from ten tumor types was determined using a clonogenic assay. The 27 cell lines had varying radiosensitivities regardless tumor type (survival fraction at 2 Gy, SF2 = 0.19–0.93). In order to understand parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity, we evaluated the relationships of cellular radiosensitivity with basic cellular characteristics of the cell lines. There was no significant correlation of SF2 with S-phase fraction, doubling time, chromosome number, ploidy, or number of metacentric chromosomes, while there was a statistically significant correlation between SF2 and plating efficiency. Next, we selected the five most radiosensitive cell lines as the radiosensitive group and the five most radioresistant cell lines as the radioresistant group. Then, we evaluated known parameters for cell killing by ionizing radiation, including radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis, in the radiosensitive group as compared to the radioresistant group. High levels of residual γ-H2AX foci at the sites of DSBs were present in the four out of the five radiosensitive canine cancer cell lines. Our studies suggested that substantial differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity exist in canine cancer cell lines, and radiation-induced DSB repair was related to radiosensitivity, which is consistent with previous human studies. These data may assist further investigations

  18. Intrinsic Radiosensitivity and Cellular Characterization of 27 Canine Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Froning, Coral E; Brents, Colleen A; Rose, Barbara J; Thamm, Douglas H; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2016-01-01

    Canine cancer cell lines have progressively been developed, but are still underused resources for radiation biology research. Measurement of the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity is important because understanding the difference may provide a framework for further elucidating profiles for prediction of radiation therapy response. Our studies have focused on characterizing diverse canine cancer cell lines in vitro and understanding parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity. First, intrinsic radiosensitivity of 27 canine cancer cell lines derived from ten tumor types was determined using a clonogenic assay. The 27 cell lines had varying radiosensitivities regardless tumor type (survival fraction at 2 Gy, SF2 = 0.19-0.93). In order to understand parameters that might contribute to intrinsic radiosensitivity, we evaluated the relationships of cellular radiosensitivity with basic cellular characteristics of the cell lines. There was no significant correlation of SF2 with S-phase fraction, doubling time, chromosome number, ploidy, or number of metacentric chromosomes, while there was a statistically significant correlation between SF2 and plating efficiency. Next, we selected the five most radiosensitive cell lines as the radiosensitive group and the five most radioresistant cell lines as the radioresistant group. Then, we evaluated known parameters for cell killing by ionizing radiation, including radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis, in the radiosensitive group as compared to the radioresistant group. High levels of residual γ-H2AX foci at the sites of DSBs were present in the four out of the five radiosensitive canine cancer cell lines. Our studies suggested that substantial differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity exist in canine cancer cell lines, and radiation-induced DSB repair was related to radiosensitivity, which is consistent with previous human studies. These data may assist further investigations

  19. Homologous recombination as a potential target for caffeine radiosensitization in mammalian cells: reduced caffeine radiosensitization in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaad, N. A.; Zeng, Z. C.; Guan, J.; Thacker, J.; Iliakis, G.

    2000-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine has been associated with the disruption of multiple DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoints, but several lines of evidence also implicate inhibition of DNA repair. The role of DNA repair inhibition in caffeine radiosensitization remains uncharacterized, and it is unknown which repair process, or lesion, is affected. We show that a radiosensitive cell line, mutant for the RAD51 homolog XRCC2 and defective in homologous recombination repair (HRR), displays significantly diminished caffeine radiosensitization that can be restored by expression of XRCC2. Despite the reduced radiosensitization, caffeine effectively abrogates checkpoints in S and G2 phases in XRCC2 mutant cells indicating that checkpoint abrogation is not sufficient for radiosensitization. Another radiosensitive line, mutant for XRCC3 and defective in HRR, similarly shows reduced caffeine radiosensitization. On the other hand, a radiosensitive mutant (irs-20) of DNA-PKcs with a defect in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is radiosensitized by caffeine to an extent comparable to wild-type cells. In addition, rejoining of radiation-induced DNA DSBs, that mainly reflects NHEJ, remains unaffected by caffeine in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants, or their wild-type counterparts. These observations suggest that caffeine targets steps in HRR but not in NHEJ and that abrogation of checkpoint response is not sufficient to explain radiosensitization. Indeed, immortalized fibroblasts from AT patients show caffeine radiosensitization despite the checkpoint defects associated with ATM mutation. We propose that caffeine radiosensitization is mediated by inhibition of stages in DNA DSB repair requiring HRR and that checkpoint disruption contributes by allowing these DSBs to transit into irreparable states. Thus, checkpoints may contribute to genomic stability by promoting error-free HRR.

  20. The Dynamics of Interactions Among Immune and Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Eder, Katalin; Kalman, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common intracranial malignancy that constitutes about 50 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive, multimodal therapy consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with glioblastoma remains poor with 5-year survival rates of <10 %. Resistance to conventional therapies is most likely caused by several factors. Alterations in the functions of local immune mediators may represent a critical contributor to this resistance. The tumor microenvironment contains innate and adaptive immune cells in addition to the cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. These various cells communicate with each other by means of direct cell-cell contact or by soluble factors including cytokines and chemokines, and act in autocrine and paracrine manners to modulate tumor growth. There are dynamic interactions among the local immune elements and the tumor cells, where primarily the protective immune cells attempt to overcome the malignant cells. However, by developing somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications, the glioblastoma tumor cells acquire the capability of counteracting the local immune responses, and even exploit the immune cells and products for their own growth benefits. In this review, we survey those immune mechanisms that likely contribute to glioblastoma pathogenesis and may serve as a basis for novel treatment strategies. PMID:26224516

  1. Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Misbah; Qazi, Aamer; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Parveen, Gulshan; Waquar, Sulayman; Ashraf, Abdul Basit; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Cancer originates from genetic mutations accumulation. Cancer stem cells have been depicted as tumorigenic cells that can differentiate and self-renew. Cancer stem cells are thought to be resistant to conventional therapy like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy damage carcinomic DNA cells. Because of the ability of cancer stem cells to self-renew and reproduce malignant tumors, they are the subject of intensive research. In this review, CSCs radioresistant mechanisms which include DNA damage response and natural radiosensitizers have been summed up. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in different physiological processes. ROS scavenging is responsible for regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. A researcher has proved that microRNAs regulate tumor radiation resistance. Ionizing radiation does not kill the cancer cells; rather, IR just slows down the signs and symptoms. Ionizing radiation damages DNA directly/indirectly. IR is given mostly in combination with other chemo/radiotherapies. We briefly described here the behavior of cancer stem cells and radioresistance therapies in cancer treatment. To overcome radioresistance in treatment of cancer, strategies like fractionation modification, treatment in combination, inflammation modification, and overcoming hypoxic tumor have been practiced. Natural radiosensitizers, for example, curcumin, genistein, and quercetin, are more beneficial than synthetic compounds. PMID:26998418

  2. 5-Fluorouracil modulation of radiosensitivity in cultured human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Smalley, S R; Kimler, B F; Evans, R G

    1991-02-01

    We evaluated conventional pulse exposure versus continuous exposure models of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) radiosensitization in HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) and DU-145 (human prostate cancer adenocarcinoma) cell lines. Cell survival following treatment with drug and/or radiation was determined by colony formation assays. Radiation was delivered either by itself, approximately midway through a 1-hr exposure to 5-FU (10 micrograms/ml), or at various times following initiation of exposure to 5-FU (0.5 microgram/ml) present throughout the entire period of incubation. Drug concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in vivo in humans. HT-29 cells showed a plating efficiency of 87% and similar cytotoxicity (survival reduced to 0.57-0.71) for all 5-FU conditions. The Do's of the radiation survival curves were not different for 1 hr of 5-FU exposure versus radiation alone. However, continuous exposure conditions demonstrated statistically significantly different Do's from radiation alone and pulse 5-FU exposure. DU-145 cells displayed a plating efficiency of 17% and cytotoxicities of 0.10-0.91 for the 5-FU conditions. DU-145 cells showed different radiation 5-FU interactions: 5-FU produced statistically significant changes in Do well as the differences between cell lines insofar as their radiosensitization by 5-FU underscore the caution required in extrapolating these radiobiologic models to the clinical setting. PMID:1991680

  3. Glioblastoma stem cells and stem cell-targeting immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Rogelio; Azad, Tej D; Feroze, Abdullah H; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Cheshier, Samuel H

    2015-07-01

    Advancements in immunotherapeutics promise new possibilities for the creation of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment options. Ongoing work in cancer stem cell biology has progressively elucidated the role of this tumor sub-population in oncogenesis and has distinguished them as prime therapeutic targets. Current clinical trials take a multifaceted approach with the intention of harnessing the intrinsic cytotoxic capabilities of the immune system to directly target glioblastoma cancer stem cells (gCSC) or indirectly disrupt their stromal microenvironment. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have emerged as the most common approaches, with particular iterations incorporating cancer stem cell antigenic markers in their treatment designs. Ongoing work to determine the comprehensive antigenic profile of the gCSC in conjunction with efforts to counter the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment holds much promise in future immunotherapeutic strategies against GBM. Given recent advancements in these fields, we believe there is tremendous potential to improve outcomes of GBM patients in the continuing evolution of immunotherapies targeted to cancer stem cell populations in GBM. PMID:25682090

  4. Activation of radiosensitizers by hypoxic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olive, P. L.; Durand, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Hypoxic cells can metabolize nitroheterocyclic compounds to produce toxic intermediates capable of affecting the survival of neighbouring oxygenated cells. Mutagenesis experiments with E. coli WP-2 343 (deficient in nitroreductase) indicated that reduction of nitroheterocyclics outside bacteria causes killing and mutations within bacteria, presumably due to the transfer of the "active" specie (s). Using animal tissue slices to reduce nitrofurans, cultured L-929 cells incubated under aerobic conditions were far more sensitive to the toxic and DNA damaging effects of these drugs. Transfer of the active species also occurs in a tissue-like environment in multicell spheroids where the presence of a hypoxic central core served to convert the nitroheterocyclics to intermediates which also damaged the neighbouring oxygenated cells. PMID:354676

  5. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Debin; Jia, Hui; Qin, Mengmeng; Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Dong, Guofu; Wang, Zuojun; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Feng, Fan

    2015-01-01

    MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR) on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy. PMID:26389880

  6. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Ma, Debin; Jia, Hui; Qin, Mengmeng; Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Dong, Guofu; Wang, Zuojun; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Feng, Fan

    2015-01-01

    MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR) on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy. PMID:26389880

  7. NLP-1: a DNA intercalating hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and cytotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Panicucci, R.; Heal, R.; Laderoute, K.; Cowan, D.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    The 2-nitroimidazole linked phenanthridine, NLP-1 (5-(3-(2-nitro-1-imidazoyl)-propyl)-phenanthridinium bromide), was synthesized with the rationale of targeting the nitroimidazole to DNA via the phenanthridine ring. The drug is soluble in aqueous solution (greater than 25 mM) and stable at room temperature. It binds to DNA with a binding constant 1/30 that of ethidium bromide. At a concentration of 0.5 mM, NLP-1 is 8 times more toxic to hypoxic than aerobic cells at 37 degrees C. This concentration is 40 times less than the concentration of misonidazole, a non-intercalating 2-nitroimidazole, required for the same degree of hypoxic cell toxicity. The toxicity of NLP-1 is reduced at least 10-fold at 0 degrees C. Its ability to radiosensitize hypoxic cells is similar to misonidazole at 0 degrees C. Thus the putative targeting of the 2-nitroimidazole, NLP-1, to DNA, via its phenanthridine group, enhances its hypoxic toxicity, but not its radiosensitizing ability under the present test conditions. NLP-1 represents a lead compound for intercalating 2-nitroimidazoles with selective toxicity for hypoxic cells.

  8. Radiosensitization by Inhibiting STAT1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhouguang; Tretiakova, Maria; Zhang Zhongfa; Li Yan; Wang Xiaozhen; Zhu, Julie Xiaohong; Gao Yuanhong; Mai Weiyuan; Furge, Kyle; Qian Chaonan; Amato, Robert; Butler, E. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically regarded as a radioresistant malignancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is not understood. This study investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a transcription factor downstream of the interferon-signaling pathway, in radioresistant RCC. Methods and Materials: The expressions of STAT1 and STAT3 in 164 human clear cell RCC samples, 47 papillary RCC samples, and 15 normal kidney tissue samples were examined by microarray expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the total and phosphorylated STAT1 expression in CRL-1932 (786-O) (human clear cell RCC), SKRC-39 (human papillary RCC), CCL-116 (human fibroblast), and CRL-1441 (G-401) (human Wilms tumor). STAT1 was reduced or inhibited by fludarabine and siRNA, respectively, and the effects on radiation-induced cell death were investigated using clonogenic assays. Results: STAT1 expression, but not STAT3 expression, was significantly greater in human RCC samples (p = 1.5 x 10{sup -8} for clear cell; and p = 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for papillary). Similarly, the expression of STAT1 was relatively greater in the two RCC cell lines. STAT1 expression was reduced by both fludarabine and siRNA, significantly increasing the radiosensitivity in both RCC cell lines. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the overexpression of STAT1 in human clear cell and papillary RCC tissues. Radiosensitization in RCC cell lines was observed by a reduction or inhibition of STAT1 signaling, using fludarabine or siRNA. Our data suggest that STAT1 may play a key role in RCC radioresistance and manipulation of this pathway may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy.

  9. Giant cell glioblastoma in the frontal cortex of a dog.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Kuroki, K; Priosoeryanto, B P; Kato, K; Yano, Y; Murakami, T; Yamaguchi, R; Tateyama, S

    1995-03-01

    A dark gray mass 3 cm in diameter replacing the right frontal cortex was found in the brain of a 5-year-old male Doberman Pinscher dog at necropsy. Microscopic studies revealed that the mass consisted of a proliferation of pleomorphic tumor cells: large bizarre or plump eosinophilic cells, multinucleated giant cells, and small lymphocytic cells. These neoplastic cells at the margin of the necrotic area had a psuedopalisade arrangement and tended to proliferate around blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted intensely with the antibody for vimentin and moderately with those for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. This canine tumor is placed in the category of glioblastoma or undifferentiated astrocytoma, which is analogous to human giant cell glioblastoma. PMID:7771064

  10. Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le

    2009-06-01

    One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.

  11. Gadolinium in human glioblastoma cells for gadolinium neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    De Stasio, G; Casalbore, P; Pallini, R; Gilbert, B; Sanità, F; Ciotti, M T; Rosi, G; Festinesi, A; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Perret, D; Mogk, D W; Perfetti, P; Mehta, M P; Mercanti, D

    2001-05-15

    157Gd is a potential agent for neutron capture cancer therapy (GdNCT). We directly observed the microdistribution of Gd in cultured human glioblastoma cells exposed to Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). We demonstrated, with three independent techniques, that Gd-DTPA penetrates the plasma membrane, and we observed no deleterious effect on cell survival. A systematic microchemical analysis revealed a higher Gd accumulation in cell nuclei compared with cytoplasm. This is significant for prospective GdNCT because the proximity of Gd to DNA increases the cell-killing potential of the short-range, high-energy electrons emitted during the neutron capture reaction. We also exposed Gd-containing cells to thermal neutrons and demonstrated the GdNC reaction effectiveness in inducing cell death. These results in vitro stimulated in vivo Gd-DTPA uptake studies, currently underway, in human glioblastoma patients. PMID:11358855

  12. Cyclopentenylcytosine does not enhance cisplatin-induced radiosensitization in human lung tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    RODERMOND, HANS M.; CATE, ROSEMARIE TEN; HAVEMAN, JAAP; VAN KUILENBURG, ANDRÉ; MEDEMA, JAN PAUL; VAN BREE, CHRIS; FRANKEN, NICOLAAS A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The search for agents that enhance the effect of ionizing radiation has been an object of study for decades. In this study, the sensitizing properties of cyclopentenylcytosine (CPEC) on radiation and cisplatin-induced radiosensitization in human squamous lung carcinoma cells were investigated. Human lung tumour SW-1573 cells (SWp, parental; SWg, gemcitabine-resistant) were incubated with CPEC and cisplatin and subsequently irradiated with different doses of γ-rays. Clonogenic survival was determined to measure the effectiveness of the treatments. CPEC (1 or 2 μM) treatment for 4 h decreased the plating efficiency to 75 and 50% in SWp and SWg cells, respectively. In the SWg cells, 0.1 and 1 μM CPEC for 4 h enhanced the cell killing effect of cisplatin. However, an increase was not noted in the SWp cells. Due to the moderate toxicity of 1 μM for 4 h, this CPEC dose was used in the radiosensitization experiments. However, CPEC neither radiosensitized the lung tumour cells nor enhanced the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin. A 2-h incubation with 4 μM cisplatin also decreased the plating efficiency to 75–80% in the two cell lines. Using this cisplatin dose, radiosensitization was obtained in the two cell lines. Although cisplatin treatment clearly radiosensitized the lung tumour cells, CPEC treatment did not. Cisplatin-induced radiosensitization was also not enhanced by CPEC. PMID:22966339

  13. TGF-B3 Dependent Modification of Radiosensitivity in Reporter Cells Exposed to Serum From Whole-Body Low Dose-Rate Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Edin, Nina Jeppesen; Altaner, Čestmír; Altanerova, Veronica; Ebbesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Prior findings in vitro of a TGF-β3 dependent mechanism induced by low dose-rate irradiation and resulting in increased radioresistance and removal of low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) was tested in an in vivo model. DBA/2 mice were given whole-body irradiation for 1 h at low dose-rates (LDR) of 0.3 or 0.03 Gy/h. Serum was harvested and added to RPMI (4% mouse serum and 6% bovine serum).This medium was transferred to reporter cells (T-47D breast cancer cells or T98G glioblastoma cells). The response to subsequent challenge irradiation of the reporter cells was measured by the colony assay. While serum from unirradiated control mice had no effect on the radiosensitivity in the reporter cells, serum from mice given 0.3 Gy/h or 0.03 Gy/h for 1 h removed HRS and also increased survival in response to doses up to 5 Gy. The effect lasted for at least 15 months after irradiation. TGF-β3 neutralizer added to the medium containing mouse serum inhibited the effect. Serum from mice given irradiation of 0.3 Gy/h for 1 h and subsequently treated with iNOS inhibitor 1400W did not affect radiosensitivity in reporter cells; neither did serum from the unirradiated progeny of mice given 1h LDR whole-body irradiation. PMID:26673923

  14. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Li, Xiaoyan; Moran, Meena S.

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  15. Fenofibrate Induces Ketone Body Production in Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja M.; Wilk, Anna; Antonczyk, Anna; Banks, Paula; Walczyk-Tytko, Emilia; Dean, Matthew; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and downregulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic) therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma. PMID:26869992

  16. Multiple Subsets of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells Coexist in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Robert C; Achrol, Achal S; Januszyk, Michael; Kahn, Suzana A; Liu, Tiffany T; Liu, Yi; Sahoo, Debashis; Rodrigues, Melanie; Maan, Zeshaan N; Wong, Victor W; Cheshier, Samuel H; Chang, Steven D; Steinberg, Gary K; Harsh, Griffith R; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-06-01

    Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) are self-renewing multipotent cells critical for tumor maintenance and growth. Using single-cell microfluidic profiling, we identified multiple subpopulations of BTICs coexisting in human glioblastoma, characterized by distinct surface marker expression and single-cell molecular profiles relating to divergent bulk tissue molecular subtypes. These data suggest BTIC subpopulation heterogeneity as an underlying source of intra-tumoral bulk tissue molecular heterogeneity, and will support future studies into BTIC subpopulation-specific therapies. Stem Cells 2016;34:1702-1707. PMID:26991945

  17. MiR-593 mediates curcumin-induced radiosensitization of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via MDR1

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HAONING; SHAO, MENG; HUANG, SHAOHUI; LIU, YING; LIU, JIE; WANG, ZHIYUAN; DIAO, JIANXIN; LIU, YUANLIANG; TONG, LI; FAN, QIN

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) exhibits radiosensitization effects to a variety of malignant tumors. The present study investigates the radiosensitizing effect of Cur on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and whether its mechanism is associated with microRNA-593 (miR-593) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1). A clonogenic assay was performed to measure the radiosensitizing effect. The expression of miR-593 and MDR1 was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or western blot assay. A transplanted tumor model was established to identify the radiosensitizing effect in vivo. A luciferase-based reporter was constructed to evaluate the effect of direct binding of miR-593 to the putative target site on the 3′ UTR of MDR1. The clonogenic assay showed that Cur enhanced the radiosensitivity of cells. Cur (100 mg/kg) combined with 4 Gy irradiation inhibited the growth of a transplanted tumor model in vivo, resulting in the higher inhibition ratio compared with the radiotherapy-alone group. These results demonstrated that Cur had a radiosensitizing effect on NPC cells in vivo and in vitro; Cur-mediated upregulation of miR-593 resulted in reduced MDR1 expression, which may promote radiosensitivity of NPC cells. PMID:27313684

  18. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil . E-mail: yslee@kcch.re.kr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. Methods and Materials: NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Results: Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Conclusions: Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  19. Arrested neural and advanced mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma cells-comparative study with neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although features of variable differentiation in glioblastoma cell cultures have been reported, a comparative analysis of differentiation properties of normal neural GFAP positive progenitors, and those shown by glioblastoma cells, has not been performed. Methods Following methods were used to compare glioblastoma cells and GFAP+NNP (NHA): exposure to neural differentiation medium, exposure to adipogenic and osteogenic medium, western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, single cell assay, BrdU incorporation assay. To characterize glioblastoma cells EGFR amplification analysis, LOH/MSI analysis, and P53 nucleotide sequence analysis were performed. Results In vitro differentiation of cancer cells derived from eight glioblastomas was compared with GFAP-positive normal neural progenitors (GFAP+NNP). Prior to exposure to differentiation medium, both types of cells showed similar multilineage phenotype (CD44+/MAP2+/GFAP+/Vimentin+/Beta III-tubulin+/Fibronectin+) and were positive for SOX-2 and Nestin. In contrast to GFAP+NNP, an efficient differentiation arrest was observed in all cell lines isolated from glioblastomas. Nevertheless, a subpopulation of cells isolated from four glioblastomas differentiated after serum-starvation with varying efficiency into derivatives indistinguishable from the neural derivatives of GFAP+NNP. Moreover, the cells derived from a majority of glioblastomas (7 out of 8), as well as GFAP+NNP, showed features of mesenchymal differentiation when exposed to medium with serum. Conclusion Our results showed that stable co-expression of multilineage markers by glioblastoma cells resulted from differentiation arrest. According to our data up to 95% of glioblastoma cells can present in vitro multilineage phenotype. The mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma cells is advanced and similar to mesenchymal differentiation of normal neural progenitors GFAP+NNP. PMID:19216795

  20. Radiosensitivity of testicular cells in the fetal mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Vergouwen, R.P.F.A.; Roepers-Gajadien, H.L.; Rooij, D.G. de; Huiskamp, R.; Bas, R.J.; Davids, J.A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal X irradiation on postnatal development of the CBA/P mouse testis was studied. At days 14, 15 and 18 post coitus pregnant female mice were exposed to single doses of X rays ranging from 0.25-1.5 Gy. Higher doses resulted in extensive loss of fetal mice. In the male offspring, at days 3 and 31 post partum, the numbers of gonocytes, type A spermatogonia and Sertoli cells per testis were determined using the disector method. Furthermore, after irradiation at day 15 post coitus, the numbers of Leydig cells, mesenchymal cells, macrophages, myoid cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, endothelial cells and perivascular cells per testis were also determined at days 3 and 31 post partum. At day 3 post partum, the number of germ cells was decreased after irradiation at days 14 and 15 post coitus. A D{sub o} value of 0.7 Gy was determined for the radiosensitivity of the gonocytes at day 14 post coitus. A D{sub o} value of 0.8 Gy was determined for the gonocytes at day 15 post coitus which, however, seems to be less accurate. No accurate D{sub o} value could be determined for the gonocytes at day 18 post coitus. At day 31 post partum, the repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium as well as testis weights and tubular diameters were more affected by irradiation with increasing age of the mice at the time of irradiation. The percentage of tubular cross sections showing spermatids decreased with increasing dose after irradiation at days 15 and 18 post coitus, but not after irradiation at day 14 post coitus. Furthermore, in tubular cross sections showing spermatids, exposure of testes to 1.25 and 1.5 Gy at day 18 post coitus resulted in significantly lower numbers of spermatids per cross section when compared to those testes exposed to the same doses at day 15 post coitus. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP reduces the radiosensitivity of cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Hinz, J. )

    1991-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dibutyryl cyclic AMP modifies the radiosensitivity of confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Three indices of BAEC function were monitored from 4-24 hrs after exposure to 1-10 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays: the release of {sup 51}Cr from prelabeled cells, and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasminogen activator (PLA) into the culture medium. There was a time- and radiation dose-dependent increase in {sup 51}Cr, LDH and PLA release from the BAEC, detectable within 12 hrs after 5 Gy or higher, and by 24 hrs after 1 Gy or higher. This increased release was accompanied by a radiation dose-dependent decrease in {sup 51}Cr and LDH, and an increase in PLA activity in the lysate of cells adherent to the monolayer at 24 hrs. The continuous presence of cAMP from 1 hr before to 24 hrs after irradiation reduced all of these radiation reactions, although mM concentrations of cAMP were required for significant sparing. The presence of cAMP from 1 hr before to 10 min after irradiation had no effect on BAEC sensitivity, whereas cAMP added 10 min after irradiation was fully as effective as continuously administered drug. Thus, cultured BAEC exhibit membrane dysfunction within 24 hrs after clinically relevant radiation doses, and this dysfunction is ameliorated by cAMP present after irradiation.

  2. Differentiation and radiosensitivity of hemopoietic stem cells of mice during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvets, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for differentiation and radiosensitivity of the stem hemopoietic cells (KOE) under conditions of initial and later hypokinesia is examined. It is established that in the initial period of hypokinesia (3 days) when a stress reaction prevails, changes occur in the erythroid differentiation and radiosensitivity of KOE. This effect is associated with redistribution of T-lymphocytes that increase in number in the bone marrow of mice during hypokinesia. At later periods of hypokinesia (30 days) when changes in the organism are related to hypokinesia proper, differentiation and radiosensitivity of KOE were normalized.

  3. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  4. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aftab, Blake T.; Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John; Rudin, Charles M.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hales, Russell K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of KrasG12D-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radio-sensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23182391

  5. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aftab, Blake T.; Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John; Rudin, Charles M.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hales, Russell K.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS).We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  7. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  8. Sesquiterpenoid Lactones in Tanacetum huronense Inhibit Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Amila A; Bejcek, Bruce E; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2016-05-01

    Tanacetum huronense (Lake Huron tansy), which is native to the upper Midwest region of USA and Canada, was examined for the presence of anticancer compounds using an in vitro human tumor cell proliferation inhibition assay, with glioblastoma derived cell line U-87 MG. Bioassay-directed purification of the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial portion of this plant identified six active sesquiterpenoid lactones (1-6). Among these, compounds 5 and 6 are new structural analogs. One of the most abundant isolates, tanacin (4), exhibited the greatest inhibition with an IC50 value of 4.5 μg/mL. PMID:27319121

  9. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 regulates glioblastoma cell cycle and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Fang, Jiasheng; Yang, Zhuanyi; Chen, Fenghua; Liu, Jingfang; Wang, Yanjin

    2012-10-01

    Wnt proteins are powerful regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of the Wnt signalling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of several types of human tumours. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) acts as a Wnt antagonist and tumour suppressor. Previous studies have shown that reducing expression of the WIF-1 gene aberrantly activates Wnt signalling and induces the development of certain types of cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of WIF-1 in human primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumours. Studies using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that WIF-1 expression is lower in human GBM than in normal brain tissue. To clarify the role of WIF-1, we transfected U251 human glioblastoma-derived cells, which do not express WIF-1, with the pcDNA3.1-WIF1 vector to restore WIF-1 expression. The results of cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis assays, as well as flow cytometry, indicate that exogenous WIF-1 has no effect on U251 cell apoptosis, but does arrest cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase and inhibit cell growth. Collectively, our data suggest that WIF-1 is a potent inhibitor of GBM growth. PMID:22901505

  10. HDAC6 promotes cell proliferation and confers resistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Hu, Pengchao; Tang, Fang; Lian, Haiwei; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Yingying; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong; Xie, Conghua

    2016-08-28

    Histone deacetylases are considered to be among the most promising targets in drug development for cancer therapy. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique cytoplasmic enzyme that regulates many biological processes involved in tumorigenesis through its deacetylase and ubiquitin-binding activities. Here, we report that HDAC6 is overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of HDAC6 promotes the proliferation and spheroid formation of glioblastoma cells. HDAC6 overexpression confers resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) mediated cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Conversely, knockdown of HDAC6 inhibits cell proliferation, impairs spheroid formation and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to TMZ. The inhibition of HDAC6 deacetylase activity by selective inhibitors inhibits the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induces apoptosis. HDAC6 selective inhibitors can sensitize glioblastoma cells to TMZ. Moreover, we showed that HDAC6 mediated EGFR stabilization might partly account for its oncogenic role in glioblastoma. TMZ resistant glioblastoma cells showed higher expression of HDAC6 and more activation of EGFR. HDAC6 inhibitors decrease EGFR protein levels and impair the activation of the EGFR pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of HDAC6 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:27267806

  11. DIETARY ISOTHIOCYANATE IBERIN INHIBITS GROWTH AND INDUCES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of the isothiocyanate iberin, a bioactive agent in Brassicaceae species, in human glioblastoma cells. The human glioblastoma cell cultures were treated with different concentrations of iberin and tested for growth inhibition...

  12. 53BP1 foci as a marker of tumor cell radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Markova, E; Vasilyev, S; Belyaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Predicting tumor radiosensitivity has yet to be routinely integrated into radiotherapy. We analyzed the possibility to assess radiosensitivity of tumor cells based on endogenous and radiation-induced 53BP1 foci which are molecular markers of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). In eleven tumor cell lines of different origin, radiosensitivity was assessed by surviving cell fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2). 53BP1 foci were measured at 4 and 12 h post-irradiation by confocal laser microscopy and dedicated software. The correlation of 53BP1 foci and their post-irradiation kinetics with SF2 was assessed using Spearman rank test. The SF2 correlated with both excess of radiation-induced 53BP1 foci per cell at 4 h after irradiation and decay in number of 53BP1 foci from 4 to 12 h post-irradiation. The fraction of cells with multiple endogenous 53BP1 foci also correlated with SF2 of tumor cells. We conclude that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells can be predicted by kinetics of formation and decay of 53BP1 foci after irradiation. For the first time we report that the fraction of cells with multiple endogenous 53BP1 foci can be used as a marker of tumor cell radiosensitivity. PMID:26278144

  13. The Brain Microenvironment Preferentially Enhances the Radioresistance of CD133+ Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Muhammad; Rath, Barbara H; Tsang, Patricia S; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumor xenografts initiated from glioblastoma (GBM) CD133+ tumor stem-like cells (TSCs) are composed of TSC and non-TSC subpopulations, simulating the phenotypic heterogeneity of GBMs in situ. Given that the discrepancies between the radiosensitivity of GBM cells in vitro and the treatment response of patients suggest a role for the microenvironment in GBM radioresistance, we compared the response of TSCs and non-TSCs irradiated under in vitro and orthotopic conditions. As a measure of radioresponse determined at the individual cell level, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci were quantified in CD133+ cells and their differentiated (CD133-) progeny. Under in vitro conditions, no difference was detected between CD133+ and CD133- cells in foci induction or dispersal after irradiation. However, irradiation of orthotopic xenografts initiated from TSCs resulted in the induction of fewer γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in CD133+ cells compared to their CD133- counterparts within the same tumor. Xenograft irradiation resulted in a tumor growth delay of approximately 7 days with a corresponding increase in the percentage of CD133+ cells at 7 days after radiation, which persisted to the onset of neurologic symptoms. These results suggest that, although the radioresponse of TSCs and non-TSCs does not differ under in vitro growth conditions, CD133+ cells are relatively radioresistant under intracerebral growth conditions. Whereas these findings are consistent with the suspected role for TSCs as a determinant of GBM radioresistance, these data also illustrate the dependence of the cellular radioresistance on the brain microenvironment. PMID:22431923

  14. MET inhibition overcomes radiation resistance of glioblastoma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    De Bacco, Francesca; D'Ambrosio, Antonio; Casanova, Elena; Orzan, Francesca; Neggia, Roberta; Albano, Raffaella; Verginelli, Federica; Cominelli, Manuela; Poliani, Pietro L; Luraghi, Paolo; Reato, Gigliola; Pellegatta, Serena; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Perera, Timothy; Garibaldi, Elisabetta; Gabriele, Pietro; Comoglio, Paolo M; Boccaccio, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) contains stem-like cells (GSCs) known to be resistant to ionizing radiation and thus responsible for therapeutic failure and rapidly lethal tumor recurrence. It is known that GSC radioresistance relies on efficient activation of the DNA damage response, but the mechanisms linking this response with the stem status are still unclear. Here, we show that the MET receptor kinase, a functional marker of GSCs, is specifically expressed in a subset of radioresistant GSCs and overexpressed in human GBM recurring after radiotherapy. We elucidate that MET promotes GSC radioresistance through a novel mechanism, relying on AKT activity and leading to (i) sustained activation of Aurora kinase A, ATM kinase, and the downstream effectors of DNA repair, and (ii) phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of p21, which is associated with anti-apoptotic functions. We show that MET pharmacological inhibition causes DNA damage accumulation in irradiated GSCs and their depletion in vitro and in GBMs generated by GSC xenotransplantation. Preclinical evidence is thus provided that MET inhibitors can radiosensitize tumors and convert GSC-positive selection, induced by radiotherapy, into GSC eradication. PMID:27138567

  15. Radiosensitizing Effects of Temozolomide Observed in vivo only in a Subset of O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Methylated Glioblastoma Multiforme Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Brett L.; Grogan, Patrick T.; Mladek, Ann C.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Decker, Paul A.; Giannini, Caterina; Wu Wenting; Ballman, Karla A.; James, C. David; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) followed by adjuvant TMZ is standard treatment for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), although the relative contribution of concurrent versus adjuvant TMZ is unknown. In this study, the efficacy of TMZ/RT was tested with a panel of 20 primary GBM xenografts. Methods and Materials: Mice with intracranial xenografts were treated with TMZ, RT, TMZ/RT, or placebo. Survival ratio for a given treatment/line was defined as the ratio of median survival for treatment vs. placebo. Results: The median survival ratio was significantly higher for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylated tumors versus unmethylated tumors following treatment with TMZ (median survival ratio, 3.6 vs. 1.5, respectively; p = 0.008) or TMZ/RT (5.7 vs. 2.3, respectively; p = 0.001) but not RT alone (1.7 vs. 1.6; p = 0.47). In an analysis of variance, MGMT methylation status and p53 mutation status were significantly associated with treatment response. When we analyzed the additional survival benefit conferred specifically by combined therapy, only a subset (5 of 11) of MGMT methylated tumors derived substantial additional benefit from combined therapy, while none of the MGMT unmethylated tumors did. Consistent with a true radiosensitizing effect of TMZ, sequential treatment in which RT (week 1) was followed by TMZ (week 2) proved significantly less effective than TMZ followed by RT or concurrent TMZ/RT (survival ratios of 4.0, 9.6 and 12.9, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with TMZ and RT provides significant survival benefit only in a subset of MGMT methylated tumors and provides superior antitumor activity relative to sequential administration of RT and TMZ.

  16. Betulinic acid derivatives NVX-207 and B10 for treatment of glioblastoma--an in vitro study of cytotoxicity and radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Bernhardt, Stephan; Passin, Sarina; Wichmann, Henri; Hein, Anja; Zschornak, Martin; Kappler, Matthias; Taubert, Helge; Paschke, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene, represents a new therapeutic substance that has potential benefits for treating glioblastoma. Recently, new strategies for producing BA derivatives with improved properties have evolved. However, few studies have examined the combination of BA or BA derivatives using radiotherapy. The effects of two BA derivatives, NVX-207 and B10, on cellular and radiobiological behavior were analyzed using glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG, U343MG and LN229). Based on IC50 values under normoxic conditions, we detected a 1.3-2.9-fold higher cytotoxicity of the BA derivatives B10 and NVX-207, respectively, compared to BA. Incubation using both BA derivatives led to decreased cell migration, cleavage of PARP and decreased protein expression levels of Survivin. Weak radiation sensitivity enhancement was observed in U251MG cells after treatment with both BA derivatives. The enhancement factors at an irradiation dose of 6 Gy after treatment with 5 µM NVX-207 and 5 µM B10 were 1.32 (p=0.029) and 1.55 (p=0.002), respectively. In contrast to BA, neither NVX-207 nor B10 had additional effects under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that the BA derivatives NVX-207 and B10 improve the effects of radiotherapy on human malignant glioma cells, particularly under normoxic conditions. PMID:25361208

  17. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. )

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  18. Stem cell niches in glioblastoma: a neuropathological view.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Caldera, Valentina; Piazzi, Angela; Denysenko, Tetyana; Melcarne, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs), responsible for tumor growth, recurrence, and resistance to therapies, are considered the real therapeutic target, if they had no molecular mechanisms of resistance, in comparison with the mass of more differentiated cells which are insensitive to therapies just because of being differentiated and nonproliferating. GSCs occur in tumor niches where both stemness status and angiogenesis are conditioned by the microenvironment. In both perivascular and perinecrotic niches, hypoxia plays a fundamental role. Fifteen glioblastomas have been studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for stemness and differentiation antigens. It has been found that circumscribed necroses develop inside hyperproliferating areas that are characterized by high expression of stemness antigens. Necrosis developed inside them because of the imbalance between the proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells; it reduces the number of GSCs to a thin ring around the former hyperproliferating area. The perinecrotic GSCs are nothing else that the survivors remnants of those populating hyperproliferating areas. In the tumor, GSCs coincide with malignant areas so that the need to detect where they are located is not so urgent. PMID:24834433

  19. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  20. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  1. Effect of Corilagin on the Proliferation and NF-κB in U251 Glioblastoma Cells and U251 Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Li, Gen-Hua; Li, Zheng-You; Feng, Song; Liu, Xue-Qin; Han, Guang-Kui; Zhang, Hao; Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Ran; Nie, Quan-Min; Jin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study is to explore the effect of corilagin on the proliferation and NF-κB signaling pathway in U251 glioblastoma cells and U251 glioblastoma stem-like cells. Methods. CD133 positive U251 glioblastoma cells were separated by immunomagnetic beads to isolate glioblastoma stem-like cells. U251 cells and stem-like cells were intervened by different corilagin concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 48 h, respectively. Cell morphology, cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, dual luciferase reporter assay, and a western blot were used to detect and analyze the cell proliferation and cell cycle and investigate the expression of IKBα protein in cytoplasm and NF-κB/p65 in nucleus. Results. Corilagin inhibited the cell proliferation of U251 cells and their stem-like cells and the inhibition role was stronger in U251 stem-like cells (P < 0.05). The cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase in the U251 cells following corilagin intervention; the proportion of cells in G2/M phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The U251 stem-like cells were arrested at the S phase following treatment with corilagin; the proportion of cells in the S phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The ratio of dual luciferase activities of U251 stem-like cells was lower than that of U251 cells in the same corilagin concentration. With increasing concentrations of corilagin, the IKBα expression in cytoplasm of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was increased, but the p65 expression in nucleus of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Corilagin can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem-like cells; the inhibition on glioblastoma stem-like cell proliferation is stronger than glioblastoma cells. This different result indicates that the effect of corilagin on U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells may have close relationships with mechanism of cell

  2. Effect of Corilagin on the Proliferation and NF-κB in U251 Glioblastoma Cells and U251 Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Li, Gen-Hua; Li, Zheng-You; Feng, Song; Liu, Xue-Qin; Han, Guang-Kui; Zhang, Hao; Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Ran; Nie, Quan-Min; Jin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study is to explore the effect of corilagin on the proliferation and NF-κB signaling pathway in U251 glioblastoma cells and U251 glioblastoma stem-like cells. Methods. CD133 positive U251 glioblastoma cells were separated by immunomagnetic beads to isolate glioblastoma stem-like cells. U251 cells and stem-like cells were intervened by different corilagin concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 48 h, respectively. Cell morphology, cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, dual luciferase reporter assay, and a western blot were used to detect and analyze the cell proliferation and cell cycle and investigate the expression of IKBα protein in cytoplasm and NF-κB/p65 in nucleus. Results. Corilagin inhibited the cell proliferation of U251 cells and their stem-like cells and the inhibition role was stronger in U251 stem-like cells (P < 0.05). The cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase in the U251 cells following corilagin intervention; the proportion of cells in G2/M phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The U251 stem-like cells were arrested at the S phase following treatment with corilagin; the proportion of cells in the S phase increased as the concentration of corilagin increased (P < 0.05). The ratio of dual luciferase activities of U251 stem-like cells was lower than that of U251 cells in the same corilagin concentration. With increasing concentrations of corilagin, the IKBα expression in cytoplasm of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was increased, but the p65 expression in nucleus of U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells was decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Corilagin can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma stem-like cells; the inhibition on glioblastoma stem-like cell proliferation is stronger than glioblastoma cells. This different result indicates that the effect of corilagin on U251 cells and U251 stem-like cells may have close relationships with mechanism of cell

  3. Designing CAR T cells for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells directed against CD19 can mediate long-term durable remissions in B cell malignancies, but bringing a new target antigen to the clinic requires extensive modeling to avoid on-target and off-target toxicity. We recently described a systematic approach to test a new CAR directed against EGFR variant III. PMID:26587317

  4. Radiosensitization Effect of STI-571 on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Won; Wen, Jing; Lim, Jong-Baeck; Bang, Seung Min; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To examine STI-571-induced radiosensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Bxpc-3, Capan-1, and MiaPaCa-2) exhibiting different expression levels of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and showing different K-ras mutation types were used. For evaluation of the antitumor activity of STI-571 in combination with radiation, clonogenic survival assays, Western blot analysis, and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay with microscopic evaluation by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were conducted. Results: Dramatic phosphorylated (p)-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta attenuation, a modest dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition, and significant radiosensitization were observed after STI-571 treatment in view of apoptosis, although the levels of growth inhibition and increased radiosensitization were different according to cell lines. The grades of radiosensitivity corresponded to the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta by STI-571, particularly to those of p-c-Kit, and the radiosensitivity was partially affected by K-ras mutation in pancreatic cancer cells. Among downstream pathways associated with c-Kit or PDGFRbeta, p-PLCgamma was more closely related to radiosensitivity compared with p-Akt1 or p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1. Conclusion: STI-571 enhances radiation response in pancreatic cancer cells. This effect is affected by the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit or p-PDGFRbeta, and K-ras mutation status. Among them, p-c-Kit plays more important roles in the radiosensitivity in pancreatic cancer compared with p-PDGFRbeta or K-ras mutation status.

  5. Glioblastoma microvesicles promote endothelial cell proliferation through Akt/beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihai; Sun, Junfeng; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma tumor cells release microvesicles, which contain mRNA, miRNA and angiogenic proteins. These tumor-derived microvesicles transfer genetic information and proteins to normal cells. Previous reports demonstrated that the increased microvesicles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with glioblastoma up-regulate procoagulant activity. The concentration of microvesicles was closely related to thromboembolism incidence and clinical therapeutic effects of glioblastoma patients. However, it is still not clear how CSF microvesicles and what factors affect glioblastoma development. In this study, we collected the plasma and CSF from glioblastoma patients and healthy volunteers. Microvesicles acquired from serum or CSF were added to cultured endothelial cells. And the effects of these microvesicles on endothelial cells were examined. Our results showed that microvesicles from CSF of patients, but not from circulating blood, promoted endothelial cells migration and proliferation in vitro. In addition, the degree of endothelial cell proliferation triggered by microvesicles from CSF was reduced when treated with siRNA targeting Akt/beta-catenin, suggesting that the Akt/beta-catenin pathway is involved in the microvesicle-initiated endothelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioblastoma mainly affects microvesicles within CSF without showing significant impact on microvesicles in circulating blood. Microvesicles from the CSF of glioblastoma patients may initiate endothelial cell growth and thus promote cell invasion. This effect may be directly exerted by activated Akt/beta-catenin pathway. PMID:25197356

  6. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio . E-mail: ccd29400@nyc.odn.ne.jp; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-08-31

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche.

  7. Radiation-induced mitotic cell death and glioblastoma radioresistance: a new regulating pathway controlled by integrin-linked kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and survivin in U87 cells.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Olivia; Monferran, Sylvie; Delmas, Caroline; Couderc, Bettina; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates U87 glioblastoma cell radioresistance by modulating the main radiation-induced cell death mechanism in solid tumours, the mitotic cell death. To decipher the biological pathways involved in these mechanisms, we constructed a U87 glioblastoma cell model expressing an inducible shRNA directed against ILK (U87shILK). We then demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced radiation-induced centrosome overduplication, leading to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In this model, ionising radiations induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilisation which is inhibited by silencing ILK. Moreover, silencing HIF-1α in U87 cells reduced the surviving fraction after 2 Gy irradiation by increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic cell death and centrosome amplification. Because it is known that HIF-1α controls survivin expression, we then looked at the ILK silencing effect on survivin expression. We show that survivin expression is decreased in U87shILK cells. Furthermore, treating U87 cells with the specific survivin suppressor YM155 significantly increased the percentage of giant multinucleated cells, centrosomal overduplication and thus U87 cell radiosensitivity. In consequence, we decipher here a new pathway of glioma radioresistance via the regulation of radiation-induced centrosome duplication and therefore mitotic cell death by ILK, HIF-1α and survivin. This work identifies new targets in glioblastoma with the intention of radiosensitising these highly radioresistant tumours. PMID:23747271

  8. Association between cellular radiosensitivity and G1/G2 checkpoint proficiencies in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hematulin, Arunee; Sagan, Daniel; Sawanyawisuth, Kanlayanee; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wongkham, Sopit

    2014-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a destructive malignancy with a poor prognosis and lack of effective medical treatment. Radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. However, there are limited data on the radiation responsiveness of individual cholangiocarcinoma cells, which is a key factor that influences radiation treatment outcome. In this study, we found that cholangiocarcinoma cell lines differ remarkably in their radiosensitivity. The variation of radiosensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells correlates with their p53 status and existing G1 and/or G2 checkpoint defects. We also demonstrated the potential of checkpoint kinase Chk1/2 inhibition on the enhancement of the radiosensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Thus, this study provides useful information for predicting radiation response and provides evidence for the enchantment of radiotherapeutic efficiency by targeting checkpoint kinase Chk1/2 in some subpopulations of cholangiocarcinoma patients. PMID:24969815

  9. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC. PMID:26046692

  10. Radiosensitization by PARP inhibition to proton beam irradiation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Nishio, Teiji; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2016-09-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 regulates DNA damage responses and promotes base excision repair. PARP inhibitors have been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation in various cancer cells and animal models. We have demonstrated that the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) AZD2281 is also an effective radiosensitizer for carbon-ion radiation; thus, we speculated that the PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of linear energy transfer (LET) radiation as a radiosensitizer. Institutes for biological experiments using proton beam are limited worldwide. This study was performed as a cooperative research at heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. HIMAC can generate various ion beams; this enabled us to compare the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi on cells subjected to proton and carbon-ion beams from the same beam line. After physical optimization of proton beam irradiation, the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi was assessed in the human lung cancer cell line, A549, and the pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. The effect of the PARPi, AZD2281, on radiosensitization to Bragg peak was more significant than that to entrance region. The PARPi increased the number of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and enhanced G2/M arrest after proton beam irradiation. This result supports our hypothesis that a PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation by blocking the DNA repair response. PMID:27425251

  11. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  12. Infrasound sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Kenneth; Moore, Dan H; Yount, Garret

    2013-11-01

    The development of nontoxic agents that can selectively enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy is an important aim in oncology. This study evaluates the ability of infrasound exposure to sensitize glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The infrasound was delivered using a device designed to replicate the unique infrasound emissions measured during external Qigong treatments. Human glioblastoma cell lines harboring wild-type p53 (U87) or mutant p53 (U251, SF210, and SF188) were treated in culture with cisplatin, infrasound emissions, or the combination of the 2 agents. Induction of apoptosis was quantified after 24 hours by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Infrasound emissions alone, delivered at moderate levels (~10 mPa) with dynamic frequency content (7-13 Hz), did not induce apoptosis, yet combining infrasound with cisplatin augmented the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin in all the 4 cell lines (P < .05). Increased cellular uptake of the fluorophore calcein associated with infrasound exposure was quantified by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry, demonstrating increased cell membrane permeability. The 4 cell lines differed in the degree to which infrasound exposure increased calcein uptake, and these differences were predictive of the extent to which infrasound enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. When exposed to specific frequencies, membrane permeabilization also appeared to be differentially responsive for each cell line, suggesting the potential for selective targeting of tissue types using isolated infrasonic frequencies. Additionally, the pressure amplitudes used in this study were several orders of magnitude less than those used in similar studies involving ultrasound and shock waves. The results of this study provide support for using infrasound to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in a clinical setting. PMID:23165942

  13. Cyclophilin B supports Myc and mutant p53-dependent survival of glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Won; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Bram, Richard J

    2014-01-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, treatment-refractory type of brain tumor for which effective therapeutic targets remain important to identify. Here, we report that cyclophilin B (CypB), a prolyl isomerase residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provides an essential survival signal in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Analysis of gene expression databases revealed that CypB is upregulated in many cases of malignant glioma. We found that suppression of CypB reduced cell proliferation and survival in human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro and in vivo. We also found that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins, including the approved drug cyclosporine, greatly reduced the viability of glioblastoma multiforme cells. Mechanistically, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CypB caused hyperactivation of the oncogenic RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, induction of cellular senescence signals, and death resulting from loss of MYC, mutant p53, Chk1, and Janus-activated kinase/STAT3 signaling. Elevated reactive oxygen species, ER expansion, and abnormal unfolded protein responses in CypB-depleted glioblastoma multiforme cells indicated that CypB alleviates oxidative and ER stresses and coordinates stress adaptation responses. Enhanced cell survival and sustained expression of multiple oncogenic proteins downstream of CypB may thus contribute to the poor outcome of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Our findings link chaperone-mediated protein folding in the ER to mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation, and they make CypB an attractive and immediately targetable molecule for glioblastoma multiforme therapy. PMID:24272483

  14. [Evodiamine enhances the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell cancer Eca-109 cells].

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Guo, Baorui; Kong, Xiangmei; Wu, Biao

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of evodiamine on the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell cancer Eca-109 cells. Methods Eca-109 cells were treated with various concentrations of evodiamine [(10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120) μg/mL], and then cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay. After the optimal evodiamine concentration was determined, the cells were divided into radiation group (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy X-ray radiation) and radiation combined with evodiamine group (80 μg/mL evodiamine and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy X-ray radiation) .The radiosensitivity of Eca-109 cells was detected using colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle of Eca-109 cells. The protein expressions of Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were examined by Western blotting. Results MTT assay showed that evodiamine decreased the proliferation of Eca-109 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition reached the maximal level at 80 μg/mL. Compared with radiotherapy alone, the combination of 80 μg/mL evodiamine and radiotherapy improved survival curve and decreased the values of D0 and Dq. Sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.86±0.06. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis revealed that evodiamine suppressed radiotherapy-induced the G2/M arrest. Additionally, evodiamine treatment also significantly inhibited radiotherapy-induced increase in Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and Rad51 expressions. Conclusion Evodiamine enhances radiosensitivity of Eca-109 cells during radiotherapy. The effect may be associated with the inhibition of G2/M arrest and the attenuation of Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and Rad51 expressions. PMID:27363277

  15. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  16. Preferential Iron Trafficking Characterizes Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Schonberg, David L; Miller, Tyler E; Wu, Qiulian; Flavahan, William A; Das, Nupur K; Hale, James S; Hubert, Christopher G; Mack, Stephen C; Jarrar, Awad M; Karl, Robert T; Rosager, Ann Mari; Nixon, Anne M; Tesar, Paul J; Hamerlik, Petra; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Horbinski, Craig; Connor, James R; Fox, Paul L; Lathia, Justin D; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-10-12

    Glioblastomas display hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). RNA sequencing and enhancer mapping revealed regulatory programs unique to CSCs causing upregulation of the iron transporter transferrin, the top differentially expressed gene compared with tissue-specific progenitors. Direct interrogation of iron uptake demonstrated that CSCs potently extract iron from the microenvironment more effectively than other tumor cells. Systematic interrogation of iron flux determined that CSCs preferentially require transferrin receptor and ferritin, two core iron regulators, to propagate and form tumors in vivo. Depleting ferritin disrupted CSC mitotic progression, through the STAT3-FoxM1 regulatory axis, revealing an iron-regulated CSC pathway. Iron is a unique, primordial metal fundamental for earliest life forms, on which CSCs have an epigenetically programmed, targetable dependence. PMID:26461092

  17. Late adult onset of Langerhans cell histiocytosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Perren, F; Fankhauser, L; Thiévent, B; Pache, J-C; Delavelle, J; Rochat, T; Landis, T; Chizzolini, C

    2011-02-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple organ involvement is a rare disorder in adults. Extrapituitary involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. We report the unusual case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with a left-sided hemiataxia-hemiparesis, left hemisensory loss and short-lasting episodes of an alien left hand due to lesions of the internal capsule and the right thalamus, extending into the mesencephalon associated with extensive surrounding edema, without pituitary involvement. The neuroradiological image suggested glioblastoma multiforme. Brain biopsy revealed inflammatory tissue and "pseudotumoral" multiple sclerosis was suspected. Biopsy of concomitant lung and bone lesions disclosed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The treatment with pulsed steroids in association with mycophenolate mofetil led to a sustained, clinical neurological remission. PMID:21131007

  18. Tumor and Endothelial Cell Hybrids Participate in Glioblastoma Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    El Hallani, Soufiane; Colin, Carole; El Houfi, Younas; Boisselier, Blandine; Marie, Yannick; Ravassard, Philippe; Labussière, Marianne; Mokhtari, Karima; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Eichmann, Anne; Sanson, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recently antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has shown a high but transient efficacy in glioblastoma (GBM). Indeed, GBM is one of the most angiogenic human tumors and endothelial proliferation is a hallmark of the disease. We therefore hypothesized that tumor cells may participate in endothelial proliferation of GBM. Materials and Methods. We used EGFR FISH Probe to detect EGFR amplification and anti-CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF to identify endothelial cells. Endothelial and GBM cells were grown separately, labeled with GFP and DsRed lentiviruses, and then cocultured with or without contact. Results. In a subset of GBM tissues, we found that several tumor endothelial cells carry EGFR amplification, characteristic of GBM tumor cells. This observation was reproduced in vitro: when tumor stem cells derived from GBM were grown in the presence of human endothelial cells, a fraction of them acquired endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF). By transduction with GFP and DsRed expressing lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to cell fusion and not transdifferentiation. Conclusion. A fraction of GBM stem cells thus has the capacity to fuse with endothelial cells and the resulting hybrids may participate in tumor microvascular proliferation and in treatment resistance. PMID:24868550

  19. Coupling of the radiosensitivity of melanocyte stem cells to their dormancy during the hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Makiko; Aoto, Takahiro; Mohri, Yasuaki; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Nishimura, Emi K

    2014-07-01

    Current studies have revealed that stem cells are more radiosensitive than mature cells. As somatic stem cells are mostly kept in a quiescent state, this conflicts with Bergonié and Tribondeau's law that actively mitotic cells are the most radiosensitive. In this study, we focused on hair graying to understand the stress-resistance of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs). We used Dct-H2B-GFP transgenic mice which enables the stable visualization of McSCs and an anti-Kit monoclonal antibody which selectively eradicates amplifying McSCs. The results demonstrate that quiescent McSCs are rather radiosensitive, but the coexistence of non-quiescent McSCs provides the stem cell pool with radioresistance. The irradiated quiescent McSCs prematurely differentiate in the niche upon their activation without sufficiently renewing themselves for cyclic hair pigmentation. These data indicate that tissue radiosensitivity is largely dependent on the state of somatic stem cells under their local microenvironment. PMID:24730534

  20. Antiangiogenic Variant of TSP-1 Targets Tumor Cells in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hugh; Tamura, Kaoru; Khajuria, Rajiv Kumar; Bhere, Deepak; Nesterenko, Irina; Lawler, Jack; Shah, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Three type-1 repeat (3TSR) domain of thrombospondin-1 is known to have anti-angiogenic effects by targeting tumor-associated endothelial cells, but its effect on tumor cells is unknown. This study explored the potential of 3TSR to target glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that 3TSR upregulates death receptor (DR) 4/5 expression in a CD36-dependent manner and primes resistant GBMs to tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced caspase-8/3/7 mediated apoptosis. We engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for on-site delivery of 3TSR and a potent and secretable variant of TRAIL (S-TRAIL) in an effort to simultaneously target tumor cells and associated endothelial cells and circumvent issues of systemic delivery of drugs across the blood–brain barrier. We show that MSC-3TSR/S-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth in an expanded spectrum of GBMs. In vivo, a single administration of MSC-3TSR/S-TRAIL significantly targets both tumor cells and vascular component of GBMs, inhibits tumor progression, and extends survival of mice bearing highly vascularized GBM. The ability of 3TSR/S-TRAIL to simultaneously act on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells offers a great potential to target a broad spectrum of cancers and translate 3TSR/TRAIL therapies into clinics. PMID:25358253

  1. Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night.

  2. Inhibition of deubiquitinases primes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Banu, Matei A.; Shu, Chang; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

    2016-01-01

    It remains a challenge in oncology to identify novel drug regimens to efficiently tackle glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Here, we target deubiquitinases for glioblastoma therapy by utilizing the small-molecule inhibitor WP1130 which has been characterized as a deubiquitinase inhibitor that interferes with the function of Usp9X. Expression analysis data confirm that Usp9X expression is increased in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissue indicating its potential as a therapeutic. Consistently, increasing concentrations of WP1130 decrease the cellular viability of established, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and stem cell-like glioblastoma cells. Specific down-regulation of Usp9X reduces viability in glioblastoma cells mimicking the effects of WP1130. Mechanistically, WP1130 elicits apoptosis and increases activation of caspases. Moreover, WP1130 and siRNAs targeting Usp9X reduce the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins, XIAP and Survivin. Pharmacological and genetic interference with Usp9X efficiently sensitized glioblastoma cells to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In addition, single treatment with WP1130 elicited anti-glioma activity in an orthotopic proneural murine model of glioblastoma. Finally, the combination treatment of WP1130 and ABT263 inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than each reagent by its own in vivo without detectable side effects or organ toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting deubiquitinases for glioma therapy is feasible and effective. PMID:26872380

  3. Boswellic acid activity against glioblastoma stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    SCHNEIDER, HANNAH; WELLER, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    Boswellic acids (BAs) have long been considered as useful adjunct pharmacological agents for the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors, notably glioblastoma. Two principal modes of action associated with BAs have been postulated: i) Anti-inflammatory properties, which are useful for containing edema formation, and ii) intrinsic antitumor cell properties, with a hitherto ill-defined mode of action. The present study assessed the effects of various BA derivatives on the viability and clonogenicity of a panel of nine long-term glioma cell lines and five glioma-initiating cell lines, studied cell cycle progression and the mode of cell death induction, and explored potential synergy with temozolomide (TMZ) or irradiation. BA induced the concentration-dependent loss of viability and clonogenicity that was independent of tumor protein 53 status and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression. The treatment of glioma cells with BA resulted in cell death induction, prior to or upon S phase entry, and exhibited features of apoptotic cell death. Synergy with irradiation or TMZ was detected at certain concentrations; however, the inhibitory effects were mostly additive, and never antagonistic. While the intrinsic cytotoxic properties of BA at low micromolecular concentrations were confirmed and the potential synergy with irradiation and TMZ was identified, the proximate pharmacodynamic target of BA remains to be identified. PMID:27313764

  4. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing gammaH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2mug/mL], Trinovin [10mug/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 mug/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10mug/mL) and Prostate Rx (6mug/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  5. Induction of Cytopathogenicity in Human Glioblastoma Cells by Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Rachy; Mudaliar, Prashant; Padmanabhan, Aiswaria; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.). In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3) protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches against

  6. Induction of cytopathogenicity in human glioblastoma cells by chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachy; Mudaliar, Prashant; Padmanabhan, Aiswaria; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic old-world alphavirus, has been implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants and elderly patients. Astrocytes are the major immune cells of the brain parenchyma that mediate inflammation. In the present study we found that a local isolate of CHIKV infect and activate U-87 MG cells, a glioblastoma cell line of human astrocyte origin. The infection kinetics were similar in infected U-87 MG cells and the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cells as indicated by immunofluorescence and plaque assays, 24h post-infection (p.i.). In infected U-87 MG cells, apoptosis was detectable from 48h p.i. evidenced by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear condensation and visible cytopathic effects in a dose and time-dependent manner. XBP1 mRNA splicing and eIF2α phosphorylation studies indicated the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in infected cells. In U-87 MG cells stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged light chain-3 (GFP-LC3) protein, CHIKV infection showed increased autophagy response. The infection led to an enhanced expression of the mRNA transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL9 within 24h p.i. Significant up-regulation of the proteins of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) pathway, such as RIG-I and TRAF-6, was observed indicating the activation of the cytoplasmic-cellular innate immune response. The overall results show that the U-87 MG cell line is a potential in vitro model for in depth study of these molecular pathways in response to CHIKV infection. The responses in these cells of CNS origin, which are inherently defective in Type I interferon response, could be analogous to that occurring in infants and very old patients who also have a compromised interferon-response. The results also point to the intriguing possibility of using this virus for studies to develop oncolytic virus therapy approaches against

  7. Slug inhibition increases radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by upregulating PUMA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhou, Lijie; Wei, Changbo; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    As a new strategy, radio-gene therapy was widely used for the treatment of cancer patients in recent few years. Slug was involved in the radioresistance of various cancers and has been found to have an anti-apoptotic effect. This study aims to investigate whether the modulation of Slug expression by siRNA affects oral squamous cell carcinoma sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through upregulating PUMA. Two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC3 and HSC6) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Slug and subjected to radiotherapy in vitro. After transfection with Slug siRNA, both HSC3 and HSC6 cells showed relatively lower expression of Slug and higher expression of PUMA. The Slug siRNA transfected cells showed decreased survival and proliferation rates, an increased apoptosis rate and enhanced radiosensitivity to X-ray irradiation. Our results revealed that Slug siRNA transfection in combination with radiation increased the expression of PUMA, which contributed to radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Thus, controlling the expression of Slug might contribute to enhance sensitivity of HSC3 and HSC6 cells toward X-ray irradiation in vitro by upregulating PUMA. PMID:27277529

  8. ROS1 amplification mediates resistance to gefitinib in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zarzour, Ahmad; Park, Byung Sun; Lee, So Ha; Bahassi, El Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults and remains incurable despite multimodal intensive treatment regimens. The majority of GBM tumors show a mutated or overexpressed EGFR, however, tumors treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) will inevitably recur highlighting the need to identify signalling pathways involved in GBM resistance to these drugs. To this end, we treated GBM cells that overexpress EGFR with increasing concentrations of gefitinib and isolated resistant clones. These resistant clones were subject to RNAseq and the expression of several genes was found to be upregulated. These genes are mainly tyrosine kinase receptors and include ROS1, DDR1 and PDGFRA and are known to control several downstream targets of EGFR. The upregulation of ROS1 and DDR1 was confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Treatment with a potent and highly specific pyrazole ROS1 inhibitor in ROS1 overexpressing clones led to a sensitization of these cells to low concentrations of gefitinib. Combined treatment with gefitinib and ROS1 inhibitor induces massive cell death by apoptosis following a prolonged S phase cell cycle arrest. Our current study led to the discovery of alternative pathways used by GBM cells to evade cell death following treatment with gefitinib and identifies new therapeutic targets to prevent GBM cell resistance to the drug. PMID:25978031

  9. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  10. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  11. Dendritic cell vaccination in glioblastoma after fluorescence-guided resection

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Ricardo Diez; de Cerio, Ascension Lopez-Diaz; Inoges, Susana; Tejada, Sonia; Pastor, Fernando; Villanueva, Helena; Gallego, Jaime; Espinos, Jaime; Aristu, Javier; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Andreu, Enrique; Bendandi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether the addition of a customized, active immunotherapy to standard of care including fluorescence-guided surgery, may provide hints of an improved survival for patients with poor-prognosis, incurable glioblastoma multiform. METHODS: Preliminary to our ongoing, phase-II clinical trial, we conducted a small pilot study enrolling five consecutive patients with resectable glioblastoma. In terms of Recursive Partitioning Analysis, four patients were class V and one was class IV. In all five cases, fluorescence-guided surgery was employed, followed by rapid steroid discontinuation. Patients were then treated with a combination of standard radio-chemotherapy with temozolomide and tumor lysate-pulsed, mature dendritic cell-based vaccinations. RESULTS: Though all five patients ultimately progressed, with any further treatment left to the sole decision of the treating oncologist, active immunotherapy was very well tolerated and induced specific immune responses in all three patients for whom enough material was available for such an assessment. Median progression-free survival was 16.1 mo. Even more important, median and mean overall survival were 27 mo and 26 mo, respectively. Three patients have died with an overall survival of 9 mo, 27 mo and 27.4 mo, while the other two are still alive at 32 mo and 36 mo, the former receiving treatment with bevacizumab, while the latter has now been off therapy for 12 mo. Four of five patients were alive at two years. CONCLUSION: Active immunotherapy with tumor lysate-pulsed, autologous dendritic cells is feasible, safe, well tolerated and biologically efficacious. A phase-II study is ongoing to possibly improve further on our very encouraging clinical results. PMID:23293753

  12. DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase As Molecular Target for Radiosensitization of Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, M. Emmy M.; van der Ploeg, Ida; Koster, Jan; Bate-Eya, Laurel Tabe; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.; Molenaar, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells might resist therapy with ionizing radiation (IR) by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of IR-induced double-strand breaks. One of the key players in NHEJ is DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK, i.e. DNA-PKcs, can be inhibited with the small-molecule inhibitor NU7026. In the current study, the in vitro potential of NU7026 to radiosensitize neuroblastoma cells was investigated. DNA-PKcs is encoded by the PRKDC (protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide) gene. We showed that PRKDC levels were enhanced in neuroblastoma patients and correlated with a more advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis, making DNA-PKcs an interesting target for radiosensitization of neuroblastoma tumors. Optimal dose finding for combination treatment with NU7026 and IR was performed using NGP cells. One hour pre-treatment with 10 μM NU7026 synergistically sensitized NGP cells to 0.63 Gy IR. Radiosensitizing effects of NU7026 increased in time, with maximum effects observed from 96 h after IR-exposure on. Combined treatment of NGP cells with 10 μM NU7026 and 0.63 Gy IR resulted in apoptosis, while no apoptotic response was observed for either of the therapies alone. Inhibition of IR-induced DNA-PK activation by NU7026 confirmed the capability of NGP cells to, at least partially, resist IR by NHEJ. NU7026 also synergistically radiosensitized other neuroblastoma cell lines, while no synergistic effect was observed for low DNA-PKcs-expressing non-cancerous fibroblasts. Results obtained for NU7026 were confirmed by PRKDC knockdown in NGP cells. Taken together, the current study shows that DNA-PKcs is a promising target for neuroblastoma radiosensitization. PMID:26716839

  13. Garcinol, a Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor, Radiosensitizes Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Non-Homologous End Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Oike, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Torikai, Kohta; Nakano, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major pathway used to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by ionizing radiation (IR), requires chromatin remodeling at DSB sites through the acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs). However, the effect of compounds with HAT inhibitory activities on the DNA damage response (DDR), including the NHEJ and cell cycle checkpoint, as well as on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells, remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated whether garcinol, a HAT inhibitor found in the rinds of Garcinia indica fruit (called mangosteens), has effects on DDR, and whether it can be used for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The following assays were used to examine the effect of garcinol on the inhibition of DSB repair, including the following: a conventional neutral comet assay; a cell-based assay recently developed by us, in which NHEJ repair of DSBs on chromosomal DNA was evaluated; the micrococcal nuclease sensitivity assay; and immunoblotting for autophosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). We assessed the effect of garcinol on the cell cycle checkpoint after IR treatment by analyzing the phosphorylation levels of checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 and histone H3, and by cell cycle profile analysis using flow cytometry. The radiosensitizing effect of garcinol was assessed by a clonogenic survival assay, whereas its effects on apoptosis and senescence were examined by annexin V and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-Gal) staining, respectively. Results: We found that garcinol inhibits DSB repair, including NHEJ, without affecting cell cycle checkpoint. Garcinol radiosensitized A549 lung and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells with dose enhancement ratios (at 10% surviving fraction) of 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. Cellular senescence induced by IR was enhanced by garcinol. Conclusion: These results suggest that garcinol is a radiosensitizer that

  14. Modulating Roles of Amiloride in Irradiation-Induced Antiproliferative Effects in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells Involving Akt Phosphorylation and the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jen-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a key mechanism for enhanced cellular radiosensitivity in radiation therapy. Studies suggest that Akt signaling may play a role in apoptosis and radioresistance. This study evaluates the possible modulating role of amiloride, an antihypertensive agent with a modulating effect to alternative splicing for regulating apoptosis, in the antiproliferative effects induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 8401 cells. Analysis of cell viability showed that amiloride treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation in irradiated GBM8401 cells (p<0.05) in a time-dependent manner, especially in cells treated with amiloride with IR post-treatment. In comparison with GBM8401 cells treated with amiloride alone, with GBM8401 cells treated with IR alone, and with human embryonic lung fibroblast control cells (HEL 299), GBM8401 cells treated with IR combined with amiloride showed increased overexpression of phosphorylated Akt, regardless of whether IR treatment was performed before or after amiloride administration. The alternative splicing pattern of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF1) in cells treated with amiloride alone, IR alone, and combined amiloride-IR treatments showed more consistent cell proliferation compared to that in other apoptosis-related genes such as baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5), Bcl-X, and homeodomain interacting protein kinase-3 (HIPK3). In GBM8401 cells treated with amiloride with IR post-treatment, the ratio of prosurvival (-XL,-LC) to proapoptotic (-LN,-S) splice variants of APAF1 was lower than that seen in cells treated with amiloride with IR pretreatment, suggesting that proapoptotic splice variants of APAF1 (APAF1-LN,-S) were higher in the glioblastoma cells treated with amiloride with IR post-treatment, as compared to glioblastoma cells and fibroblast control cells that had received other treatments. Together, these results suggest that amiloride modulates cell radiosensitivity

  15. Scalable Production of Glioblastoma Tumor-initiating Cells in 3 Dimension Thermoreversible Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Lin, Haishuang; Wang, Ou; Qiu, Xuefeng; Kidambi, Srivatsan; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Reynolds, Brent A.; Lei, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing drugs that specifically target glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Current cell culture methods, however, cannot cost-effectively produce the large numbers of glioblastoma TICs required for drug discovery and development. In this paper we report a new method that encapsulates patient-derived primary glioblastoma TICs and grows them in 3 dimension thermoreversible hydrogels. Our method allows long-term culture (~50 days, 10 passages tested, accumulative ~>1010-fold expansion) with both high growth rate (~20-fold expansion/7 days) and high volumetric yield (~2.0 × 107 cells/ml) without the loss of stemness. The scalable method can be used to produce sufficient, affordable glioblastoma TICs for drug discovery. PMID:27549983

  16. Scalable Production of Glioblastoma Tumor-initiating Cells in 3 Dimension Thermoreversible Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Lin, Haishuang; Wang, Ou; Qiu, Xuefeng; Kidambi, Srivatsan; Deleyrolle, Loic P; Reynolds, Brent A; Lei, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing drugs that specifically target glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Current cell culture methods, however, cannot cost-effectively produce the large numbers of glioblastoma TICs required for drug discovery and development. In this paper we report a new method that encapsulates patient-derived primary glioblastoma TICs and grows them in 3 dimension thermoreversible hydrogels. Our method allows long-term culture (~50 days, 10 passages tested, accumulative ~>10(10)-fold expansion) with both high growth rate (~20-fold expansion/7 days) and high volumetric yield (~2.0 × 10(7) cells/ml) without the loss of stemness. The scalable method can be used to produce sufficient, affordable glioblastoma TICs for drug discovery. PMID:27549983

  17. Targeting JNK for therapeutic depletion of stem-like glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken-ichiro; Sato, Atsushi; Okada, Masashi; Shibuya, Keita; Seino, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kaori; Watanabe, Eriko; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Kayama, Takamasa; Kitanaka, Chifumi

    2012-01-01

    Control of the stem-like tumour cell population is considered key to realizing the long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma, one of the most devastating human malignancies. To date, possible therapeutic targets and targeting methods have been described, but none has yet proven to target stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain to the extent necessary to provide a survival benefit. Here we show that targeting JNK in vivo, the activity of which is required for the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells, via transient, systemic administration of a small-molecule JNK inhibitor depletes the self-renewing and tumour-initiating populations within established tumours, inhibits tumour formation by stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain, and provide substantial survival benefit without evidence of adverse events. Our findings not only implicate JNK in the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells but also demonstrate that JNK is a viable, clinically relevant therapeutic target in the control of stem-like glioblastoma cells. PMID:22816039

  18. Radiosensitivity of CD45RO{sup +} memory and CD45RO{sup {minus}} naive T cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Uzawa, Akiko; Suzuki, Gen; Nakata, Yukiko; Akashi, Makoto; Ohyama, Harumi; Akanuma, Atsuo

    1994-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of various human T-cell subsets were investigated by a proliferation assay and by a single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Each T-cell subset was purified using a cell sorter and was induced to proliferate by ionomycin and interleukin 2. Unsorted T cells showed biphasic dose-survival curves, indicating the heterogeneity of T cells in terms of radiosensitivity. Purified CD4{sup +} helper and CD8{sup +} killer T cells showed similar biphasic dose-survival curves. Hence both T-cell subsets were composed of cells of different radiosensitivity. The T-cell subsets belonging to different activation stages such as CD45RO{sup +} memory and CD45RO{sup {minus}} naive T cells had different dose-survival curves. The former was more radiosensitive than the latter. The high radiosensitivity of CD45RO{sup +} cells was also demonstrated by single-cell gel electrophoresis after irradiation. This is the first demonstration that a particular cell surface marker on T cells is correlated with greater radiosensitivity. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ionizing radiations sustain glioblastoma cell dedifferentiation to a stem-like phenotype through survivin: possible involvement in radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, P; Martinez Gala, J; Delmas, C; Monferran, S; Malric, L; Zentkowski, D; Lubrano, V; Toulas, C; Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, E; Lemarie, A

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are some bad prognosis brain tumors despite a conventional treatment associating surgical resection and subsequent radio-chemotherapy. Among these heterogeneous tumors, a subpopulation of chemo- and radioresistant GBM stem-like cells appears to be involved in the systematic GBM recurrence. Moreover, recent studies showed that differentiated tumor cells may have the ability to dedifferentiate and acquire a stem-like phenotype, a phenomenon also called plasticity, in response to microenvironment stresses such as hypoxia. We hypothesized that GBM cells could be subjected to a similar dedifferentiation process after ionizing radiations (IRs), then supporting the GBM rapid recurrence after radiotherapy. In the present study we demonstrated that subtoxic IR exposure of differentiated GBM cells isolated from patient resections potentiated the long-term reacquisition of stem-associated properties such as the ability to generate primary and secondary neurospheres, the expression of stemness markers and an increased tumorigenicity. We also identified during this process an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin and we showed that its specific downregulation led to the blockade of the IR-induced plasticity. Altogether, these results demonstrated that irradiation could regulate GBM cell dedifferentiation via a survivin-dependent pathway. Targeting the mechanisms associated with IR-induced plasticity will likely contribute to the development of some innovating pharmacological strategies for an improved radiosensitization of these aggressive brain cancers. PMID:25429620

  20. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy Treatment for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Guo, Geng; Niu, Xiao-yuan; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant glioma and patients diagnosed with this disease had poor outcomes even treated with the combination of conventional treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most powerful antigen presenting cells and DC-based vaccination has the potential to target and eliminate GBM cells and enhance the responses of these cells to the existing therapies with minimal damage to the healthy tissues around them. It can enhance recognition of GBM cells by the patients' immune system and activate vast, potent, and long-lasting immune reactions to eliminate them. Therefore, this therapy can prolong the survival of GBM patients and has wide and bright future in the treatment of GBM. Also, the efficacy of this therapy can be strengthened in several ways at some degree: the manipulation of immune regulatory components or costimulatory molecules on DCs; the appropriate choices of antigens for loading to enhance the effectiveness of the therapy; regulation of positive regulators or negative regulators in GBM microenvironment. PMID:26167495

  1. Connexin 43 Inhibition Sensitizes Chemoresistant Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan F; Varghese, Robin T; Lamouille, Samy; Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Kanabur, Pratik; Osimani, Alyssa M; Sharma, Shaan; Jourdan, Jane; Rodgers, Cara M; Simonds, Gary R; Gourdie, Robert G; Sheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of glioblastoma (GBM) to the front-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) continues to challenge GBM treatment efforts. The repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage by O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers one mechanism of TMZ resistance. Paradoxically, MGMT-deficient GBM patients survive longer despite still developing resistance to TMZ. Recent studies indicate that the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) renders GBM cells resistant to TMZ through its carboxyl terminus (CT). In this study, we report insights into how Cx43 promotes TMZ resistance. Cx43 levels were inversely correlated with TMZ sensitivity of GBM cells, including GBM stem cells. Moreover, Cx43 levels inversely correlated with patient survival, including as observed in MGMT-deficient GBM patients. Addition of the C-terminal peptide mimetic αCT1, a selective inhibitor of Cx43 channels, sensitized human MGMT-deficient and TMZ-resistant GBM cells to TMZ treatment. Moreover, combining αCT1 with TMZ-blocked AKT/mTOR signaling, induced autophagy and apoptosis in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Our findings suggest that Cx43 may offer a biomarker to predict the survival of patients with MGMT-independent TMZ resistance and that combining a Cx43 inhibitor with TMZ could enhance therapeutic responses in GBM, and perhaps other TMZ-resistant cancers. PMID:26542214

  2. Decitabine Nano-conjugate Sensitizing Human Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Naz, Asia; Thompson, David H.; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed and characterized a delivery system for the epigenetic demethylating drug, decitabine, to sensitize temozolomide-resistant human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to alkylating chemotherapy. A poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) based nano-conjugate was fabricated to encapsulate decitabine and achieved a better therapeutic response in GBM cells. After synthesis, the highly efficient uptake process and intracellular dynamics of this nano-conjugate was monitored by single-molecule fluorescence tools. Our experiments demonstrated that, under an acidic pH due to active glycolysis in cancer cells, the PLGA-PEG nano-vector could release the conjugated decitabine at a faster rate, after which the hydrolyzed lactic acid and glycolic acid would further acidify the intracellular microenvironment, thus providing a “positive feedback” to increase the effective drug concentration and realize growth inhibition. In temozolomide-resistant GBM cells, decitabine can potentiate the cytotoxic DNA alkylation by counteracting cytosine methylation and reactivating tumor suppressor genes, such as p53 and p21. Owing to excellent internalization and endo-lysosomal escape enabled by the PLGA-PEG backbone, the encapsulated decitabine exhibited a better anti-GBM potential than free drug molecules. Hence, the synthesized nano-conjugate and temozolomide could act in synergy to deliver a more potent and long-term anti-proliferation effect against malignant GBM cells. PMID:25751281

  3. Cell killing, radiosensitization and cell cycle redistribution induced by chronic hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Spiro, I.J.; Rice, G.C.; Durand, R.E.; Stickler, R.; Ling, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the biological changes associated with extreme hypoxia at 37/sup 0/C (less than 10 ppM pO/sub 2/) were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Specifically, extreme hypoxia caused an initial decrease in plating efficiency to 55% in 4 hr after the onset of hypoxia. Beyond this time, the decline in plating efficiency was more gradual reaching 35% of control at 20 hr. Flow microfluorimetry (FMF) studies, in which cells are sorted on the basis of DNA content and then assayed for viability, demonstrated that mid S phase cells were most sensitive to chronic hypoxia. Hypoxia also caused alterations in the cell cycle distribution of initially asynchronous cells, as determined by dual parameter FMF measurements of both cellular DNA content and incorporated BudR. Lastly, cells stored in chronic hypoxia displayed an enhanced radiosensitivity when compared to acutely hypoxic cells.

  4. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D/sub 0/ values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F/sub 1/+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D/sup 0/ value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  5. Caspase-dependent signaling underlies glioblastoma cell death in response to the fungal metabolite, fusarochromanone

    PubMed Central

    MAHDAVIAN, ELAHE; MARSHALL, MONIQUE; MARTIN, PATRICK M.; CAGLE, PATRICE; SALVATORE, BRIAN A.; QUICK, QUINCY A.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal metabolites continue to show promise as a viable class of anticancer agents. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the fungal metabolite, fusarochromanone (FC101), for its antitumor activities in glioblastomas, which have a median survival of less than two years and a poor clinical response to surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Using clinically applicable doses, we demonstrated that FC101 induced glioblastoma apoptotic cell death via caspase dependent signaling, as indicated by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, glioblastoma (PARP). FC101 also induced differential reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glioblastoma cells, contrasting a defined role of oxidative stress in apoptotic cell death observed with other fungal metabolites. Furthermore, the antitumorigenic effects of FC101 on tumor cell migration were assessed. Cell migration assays revealed that FC101 significantly reduced the migratory capacity of glioblastomas, which are incredibly invasive tumors. Taken together, the present study establishes FC101 as a candidate anticancer agent for the cooperative treatment of glioblastomas. PMID:25016928

  6. Voltage-Gated Proton Channel in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Luisa; Queiroz, Fernanda Oliveira; da Silva, Annielle Mendes Brito; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel

    2016-07-20

    Solid tumors tend to have a more glycolytic metabolism leading to an accumulation of acidic metabolites in their cytosol, and consequently, their intracellular pH (pHi) turns critically lower if the cells do not handle the acid excess. Recently, it was proposed that the voltage gated proton channels (HV1) can regulate the pHi in several cancers. Here we report the functional expression of voltage gated proton channels in a human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell line, the most common and lethal brain tumor. T98G cells presented an outward, slow activating voltage-dependent proton current, which was also ΔpH-dependent and inhibited by ZnCl2, characterizing it as being conducted by HV1 channels. Furthermore, blocking HV1 channels with ZnCl2 significantly reduced the pHi, cell survival, and migration, indicating an important role for HV1 for tumor proliferation and progression in GBM. Overall, our results suggest that HV1 channels can be a new therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:27225904

  7. Systematic characterization of lncRNAs' cell-to-cell expression heterogeneity in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jun; Zhuang, Yan; Huang, Shuyu; Ma, Binbin; Chen, Puxiang; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhiguang; Jin, Bilian

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant adult brain tumor generally associated with high level of cellular heterogeneity and a dismal prognosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as novel mediators of tumorigenesis. Recently developed single-cell RNA-seq provides an unprecedented way for analysis of the cell-to-cell variability in lncRNA expression profiles. Here we comprehensively examined the expression patterns of 2,003 lncRNAs in 380 cells from five primary GBMs and two glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC) lines. Employing the self-organizing maps, we displayed the landscape of the lncRNA expression dynamics for individual cells. Further analyses revealed heterogeneous nature of lncRNA in abundance and splicing patterns. Moreover, lncRNA expression variation is also ubiquitously present in the established GSC lines composed of seemingly identical cells. Through comparative analysis of GSC and corresponding differentiated cell cultures, we defined a stemness signature by the set of 31 differentially expressed lncRNAs, which can disclose stemness gradients in five tumors. Additionally, based on known classifier lncRNAs for molecular subtypes, each tumor was found to comprise individual cells representing four subtypes. Our systematic characterization of lncRNA expression heterogeneity lays the foundation for future efforts to further understand the function of lncRNA, develop valuable biomarkers, and enhance knowledge of GBM biology. PMID:26918340

  8. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed. PMID:3754338

  9. HAP1 gene expression is associated with radiosensitivity in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Jun-ying; Yin, Li; Wu, Jian-zhong; Guo, Wen-jie; Wu, Jian-feng; Chen, Meng; Xia, You-you; Tang, Jin-hai; Ma, Yong-chao; He, Xia

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Overexpression of HAP1 gene promotes apoptosis in MCF-7 cells after irradiation. • HAP1 reduces tumor volume in nude mice xenograft models after irradiation. • HAP1 increases radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells in vitro and vivo. - Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between huntingtin-associated protein1 (HAP1) gene and radiation therapy of breast cancer cells. Methods: HAP1 gene was transfected into breast cancer MCF-7 cells, which was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) and Western blot in vitro. The changes of cell radiosensitivity were assessed by colony formation assay. Apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. The expressions of two radiation-induced genes were evaluated by Western blot. Tumor growth was investigated in nude mice xenograft models in vivo. Results: Our data showed that HAP1 gene expression was significantly increased in HAP1-transfected MCF-7 cells in comparison with the parental cells or negative control cells. The survival rate in MCF-7/HAP1 cells was significantly decreased after irradiation (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy), compared to cells in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Pb groups in vitro. HAP1 gene increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells after irradiation. Additionally, the tumor volume and weight in MCF-7/HAP1 + RT group were observably lower than in MCF-7/HAP1 group and MCF-7/Pb + RT group. Conclusion: The present study indicated that HAP1 gene expression was related to the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells and may play an important role in the regulation of cellular radiosensitivity.

  10. Rosiglitazone enhances the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shu-Jun; Hsaio, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Su, Yu-Han; Shih, Wen-Ling; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chuah, Jennifer Qiu-Yu

    2010-04-09

    Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {gamma} used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, and may have the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of p53-wild type HCT116 cells but not p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiosensitivity in p53-mutant HT-29 cells but not HCT116 cells, and prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and enhanced radiation-induced cell growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone also suppressed radiation-induced H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and AKT activation for cell survival; on the contrary, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiation-induced caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells. In addition, pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, attenuated the levels of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in radiation-exposed cancer cells in combination with rosiglitazone pretreatment. Our results provide proof for the first time that rosiglitazone suppresses radiation-induced survival signals and DNA damage response, and enhances the radiation-induced apoptosis signaling cascade. These findings can assist in the development of rosiglitazone as a novel radiosensitizer.

  11. Cytokinesis failure and successful multipolar mitoses drive aneuploidy in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Telentschak, Sergej; Soliwoda, Mark; Nohroudi, Klaus; Addicks, Klaus; Klinz, Franz-Josef

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent human brain tumor and is associated with a poor prognosis. Multipolar mitosis and spindles have occasionally been observed in cultured glioblastoma cells and in glioblastoma tissues, but their mode of origin and relevance have remained unclear. In the present study, we investigated a novel GB cell line (SGB4) exhibiting mitotic aberrations and established a functional link between cytokinesis failure, centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy in glioblastoma. Long-term live cell imaging showed that >3% of mitotic SGB4 cells underwent multipolar mitosis (tripolar>tetrapolar>pentapolar). A significant amount of daugther cells generated by multipolar mitosis were viable and completed several rounds of mitosis. Pedigree analysis of mitotic events revealed that in many cases a bipolar mitosis with failed cytokinesis occurred prior to a multipolar mitosis. Additionally, we observed that SGB4 cells were also able to undergo a bipolar mitosis after failed cytokinesis. Colchicine-induced mitotic arrest and metaphase spreads demonstrated that SGB4 cells had a modal chromosome number of 58 ranging from 23 to 170. Approximately 82% of SGB4 cells were hyperdiploid (47-57 chromosomes) or hypotriploid (58-68 chromosomes). In conclusion, SGB4 cells passed through multipolar cell divisions and generated viable progeny by reductive mitoses. Our results identified cytokinesis failure occurring before and after multipolar or bipolar mitoses as important mechanisms to generate chromosomal heterogeneity in glioblastoma cells. PMID:25625503

  12. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30–100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the

  13. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30-100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects

  14. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on the growth of glioblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Yi; Lai, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Chan, She-Hung; Hsiao, Ling-Ping; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of antiepileptic drug compounds on glioblastoma cellular growth, we exposed glioblastoma cell lines to select antiepileptic drugs. The effects of selected antiepileptic drugs on glioblastoma cells were measured by MTT assay. For compounds showing significant inhibition, cell cycle analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The antiepileptic compounds selected for screening included carbamazepine, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, magnesium sulfate, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, primidone, tiagabine, topiramate, valproic acid, and vigabatrin. Dexamethasone and temozolomide were used as a negative and positive control respectively. Our results showed temozolomide and oxcarbazepine significantly inhibited glioblastoma cell growth and reached IC50 at therapeutic concentrations. The other antiepileptic drugs screened were unable to reach IC50 at therapeutic concentrations. The metabolites of oxcarbazepine were also unable to reach IC50. Dexamethasone, ethosuximide, levetiracetam, and vigabatrin showed some growth enhancement though they did not reach statistical significance. The growth enhancement effects of ethosuximide, levetiracetam, and vigabatrin found in the study may indicate that these compounds should not be used for prophylaxis or short term treatment of epilepsy in glioblastoma. While valproic acid and oxcarbazepine were effective, the required dose of valproic acid was far above that used for the treatment of epilepsy and the metabolites of oxcarbazepine failed to reach significant growth inhibition ruling out the use of oral oxcarbazepine or valproic acid as monotherapy in glioblastoma. The possibility of using these compounds as local treatment is a future area of study. PMID:26758059

  15. CCRK depletion inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation in a cilium-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Roine, Niina; Mäkelä, Tomi P

    2013-01-01

    Loss of primary cilia is frequently observed in tumour cells, including glioblastoma cells, and proposed to benefit tumour growth, but a causal link has not been established. Here, we show that CCRK (cell cycle-related kinase) and its substrate ICK (intestinal cell kinase) inhibit ciliogenesis. Depletion of CCRK leads to accumulation of ICK at ciliary tips, altered ciliary transport and inhibition of cell cycle re-entry in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In glioblastoma cells with deregulated high levels of CCRK, its depletion restores cilia through ICK and an ICK-related kinase MAK, thereby inhibiting glioblastoma cell proliferation. These results indicate that inhibition of ciliogenesis might be a mechanism used by cancer cells to provide a growth advantage. PMID:23743448

  16. Radiosensitization of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoprotein E6*I

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Ervinna; Delic, Naomi C.; Hong, Angela; Zhang Mei; Rose, Barbara R.; Lyons, J. Guy

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) whose disease is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a significantly better outcome than those with HPV-negative disease, but the reasons for the better outcome are not known. We postulated that they might relate to an ability of HPV proteins to confer a better response to radiotherapy, a commonly used treatment for OSCC. Methods and Materials: We stably expressed the specific splicing-derived isoforms, E6*I and E6*II, or the entire E6 open reading frame (E6total), which gives rise to both full length and E6*I isoforms, in OSCC cell lines. Radiation resistance was measured in clonogenicity assays, p53 activity was measured using transfected reporter genes, and flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. Results: E6*I and E6total sensitized the OSCC cells to irradiation, E6*I giving the greatest degree of radiosensitization (approximately eightfold lower surviving cell fraction at 10 Gy), whereas E6*II had no effect. In contrast to radiosensitivity, E6*I was a weaker inhibitor than E6total of tumor suppressor p53 transactivator activity in the same cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that irradiated E6*I expressing cells had a much higher G2M:G1 ratio than control cells, indicating that, after G2, cells were diverted from the cell cycle to programmed cell death. Conclusion: This study supports a role for E6*I in the enhanced responsiveness of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas to p53-independent radiation-induced death.

  17. Zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine increase the radiosensitivity of human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Yuan; Han, Lihui; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase is a type of reverse transcriptase that is overexpressed in almost all human tumor cells, but not in normal tissues, which provides an opportunity for radiosensitization targeting telomerase. Zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine are reverse transcriptase inhibitors that have been applied in clinical practice for several years. We sought to explore the radiosensitization effect of these three drugs on human esophageal cancer cell lines. Eca109 and Eca9706 cells were treated with zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine for 48 h before irradiation was administered. Samples were collected 1 h after irradiation. Clonal efficiency assay was used to evaluate the effect of the combination of these drugs with radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. Telomerase activity (TA) and relative telomere length (TL) were detected and evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis rates were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The results showed that all the drugs tested sensitized the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines to radiation through an increase in radiation-induced DNA damage and cell apoptosis, deregulation of TA and decreasing the shortened TL caused by radiation. Each of the drugs investigated (zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine) could be used for sensitizing human esophageal cancer cell lines to radiation. Consequently, the present study supports the potential of these three drugs as therapeutic agents for the radiosensitization of esophageal squamous cell cancer. PMID:27220342

  18. The Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture Resource: Validated Cell Models Representing All Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan; Bergström, Tobias; Jiang, Yiwen; Johansson, Patrik; Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Lindberg, Nanna; Segerman, Anna; Wicher, Grzegorz; Niklasson, Mia; Baskaran, Sathishkumar; Sreedharan, Smitha; Everlien, Isabelle; Kastemar, Marianne; Hermansson, Annika; Elfineh, Lioudmila; Libard, Sylwia; Holland, Eric Charles; Hesselager, Göran; Alafuzoff, Irina; Westermark, Bengt; Nelander, Sven; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Uhrbom, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor. GBM is essentially incurable and its resistance to therapy is attributed to a subpopulation of cells called glioma stem cells (GSCs). To meet the present shortage of relevant GBM cell (GC) lines we developed a library of annotated and validated cell lines derived from surgical samples of GBM patients, maintained under conditions to preserve GSC characteristics. This collection, which we call the Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture (HGCC) resource, consists of a biobank of 48 GC lines and an associated database containing high-resolution molecular data. We demonstrate that the HGCC lines are tumorigenic, harbor genomic lesions characteristic of GBMs, and represent all four transcriptional subtypes. The HGCC panel provides an open resource for in vitro and in vivo modeling of a large part of GBM diversity useful to both basic and translational GBM research. PMID:26629530

  19. Ultrastructural evidence for differentiation in a human glioblastoma cell line treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.E.; Anderson, K.M. ); Seed, T.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Human glioblastoma cells incubated in the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis show decreased cellular proliferation without cytotoxicity. The authors studied the ultrastructural morphology of a human glioblastoma cell line cultured with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, or 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, a cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor. When glioblastoma cells were treated for 3 days with antiproliferative concentrations of either agent, they shared many morphological characteristics, including evidence for increased astrocytic differentiation with only limited signs of toxicity. The inhibited glioma cells demonstrated an increase in the number and length of astrocytic processes containing greater numbers of glial filaments, and the NDGA-treated cells also demonstrated extensive lateral pseudopod formation along the processes. The glioblastoma cell shape also become more elongated, losing the usual nuclear lobularity and nuclear inclusions, especially in NDGA-treated cells. Many cytoplasmic organelles packed the cytosol of the inhibited glioma cells, including prominent Golgi apparatus, dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum evolving into dilated vesicles, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and numerous concentric laminations. There was limited evidence for toxicity, however, as the mitochondria were more pleomorphic with some mitochondrial distension and disruption of the cristae along with an increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization. The authors conclude that the inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis. NDGA and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, not only suppress glioblastoma cell proliferation, but also include increased astrocytic differentiation.

  20. Radiosensitization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by a SMAC-mimetic compound, SM-164, requires activation of caspases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; McEachern, Donna; Li, Wenyan; Davis, Mary A.; Li, Hua; Morgan, Meredith A.; Bai, Longchuan; Sebolt, Jonathan T.; Sun, Haiying; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Chemoradiation is the treatment of choice for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, radioresistance, which contributes to local recurrence, remains a significant therapeutic problem. In this study, we characterized SM-164, a small SMAC mimetic compound that promotes degradation of cIAP-1 (also known as BIRC2) and releases active caspases from XIAP inhibitory binding, as a radiosensitizing agent in HNSCC cells. We found that SM-164 at nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in some HNSCC cell lines in a manner dependent on intrinsic sensitivity to caspase activation and apoptosis induction. Blockage of caspase activation via siRNA knockdown or a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk largely abrogated SM-164 radiosensitization. On the other hand, the resistant lines with a high level of BCL-2 that blocks caspase activation and apoptosis induction became sensitive to radiation upon BCL-2 knockdown. Mechanistic studies revealed that SM-164 radiosensitization in sensitive cells was associated with NFκB activation and TNFα secretion, followed by activation of caspases-8 and -9, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Finally, SM-164 also radiosensitized human tumor xenograft, while causing minimal toxicity. Thus, SM-164 is a potent radiosensitizer via a mechanism involving caspase activation and holds promise for future clinical development as a novel class of radiosensitizer for the treatment of a subset of head and neck cancer patients. PMID:21282353

  1. Cell-Specific Radiosensitization by Gold Nanoparticles at Megavoltage Radiation Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Suneil; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Muir, Mark F.; Dickson, Glenn R.; Prise, Kevin M.; Currell, Fred J.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hirst, David G.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to cause sensitization with kilovoltage (kV) radiation. Differences in the absorption coefficient between gold and soft tissue, as a function of photon energy, predict that maximum enhancement should occur in the kilovoltage (kV) range, with almost no enhancement at megavoltage (MV) energies. Recent studies have shown that GNPs are not biologically inert, causing oxidative stress and even cell death, suggesting a possible biological mechanism for sensitization. The purpose of this study was to assess GNP radiosensitization at clinically relevant MV X-ray energies. Methods and Materials: Cellular uptake, intracellular localization, and cytotoxicity of GNPs were assessed in normal L132, prostate cancer DU145, and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Radiosensitization was measured by clonogenic survival at kV and MV photon energies and MV electron energies. Intracellular DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and DNA repair were determined and GNP chemosensitization was assessed using the radiomimetic agent bleomycin. Results: GNP uptake occurred in all cell lines and was greatest in MDA-MB-231 cells with nanoparticles accumulating in cytoplasmic lysosomes. In MDA-MB-231 cells, radiation sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) of 1.41, 1.29, and 1.16 were achieved using 160 kVp, 6 MV, and 15 MV X-ray energies, respectively. No significant effect was observed in L132 or DU145 cells at kV or MV energies (SER 0.97-1.08). GNP exposure did not increase radiation-induced DSB formation or inhibit DNA repair; however, GNP chemosensitization was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with bleomycin (SER 1.38). Conclusions: We have demonstrated radiosensitization in MDA-MB-231 cells at MV X-ray energies. The sensitization was cell-specific with comparable effects at kV and MV energies, no increase in DSB formation, and GNP chemopotentiation with bleomycin, suggesting a possible biological mechanism of radiosensitization.

  2. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  3. A novel stem cell culture model of recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Maleeha A; Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Subapanditha, Minomi K; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Hallett, Robin M; Singh, Sheila K

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with average disease relapse at 9 months and median survival rarely extending beyond 15 months. Brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) have been implicated in not only initiating GBM but also conferring resistance to therapy. However, it is not clear whether the BTSC population that initiates tumor growth is also responsible for GBM recurrence. In this study, we have developed a novel in vitro treatment model to profile the evolution of primary treatment-naïve GBM BTSCs through chemoradiotherapy. We report that our in vitro model enriched for a CD15+/CD133- BTSC population, mirroring the phenotype of BTSCs in recurrent GBM. We also show that in vitro treatment increased stem cell gene expression as well as self-renewal capacity of primary GBMs. In addition, the chemoradiotherapy-refractory gene signature obtained from gene expression profiling identified a hyper-aggressive subtype of glioma. The delivery of in vitro chemoradiotherapy to primary GBM BTSCs models several aspects of recurrent GBM biology, and could be used as a discovery and drug-screening platform to uncover new biological drivers and therapeutic targets in GBM. PMID:26498281

  4. Simulation on the molecular radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles in cells irradiated by x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. Z.; Friedland, W.; Li, W. B.; Li, C. Y.; Oeh, U.; Qiu, R.; Li, J. L.; Hoeschen, C.

    2015-08-01

    Abundant studies have focused on the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the cellular environment with x-ray irradiation. To better understand the physical foundation and to initially study the molecular radiosensitization effect within the nucleus, a simple cell model with detailed DNA structure in the central nucleus was set up and complemented with different distributions of single and multiple GNPs in this work. With the biophysical Monte Carlo simulation code PARTRAC, the radiosensitization effects on both physical quantities and primary biological responses (DNA strand breaks) were simulated. The ratios of results under situations with GNPs compared to those without GNPs were defined as the enhancement factors (EFs). The simulation results show that the presence of GNP can cause a notable enhancement effect on the energy deposition within a few micrometers from the border of GNP. The greatest upshot appears around the border and is mostly dominated by Auger electrons. The enhancement effect on the DNA strand breakage becomes smaller because of the DNA distribution inside the nucleus, and the corresponding EFs are between 1 and 1.5. In the present simulation, multiple GNPs on the nucleus surface, the 60 kVp x-ray spectrum and the diameter of 100 nm are relatively more effective conditions for both physical and biological radiosensitization effects. These results preliminarily indicate that GNP can be a good radiosensitizer in x-ray radiotherapy. Nevertheless, further biological responses (repair process, cell survival, etc) need to be studied to give more accurate evaluation and practical proposal on GNP’s application in clinical treatment.

  5. Expression and rearrangement of the ROS1 gene in human glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Birchmeier, C.; Sharma, S.; Wigler, M.

    1987-12-01

    The human ROS1 gene, which possibly encodes a growth factor receptor, was found to be expressed in human tumor cell lines. In a survey of 45 different human cell lines, the authors found ROS1 to be expressed in glioblastoma-derived cell lines at high levels and not to be expressed at all, or expressed at very low levels, in the remaining cell lines. The ROS1 gene was present in normal copy numbers in all cell lines that expressed the gene. However, in one particular glioblastoma line, they detected a potentially activating mutation at the ROS1 locus.

  6. Radioprotection and Cell Cycle Arrest of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Darinaparsin, a Tumor Radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Junqiang; Doi, Hiroshi; Saar, Matthias; Santos, Jennifer; Li, Xuejun; Peehl, Donna M.; Knox, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). Further investigation revealed that DPS activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important inducer of DNA damage repair and cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: DPS selectively radioprotected normal intestinal CECs and sensitized prostate cancer cells in a clinically relevant model. This effect may be, at least in part, mediated by DNA damage response activation and has the potential to significantly increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy.

  7. Andrographolide radiosensitizes human esophageal cancer cell line ECA109 to radiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-M; Kang, Y-H; Yang, X; Wang, J-F; Zhang, Q; Yang, B-X; Zhao, K-L; Xu, L-P; Yang, L-P; Ma, J-X; Huang, G-H; Cai, J; Sun, X-C

    2016-01-01

    To explore the radiosensitivity of andrographolide on esophageal cancer cell line ECA109. The inhibition effects of andrographolide were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effects of andrographolide on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. Immunofluorescence was employed to examine Bax expression. The changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. The expression of NF-κb/Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax/Bcl-2 was measured using Western blot analysis. DNA damage was detected via γ-H2AX foci counting. With a clear dose and time effects, andrographolide was found to inhibit the proliferation of esophageal cell line ECA109. The results of the clonogenic survival assay show that andrographolide could markedly enhance radiosensitivity (P < 0.05) with a sensitizing enhancement ratio of 1.28. Andrographolide caused a dose-dependent increase in Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax protein expression and a decrease in Bcl-2/NF-κb expression. Apoptosis in andrographolide-treated ECA-109 increased significantly compared with the apoptosis in the simple drug and radiation combined with drug groups (P < 0.001; P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the independent radiation group, the andrographolide combined with radiation group increased the number of DNA double chain breaks. Andrographolide can increase the radiosensitivity of esophageal cell line ECA109. This result may be associated with the decrease in the NF-κb level and the induced apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. PMID:25059546

  8. Acrylamide inhibits cellular differentiation of human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    This study explores human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human glioblastoma (U-1240 MG) cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide (ACR). Differentiation of SH-SY5Y and U-1240 MG cells were induced by retinoic acid (RA) and butyric acid (BA), respectively. Morphological observations and MTT assay showed that the induced cellular differentiation and cell proliferation were inhibited by ACR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ACR co-treatment with RA attenuated SH-SY5Y expressions of neurofilament protein-L (NF-L), microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b; 1.2 to 0.7, p < 0.001), MAP2c (2.2 to 0.8, p < 0.05), and Janus kinase1 (JAK1; 1.9 to 0.6, p < 0.001), while ACR co-treatment with BA attenuated U-1240 MG expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MAP1b (1.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001), MAP2c (1.5 to 0.7, p < 0.01), and JAK1 (2.1 to 0.5, p < 0.001), respectively. ACR also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in U-1240 MG cells, while caffeine reversed this suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation caused by ACR treatment. These results showed that RA-induced neurogenesis of SH-SY5Y and BA-induced astrogliogenesis of U-1240 MG cells were attenuated by ACR and were associated with down-regulation of MAPs expression and JAK-STAT signaling. PMID:25959841

  9. Metabolic potentiation of the radiosensitization of hypoxic bacterial cells afforded by nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Patel, K B

    1983-03-01

    Prolonged preirradiation incubation of nitroaromatic radiosensitizers with Escherichia coli cells has been found to increase the degree of radiosensitization of the cells in anoxia. Studies with E. coli strains which differ in their nitroreductase activity indicate that the increase in sensitization arises from the action of metabolites produced by the nitroreductase system of the cell. The metabolites alone appear to decrease the extrapolation number of irradiated hypoxic cells and when combined with the parent compound give a biphasic survival curve. The combination of misonidazole (1 mmole dm-3) and its metabolites (1 mmole dm-3) gave initial and final enhancement ratios of 2.4 and 1.4, respectively. The final enhancement ratio is that expected for 1 mmole dm-3 misonidazole alone, whereas the initial enhancement ratio indicates that the metabolites potentiate the action of misonidazole. The preirradiation incubation effect is removed by dithiothreitol at concentrations which do not affect the radiosensitization level of the nitroaromatic sensitizer. This result indicates that the active metabolite probably depletes a certain amount of the free-thiol compounds inside the cell which assist in the repair of radiation-induced damage. PMID:6344127

  10. Targeting ROR1 inhibits the self-renewal and invasive ability of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Hwa; Lee, Han-Na; Han, Gi-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant of brain tumours and is difficult to cure because of interruption of drug delivery by the blood-brain barrier system, its high metastatic capacity and the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although CSCs are present as a small population in malignant tumours, CSCs have been studied as they are responsible for causing recurrence, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. CSCs have self-renewal characteristics like normal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is involved in stem cell maintenance and malignant properties in human glioblastoma. Knockdown of ROR1 caused reduction of stemness and sphere formation capacity. Moreover, down-regulation of ROR1 suppressed the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes and the tumour migratory and invasive abilities. The results of this study indicate that targeting ROR1 can induce differentiation of CSCs and inhibit metastasis in glioblastoma. In addition, ROR1 may be used as a potential marker for glioblastoma stem cells as well as a potential target for glioblastoma stem cell therapy. PMID:26923195

  11. Proscillaridin A is cytotoxic for glioblastoma cell lines and controls tumor xenograft growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Carré, Manon; Colin, Carole; Jiglaire, Carine Jiguet; Mercurio, Sandy; Beclin, Christophe; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults. Because of molecular and cellular heterogeneity, high proliferation rate and significant invasive ability, prognosis of patients is poor. Recent therapeutic advances increased median overall survival but tumor recurrence remains inevitable. In this context, we used a high throughput screening approach to bring out novel compounds with anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties for glioblastoma treatment. Screening of the Prestwick chemical library® of 1120 molecules identified proscillaridin A, a cardiac glycoside inhibitor of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump, with most significant effects on glioblastoma cell lines. In vitro effects of proscillaridin A were evaluated on GBM6 and GBM9 stem-like cell lines and on U87-MG and U251-MG cell lines. We showed that proscillaridin A displayed cytotoxic properties, triggered cell death, induced G2/M phase blockade in all the glioblastoma cell lines and impaired GBM stem self-renewal capacity even at low concentrations. Heterotopic and orthotopic xenotransplantations were used to confirm in vivo anticancer effects of proscillaridin A that both controls xenograft growth and improves mice survival. Altogether, results suggest that proscillaridin A is a promising candidate as cancer therapies in glioblastoma. This sustains previous reports showing that cardiac glycosides act as anticancer drugs in other cancers. PMID:25400117

  12. Radiosensitizing effect of zinc oxide and silica nanocomposites on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Generalov, Roman; Kuan, Woo Boon; Chen, Wei; Kristensen, Solveig; Juzenas, Petras

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticulates responsive to X-rays offer increased efficacy of radiation therapy. However, successful demonstrations of such nanoparticle use are limited so far due to lack of significant radiosensitizing effects or poor nanoparticle stability in a biological system. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most promising biocompatible material for medicinal applications. In this paper, we report preparation and characterization of scintillating ZnO/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. The ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation (below 360nm) and emit green fluorescence (400-750nm, maximum 550nm). Under X-ray irradiation (200kVp), the nanoparticles scintillate emitting luminescence in the region 350-700nm (maximum 420nm). The synthesized ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles are stable in a biologically relevant environment (water and cell growth medium). The potential of the ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles for radiosensitization is demonstrated in human prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines (LNCaP and Du145). The nanoparticles enhance radiation-induced reduction in cell survival about 2-fold for LNCaP and 1.5-fold for Du145 cells. Radiosensitizing effect can be attributed to X-ray-induced radiocatalysis by the nanoparticles. PMID:25829130

  13. Radiosensitization of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells by MLN4924: An Inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wan, Juefeng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and the combination of radiation with capecitabine has been shown to achieve only 15% to 25% of pathologic complete response. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MLN4924, a potent small molecule inhibitor of SKP1-Cullin-F-box proteins E3 ubiquitin ligases, as a novel radiosensitizing agent in colorectal cancer cells. Indeed, we found that MLN4924 effectively sensitized colorectal cancer cells to radiation with a sensitivity-enhancement ratio of 1.61 for HT-29 cells and 1.35 for HCT-116 cells. Mechanistically, MLN4924 significantly enhanced radiation-induced G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage response through accumulation of p27. Knockdown of p27 via small interfering RNA partially inhibited MLN4924-induced radiosensitization, indicating a causal role played by p27. Our study suggested that MLN4924 could be further developed as a novel radiosensitizing agent against colorectal cancer. PMID:26082455

  14. Regulatory T cells are not a strong predictor of survival for patients with glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alissa A.; Fisher, Jan L.; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Schwachula, Tim; Rhodes, C. Harker; Gui, Jiang; Tafe, Laura J.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Wishart, Heather; Kleen, Jonathan; Miller, Michael; Whipple, Chery A.; de Abreu, Francine B.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potentially prognostic indicators in patients with glioblastoma. If differences in frequency of Tregs in tumor or blood account for substantial variation in patient survival, then reliably measuring Tregs may enhance treatment selection and improve outcomes. Methods We measured Tregs and CD3+ T cells in tumors and blood from 25 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Tumor-infiltrating Tregs and CD3+ T cells, measured by quantitative DNA demethylation analysis (epigenetic qPCR) and by immunohistochemistry, and peripheral blood Treg proportions measured by flow cytometry were correlated with patient survival. Additionally, we analyzed data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to correlate the expression of Treg markers with patient survival and glioblastoma subtypes. Results Tregs, as measured in tumor tissue and peripheral blood, did not correlate with patient survival. Although there was a correlation between tumor-infiltrating Tregs expression by epigenetic qPCR and immunohistochemistry, epigenetic qPCR was more sensitive and specific. Using data from TCGA, mRNA expression of Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) and Helios and FoxP3 methylation level did not predict survival. While the classical glioblastoma subtype corresponded to lower expression of Treg markers, these markers did not predict survival in any of the glioblastoma subtypes. Conclusions Although immunosuppression is a hallmark of glioblastoma, Tregs as measured in tissue by gene expression, immunohistochemistry, or demethylation and Tregs in peripheral blood measured by flow cytometry do not predict survival of patients. Quantitative DNA demethylation analysis provides an objective, sensitive, and specific way of identifying Tregs and CD3+ T cells in glioblastoma. PMID:25618892

  15. Neuronatin in a Subset of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Progenitor Cells Is Associated with Increased Cell Proliferation and Shorter Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bründl, Elisabeth; Brawanski, Alexander; Fang, Xueping; Lee, Cheng S.; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Recent evidence indicates that a subset of glioblastoma tumor cells have a stem cell like phenotype that underlies chemotherapy resistance and tumor recurrence. We utilized a new “multidimensional” capillary isoelectric focusing nano-reversed-phase liquid chromatography platform with tandem mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of isolated glioblastoma tumor stem cell and differentiated tumor cell populations. This proteomic analysis yielded new candidate proteins that were differentially expressed. Specifically, two isoforms of the membrane proteolipid neuronatin (NNAT) were expressed exclusively within the tumor stem cells. We surveyed the expression of NNAT across 10 WHO grade II and III gliomas and 23 glioblastoma (grade IV) human tumor samples and found NNAT was expressed in a subset of primary glioblastoma tumors. Through additional in vitro studies utilizing the U87 glioma cell line, we found that expression of NNAT is associated with significant increases in cellular proliferation. Paralleling the in vitro results, when NNAT levels were evaluated in tumor specimens from a consecutive cohort of 59 glioblastoma patients, the presence of increased levels of NNAT were found to be a an independent risk factor (P = 0.006) for decreased patient survival through Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis. These findings indicate that NNAT may have utility as a prognostic biomarker, as well as a cell-surface target for chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:22624064

  16. Molecular Targeting of TRF2 Suppresses the Growth and Tumorigenesis of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yun; Lathia, Justin D.; Zhang, Peisu; Flavahan, William; Rich, Jeremy N.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent primary brain tumor and is essentially universally fatal within two years of diagnosis. Glioblastomas contain cellular hierarchies with self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. GSCs express high amounts of repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST), which may contribute to their resistance to standard therapies. Telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) stablizes telomeres and REST to maintain self-renewal of neural stem cells and tumor cells. Here we show viral vector-mediated delivery of shRNAs targeting TRF2 mRNA depletes TRF2 and REST from GSCs isolated from patient specimens. As a result, GSC proliferation is reduced and the level of proteins normally expressed by postmitotic neurons (L1CAM and β3-tubulin) is increased, suggesting that loss of TRF2 engages a cell differentiation program in the GSCs. Depletion of TRF2 also sensitizes GSCs to temozolomide, a DNA-alkylating agent currently used to treat glioblastoma. Targeting TRF2 significantly increased the survival of mice bearing GSC xenografts. These findings reveal a role for TRF2 in the maintenance of REST-associated proliferation and chemotherapy resistance of GSCs, suggesting that TRF2 is a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma. PMID:24909307

  17. Radiosensitizing effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.; Husslein, P.; Michalica, W.; Wagenbichler, P.

    1984-09-15

    From clinical experience it is known that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) can increase the radiosensitivity of adenocarcinomas of the corpus uteri. This study investigates this phenomenon in vitro. Primary explants of highly differentiated adenocarcinomas were irradiated with or without pretreatment with MPA and compared with an untreated control group and to a group treated with MPA only. Cell culture itself was performed on an agarose medium in order to prevent overgrowth by fibroblasts. Untreated samples formed 43 +/- 5 clones, explants treated with MPA only produced 39 +/- 5 clones, a difference which was not statistically different; samples irradiated without pretreatment produced 16 +/- 8 and samples after combined treatment 9 +/- 3 clones (all values means +/- SD). This numeric reduction of cell growth through preirradiation treatment with MPA was statistically significant. The effect of MPA as a radiosensitizer may be due to its potential to prolong the radiosensitive G2 phase of the cell cycle. This effect of MPA may be useful also in other hormone-dependent tumors.

  18. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Victoria Y.; Nguyen, Dan; Pajonk, Frank; Kupelian, Patrick; Kaprealian, Tania; Selch, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  19. The gangliosides as a possible molecular coupling factor between the proportion of radiosensitive cells in vitro and the metastatic potential in vivo within a human melanoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. P.; Buronfosse, A.; Portoukalian, J.; Fertil, B.

    1997-01-01

    With an experimental model of spontaneous lung metastases in immunosuppressed newborn rats, seven clones and variants with different metastatic potential and gangliosides expression were derived from a single parental human melanoma cell line M4Be. The cellular radiosensitivity of M4Be and its seven sublines was estimated using an in vitro colony assay. The total amount of gangliosides in M4Be and its seven sublines was determined by cell extraction and thin-layer chromatography, while the expression of GD3 gangliosides was estimated by flow cytometry with a monoclonal antibody. The radiation-cell survival curves of most clones and variants derived from M4Be showed a zero dose extrapolation clearly lower than 100%, suggesting that two populations of cells of very different radiosensitivity coexist within each of these clones and variants. Although the proportion of radiosensitive cells could be estimated from the shape of the survival curve, its radiosensitivity is too high to be properly evaluated by the colony assay. The eight survival curves differ essentially in the proportion of radiosensitive cells--which varied from 0% to 40% among M4Be and its seven sublines--whereas the cellular radiosensitivity of the radioresistant population was similar among them. The metastatic potential in vivo of M4Be and its seven sublines was not significantly related to the cellular radiosensitivity of their corresponding radioresistant population, but significantly increased with the fraction of radiosensitive cells. This relationship is valid only when the highly metastatic cells are cultured for no more than five passages in vitro as the fraction of radiosensitive cells is rapidly lost during subcultures. The relationship remains valid in vivo as metastatic melanoma-bearing newborn rats whole body irradiated with 20 cGy show no lung metastasis compared with controls. The radiosensitive cell fraction is inversely correlated with both the total ganglioside content (r = 0.84, P

  20. Comparison of the radiosensitivities of neurons and glial cells derived from the same rat brain

    PubMed Central

    KUDO, SHIGEHIRO; SUZUKI, YOSHIYUKI; NODA, SHIN-EI; MIZUI, TOSHIYUKI; SHIRAI, KATSUYUKI; OKAMOTO, MASAHIKO; KAMINUMA, TAKUYA; YOSHIDA, YUKARI; SHIRAO, TOMOAKI; NAKANO, TAKASHI

    2014-01-01

    Non-proliferating cells, such as mature neurons, are generally believed to be more resistant to X-rays than proliferating cells, such as glial and vascular endothelial cells. Therefore, the late adverse effects of radiotherapy on the brain have been attributed to the radiation-induced damage of glial and vascular endothelial cells. However, little is known about the radiosensitivities of neurons and glial cells due to difficulties in culturing these cells, particularly neurons, independently. In the present study, primary dissociated neurons and glial cultures were prepared separately from the hippocampi and cerebrum, respectively, which had been obtained from the same fetal rat on embryonic day 18. X-irradiations of 50 Gy were performed on the cultured neurons and glial cells at 7 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). The cells were fixed at 24 h after irradiation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was then performed to measure the apoptotic indices (AIs). The AIs of non-irradiated and irradiated neurons at 7 DIV were 23.7±6.7 and 64.9±4.8%, and those at 21 DIV were 52.1±17.4 and 44.6±12.5%, respectively. The AIs of non-irradiated and irradiated glial cells at 7 DIV were 5.8±1.5 and 78.4±3.3% and those at 21 DIV were 9.6±2.6 and 86.3±4.9%, respectively. Glial cells and neurons were radiosensitive at 7 DIV. However, while glial cells were radiosensitive at 21 DIV, neurons were not. PMID:25120594

  1. Radiosensitivity of human natural killer cells: Binding and cytotoxic activities of natural killer cell subsets

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, R.; Vitale, M.; Mazzotti, G.; Manzoli, L.; Papa, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The sensitivity of human natural killer (NK) cell activities (both binding and killing) after exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to different doses of gamma radiation was studied. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used to identify the NK and T-lymphocyte subsets and to evaluate their radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were irradiated with low (2-6 Gy) and high (10-30 Gy) doses and NK cell binding and cytotoxic activity against K562 target cells were studied after 3 h and 48 h in culture. The primary damage to NK cell activity was identified at the postbinding level and affected mainly the lytic machinery. After 48 h culture postirradiation, an overall depression of cytotoxic activity was observed, but ionizing radiation produced either a selection of the more cytotoxic NK cell subsets, which therefore might be considered more resistant to radiation damage than the less cytotoxic NK cells, or a long-term stimulation of cytotoxic activity in surviving cells.

  2. Accelerated tumor invasion under non-isotropic cell dispersal in glioblastomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Solé, Ricard V.

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastomas are highly diffuse, malignant tumors that have so far evaded clinical treatment. The strongly invasive behavior of cells in these tumors makes them very resistant to treatment, and for this reason both experimental and theoretical efforts have been directed toward understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of tumor spreading. Although usual models assume a standard diffusion behavior, recent experiments with cell cultures indicate that cells tend to move in directions close to that of glioblastoma invasion, thus indicating that a biased random walk model may be much more appropriate. Here we show analytically that, for realistic parameter values, the speeds predicted by biased dispersal are consistent with experimentally measured data. We also find that models beyond reaction-diffusion-advection equations are necessary to capture this substantial effect of biased dispersal on glioblastoma spread.

  3. PTEN deficiency reprogrammes human neural stem cells towards a glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shunlei; Yuan, Guohong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Li, Jingyi; Zhang, Weizhou; Wu, Jun; Xu, Xiuling; Fu, Lina; Li, Ying; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Weiqi; Bai, Ruijun; Yi, Fei; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Gao, Hua; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Zhang, Chuanbao; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaomin; Jiang, Tao; Qu, Jing; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficient mice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates ‘aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26632666

  4. Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. •HAS2 is elevated (up to ∼10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. •HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. •HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. •Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

  5. Glioblastoma expression of vitronectin and the alpha v beta 3 integrin. Adhesion mechanism for transformed glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, C L; Cheresh, D A

    1991-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant astroglial-derived tumor, grows as an adherent mass and locally invades normal brain. An examination of adult cerebral glioblastoma biopsy material for the expression of adhesive proteins that might potentiate adhesion and invasion demonstrated tumor cell-associated vitronectin (5/5). In contrast, vitronectin was not detected associated with glial cells in low grade astroglial tumors (0/4), reactive astrogliosis (0/4), or in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter (0/5). Also, a wide variety of other adhesive ligands were absent from the glioblastoma tumor parenchyma. The alpha v beta 3 integrin was the only vitronectin receptor identified in glioblastoma tumors in situ, and was also not expressed on low grade astroglial-derived tumors, reactive astrogliosis, or on glia or neurons in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter. In a cell attachment assay, cultured glioblastoma cells attached to the parenchyma of glioblastoma tumor cryostat sections at the sites of vitronectin expression, but failed to attach to normal brain. This adhesion was inhibited by antibodies directed against vitronectin, the alpha v beta 3 integrin, and with an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These data provide evidence for a cell adhesion mechanism in glioblastoma tumors that might potentiate glioblastoma cell invasion of normal brain. Images PMID:1721625

  6. Differences in DNA Repair Capacity, Cell Death and Transcriptional Response after Irradiation between a Radiosensitive and a Radioresistant Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Borràs-Fresneda, Mireia; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Rössler, Ute; Armengol, Gemma; Barrios, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy shows variability between patients, indicating inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity. Genetic variation probably contributes to these differences. The aim of the present study was to determine if two cell lines, one radiosensitive (RS) and another radioresistant (RR), showed differences in DNA repair capacity, cell viability, cell cycle progression and, in turn, if this response could be characterised by a differential gene expression profile at different post-irradiation times. After irradiation, the RS cell line showed a slower rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance, a higher frequency of incomplete chromosomal aberrations, a reduced cell viability and a longer disturbance of the cell cycle when compared to the RR cell line. Moreover, a greater and prolonged transcriptional response after irradiation was induced in the RS cell line. Functional analysis showed that 24 h after irradiation genes involved in "DNA damage response", "direct p53 effectors" and apoptosis were still differentially up-regulated in the RS cell line but not in the RR cell line. The two cell lines showed different response to IR and can be distinguished with cell-based assays and differential gene expression analysis. The results emphasise the importance to identify biomarkers of radiosensitivity for tailoring individualized radiotherapy protocols. PMID:27245205

  7. Differences in DNA Repair Capacity, Cell Death and Transcriptional Response after Irradiation between a Radiosensitive and a Radioresistant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Borràs-Fresneda, Mireia; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Rössler, Ute; Armengol, Gemma; Barrios, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy shows variability between patients, indicating inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity. Genetic variation probably contributes to these differences. The aim of the present study was to determine if two cell lines, one radiosensitive (RS) and another radioresistant (RR), showed differences in DNA repair capacity, cell viability, cell cycle progression and, in turn, if this response could be characterised by a differential gene expression profile at different post-irradiation times. After irradiation, the RS cell line showed a slower rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance, a higher frequency of incomplete chromosomal aberrations, a reduced cell viability and a longer disturbance of the cell cycle when compared to the RR cell line. Moreover, a greater and prolonged transcriptional response after irradiation was induced in the RS cell line. Functional analysis showed that 24 h after irradiation genes involved in “DNA damage response”, “direct p53 effectors” and apoptosis were still differentially up-regulated in the RS cell line but not in the RR cell line. The two cell lines showed different response to IR and can be distinguished with cell-based assays and differential gene expression analysis. The results emphasise the importance to identify biomarkers of radiosensitivity for tailoring individualized radiotherapy protocols. PMID:27245205

  8. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIANG; LIU, REN; MA, HONG-BIN; YING, MING-ZHEN; WANG, YA-JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G2/M phase arrest in the GSTP1-expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1-expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G2/M phase arrest. PMID:26622693

  9. Coibamide A Induces mTOR-Independent Autophagy and Cell Death in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Andrew M.; Greenwood, Jeffrey A.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Serrill, Jeffrey D.; Proteau, Philip J.; Ganley, Ian G.; McPhail, Kerry L.; Ishmael, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Coibamide A is an N-methyl-stabilized depsipeptide that was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium as part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) program based in Panama. Previous testing of coibamide A in the NCI in vitro 60 cancer cell line panel revealed a potent anti-proliferative response and “COMPARE-negative” profile indicative of a unique mechanism of action. We report that coibamide A is a more potent and efficacious cytotoxin than was previously appreciated, inducing concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity (EC50<100 nM) in human U87-MG and SF-295 glioblastoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This activity was lost upon linearization of the molecule, highlighting the importance of the cyclized structure for both anti-proliferative and cytotoxic responses. We show that coibamide A induces autophagosome accumulation in human glioblastoma cell types and MEFs via an mTOR-independent mechanism; no change was observed in the phosphorylation state of ULK1 (Ser-757), p70 S6K1 (Thr-389), S6 ribosomal protein (Ser-235/236) and 4EBP-1 (Thr-37/46). Coibamide A also induces morphologically and biochemically distinct forms of cell death according to cell type. SF-295 glioblastoma cells showed caspase-3 activation and evidence of apoptotic cell death in a pattern that was also seen in wild-type and autophagy-deficient (ATG5-null) MEFs. In contrast, cell death in U87-MG glioblastoma cells was characterized by extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and lacked clear apoptotic features. Cell death was attenuated, but still triggered, in Apaf-1-null MEFs lacking a functional mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. From the study of ATG5-null MEFs we conclude that a conventional autophagy response is not required for coibamide A-induced cell death, but likely occurs in dying cells in response to treatment. Coibamide A represents a natural product scaffold with potential for the study of mTOR-independent signaling and cell death

  10. Aberrant Notch signaling in glioblastoma stem cells contributes to tumor recurrence and invasion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Hao; Zhan, Ren-Ya

    2016-08-01

    Upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer stem cells and side population (SP) cells has a major role in maintenance, self-renewal and chemoresistance. The present study isolated a cancer stem cell-like SP accounting for 4.1% of a glioblastoma cell population using a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay. In this glioblastoma SP, the expression of of Notch1 signaling proteins Notch1 intracellular domain and Hes‑1 was markedly upregulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Notch1 by RNA interference significantly diminished the neurosphere formation ability, self‑renewal and chemoresistance of the SP cells. In addition, the expression of the stem‑cell surface genes Oct‑4, Sox2 and Nanog in SP cells was significantly reduced and the sensitivity to the SP cells to chemotherapeutics was enhanced following Notch1 knockdown. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that upregulation of Notch1 is involved in the chemotherapy resistance and tumor recurrence of glioblastoma. Hence, the development of novel anti‑cancer drugs targeting the Notch1 signaling pathway may be a promising strategy for curing glioblastoma. PMID:27315154

  11. Selective radiosensitization of p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells by combined inhibition of Chk1 and PARP1.

    PubMed

    Vance, Sean; Liu, Erqi; Zhao, Lili; Parsels, Joshua D; Parsels, Leslie A; Brown, Jeffery L; Maybaum, Jonathan; Lawrence, Theodore S; Morgan, Meredith A

    2011-12-15

    We have recently shown that inhibition of HRR (homologous recombination repair) by Chk1 (checkpoint kinase 1) inhibition radiosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells and others have demonstrated that Chk1 inhibition selectively sensitizes p53 mutant tumor cells. Furthermore, PARP1 [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1] inhibitors dramatically radiosensitize cells with DNA double strand break repair defects. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of HRR (mediated by Chk1 via AZD7762) and PARP1 [via olaparib (AZD2281)] would selectively sensitize p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells to radiation. We also used 2 isogenic p53 cell models to assess the role of p53 status in cancer cells and intestinal epithelial cells to assess overall cancer specificity. DNA damage response and repair were assessed by flow cytometry, γH2AX, and an HRR reporter assay. We found that the combination of AZD7762 and olaparib produced significant radiosensitization in p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells and in all of the isogenic cancer cell lines. The magnitude of radiosensitization by AZD7762 and olaparib was greater in p53 mutant cells compared with p53 wild type cells. Importantly, normal intestinal epithelial cells were not radiosensitized. The combination of AZD7762 and olaparib caused G 2 checkpoint abrogation, inhibition of HRR, and persistent DNA damage responses. These findings demonstrate that the combination of Chk1 and PARP1 inhibition selectively radiosensitizes p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, these studies suggest that inhibition of HRR by Chk1 inhibitors may be a useful strategy for selectively inducing a BRCA1/2 'deficient-like' phenotype in p53 mutant tumor cells, while sparing normal tissue. PMID:22134241

  12. Partial knockdown of TRF2 increase radiosensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Orun, O; Tiber, P Mega; Serakinci, N

    2016-09-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor TRF2 is a member of shelterin complex with an important role in protecting and stabilizing chromosomal ends. In the present study, we investigated the effect of partial knockdown of TRF2 on radiosensitivity of telomerase immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-telo1), which have a higher radioresistance compared to non telomerized counterpart. Partial knockdown of the protein achieved 15-20% reduction in TRF2 protein levels. The study compared the effect of 2.5Gy radiation in two-four days after irradiation for hMSC-telo1 cells and the cells transfected with siTRF2 and null control vector. Radio-response of the cells were examined using senescence associated β-Gal assay (β-Gal), colony forming assay (CFU) and γ-H2AX phosphorylation. TRF2 deficiency substantially increased radiosensitivity of cells compared to controls in both proliferation and senescence assay (2.4 fold increase in β-Gal, 1.6 fold decrease in CFU). In addition, it increased the γ-H2AX foci as revealed by both immunfluorescence and Western blot analysis. Our data suggests that partial knockdown of TRF2 in hMSC-telo1 cells cause increased γ-H2AX foci which led to fail TRF2 to protect telomeres from radiation thus TRF2 deficiency led to a 1,5-2 fold increase in the radiosensitivity of hMSC-telo1 cells through telomere destabilization. PMID:26598048

  13. Phloretin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Fan, Chenghe; Pu, Lv; Wei, Cui; Jin, Haiqiang; Teng, Yuming; Zhao, Mingming; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Jiang, Feng; Shu, Junlong; Li, Fan; Peng, Qing; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin; Huang, Yining

    2016-06-01

    Phloretin, a flavonoid present in various plants, has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects. However, the mechanism of its chemo-preventive effect on human glioblastoma cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of phloretin and its associated chemo-preventive effect in human glioblastoma cells. The results indicate that phloretin inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase and induced apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells. Phloretin-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with increased expression of p27 and decreased expression of cdk2, cdk4, cdk6, cyclinD and cyclinE. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades were suppressed by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, phloretin triggered the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax, Bak and c-PARP and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. The antioxidant agents N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione weakened the effect of phloretin on glioblastoma cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that phloretin exerts potent chemo-preventive activity in human glioblastoma cells through the generation of ROS. PMID:26983952

  14. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  15. The role of IDH1 mutated tumour cells in secondary glioblastomas: an evolutionary game theoretical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basanta, David; Scott, Jacob G.; Rockne, Russ; Swanson, Kristin R.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in clinical medicine have elucidated two significantly different subtypes of glioblastoma which carry very different prognoses, both defined by mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1). The mechanistic consequences of this mutation have not yet been fully clarified, with conflicting opinions existing in the literature; however, IDH-1 mutation may be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish between primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) from malignant progression of a lower grade glioma. We develop a mathematical model of IDH-1 mutated secondary glioblastoma using evolutionary game theory to investigate the interactions between four different phenotypic populations within the tumor: autonomous growth, invasive, glycolytic, and the hybrid invasive/glycolytic cells. Our model recapitulates glioblastoma behavior well and is able to reproduce two recent experimental findings, as well as make novel predictions concerning the rate of invasive growth as a function of vascularity, and fluctuations in the proportions of phenotypic populations that a glioblastoma will experience under different microenvironmental constraints.

  16. [Optimization and Prognosis of Cell Radiosensitivity Enhancement in vitro and in vivo after Sequential Thermoradiactive Action].

    PubMed

    Belkina, S V; Petin, V G

    2016-01-01

    Previously developed mathematical model of simultaneous action of two inactivating agents has been adapted and tested to describe the results of sequential action. The possibility of applying the mathematical model to the interpretation and prognosis of the increase in radio-sensitivity of tumor cells as well as mammalian cells after sequential action of two high temperatures or hyperthermia and ionizing radiation is analyzed. The model predicts the value of the thermal enhancement ratio depending on the duration of thermal exposure, its greatest value, and the condition under which it is achieved. PMID:27534067

  17. Effect of restoration of retinoblastoma gene function on the radiosensitivity of cells of human tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, N.M.; Little, J.B.

    1994-11-01

    To assess the role of expression of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene on the sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, we transfected a normal RB gene into cells of RB{sup +} and RB{sup {minus}} osteosarcoma cell lines and an RB{sup {minus}} prostate carcinoma line and studied the radiosensitivity of the cells before and after transfection. Four transfected clones were isolated from the two RB{sup {minus}} tumor cell lines that expressed the product of the transfected normal RB gene and contained no mutations in the pocket and C-terminal regions by sequencing. A small increase in radiosensitivity was observed in cell lines transfected with the pDOL plasmid vector alone, containing the neo gene and a long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. However, no significant change in radiosensitivity occurred in transfected cells expressing the normal RB gene compared to controls transfected with an RB{sup {minus}} plasmid. Based on this and other information, we conclude that RB gene function is not involved in the response of these human tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of radiation. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Three-dimensional Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells Remains Unchanged by X-ray and Carbon Ion Irradiation In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Eke, Iris; Storch, Katja; Kaestner, Ina; Vehlow, Anne; Faethe, Christina; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Temme, Achim; Schackert, Gabriele

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Cell invasion represents one of the major determinants that treatment has failed for patients suffering from glioblastoma. Contrary findings have been reported for cell migration upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, the migration and invasion capability of glioblastoma cells on and in collagen type I were evaluated upon irradiation with X-rays or carbon ions. Methods and Materials: Migration on and invasion in collagen type I were evaluated in four established human glioblastoma cell lines exposed to either X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, clonogenic radiation survival, proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine positivity), DNA double-strand breaks ({gamma}H2AX/53BP1-positive foci), and expression of invasion-relevant proteins (eg, {beta}1 integrin, FAK, MMP2, and MMP9) were explored. Migration and invasion assays for primary glioblastoma cells also were carried out with X-ray irradiation. Results: Neither X-ray nor carbon ion irradiation affected glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, a finding similarly observed in primary glioblastoma cells. Intriguingly, irradiated cells migrated unhampered, despite DNA double-strand breaks and reduced proliferation. Clonogenic radiation survival was increased when cells had contact with extracellular matrix. Specific inhibition of the {beta}1 integrin or proliferation-associated signaling molecules revealed a critical function of JNK, PI3K, and p38 MAPK in glioblastoma cell invasion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that X-rays and carbon ion irradiation effectively reduce proliferation and clonogenic survival without modifying the migration and invasion ability of glioblastoma cells in a collagen type I environment. Addition of targeted agents against members of the MAPK and PI3K signaling axis to conventional chemoradiation therapy seems potentially useful to optimize glioblastoma therapy.

  19. MiR-224 expression increases radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Upraity, Shailendra; Kazi, Sadaf; Padul, Vijay; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2014-05-30

    Highlights: • MiR-224 expression in established glioblastoma cell lines and sporadic tumor tissues is low. • Exogenous miR-224 expression was found to increase radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. • MiR-224 expression brought about 55–60% reduction in API5 expression levels. • Transfection with API5 siRNA increased radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. • Low miR-224 and high API5 expression correlated with worse survival of GBM patients. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and highly aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. The intrinsic resistance of this brain tumor limits the efficacy of administered treatment like radiation therapy. In the present study, effect of miR-224 expression on growth characteristics of established GBM cell lines was analyzed. MiR-224 expression in the cell lines as well as in primary GBM tumor tissues was found to be low. Exogenous transient expression of miR-224 using either synthetic mimics or stable inducible expression using doxycycline inducible lentiviral vector carrying miR-224 gene, was found to bring about 30–55% reduction in clonogenic potential of U87 MG cells. MiR-224 expression reduced clonogenic potential of U87 MG cells by 85–90% on irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy, a dose that brought about 50% reduction in clonogenic potential in the absence of miR-224 expression. MiR-224 expression in glioblastoma cells resulted in 55–65% reduction in the expression levels of API5 gene, a known target of miR-224. Further, siRNA mediated down-regulation of API5 was also found to have radiation sensitizing effect on glioblastoma cell lines. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas data showed lower miR-224 expression levels in male GBM patients to correlate with poorer survival. Higher expression levels of miR-224 target API5 also showed significant correlation with poorer survival of GBM patients. Up-regulation of miR-224 or down-regulation of its target API5 in combination with radiation therapy

  20. MG132 enhances the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Liu, Jing; Nie, Jihua; Sheng, Wenjiong; Cao, Han; Shen, Wenhao; Dong, Aijing; Zhou, Jundong; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for lung cancer, however, radioresistance remains a fundamental barrier to attaining the maximal efficacy. Cancer cells take advantage of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for increased proliferation and decreased apoptotic cell death. MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal‑H), a specific and selective reversible inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, has shown anticancer effect in multiple types of cancers. Previously, we have reported that MG132 enhances the anti‑growth and anti-metastatic effects of irradiation in lung cancer cells. However, whether MG132 can enhance the radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo is still unknown. In this study, we found that MG132 increased apoptosis and dicentric chromosome ratio of A549 and H1299 cells treated by irradiation. Radiation-induced NF-κB expression and IκBα phosphorylation was attenuated in MG132 plus irradiation-treated cells. The in vivo model of H1299 xenografts of nude mice showed that the tumor size of MG132 plus irradiation treated xenografts was smaller than that of irradiation, MG132 or the control group. Moreover, MG132 plus irradiation group showed significant reduced Ki67 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MG132 enhances the radiosensitivity through multiple mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26238156

  1. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

  2. Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, Marie-Therese Hadchity, Elie; Bionda, Clara; Diaz-Latoud, Chantal; Claude, Line; Rousson, Robert; Arrigo, Andre-Patrick; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to {gamma}-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors.

  3. Radiosensitization by 6-aminonicotinamide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varshney, R; Dwarakanath, Bs; Jain, V

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to exploit simultaneous inhibition of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways of energy production for radiosensitization using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN) in transformed mammalian cells. Two human tumour cell lines (cerebral glioma, BMG-1 and squamous carcinoma cells 4197) were investigated. 2-DG and/or 6-AN added at the time of irradiation were present for 4 h after radiation. Radiation-induced cell death (macrocolony assay), cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation), cell cycle delay (bromodeoxyuridne (BrdU) pulse chase), apoptosis (externalization of phosphotidylserine (PS) by annexin V), chromatin-bound proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were investigated as parameters of radiation response. The presence of 2-DG (5 mM) during and for 4 h after irradiation increased the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and cell death, and caused a time-dependent decrease in GSH levels in BMG-1 cells while no significant effects could be observed in 4197 cells. 6-AN (5 microM) enhanced the radiosensitivity of both cell lines and reduced the GSH content by nearly 50% in gamma-irradiated 4197 cells. Combining 2-DG and 6-AN caused a profound decrease in the GSH content and enhanced the radiation damage in both the cell lines by increasing mitotic and apoptotic cell death. Further, the combination (2-DG + 6-AN) enhanced the radiation-induced G2 block, besides arresting cells in S phase and inhibited the recruitment of PCNA. The combination of 2-DG and 6-AN enhances radiation damage by modifying damage response pathways and has the potential for improving radiotherapy of cancer. PMID:16076755

  4. MiR-124 Radiosensitizes Human Colorectal Cancer Cells by Targeting PRRX1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiaoshan; He, Lian; Li, Dan; Li, Zhijun; Ding, Yi; Chen, Longhua

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients is that these tumors show resistance to radiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in essential biological activities, including chemoresistance and radioresistance. Several research studies have indicated that miRNA played an important role in sensitizing cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, we found that miR-124 was significantly down-regulated both in CRC-derived cell lines and clinical CRC samples compared with adjacent non-tumor colorectal tissues, MiR-124 could sensitize human colorectal cancer cells to IR in vitro and in vivo. We identified PRRX1, a new EMT inducer and stemness regulator as a novel direct target of miR-124 by using target prediction algorithms and luciferase assay. PRRX1 knockdown could sensitize CRC cells to IR similar to the effects caused by miR-124. Overexpression of PRRX1 in stably overexpressed-miR-124 cell lines could rescue the effects of radiosensitivity enhancement brought by miR-124. Taking these observations into consideration, we illustrated that miR-124 could increase the radiosensitivity of CRC cells by blocking the expression of PRRX1, which indicated miR-124 could act as a great therapeutic target for CRC patients. PMID:24705396

  5. DNA damage response (DDR) pathway engagement in cisplatin radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sears, Catherine R; Cooney, Sean A; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc S; Turchi, John J

    2016-04-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are commonly treated with a platinum-based chemotherapy such as cisplatin (CDDP) in combination with ionizing radiation (IR). Although clinical trials have demonstrated that the combination of CDDP and IR appear to be synergistic in terms of therapeutic efficacy, the mechanism of synergism remains largely uncharacterized. We investigated the role of the DNA damage response (DDR) in CDDP radiosensitization using two NSCLC cell lines. Using clonogenic survival assays, we determined that the cooperative cytotoxicity of CDDP and IR treatment is sequence dependent, requiring administration of CDDP prior to IR (CDDP-IR). We identified and interrogated the unique time and agent-dependent activation of the DDR in NSCLC cells treated with cisplatin-IR combination therapy. Compared to treatment with CDDP or IR alone, CDDP-IR combination treatment led to persistence of γH2Ax foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), for up to 24h after treatment. Interestingly, pharmacologic inhibition of DDR sensor kinases revealed the persistence of γ-H2Ax foci in CDDP-IR treated cells is independent of kinase activation. Taken together, our data suggest that delayed repair of DSBs in NSCLC cells treated with CDDP-IR contributes to CDDP radiosensitization and that alterations of the DDR pathways by inhibition of specific DDR kinases can augment CDDP-IR cytotoxicity by a complementary mechanism. PMID:26991853

  6. Down-regulation of GnT-V enhances nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-2 radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuo, Enqing; He, Jiao; Wei, Ting; Zhu, Weiliang; Meng, Hui; Li, Yan; Guo, Linlang; Zhang, Jian

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First investigated the role of GnT-V on the radiosensitivity of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms of the changing radiosensitivity were also investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, more than one experiment methods were used to investigate a problem. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of GnT-V on radiosensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the possible mechanism. The GnT-V stably suppressed cell line CNE-2 GnT-V/2224 was constructed from CNE-2 by transfection. The radiosensitivity of the cells was studied by CCK-8 assay, flow-cytometry, caspases-3 activity analysis and tumor xenografts model. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xl was analyzed with or without radiation. The results showed that down-regulation of GnT-V enhanced CNE-2 radiosensitivity. The underlying mechanisms may be link to the cell cycle G2-M arrest and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The results suggest that GnT-V may be a potential target for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy.

  7. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin.

    PubMed

    Song, Yichen; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yilong; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:24657544

  8. Phosphoproteome of Human Glioblastoma Initiating Cells Reveals Novel Signaling Regulators Encoded by the Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Ao-Kondo, Hiroko; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Akiyama, Tetsu; Oyama, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. Although various studies have been performed so far, there are not effective treatments for patients with glioblastoma. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to systematically elucidate the aberrant signaling machinery activated in this malignant brain tumor, we investigated phosphoproteome dynamics of glioblastoma initiating cells using high-resolution nanoflow LC-MS/MS system in combination with SILAC technology. Through phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide beads, a total of 6,073 phosphopeptides from 2,282 phosphorylated proteins were identified based on the two peptide fragmentation methodologies of collision induced dissociation and higher-energy C-trap dissociation. The SILAC-based quantification described 516 up-regulated and 275 down-regulated phosphorylation sites upon epidermal growth factor stimulation, including the comprehensive status of the phosphorylation sites on stem cell markers such as nestin. Very intriguingly, our in-depth phosphoproteome analysis led to identification of novel phosphorylated molecules encoded by the undefined sequence regions of the human transcripts, one of which was regulated upon external stimulation in human glioblastoma initiating cells. Conclusions/Significance Our result unveils an expanded diversity of the regulatory phosphoproteome defined by the human transcriptome. PMID:22912867

  9. p73 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion by directly activating POSTN (periostin) expression

    PubMed Central

    Landré, Vivien; Antonov, Alexey; Knight, Richard; Melino, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme is one of the most highly metastatic cancers and constitutes 70% of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatments these tumours have an exceptionally bad prognosis, mainly due to therapy resistance and tumour recurrence. Here we show that the transcription factor p73 confers an invasive phenotype by directly activating expression of POSTN (periostin, HGNC:16953) in glioblastoma cells. Knock down of endogenous p73 reduces invasiveness and chemo-resistance, and promotes differentiation in vitro. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays we demonstrate that POSTN, an integrin binding protein that has recently been shown to play a major role in metastasis, is a transcriptional target of TAp73. We further show that POSTN overexpression is sufficient to rescue the invasive phenotype of glioblastoma cells after p73 knock down. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis revealed that an intact p73/POSTN axis, where POSTN and p73 expression is correlated, predicts bad prognosis in several cancer types. Taken together, our results support a novel role of TAp73 in controlling glioblastoma cell invasion by regulating the expression of the matricellular protein POSTN. PMID:26930720

  10. Cytotoxic activity of interferon alpha induced dendritic cells as a biomarker of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishinov, S. V.; Stupak, V. V.; Tyrinova, T. V.; Leplina, O. Yu.; Ostanin, A. A.; Chernykh, E. R.

    2016-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells that can play direct role in anti-tumor immune response as killer cells. DC tumoricidal activity can be stimulated greatly by type I IFN (IFNα and IFNβ). In the present study, we examined cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of monocyte-derived IFNα-induced DCs generated from patients with brain glioma and evaluated the potential use of these parameters in diagnostics of high-grade gliomas. Herein, we demonstrated that patient DCs do not possess the ability to inhibit the growth of tumor HEp-2 cell line but low-grade and high-grade glioma patients do not differ significantly in DC cytostatic activity. However, glioma patient DCs are characterized by reduced cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 cells. The impairment of DC cytotoxic function is observed mainly in glioblastoma patients. The cytotoxic activity of DCs against HEp-2 cells below 9% is an informative marker for glioblastomas.

  11. Immunosuppression by hypoxic cell radiosensitizers: a phenomenon of potential clinical importance

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, S.; Kapp, D.S.

    1982-06-01

    The nitroimidazoles metronidazole, misonidazol, and desmethyl misonidazole are currently undergoing clinical trials as possible adjuncts to radiotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effectiveness of these agents and also documenting the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of radiosensitizing doses of these drugs in man. A variety of toxic effects have been noted in man, including anorexia, nausea and vomiting, peripheral neuropathy, central nervous system symptoms, ototoxicity, allergy, and fear. Laboratory studies have also suggested that these agents have potential to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. In the editorial presented, the author attempts to draw attention to an additional toxic effect of nitroimidazoles - the inhibition of cell-mediated immune responses. (JMT)

  12. Cancer stem cells: The potential of carbon ion beam radiation and new radiosensitizers (Review).

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Jae; Ishii, Hideshi; Tamari, Keisuke; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Koseki, Jun; Fukusumi, Takahito; Hasegawa, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hisataka; Hamabe, Atsushi; Miyo, Masaaki; Noguchi, Kozo; Seo, Yuji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cells in cancer with stem-like properties such as cell proliferation, multiple differentiation and tumor initiation capacities. CSCs are therapy-resistant and cause cancer metastasis and recurrence. One key issue in cancer therapy is how to target and eliminate CSCs, in order to cure cancer completely without relapse and metastasis. To target CSCs, many cell surface markers, DNAs and microRNAs are considered as CSC markers. To date, the majority of the reported markers are not very specific to CSCs and are also present in non-CSCs. However, the combination of several markers is quite valuable for identifying and targeting CSCs, although more specific identification methods are needed. While CSCs are considered as critical therapeutic targets, useful treatment methods remain to be established. Epigenetic gene regulators, microRNAs, are associated with tumor initiation and progression. MicroRNAs have been recently considered as promising therapeutic targets, which can alter the therapeutic resistance of CSCs through epigenetic modification. Moreover, carbon ion beam radiotherapy is a promising treatment for CSCs. Evidence indicates that the carbon ion beam is more effective against CSCs than the conventional X-ray beam. Combination therapies of radiosensitizing microRNAs and carbon ion beam radiotherapy may be a promising cancer strategy. This review focuses on the identification and treatment resistance of CSCs and the potential of microRNAs as new radiosensitizers and carbon ion beam radiotherapy as a promising therapeutic strategy against CSCs. PMID:26330103

  13. Identification of Novel Radiosensitizers in a High-Throughput, Cell-Based Screen for DSB Repair Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Goglia, Alexander G.; Delsite, Robert; Luz, Antonio N.; Shahbazian, David; Salem, Ahmed F.; Sundaram, Ranjini K.; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Hendrikx, Petrus J.; Wilshire, Jennifer A.; Jasin, Maria; Kluger, Harriet; Glickman, J. Fraser; Powell, Simon N.; Bindra, Ranjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Most cancer therapies involve a component of treatment which inflicts DNA damage in tumor cells, such as double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered the most serious threat to genomic integrity. Complex systems have evolved to repair these lesions, and successful DSB repair is essential for tumor cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and other DNA damaging agents. As such, inhibition of DNA repair is a potentially efficacious strategy for chemo- and radio-sensitization. Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) represent the two major pathways by DSBs are repaired in mammalian cells. Here, we report the design and execution of a high-throughput, cell-based small molecule screen for novel DSB repair inhibitors. We miniaturized our recently developed dual NHEJ and HR reporter system into a 384-well plate-based format and interrogated a diverse library of 20,000 compounds for molecules which selectively modulate NHEJ and HR repair in tumor cells. We identified a collection of novel hits which potently inhibit DSB repair, and we have validated their functional activity in comprehensive panel of orthogonal secondary assays. A selection of these inhibitors were found to radiosensitize cancer cell lines in vitro, which suggests they may be useful as novel chemo- and radio-sensitizers. Surprisingly, we identified several FDA-approved drugs, including the calcium channel blocker, mibefradil dihydrochloride, which demonstrated activity as DSB repair inhibitors and radiosensitizers. These findings suggest the possibility for repurposing them as tumor cell radiosensitizers in the future. Accordingly, we recently initiated a Phase I clinical trial testing mibefradil as glioma radiosensitizer. PMID:25512618

  14. Inhibition of PARP1-dependent end-joining contributes to Olaparib-mediated radiosensitization in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kötter, Annika; Cornils, Kerstin; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Mansour, Wael Y

    2014-12-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are considered to be optimal tools for specifically enhancing radiosensitivity. This effect has been shown to be replication-dependent and more profound in HR-deficient tumors. Here, we present a new mode of PARPi-mediated radiosensitization which was observed in four out of six HR-proficient tumor cell lines (responders) investigated, but not in normal cells. This effect is replication-independent, as the radiosensitization remained unaffected following the inhibition of replication using aphidicolin. We showed that responders are radiosensitized by Olaparib because their DSB-repair is switched to PARP1-dependent end-joining (PARP1-EJ), as evident by (i) the significant increase in the number of residual γH2AX foci following irradiation with 3Gy and treatment with Olaparib, (ii) the enhanced enrichment of PARP1 at the chromatin after 3Gy and (iii) the inhibition of end-joining activity measured by a specific reporter substrate upon Olaparib treatment. This is the first study which directly demonstrates the switch to PARP1-EJ in tumor cells and its contribution to the response to Olaparib as a radiosensitizer, findings which could widen the scope of application of PARPi in tumor therapy. PMID:25028150

  15. Inhibition of TRPM7 by carvacrol suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Liang; Barszczyk, Andrew; Turlova, Ekaterina; Deurloo, Marielle; Liu, Baosong; Yang, Burton B.; Rutka, James T.; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas are progressive brain tumors with devastating proliferative and invasive characteristics. Ion channels are the second largest target class for drug development. In this study, we investigated the effects of the TRPM7 inhibitor carvacrol on the viability, resistance to apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness of the human U87 glioblastoma cell line. The expression levels of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in U87 cells were detected by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. TRPM7 currents were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. An MTT assay was used to assess cell viability and proliferation. Wound healing and transwell experiments were used to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Protein levels of p-Akt/t-Akt, p-ERK1/2/t-ERK1/2, cleaved caspase-3, MMP-2 and phosphorylated cofilin were also detected. TRPM7 mRNA and protein expression in U87 cells is higher than in normal human astrocytes. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that carvacrol blocks recombinant TRPM7 current in HEK293 cells and endogenous TRPM7-like current in U87 cells. Carvacrol treatment reduced the viability, migration and invasion of U87 cells. Carvacrol also decreased MMP-2 protein expression and promoted the phosphorylation of cofilin. Furthermore, carvacrol inhibited the Ras/MEK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Therefore, carvacrol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glioblastomas through its inhibition of TRPM7 channels. PMID:25965832

  16. Increased betulinic acid induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Betulinic acid (BA) is a novel antineoplastic agent under evaluation for tumor therapy. Because of the selective cytotoxic effects of BA in tumor cells (including gliomas), the combination of this agent with conservative therapies (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) may be useful. Previously, the combination of BA with irradiation under hypoxic conditions had never been studied. Methods In this study, the effects of 3 to 30 μM BA on cytotoxicity, migration, the protein expression of PARP, survivin and HIF-1α, as well as radiosensitivity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were analyzed in the human malignant glioma cell lines U251MG and U343MG. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity were analyzed with clonogenic survival assays, migration was analyzed with Boyden chamber assays (or scratch assays) and protein expression was examined with Western blot analyses. Results Under normoxic conditions, a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23 μM was observed in U251MG cells and 24 μM was observed in U343MG cells. Under hypoxic conditions, 10 μM or 15 μM of BA showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in U251MG cells (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively) and U343MG cells (p < 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively). The combination of BA with radiotherapy resulted in an additive effect in the U343MG cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Weak radiation enhancement was observed in U251MG cell line after treatment with BA under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, under hypoxic conditions, the incubation with BA resulted in increased radiation enhancement. The enhancement factor, at an irradiation dose of 15 Gy after treatment with 10 or 15 μM BA, was 2.20 (p = 0.02) and 4.50 (p = 0.03), respectively. Incubation with BA led to decreased cell migration, cleavage of PARP and decreased expression levels of survivin in both cell lines. Additionally, BA treatment resulted in a reduction of HIF-1α protein under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion Our

  17. Targeting BRG1 chromatin remodeler via its bromodomain for enhanced tumor cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Su-Jung; Lee, Seul-Ki; Na, Juri; Lee, Shin-Ai; Lee, Han-Sae; Park, Ji-Hye; Chung, June-Key; Youn, Hyewon; Kwon, Jongbum

    2015-02-01

    Radiotherapy treats cancer by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in tumor cells using ionizing radiation. However, DNA repair in tumor cells often leads to radioresistance and unsuccessful outcome. Inhibition of DNA repair by targeting repair proteins can increase radiosensitivity of tumor cells. The BRG1 chromatin remodeling enzyme assists DSB repair by stimulating γ-H2AX formation and BRG1 binding to acetylated histones at DSBs via bromodomain (BRD) is critical for this activity. Here, we show that ectopic expression of BRG1-BRD inhibited γ-H2AX and DSB repair after irradiation and increased the radiosensitivity in various human cancer cells, including HT29 colon cancer. Dimerization of BRG1-BRD, increasing its chromatin binding affinity, aggravated the defects in γ-H2AX and DSB repair and further enhanced the radiosensitivity. While little affecting the upstream ATM activation, BRG1-BRD in irradiated HT29 cells inhibited the recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged chromatin, the downstream event of γ-H2AX, and compromised the G2-M checkpoint and increased apoptosis. Importantly, in a xenograft mouse model, BRG1-BRD increased the radiosensitivity of HT29 tumors, which was further enhanced by dimerization. These data suggest that BRG1-BRD radiosensitizes tumor cells by a dominant negative activity against BRG1, which disrupts γ-H2AX and its downstream 53BP1 pathways, leading to inefficient DNA repair, G2-M checkpoint defect, and increased apoptosis. This work therefore identifies BRG1-BRD as a novel tumor radiosensitizer and its action mechanism, providing the first example of chromatin remodeler as a target for improving cancer radiotherapy. PMID:25504753

  18. Antitumorigenic effect of interferon-β by inhibition of undifferentiated glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMURO, SHUN; SANO, EMIKO; OKAMOTO, YUTAKA; OCHIAI, YUSHI; OHTA, TAKASHI; OGINO, AKIYOSHI; NATSUME, ATSUSHI; WAKABAYASHI, TOSHIHIKO; UEDA, TAKUYA; HARA, HIROYUKI; NAKAYAMA, TOMOHIRO; YOSHINO, ATSUO; KATAYAMA, YOICHI

    2015-01-01

    Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are undifferentiated cells that are considered to be an origin of glioblastomas. Furthermore, they may contribute to treatment resistance and recurrence in glioblastomas. GSCs differentiate into differentiated glioma cells (non-glioma stem-like cells: non-GSCs), and interconversion might occur between GSCs and non-GSCs. We investigated whether interferon-beta (IFN-β) could exert any efficacy towards GSCs or such interconversion processes. The neural stem cell marker CD133 and pluripotency marker Nanog in GSCs were analyzed to evaluate their differentiation levels. GSCs were considered to undergo differentiation into non-GSCs upon serum exposure, since the expression of CD133 and Nanog in the GSCs was negatively affected. Furthermore, the cells regained their undifferentiated features upon removal of the serum. However, we verified that IFN-β reduced cell proliferation and tumor sphere formation in GSCs, and induced suppression of the restoration of such undifferentiated features. In addition, we also confirmed that IFN-β suppressed the acquisition process of undifferentiated features in human malignant glioma cell lines. Our data thus suggest that IFN-β could be an effective agent not only through its cell growth inhibitory effect on GSCs but also as a means of targeting the interconversion between GSCs and non-GSCs, indicating the possibility of IFN-β being used to prevent treatment resistance and recurrence in glioblastomas, via the inhibition of undifferentiated features. PMID:26397698

  19. Transcription Factor HBP1 Enhances Radiosensitivity by Inducing Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yicheng; Wang, Yueping; Yu, Yanlan; Xu, Liwei; Zhang, Youyun; Yu, Shicheng; Li, Gonghui; Zhang, Zhigeng

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for prostate cancer has been gradually carried out in recent years; however, acquired radioresistance often occurred in some patients after radiotherapy. HBP1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional inhibitor which could inhibit the expression of dozens of oncogenes. In our previous study, we showed that the expression level of HBP1 was closely related to prostate cancer metastasis and prognosis, but the relationship between HBP1 and radioresistance for prostate cancer is largely unknown. In this study, the clinical data of patients with prostate cancer was compared, and the positive correlation was revealed between prostate cancer brachytherapy efficacy and the expression level of HBP1 gene. Through research on prostate cancer cells in vitro, we found that HBP1 expression levels were negatively correlated with oncogene expression levels. Furthermore, HBP1 overexpression could sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. In addition, animal model was employed to analyze the relationship between HBP1 gene and prostate cancer radiosensitivity in vivo; the result showed that knockdown of HBP1 gene could decrease the sensitivity to radiation of xenograft. These studies identified a specific molecular mechanism underlying prostate cancer radiosensitivity, which suggested HBP1 as a novel target in prostate cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26942107

  20. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Should Be Combined With a Hypoxic Cell Radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. Martin; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tumor hypoxia on the expected level of cell killing by regimens of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and to determine the extent to which the negative effect of hypoxia could be prevented using a clinically available hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Results and Discussion: We have calculated the expected level of tumor cell killing from regimens of SABR, both with and without the assumption that 20% of the tumor cells are hypoxic, using the standard linear quadratic model and the universal survival curve modification. We compare the results obtained with our own clinical data for lung tumors of different sizes and with published data from other studies. We also have calculated the expected effect on cell survival of adding the hypoxic cell sensitizer etanidazole at clinically achievable drug concentrations. Modeling tumor cell killing with any of the currently used regimens of SABR produces results that are inconsistent with the majority of clinical findings if tumor hypoxia is not considered. However, with the assumption of tumor hypoxia, the expected level of cell killing is consistent with clinical data. For only some of the smallest tumors are the clinical data consistent with no tumor hypoxia, but there could be other reasons for the sensitivity of these tumors. The addition of etanidazole at clinically achievable tumor concentrations produces a large increase in the expected level of tumor cell killing from the large radiation doses used in SABR. Conclusions: The presence of tumor hypoxia is a major negative factor in limiting the curability of tumors by SABR at radiation doses that are tolerable to surrounding normal tissues. However, this negative effect of hypoxia could be overcome by the addition of clinically tolerable doses of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer etanidazole.

  1. Quercetin blocks t-AUCB-induced autophagy by Hsp27 and Atg7 inhibition in glioblastoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyang; Tang, Chao; Li, Liwen; Li, Rujun; Fan, Youwu

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that the acquired resistance because of Hsp27 activation weakens the cytotoxic effect of t-AUCB on glioblastoma cells. Since autophagy is regarded as a survival mechanism for cells exposed to cytotoxic agents, the aim of this study is to investigate whether t-AUCB induces autophagy and whether Hsp27 and autophagy are interacted with each other. Our data demonstrated that t-AUCB induces autophagy in glioblastoma cells and regulates multiple autophagy related-gene expression. t-AUCB induces overexpression of Atg7, which is downstream of Hsp27 and participates in the resistance of glioblastoma cells to t-AUCB treatment. Hsp27 inhibitor quercetin suppresses Atg7 expression and strengthens t-AUCB-induced cell death by autophagy blockage. We concluded that combination of quercetin and t-AUCB might be a potential strategy for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:27174198

  2. Differences in heat-induced cell killing as determined in three mammalian cell lines do not correspond with the extent of heat radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Kampinga, H H; Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Konings, A W

    1986-10-01

    Three different cell lines, Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, HeLa S3 cells and LM mouse fibroblasts, were used to investigate whether or not the extent of heat killing (44 degrees C) and heat radio-sensitization (44 degrees C before 0-6 Gy X-irradiation) are related. Although HeLa cells were the most heat-resistant cell line and showed the least heat radiosensitization, we found that the most heat-sensitive EAT cells (D0, EAT = 8.0 min; D0, LM = 10.0 min; D0, HeLa = 12.5 min) showed less radiosensitization than the more heat-resistant LM fibroblasts (TERHeLa less than TEREAT less than TERLM). Therefore, it is concluded that the routes leading to heat-induced cell death are not identical to those determining heat radiosensitization. Furthermore the inactivation of DNA polymerase alpha and beta activities by heat seemed not to correlate with heat survival alone but showed a positive relationship to heat radiosensitization. The possibility of these enzymes being a determinant in heat radiosensitization is discussed. PMID:3489689

  3. Cancer stem cells and microglia in the processes of glioblastoma multiforme invasive growth

    PubMed Central

    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor; Manzhulo, Igor; Mischenko, Polina; Milkina, Elena; Dyuizen, Inessa; Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The development of antitumor medication based on autologous stem cells is one of the most advanced methods in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. However, there are no objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of this medication on cancer stem cells (CSCs). One possible criterion could be a change in the number of microglial cells and their specific location in the tumor. The present study aimed to understand the interaction between microglial cells and CSCs in an experimental glioblastoma model. C6 glioma cells were used to create a glioblastoma model, as they have the immunophenotypic characteristics of CSCs. The glioma cells (0.2×106) were stereotactically implanted into the brains of 60 rats. On the 10th, 20th and 30th days after implantation, the animals were 15 of the animals were sacrificed, and the obtained materials were analyzed by morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. Implantation of glioma cells into the rat brains caused rapid development of tumors characterized by invasive growth, angiogenesis and a high rate of proliferation. The maximum concentration of microglia was observed in the tumor nodule between days 10 and 20; a high proliferation rate of cancer cells was also observed in this area. By day 30, necrosis advancement was observed and the maximum number of microglial cells was concentrated in the invasive area; the invasive area also exhibited positive staining for CSC marker antibodies. Microglial cells have a key role in the invasive growth processes of glioblastoma, as demonstrated by the location of CSCs in the areas of microglia maximum concentration. Therefore, the present study indicates that changes in microglia position and corresponding suppression of tumor growth may be objective criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of biomedical treatment against CSCs. PMID:27602106

  4. Unique spectral markers discern recurrent Glioblastoma cells from heterogeneous parent population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ekjot; Sahu, Aditi; Hole, Arti R.; Rajendra, Jacinth; Chaubal, Rohan; Gardi, Nilesh; Dutt, Amit; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Krishna, C. Murali; Dutt, Shilpee

    2016-01-01

    An inability to discern resistant cells from bulk tumour cell population contributes to poor prognosis in Glioblastoma. Here, we compared parent and recurrent cells generated from patient derived primary cultures and cell lines to identify their unique molecular hallmarks. Although morphologically similar, parent and recurrent cells from different samples showed variable biological properties like proliferation and radiation resistance. However, total RNA-sequencing revealed transcriptional landscape unique to parent and recurrent populations. These data suggest that global molecular differences but not individual biological phenotype could differentiate parent and recurrent cells. We demonstrate that Raman Spectroscopy a label-free, non-invasive technique, yields global information about biochemical milieu of recurrent and parent cells thus, classifying them into distinct clusters based on Principal-Component-Analysis and Principal-Component-Linear-Discriminant-Analysis. Additionally, higher lipid related spectral peaks were observed in recurrent population. Importantly, Raman spectroscopic analysis could further classify an independent set of naïve primary glioblastoma tumour tissues into non-responder and responder groups. Interestingly, spectral features from the non-responder patient samples show a considerable overlap with the in-vitro generated recurrent cells suggesting their similar biological behaviour. This feasibility study necessitates analysis of a larger cohort of naïve primary glioblastoma samples to fully envisage clinical utility of Raman spectroscopy in predicting therapeutic response. PMID:27221528

  5. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jinghui; Sun, Jiahang; Guo, Mian

    2015-05-08

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defect in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2.

  6. miR-30e Blocks Autophagy and Acts Synergistically with Proanthocyanidin for Inhibition of AVEN and BIRC6 to Increase Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Stem Cells and Glioblastoma SNB19 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor in humans. It is a heterogeneous tumor harboring glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) and other glioblastoma cells that survive and sustain tumor growth in a hypoxic environment via induction of autophagy and resistance to apoptosis. So, a therapeutic strategy to inhibit autophagy and promote apoptosis could greatly help control growth of glioblastoma. We created hypoxia using sodium sulfite (SS) for induction of substantiated autophagy in human GSC and glioblastoma SNB19 cells. Induction of autophagy was confirmed by acridine orange (AO) staining and significant increase in Beclin-1 in autophagic cells. microRNA database (miRDB) search suggested that miR-30e could suppress the autophagy marker Beclin-1 and also inhibit the caspase activation inhibitors (AVEN and BIRC6). Pro-apoptotic effect of proanthocyanidin (PAC) has not yet been explored in glioblastoma cells. Combination of 50 nM miR-30e and 150 μM PAC acted synergistically for inhibition of viability in both cells. This combination therapy most effectively altered expression of molecules for inhibition of autophagy and induced extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis through suppression of AVEN and BIRC6. Collectively, combination of miR-30e and PAC is a promising therapeutic strategy to inhibit autophagy and increase apoptosis in GSC and SNB19 cells. PMID:27388765

  7. Baicalein Inhibits MCF-7 Cell Proliferation In Vitro, Induces Radiosensitivity, and Inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor.

    PubMed

    Gade, Shruti; Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a key transcription factor responsible for imparting adaptability to the cancer cells growing in tumors. HIF induces the modulation of glucose metabolism, angiogenesis, and prosurvival signaling. Therefore, HIF is one of the attractive targets to treat solid tumors. Results presented in this study indicate that Baicalein (BA) inhibits HIF stabilization and also reduces its transcription activity in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Furthermore, BA was found to have antiproliferative ability as determined by the MTT assay and clonogenic survival. BA also induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 50 µM. We also report the radiosensitization of MCF-7 cells when they are treated with BA, resulting in higher γ-radiation-induced DNA damage. BA is extensively used in Chinese medicine and is known to be nontoxic at pharmacological doses. Our studies indicate that BA is one of the attractive natural compounds suitable for further evaluation as an adjuvant therapy. PMID:26756423

  8. A serially transplantable human giant cell glioblastoma that maintains a near-haploid stem line.

    PubMed

    Bigner, S H; Mark, J; Schold, S C; Eng, L F; Bigner, D D

    1985-10-01

    We have karyotyped a human giant cell glioblastoma removed from an 11-year-old girl and have established from it a subcutaneously transplantable line in athymic nude mice. The original tumor contained near-haploid cells with 25 or 26 chromosomes, including two copies of #1, (7 or 7p+) and #18. There were also hyperdiploid (49-52) cells that were tetraploid for these same three chromosome types; doubled versions of the hyperdiploid population were also seen. The stemline of the mouse-grown tumor was 26,X, +1, +7p+, +18 in the first passage and has remained consistently near-haploid through ten serial in vivo passages. Growth stabilization has occurred with an average latency of less than 3 months. This transplantable line is available for evaluating chemotherapeutic responsiveness of human giant cell glioblastoma and for studying near-haploidy in solid human tumors. PMID:3840409

  9. Radiosensitization of Human Leukemic HL-60 Cells by ATR Kinase Inhibitor (VE-821): Phosphoproteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Šalovská, Barbora; Fabrik, Ivo; Ďurišová, Kamila; Link, Marek; Vávrová, Jiřina; Řezáčová, Martina; Tichý, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapy are frequently used in oncology. DNA damage response (DDR)—triggered by radiation-induced double strand breaks—is orchestrated mainly by three Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs): Ataxia teleangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR). Their activation promotes cell-cycle arrest and facilitates DNA damage repair, resulting in radioresistance. Recently developed specific ATR inhibitor, VE-821 (3-amino-6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide), has been reported to have a significant radio- and chemo-sensitizing effect delimited to cancer cells (largely p53-deficient) without affecting normal cells. In this study, we employed SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics to describe the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821 in human promyelocytic leukemic cells HL-60 (p53-negative). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-prefractionation with TiO2-enrichment and nano-liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed 9834 phosphorylation sites. Proteins with differentially up-/down-regulated phosphorylation were mostly localized in the nucleus and were involved in cellular processes such as DDR, all phases of the cell cycle, and cell division. Moreover, sequence motif analysis revealed significant changes in the activities of kinases involved in these processes. Taken together, our data indicates that ATR kinase has multiple roles in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle and that its inhibitor VE-821 is a potent radiosensitizing agent for p53-negative HL-60 cells. PMID:25003641

  10. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meidanchi, Alireza; Akhavan, Omid; Khoei, Samideh; Shokri, Ali A; Hajikarimi, Zahra; Khansari, Nakisa

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of high-Z elements exhibit stronger photoelectric effects than soft tissues under gamma irradiation. Hence, they can be used as effective radiosensitizers for increasing the efficiency of current radiotherapy. In this work, superparamagnetic zinc ferrite spinel (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction method and used as radiosensitizers in cancer therapy. The magnetic nanoparticles showed fast separation from solutions (e.g., ~1 min for 2 mg mL(-1) of the nanoparticles in ethanol) by applying an external magnetic field (~1T). The ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were applied in an in vitro radiotherapy of lymph node carcinoma of prostate cells (as high radioresistant cells) under gamma irradiation of (60)Co source. The nanoparticles exhibited no significant effects on the cancer cells up to the high concentration of 100 μg mL(-1), in the absence of gamma irradiation. The gamma irradiation alone (2Gy dose) also showed no significant effects on the cells. However, gamma irradiation in the presence of 100 μg mL(-1) ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles resulted in ~53% inactivation of the cells (~17 times higher than the inactivation that occurred under gamma irradiation alone) after 24h. The higher cell inactivation was assigned to interaction of gamma radiation with nanoparticles (photoelectric effect), resulting in a high level electron release in the media of the radioresistant cells. Our results indicated that ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles not only can be applied in increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy, but also can be easily separated from the cell environment by using an external magnetic field after the radiotherapy. PMID:25492003

  11. Therapeutically engineered induced neural stem cells are tumour-homing and inhibit progression of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagó, Juli R.; Alfonso-Pecchio, Adolfo; Okolie, Onyi; Dumitru, Raluca; Rinkenbaugh, Amanda; Baldwin, Albert S.; Miller, C. Ryan; Magness, Scott T.; Hingtgen, Shawn D.

    2016-01-01

    Transdifferentiation (TD) is a recent advancement in somatic cell reprogramming. The direct conversion of TD eliminates the pluripotent intermediate state to create cells that are ideal for personalized cell therapy. Here we provide evidence that TD-derived induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) are an efficacious therapeutic strategy for brain cancer. We find that iNSCs genetically engineered with optical reporters and tumouricidal gene products retain the capacity to differentiate and induced apoptosis in co-cultured human glioblastoma cells. Time-lapse imaging shows that iNSCs are tumouritropic, homing rapidly to co-cultured glioblastoma cells and migrating extensively to distant tumour foci in the murine brain. Multimodality imaging reveals that iNSC delivery of the anticancer molecule TRAIL decreases the growth of established solid and diffuse patient-derived orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts 230- and 20-fold, respectively, while significantly prolonging the median mouse survival. These findings establish a strategy for creating autologous cell-based therapies to treat patients with aggressive forms of brain cancer. PMID:26830441

  12. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) reduces replication stress in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kig, Cenk; Beullens, Monique; Beke, Lijs; Van Eynde, Aleyde; Linders, Johannes T; Brehmer, Dirk; Bollen, Mathieu

    2013-08-16

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) belongs to the subfamily of AMP-activated Ser/Thr protein kinases. The expression of MELK is very high in glioblastoma-type brain tumors, but it is not clear how this contributes to tumor growth. Here we show that the siRNA-mediated loss of MELK in U87 MG glioblastoma cells causes a G1/S phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by cell death or a senescence-like phenotype that can be rescued by the expression of siRNA-resistant MELK. This cell cycle arrest is mediated by an increased expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and is associated with the hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and the down-regulation of E2F target genes. The increased expression of p21 can be explained by the consecutive activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), Chk2, and p53. Intriguingly, the activation of p53 in MELK-deficient cells is not due to an increased stability of p53 but stems from the loss of MDMX (mouse double minute-X), an inhibitor of p53 transactivation. The activation of the ATM-Chk2 pathway in MELK-deficient cells is associated with the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks during replication, as demonstrated by the appearance of γH2AX foci. Replication stress in these cells is also illustrated by an increased number of stalled replication forks and a reduced fork progression speed. Our data indicate that glioblastoma cells have elevated MELK protein levels to better cope with replication stress during unperturbed S phase. Hence, MELK inhibitors hold great potential for the treatment of glioblastomas as such or in combination with DNA-damaging therapies. PMID:23836907

  13. Downregulation of high mobility group box 1 modulates telomere homeostasis and increases the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shaobo; Zhou, Fuxiang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Yuehua; Gong, Jun; Mei, Zijie; Wu, Lin; Yu, Haijun; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The expression of HMGB1 mRNA and the relative telomere length were examined by real-time PCR. Radiosensitivity was detected by clonogenic assay. The protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. The telomerase activity was detected by PCR-ELISA. Proliferation ability was examined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. DNA damage foci were detected by immunofluorescence. ShRNA-mediated downregulation of HMGB1 expression increased the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells, and reduced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1. Moreover, knockdown of HMGB1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited telomerase activity and cell proliferation, while increasing the extent of apoptosis. Downregulation of HMGB1 modulated telomere homeostasis by changing the level of telomere-binding proteins, such as TPP1 (PTOP), TRF1 and TRF2. This downregulation also inhibited the ATM and ATR signaling pathways. The current data demonstrate that knockdown of HMGB1 breaks telomere homeostasis, enhances radiosensitivity, and suppresses the repair of DNA damage in human breast cancer cells. These results suggested that HMGB1 might be a potential radiotherapy target in human breast cancer. PMID:25501936

  14. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yichen; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yilong; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin.

  15. Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; DeVaney, Trevor; Zimmer, Andreas; Raynham, Tony; Ireson, Christopher; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun{sup S73} phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment. Highlights: • Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces glioma cell migration and invasion. • Part of the effects is mediated by protein kinase D2 (PRKD2) activation. • Inactivation of PRKD2 attenuates glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • Both, RNAi and pharmacological inhibition of PRKD2 inhibits MAPK

  16. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of DNA ligase 1 and non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility and radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; He, X; Yin, L; Guo, W J; Xia, Y Y; Jiang, Z X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic polymorphisms in DNA ligase 1 (LIG1) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility and radiosensitivity in a Chinese population. This was a case-control study that included 352 NSCLC patients and 448 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was conducted to detect HaeIII polymorphisms in exon 6 of the LIG1 gene in this popula-tion. This information was used to observe the effects of radiation in pa-tients with different genotypes in order to determine the genotypes as-sociated with radiosensitivity. The CC genotype and C allele frequency were significantly higher in the NSCLC group than in the control group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.023, respectively). The relative risk of experienc-ing NSCLC was 2.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.98] for CC homozygous patients and 0.87 (95%CI, 0.46-1.88) for AA homozygous patients. Analysis of LIG1 genetic polymorphisms and radiosensitiv-ity of NSCLC patients showed that AA homozygous patients were sig-nificantly more radiosensitive than the control group (AA vs AC, P = 0.014; AA vs CC, P < 0.001; AC vs CC, P = 0.023). Therefore, the LIG1 CC genotype was associated with susceptibility to NSCLC, and the AA genotype demonstrated increased radiosensitivity compared to the AC and CC genotypes. PMID:26125914

  17. Metabolic Patterns and Biotransformation Activities of Resveratrol in Human Glioblastoma Cells: Relevance with Therapeutic Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Qian; Sun, Zheng; Wu, Mo-Li; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Chong; Kong, Qing-You; Liu, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-resveratrol rather than its biotransformed monosulfate metabolite exerts anti-medulloblastoma effects by suppressing STAT3 activation. Nevertheless, its effects on human glioblastoma cells are variable due to certain unknown reason(s). Methodology/Principal Findings Citing resveratrol-sensitive UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and primarily cultured rat brain cells/PBCs as controls, the effect of resveratrol on LN-18 human glioblastoma cells and its relevance with metabolic pattern(s), brain-associated sulfotransferase/SULT expression and the statuses of STAT3 signaling and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) were elucidated by multiple experimental approaches. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of three SULTs (SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1) in human glioblastoma tumors were profiled immunohistochemically. The results revealed that 100 µM resveratrol-treated LN-18 generated the same metabolites as UW228-3 cells, while additional metabolite in molecular weight of 403.0992 in negative ion mode was found in PBCs. Neither growth arrest nor apoptosis was found in resveratrol-treated LN-18 and PBC cells. Upon resveratrol treatment, the levels of SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 expression in LN-18 cells were more up-regulated than that expressed in UW228-3 cells and close to the levels in PBCs. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 42.0%, 27.1% and 19.6% of 149 glioblastoma cases produced similar SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 levels as that of tumor-surrounding tissues. Unlike the situation in UW228-3 cells, STAT3 signaling remained activated and its protein inhibitor PIAS3 was restricted in the cytosol of resveratrol-treated LN-18 cells. No nuclear translocation of STAT3 and PIAS3 was observed in resveratrol-treated PBCs. Treatment with STAT3 chemical inhibitor, AG490, committed majority of LN-18 and UW228-3 cells but not PBCs to apoptosis within 48 hours. Conclusions/Significance LN-18 glioblastoma cells are insensitive to resveratrol due to the more inducible brain

  18. Down-regulation of HSP60 Suppresses the Proliferation of Glioblastoma Cells via the ROS/AMPK/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haiping; Li, Jin; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Guihuai; Luo, Minkui; Deng, Haiteng

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a fatal and incurable cancer with the hyper-activated mTOR pathway. HSP60, a major chaperone for maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis, is highly expressed in glioblastoma patients. To understand the effects of HSP60 on glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, we characterized the HSP60-knockdowned glioblastoma cells and revealed that HSP60 silencing markedly suppressed cell proliferation and promoted cell to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Proteomic analysis showed that ribosomal proteins were significantly downregulated whereas EMT-associated proteins were up-regulated in HSP60-knockdowned U87 cells as confirmed by a distinct enrichment pattern in newly synthesized proteins with azido-homoalanine labeling. Biochemical analysis revealed that HSP60 knockdown increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that led to AMPK activation, similarly to the complex I inhibitor rotenone-induced AMPK activation. Activated AMPK suppressed mTORC1 mediated S6K and 4EBP1 phosphorylation to decrease protein translation, which slowed down cell growth and proliferation. On the other hand, high levels of ROS in HSP60 knockdowned or rotenone-treated U87 cells contributed to EMT. These results indicate that HSP60 silencing deactivates the mTOR pathway to suppress glioblastoma progression, suggesting that HSP60 is a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:27325206

  19. The NFL-TBS.40-63 anti-glioblastoma peptide enters selectively in glioma cells by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lépinoux-Chambaud, Claire; Eyer, Joël

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and aggressive tumour of the nervous system despite surgical resection associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we showed that the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide corresponding to the sequence of a tubulin-binding site of neurofilaments, enters selectively in glioblastoma cells where it blocks microtubule polymerization, inhibits their proliferation, and reduces tumour development in rats bearing glioblastoma (Bocquet et al., 2009; Berges et al., 2012a). Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism responsible for the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells. Unlike other cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), which use a balance between endocytosis and direct translocation, the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide is unable to translocate directly through the membrane when incubated with giant plasma membrane vesicles. Then, using a panel of markers and inhibitors, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy investigations showed that the uptake occurs mainly through endocytosis. Moreover, glycosaminoglycans and αVβ3 integrins are not involved in the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide recognition and internalization by glioblastoma cells. Finally, the signalling of tyrosine kinase receptors is involved in the peptide uptake, especially via EGFR overexpressed in tumour cells, indicating that the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells is related to their abnormally high proliferative activity. PMID:23603097

  20. Transcription factor 3 controls cell proliferation and migration in glioblastoma multiforme cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiting; Li, Yinghui; Hu, Xin; Lian, Haiwei; Wang, Lei; Fu, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Transcription factor 3 (TCF3) is a member of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factor family. Recent studies have demonstrated its potential carcinogenic properties. Here we show that TCF3 was upregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues. This upregulation of the TCF3 gene probably has functional significance in brain-tumor progression. Our studies on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines show that knock-down of TCF3 induced apoptosis and inhibited cell migration. Further analysis revealed that down-regulation of TCF3 gene expression inhibits Akt and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that the carcinogenic properties of TCF3 in GBM are partially mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and MAPK-Erk signaling pathways. Considered together, the results of this study demonstrate that high levels of TCF3 in gliomas potentially promote glioma development through the Akt and Erk pathways. PMID:27105323

  1. Effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on glutathione level and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, K.; Hattori, T.; Igarashi, T.; Ueno, K.; Satoh, T.; Kitagawa, H.; Hori, H.; Shibata, T.; Inayama, S.

    1985-08-19

    A comparative study of the effect of misonidazole and novel radiosensitizers on glutathione (GSH) levels and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes was performed. Incubation of hepatocytes with 5 mM radiosensitizers led to a decrease in the intracellular GSH level. The most pronounced decrease in cellular GSH was evoked by 2,4-dinitromidazole-1-ethanol (DNIE); after incubation for only 15 min, GSH was hardly detected. DNIE-mediated GSH loss was dependent upon its concentration. DNIE reacted with GSH nonenzymatically as well as with diethylmaleate, while misonidazole and 1-methyl-2-methyl-sulfinyl-5-methoxycarbonylimidazole (KIH-3) did not. Addition of partially purified glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not enhance DNIE-mediated GSH loss in a cell-free system. DNIE inhibited glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GST, and glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activities in hepatocytes, while misonidazole and KIH-3 did not. GSH-Px activity assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate was the most inhibited. Inhibition of GSH-Px activity assayed with cumene hydroperoxide as substrate and GST was less than that of GSH-Px assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate. GSSG-R activity was decreased by DNIE, but not significantly. Incubation of purified GSH-Px with DNIE resulted in a little change in the activity when assayed with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as substrate. 26 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Puerarin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-An; Li, Ji-Qiang; Shao, Ling-Min; Yang, Qian; Liu, Bao-Hui; Wu, Ting-Feng; Wu, Peng; Yi, Wei; Chen, Qian-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin has been widely used in clinical treatment and experiment research and is considered to exert an anticancer effect recently. The present study investigated the anticancer activity of puerarin in U251 and U87 human glioblastoma cells. The cells were treated with puerarin at various concentrations for different times. Cell viability and cell proliferation were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured separately with PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method by flow cytometry. DNA damage of glioblastoma cells caused by puerarin exposure was evaluated by γ-H2AX foci detection, and the expressions of p-AKT, caspase-3 and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting after puerarin treatment. Cell viability and proliferation of glioblastoma cells treated with puerarin were significantly lower than that of the control group; the apoptosis rate increased obviously compared to the control group. Puerarin significantly decreased the proportion at G1 phase of cell cycling accompanied by increased populations at the S and G2/M phases in both cell lines. At the same time, DNA damage level of puerarin treated cells was significantly higher than that in the control cells. Moreover, puerarin treatment suppressed the expression of p-Akt and Bcl-2 and promoted the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in U251 cells. These findings indicate that puerarin exerts antitumor effects both in U251 and U87 cells. PMID:26309712

  3. Heterogeneous glioblastoma cell cross-talk promotes phenotype alterations and enhanced drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Motaln, Helena; Koren, Ana; Gruden, Kristina; Ramšak, Živa; Schichor, Christian; Lah, Tamara T

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal of brain cancer, and it comprises a heterogeneous mixture of functionally distinct cancer cells that affect tumor progression. We examined the U87, U251, and U373 malignant cell lines as in vitro models to determine the impact of cellular cross-talk on their phenotypic alterations in co-cultures. These cells were also studied at the transcriptome level, to define the mechanisms of their observed mutually affected genomic stability, proliferation, invasion and resistance to temozolomide. This is the first direct demonstration of the neural and mesenchymal molecular fingerprints of U87 and U373 cells, respectively. U87-cell conditioned medium lowered the genomic stability of U373 (U251) cells, without affecting cell proliferation. In contrast, upon exposure of U87 cells to U373 (U251) conditioned medium, U87 cells showed increased genomic stability, decreased proliferation rates and increased invasion, due to a plethora of produced cytokines identified in the co-culture media. This cross talk altered the expression 264 genes in U87 cells that are associated with proliferation, inflammation, migration, and adhesion, and 221 genes in U373 cells that are associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and migration. Indirect and direct co-culturing of U87 and U373 cells showed mutually opposite effects on temozolomide resistance. In conclusion, definition of transcriptional alterations of distinct glioblastoma cells upon co-culturing provides better understanding of the mechanisms of glioblastoma heterogeneity, which will provide the basis for more informed glioma treatment in the future. PMID:26517510

  4. Heterogeneous glioblastoma cell cross-talk promotes phenotype alterations and enhanced drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Motaln, Helena; Koren, Ana; Gruden, Kristina; Ramšak, Živa; Schichor, Christian; Lah, Tamara T.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal of brain cancer, and it comprises a heterogeneous mixture of functionally distinct cancer cells that affect tumor progression. We examined the U87, U251, and U373 malignant cell lines as in vitro models to determine the impact of cellular cross-talk on their phenotypic alterations in co-cultures. These cells were also studied at the transcriptome level, to define the mechanisms of their observed mutually affected genomic stability, proliferation, invasion and resistance to temozolomide. This is the first direct demonstration of the neural and mesenchymal molecular fingerprints of U87 and U373 cells, respectively. U87-cell conditioned medium lowered the genomic stability of U373 (U251) cells, without affecting cell proliferation. In contrast, upon exposure of U87 cells to U373 (U251) conditioned medium, U87 cells showed increased genomic stability, decreased proliferation rates and increased invasion, due to a plethora of produced cytokines identified in the co-culture media. This cross talk altered the expression 264 genes in U87 cells that are associated with proliferation, inflammation, migration, and adhesion, and 221 genes in U373 cells that are associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and migration. Indirect and direct co-culturing of U87 and U373 cells showed mutually opposite effects on temozolomide resistance. In conclusion, definition of transcriptional alterations of distinct glioblastoma cells upon co-culturing provides better understanding of the mechanisms of glioblastoma heterogeneity, which will provide the basis for more informed glioma treatment in the future. PMID:26517510

  5. Isoalantolactone Enhances the Radiosensitivity of UMSCC-10A Cells via Specific Inhibition of Erk1/2 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiehua; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Lihua; Liu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radiotherapy is one of the mainstream approaches for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), this cancer is always associated with resistance to radiation. In this study, the mechanism of action of isoalantolactone as well as its radiosensitizing effect was investigated in UMSCC-10A cells. Methods The radiosensitization of UMSCC-10A cells treated with isoalantolactone was analyzed by colony formation assay. The radiosensitization effects of isoalantolactone on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were examined by BrdU incorporation assay, DNA content assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed to determine the effects of isoalantolactone combined with radiation on the protein expression of Mek, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) as well as phosphorylated Mek and Erk1/2. Erk1/2 knockdown by siRNA was used to confirm that isoalantolactone specifically inhibited the activation of Erk1/2 signaling pathway in UMSCC-10A cells. Results Isoalantolactone enhanced the radiosensitivity of UMSCC-10A cells; the sensitivity enhanced ratios (SERs) were 1.44 and 1.63, respectively, for 2.5 and 5 μM. Moreover, isoalantolactone enhanced radiation-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis and cell cycle arrested at G2/M phase. Furthermore, no marked changes were observed in the expression of total Erk1/2 and Mek protein after radiation treatment. However, isoalantolactone was significantly reduced radiation-induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, whereas it altered the phosphorylation of Mek to a lesser extent. In addition, the radiosensitivity of UMSCC-10A cells with Erk1/2 knockdown was increased. Isoalantolactone cannot further prevent the proliferation of UMSCC-10A cells with Erk1/2 knockdown which other mechanism regulated cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results suggested that isoalantolactone enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrested and reduced the cell

  6. Do Increased Doses to Stem-Cell Niches during Radiation Therapy Improve Glioblastoma Survival?

    PubMed Central

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Harrabi, Semi Ben; Mohr, Angela; Rieber, Juliane; Rieken, Stefan; Debus, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The reasons for the inevitable glioblastoma recurrence are yet understood. However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. We aimed to analyze the effect of higher radiation doses to the stem-cell niches on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-five patients with primary glioblastoma treated with radiation therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. The SVZ and DG were segmented on treatment planning magnetic resonance imaging, and the dose distributions to the structures were calculated. The relationship of dosimetry data and survival was evaluated using the Cox regression analysis. Results. Conventionally fractionated patients (n = 54) who received higher doses (Dmean ≥ 40 Gy) to the IL SVZ showed improved PFS (8.5 versus 5.2 months; p = 0.013). Furthermore, higher doses (Dmean ≥ 30 Gy) to the CL SVZ were associated with increased PFS (10.1 versus 6.9 months; p = 0.025). Conclusion. Moderate higher IL SVZ doses (≥40 Gy) and CL SVZ doses (≥30 Gy) are associated with improved PFS. Higher doses to the DG, the second stem-cell niche, did not influence the survival. Targeting the potential cancer stem cells in the SVZ might be a promising treatment approach for glioblastoma and should be addressed in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:27429623

  7. Dimethoxycurcumin, a metabolically stable analogue of curcumin enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells: Possible involvement of ROS and thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Sundarraj; Patwardhan, R S; Pal, Debojyoti; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-09-01

    Dimethoxycurcumin (DIMC), a structural analogue of curcumin, has been shown to have more stability, bioavailability, and effectiveness than its parent molecule curcumin. In this paper the radiosensitizing effect of DIMC has been investigated in A549 lung cancer cells. As compared to its parent molecule curcumin, DIMC showed a very potent radiosensitizing effect as seen by clonogenic survival assay. DIMC in combination with radiation significantly increased the apoptosis and mitotic death in A549 cells. This combinatorial treatment also lead to effective elimination of cancer stem cells. Further, there was a significant increase in cellular ROS, decrease in GSH to GSSG ratio and also significant slowdown in DNA repair when DIMC was combined with radiation. In silico docking studies and in vitro studies showed inhibition of thioredoxin reductase enzyme by DIMC. Overexpression of thioredoxin lead to the abrogation of radiosensitizing effect of DIMC underscoring the role of thioredoxin reductase in radiosensitization. Our results clearly demonstrate that DIMC can synergistically enhance the cancer cell killing when combined with radiation by targeting thioredoxin system. PMID:27381867

  8. HDAC inhibition radiosensitizes human normal tissue cells and reduces DNA Double-Strand Break repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Purrucker, Jan C; Fricke, Andreas; Ong, Mei Fang; Rübe, Christian; Rübe, Claudia E; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are gaining increasing attention in the treatment of cancer, particularly in view of their therapeutic effectiveness and assumed mild toxicity profile. While numerous studies have investigated the role of HDACi in tumor cells, little is known about their effects on normal tissue cells. We studied the effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), MS275, sodium-butyrate and valproic acid in healthy human fibroblasts and found HDACi-treatment to go along with increased radiosensitivity and reduced DSB repair capacity. In view of the potential genotoxic effects of HDACi-treatment, particularly when being administered long-term for chronic disease or when given to children, to women of childbearing age or their partners or in combination with radiotherapy, an extensive education of patients and prescribing physicians as well as a stringent definition of clinical indications is urgently required. PMID:19956891

  9. Equine Herpesvirus Type 1-Mediated Oncolysis of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    PubMed Central

    Courchesne, Michael J.; White, Maria C.; Stanfield, Brent A.

    2012-01-01

    The cytolytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was evaluated for its oncolytic potential against five human glioblastoma cell lines. EHV-1 productively infected four of these cell lines, and the degree of infection was positively correlated with glioma cell death. No human major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-I) was detected in the resistant glioma line, while infection of the susceptible glioma cell lines, which expressed human MHC-I, were blocked with antibody to MHC-I, indicating that human MHC-I acts as an EHV-1 entry receptor on glioma cells. PMID:22205738

  10. A chemo-resistant protein expression pattern of glioblastoma cells (A172) to perillyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Juliana de Saldanha da Gama; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fonseca, Clovis Orlando da; Liao, Lujian; Degrave, Wim M; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria da Costa; Yates, John R; Domont, Gilberto B

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is by far the most malignant glioma. We have introduced a new treatment for GBMs that comprises the inhalation of a naturally occurring terpene with chemotherapeutic properties known as perillyl alcohol (POH). Clinical trial results on recurrent GBM patients showed that POH extends the average life by more than eight months, temporarily slows tumor growth, and in some cases even decreases tumor size. After approximately seven months the tumor continues to grow and leads to a dismal prognosis. To investigate how these tumors become resistant to POH we generated an A172 human glioblastoma cell culture tolerant to 0.06 mM of POH (A172r). We used Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to compare the protein expression profile of A172r cells to the established glioblastoma A172 cell line. Our results include a list of identified proteins unique to either the resistant or the non-resistant cell line. These proteins are related to cellular growth, negative apoptosis regulation, Ras pathway, and other key cellular functions that could be connected to the underlying mechanisms of resistance. PMID:20806975

  11. Identification of key genes in glioblastoma-associated stromal cells using bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHENGYONG; SUN, CHONG; TANG, DONG; YANG, GUANGCHENG; ZHOU, XUANJUN; WANG, DONGHAI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify key genes and pathways in glioblastoma-associated stromal cells (GASCs) using bioinformatics. The expression profile of microarray GSE24100 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included the expression profile of 4 GASC samples and 3 control stromal cell samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using limma software in R language, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. In addition, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Subsequently, a sub-network was constructed to obtain additional information on genes identified in the PPI network using CFinder software. In total, 502 DEGs were identified in GASCs, including 331 upregulated genes and 171 downregulated genes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin A2, mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase (BUB1), cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and transcription factor breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) were identified from the PPI network, and sub-networks revealed these genes as hub genes that were involved in significant pathways, including mitotic, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways. In conclusion, CDK1, BUB1, CDC20, PLK1 and BRCA1 may be key genes that are involved in significant pathways associated with glioblastoma. This information may lead to the identification of the mechanism of glioblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:27313730

  12. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 1 suppresses the proliferation of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tetsuya; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a minor subset of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Therefore, the characterization of CSCs is important for developing therapeutic strategies against cancer. Cancer cells rely on anaerobic glycolysis to produce ATP even under normoxic conditions, resulting in the generation of excess acidic substances. Cancer cells maintain a weakly alkaline intracellular pH to support functions. Glioblastoma is an aggressive malignancy with a poor 5-year survival rate. Based on the hypothesis that ion transport-related molecules regulate the viability and function of CSCs, we investigated the expression of ion transport-related molecules in glioblastoma CSCs (GSCs). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that monocarboxylate transporter1 (MCT1) were upregulated in GSCs, and inhibition of MCT1 decreased the viability of GSCs compared with that of non-GSCs. Our findings indicate that MCT1 is involved in the maintenance of GSCs and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. PMID:26902636

  13. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  14. Radiosensitizing effect of gold nanoparticles in carbon ion irradiation of human cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Harminder; Avasthi, D. K.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2013-07-18

    Noble metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in biotechnology for their role in bio sensing due to surface plasmon resonance, medical diagnostics due to better imaging contrast and therapy. The radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has been gaining popularity in radiation therapy of cancer cells. The better depth dose profile of energetic ion beam proves its superiority over gamma radiation for fighting against cancer. In the present work, the glucose capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-AuNP) were synthesised and internalized in the HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells confirmed the internalization of Glu-AuNPs. Control HeLa cells and Glu-AuNp treated HeLa cells were irradiated at different doses of 62 MeV 12C ion beam (LET - 290keV/{mu}m) at BIO beam line of using 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The survival fraction was assessed by colony forming assay which revealed that the dose of carbon ion for 90% cell killing in Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells and control HeLa cells are 2.3 and 3.2 Gy respectively. This observation shows {approx} 28% reduction of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion dose for Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells as compared to control HeLa cells.

  15. Radiosensitizing effect of gold nanoparticles in carbon ion irradiation of human cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harminder; Avasthi, D. K.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2013-07-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in biotechnology for their role in bio sensing due to surface plasmon resonance, medical diagnostics due to better imaging contrast and therapy. The radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has been gaining popularity in radiation therapy of cancer cells. The better depth dose profile of energetic ion beam proves its superiority over gamma radiation for fighting against cancer. In the present work, the glucose capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-AuNP) were synthesised and internalized in the HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells confirmed the internalization of Glu-AuNPs. Control HeLa cells and Glu-AuNp treated HeLa cells were irradiated at different doses of 62 MeV 12C ion beam (LET - 290keV/μm) at BIO beam line of using 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The survival fraction was assessed by colony forming assay which revealed that the dose of carbon ion for 90% cell killing in Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells and control HeLa cells are 2.3 and 3.2 Gy respectively. This observation shows ˜ 28% reduction of 12C6+ ion dose for Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells as compared to control HeLa cells.

  16. Neural stem cells, the subventricular zone and radiotherapy: implications for treating glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew W; Mehta, Minesh P; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, advances in neuroscience have suggested that neural stem cells resident in specific regions of the adult brain may be involved in development of both primary and recurrent glioblastoma. Neurogenesis and malignant transformation occurs in the subventricular zone adjacent to the lateral ventricles. This region holds promise as a potential target for therapeutic intervention with radiotherapy. However, irradiation of a larger brain volume is not without risk, and significant side effects have been observed. The current literature remains contradictory regarding the efficacy of deliberate intervention with radiation to the subventricular zone. This critical review discusses the connection between neural stem cells and development of glioblastoma, explores the behavior of tumors associated with the subventricular zone, summarizes the discordant literature with respect to the effects of irradiation, and reviews other targeted therapies to this intriguing region. PMID:27108274

  17. Molecular mechanisms of the effect of TGF-β1 on U87 human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor; Shevchenko, Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most widespread and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. The prognosis following diagnosis with GBM is poor, with a median survival time of 14 months. Tumor cell invasion, metastasis and proliferation are the major causes of mortality in patients with GBM. In order to develop effective GBM treatment methods it is necessary to identify novel targets involved in these processes. Recently, there has been increasing interest in investigating the signaling pathways involved in GBM development, and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is understood to be significant for regulating the behavior of GBM, as well as stimulating its invasion and metastatic development. Particular interest has been given to investigating the modulation of TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); during this process, epithelial cells transdifferentiate into mobile cells with a mesenchymal phenotype. The induction of EMT increases the invasiveness of various types of carcinoma; however, the role of TGF-β in this process remains to be elucidated, particularly in the case of GBM. The current study presents a comparative proteome mapping of the U87 human glioblastoma cell line, with and without TGF-β1 treatment. Proteome analysis identified numerous proteins involved in the molecular mechanisms of GBM oncogenesis and TGF-β1 signaling in glioblastoma. The results of the present study facilitated the identification of novel potential markers of metastasis and candidates for targeted glioblastoma therapy, which may potentially be validated and used in clinical medicine to develop improved approaches for GBM diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27446475

  18. Chemosensitization and radiosensitization of a lung cancer cell line A549 induced by a composite polymer micelle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Li, Xiang-Long; Xu, Wen-Hong; Zhou, Juan; Shen, Li; Wei, Qi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to Doxorubicin (DOX) remains a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. The present study sought to overcome the MDR of lung cancer cells and achieve radiosensitization by developing a composite DOX-loaded micelle (M-DOX). M-DOX containing PEG-PCL/Pluronic P105 was prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Lung cancer cell line A549 was adopted in this study. In vitro cytotoxicity, cellular uptake behavior, subcellular distribution, and radiosensitivity were evaluated by the treatment with M-DOX, and free DOX was used as a control. A549 cells treated with M-DOX as opposed to free DOX showed greater cellular uptake as well as greater cytotoxicity. Furthermore, M-DOX reached the mitochondria and lysosome effectively after cellular uptake, and fluorescence used to track M-DOX was found to be surrounding the nucleus. Finally, colony-forming assays demonstrated that M-DOX treatment improved radiosensitization when compared to free DOX. Based on the increased cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, M-DOX could be considered as a promising drug delivery system to overcome MDR in lung cancer therapy. PMID:27585226

  19. Registered report: Tumour vascularization via endothelial differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Chroscinski, Denise; Sampey, Darryl; Maherali, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Tumour vascularization via endothelial differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells’ by Ricci-Vitiani and colleagues, published in Nature in 2010 (Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2010). The experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figure 4B and Supplementary Figure 10B (Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2010), which demonstrate that glioblastoma stem-like cells can derive into endothelial cells, and can be selectively ablated to reduce tumor progression in vivo, and Supplementary Figures S10C and S10D (Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2010), which demonstrate that fully differentiated glioblastoma cells cannot form functionally relevant endothelium. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04363.001 PMID:25714925

  20. Cell cycle progression in glioblastoma cells is unaffected by pathophysiological levels of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Rosalie; Jenkinson, Michael D.; Haylock, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with the increased malignancy of a broad range of solid tumours. While very severe hypoxia has been widely shown to induce cell cycle arrest, the impact of pathophysiological hypoxia on tumour cell proliferation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different oxygen levels on glioblastoma (GBM) cell proliferation and survival. GBM is an extremely aggressive brain tumour with a heterogeneous oxygenation pattern. The effects of a range of oxygen tensions on GBM cell lines and primary cells were assessed using flow cytometry. Results indicate that cell cycle distribution and viability are unaffected by long term exposure (24–96 h) to pathophysiological levels of oxygen (1–8% O2). Both transient cell cycle arrest and small amounts of cell death could only be detected when cells were exposed to severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). No significant changes in p21 protein expression levels were detected. These findings reinforce the importance of using physiologically relevant oxygen tensions when investigating tumour hypoxia, and help to explain how solid tumours can be both hypoxic and highly proliferative, as is the case with GBM. PMID:26966676

  1. Radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima

    2003-12-01

    Around 12,000 deaths from glioblastoma occurs within the European Community annually. At present, the best available treatment for malignant brain tumors results in a median survival of patients of 15 months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to review our results of radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  2. The involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in eugenol-induced cell death in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol, a natural phenolic constituent of clove oil, has a wide range of applications in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. However, the effect of eugenol on human glioblastoma is unclear. This study examined whether eugenol elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) and induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. Eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises which were reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises were not altered by store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers but were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonist capsazepine. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly inhibited eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Eugenol killed cells which were not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Eugenol induced apoptosis through increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9/caspase-3. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells, eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused Ca(2+) influx possibly through TRPM8 or PKC-sensitive channels. Furthermore, eugenol induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:25455450

  3. Correlation between radiosensitivity, percentage hypoxic cells and pO2 measurements in one rodent and two human tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C D; Chavaudra, N; Martin, L; Guichard, M

    1994-07-01

    Computerized pO2 histography has been used to measure the intratumor pO2 in patients for the past few years, and there is now evidence that these tumors contain hypoxic cells. One of the major questions that remains to be answered is the relevance of such data to radiosensitivity. The present study looks for a correlation between intratumor pO2, the percentage of hypoxic cells in the tumor and the radiosensitization induced by carbogen and/or the oxygen carrier, perflubron emulsion. Two human tumor xenografts (HRT18, Na11+) and one rodent tumor (EMT6) were used. The radiosensitivity (clonogenic assay) and the oxygen tension (computerized pO2 histography) were measured. All experiments were performed under similar conditions. Carbogen increased tumor radiosensitivity; sensitization was greatest when 4 ml/kg perflubron emulsion was used in conjunction with carbogen. The pO2 distribution was shifted to higher pO2 values in the tumors whatever the treatment; the shift was greater for perflubron emulsion plus carbogen. The low pO2 values (< 0.4 kPa) were lost for the HRT18 cells. A correlation (EMT6, HRT18) or a link (Na11+) between the radiosensitization and the oxygen tension measurements was found for values below 1.07 or 1.33 kPa. A trend between the percentage of hypoxic cells and pO2 measurements was found taking into account pO2 measurements comprised between 0.27 and 0.67 kPa. PMID:8016297

  4. Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kast, Richard E; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal

    2009-12-01

    Strong expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase is a prominent feature of both normal and cancer stem cells, including the stem cell sub-population of glioblastoma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase function is used by cancer stem cells to repopulate a tumor mass after chemotherapy cytoreduction. Cancer stem cells tend to be chemotherapy compared to the non-stem cell majority cell population in several common human cancers. Such has been demonstrated specifically in glioblastoma. In normal hematopoietic stem cells with unimpaired high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cells divide rarely and then asymmetrically to a daughter stem cell and a daughter cell on a path of differentiation or symmetrically with both daughter cells on a differentiated path. If a parallel situation obtains in glioblastoma stem cells, the migrating, far flung paucicellular extensions will be stem cell rich and use aldehyde dehydrogenase to generate the characteristic multiple metastases made up of mostly non-stem cells. With inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cell division to non-stem daughter cells tends to become blocked. We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy. If GBM stem cell function can be thwarted by potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition, they will be less able to regenerate a stem cell derived tumor mass after primary resection or chemotherapy. PMID:19500061

  5. The temporal organization of processes of cell reproduction and its connection with rhythms of radiosensitivity of the body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druzhinin, Y. P.; Romanov, Y. A.; Vatsek, A.

    1974-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of individual phases of the mitotic cycle was studied in synchronous cell cultures and in several biological objects. It was found that radiosensitivity changed essentially according to phases of the mitotic cycle, depending on the kind of cells, evaluation criteria and the radiation dosage. Tests on partially synchronized HeLa cell populations, according to the criterion of survival, showed them most sensitive during mitosis, as well as in later G sub 1- or early DNA-synthesizing stages. With radiation in doses of 300 rad, the proportion of surviving cells showed a sensitivity directly before DNA synthesis of approximately 4 times higher than the later S-phase and during the major portion of G sub 1- and G sub 2-periods. Sensitivity of cells in mitosis was approximately 3 times higher than in late G sub 1- and early S-phases.

  6. Knocking Down Nucleolin Expression Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Influencing DNA-PKcs Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Yu; Lu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Ying; Hu, Song-Liu; Li, Bin; Qi, Rui-Xue; Chen, Lin; Chang, Joe Y

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin (C23) is an important anti-apoptotic protein that is ubiquitously expressed in exponentially growing eukaryotic cells. In order to understand the impact of C23 in radiation therapy, we attempted to investigate the relationship of C23 expression with the radiosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We investigated the role of C23 in activating the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA- PKcs), which is a critical protein for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair. As a result, we found that the expression of C23 was negatively correlated with the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cell lines. In vitro clonogenic survival assays revealed that C23 knockdown increased the radiosensitivity of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, potentially through the promotion of radiation-induced apoptosis and adjusting the cell cycle to a more radiosensitive stage. Immunofluorescence data revealed an increasing quantity of γ-H2AX foci and decreasing radiation-induced DNA damage repair following knockdown of C23. To further clarify the mechanism of C23 in DNA DSBs repair, we detected the expression of DNA-PKcs and C23 proteins in NSCLC cell lines. C23 might participate in DNA DSBs repair for the reason that the expression of DNA-PKcs decreased at 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes after irradiation in C23 knockdown cells. Especially, the activity of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation sites at the S2056 and T2609 was significantly suppressed. Therefore we concluded that C23 knockdown can inhibit DNA-PKcs phosphorylation activity at the S2056 and T2609 sites, thus reducing the radiation damage repair and increasing the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. Taken together, the inhibition of C23 expression was shown to increase the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells, as implied by the relevance to the notably decreased DNA-PKcs phosphorylation activity at the S2056 and T2609 clusters. Further research on targeted C23 treatment may promote effectiveness of radiotherapy

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in Cobalt-60 irradiated human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gnanada S; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2014-12-01

    The dose-effect relationships of cells exposed to ionizing radiation are frequently described by linear quadratic (LQ) models over an extended dose range. However, many mammalian cell lines, when acutely irradiated in G2 at doses ≤0.3Gy, show hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) as measured by reduced clonogenic cell survival, thereby indicating greater cell lethality than is predicted by extrapolation from high-dose responses. We therefore hypothesized that the cytogenetic response in G2 cells to low doses would also be steeper than predicted by LQ extrapolation from high doses. We tested our hypothesis by exposing four normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines to 0-400cGy of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay was used to determine the frequencies of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. To characterize the dependence of the cytogenetic damage on dose, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare the responses in the low- (HRS) and high-dose response regions. Our data indicate that the slope of the response for all four cell lines at ≤20cGy during G2 is greater than predicted by an LQ extrapolation from the high-dose responses for both micronuclei and bridges. These results suggest that the biological consequences of low-dose exposures could be underestimated and may not provide accurate risk assessments following such exposures. PMID:25771872

  8. Single cell-derived clonal analysis of human glioblastoma links functional and genomic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Mona; Reimand, Jüri; Lan, Xiaoyang; Head, Renee; Zhu, Xueming; Kushida, Michelle; Bayani, Jane; Pressey, Jessica C.; Lionel, Anath C.; Clarke, Ian D.; Cusimano, Michael; Squire, Jeremy A.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bernstein, Mark; Woodin, Melanie A.; Bader, Gary D.; Dirks, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a cancer comprised of morphologically, genetically, and phenotypically diverse cells. However, an understanding of the functional significance of intratumoral heterogeneity is lacking. We devised a method to isolate and functionally profile tumorigenic clones from patient glioblastoma samples. Individual clones demonstrated unique proliferation and differentiation abilities. Importantly, naïve patient tumors included clones that were temozolomide resistant, indicating that resistance to conventional GBM therapy can preexist in untreated tumors at a clonal level. Further, candidate therapies for resistant clones were detected with clone-specific drug screening. Genomic analyses revealed genes and pathways that associate with specific functional behavior of single clones. Our results suggest that functional clonal profiling used to identify tumorigenic and drug-resistant tumor clones will lead to the discovery of new GBM clone-specific treatment strategies. PMID:25561528

  9. The role of glioma stem cells in chemotherapy resistance and glioblastoma multiforme recurrence.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Brenda; Spencer, Drew; Pytel, Peter; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a slow-dividing, small population within a heterogeneous glioblastoma. They are able to self-renew, recapitulate a whole tumor, and differentiate into other specific glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) subpopulations. Therefore, they have been held responsible for malignant relapse after primary standard therapy and the poor prognosis of recurrent GBM. The failure of current therapies to eliminate specific GSC subpopulations has been considered a major factor contributing to the inevitable recurrence in GBM patients after treatment. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of GSCs and the reasons why complete eradication of GSCs is so difficult to achieve. We will also describe the targeted therapies currently available for GSCs and possible mechanisms to overcome such chemoresistance and avoid therapeutic relapse. PMID:26027432

  10. PI3K/Akt and Stat3 signaling regulated by PTEN control of the cancer stem cell population, proliferation and senescence in a glioblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok-Ho; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Cha, Young; Jeon, Iksoo; Song, Jihwan; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2013-03-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults. A number of genes have been implicated in glioblastoma including mutation and deletion of PTEN. PTEN is a regulator of PI3K-mediated Akt signaling pathways and has been recognized as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma. To achieve potent therapeutic inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway in glioblastoma, it is essential to understand the interplay between the regulators of its activation. Here, ectopic expression of PTEN in the U-87MG human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line is shown to result in the depletion of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and to cause growth retardation and senescence. These effects are likely to be associated with PTEN-mediated cooperative perturbation of Akt and Stat3 signals. Using an in vivo rat model of glioblastoma, we showed that PTEN-overexpressing U-87MG cells failed to induce tumor formation, while untreated U-87MG cells did so. Furthermore, cells expressing the phosphorylated form of Stat3 were completely absent from the brain of rats implanted with PTEN-overexpressing U-87MG cells. Based on these results, PTEN appears to function as a crucial inhibitor of GSCs and as an inducer of senescence, suggesting that functional enhancement of the PTEN pathway will be useful to provide a therapeutic strategy for targeting glioblastoma. PMID:23314408

  11. Inhibition of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 in in vitro cultured human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Said, Harun M; Polat, Buelent; Stein, Susanne; Guckenberger, Mathias; Hagemann, Carsten; Staab, Adrian; Katzer, Astrid; Anacker, Jelena; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study short dsRNA oligonucleotides (siRNA) as a potent tool for artificially modulating gene expression of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene induced under different physiological conditions (Normoxia and hypoxia) modulating NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. METHODS: A cell line established from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Plasmid DNA for transfections was prepared with the Endofree Plasmid Maxi kit. From plates containing 5 × 107 cells, nuclear extracts were prepared according to previous protocols. The pSUPER-NDRG1 vectors were designed, two sequences were selected from the human NDRG1 cDNA (5’-GCATTATTGGCATGGGAAC-3’ and 5’-ATGCAGAGTAACGTGGAAG-3’. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers designed using published information on β-actin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA sequences in GenBank. NDRG1 mRNA and protein level expression results under different conditions of hypoxia or reoxygenation were compared to aerobic control conditions using the Mann-Whitney U test. Reoxygenation values were also compared to the NDRG1 levels after 24 h of hypoxia (P < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: siRNA- and iodoacetate (IAA)-mediated downregulation of NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro in human glioblastoma cell lines showed a nearly complete inhibition of NDRG1 expression when compared to the results obtained due to the inhibitory role of glycolysis inhibitor IAA. Hypoxia responsive elements bound by nuclear HIF-1 in human glioblastoma cells in vitro under different oxygenation conditions and the clearly enhanced binding of nuclear extracts from glioblastoma cell samples exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions confirmed the HIF-1 Western blotting results. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 represents an additional diagnostic marker for brain tumor detection, due to the role of hypoxia in regulating this gene, and it can represent a potential target for tumor treatment in human

  12. Acquired resistance to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Sharp, Swee Y; Pacey, Simon; Jones, Chris; Walton, Michael; Vassal, Gilles; Eccles, Suzanne; Pearson, Andrew; Workman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    HSP90 inhibitors, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) which is currently in phase II/III clinical trials, are promising new anticancer agents. Here, we explored acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors in glioblastoma, a primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Glioblastoma cells were exposed continuously to increased 17-AAG concentrations. Four 17-AAG-resistant glioblastoma cell lines were generated. High resistance levels with resistance indices (RI=resistant line IC50/parental line IC50) of 20-137 were obtained rapidly (2-8 weeks). After cessation of 17-AAG exposure, RI decreased and then stabilised. Cross-resistance was found with other ansamycin benzoquinones but not with the structurally unrelated HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol, the purine BIIB021 and the resorcinylic pyrazole/isoxazole amide compounds VER-49009, VER-50589, and NVP-AUY922. An inverse correlation between NQO1 expression/activity and 17-AAG IC50 was observed in the resistant lines. The NQO1 inhibitor ES936 abrogated the differential effects of 17-AAG sensitivity between the parental and resistant lines. NQO1 mRNA levels and NQO1 DNA polymorphism analysis indicated different underlying mechanisms: reduced expression and selection of the inactive NQO1*2 polymorphism. Decreased NQO1 expression was also observed in a melanoma line with acquired resistance to 17-AAG. No resistance was generated with VER-50589 and NVP-AUY922. In conclusion, low NQO1 activity is a likely mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-AAG in glioblastoma, melanoma and possibly other tumor types. Such resistance can be overcome with novel HSP90 inhibitors. PMID:19244114

  13. ROCK Inhibition Facilitates In Vitro Expansion of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, Samantha G.; Haley, Elizabeth M.; Triantafillu, Ursula L.; Dozier, David A.; Langford, Catherine P.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Kim, Yonghyun

    2015-01-01

    Due to their stem-like characteristics and their resistance to existing chemo- and radiation therapies, there is a growing appreciation that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the root cause behind cancer metastasis and recurrence. However, these cells represent a small subpopulation of cancer cells and are difficult to propagate in vitro. Glioblastoma is an extremely deadly form of brain cancer that is hypothesized to have a subpopulation of CSCs called glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs; also called brain tumor initiating cells, BTICs). We propose the use of selective Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors, Y-27632 and fasudil, to promote GSC/BTIC-like cell survival and propagation in vitro. ROCK inhibitors have been implicated in suppressing apoptosis, and it was hypothesized that they would increase the number of GSC/BTIC-like cells grown in vitro and improve cloning efficiencies. Indeed, our data demonstrate that transient and continuous supplementation of non-toxic concentrations of Y-27632 and fasudil inhibited apoptosis, enhanced the cells’ ability to form spheres, and increased stem cell marker expressing GSC/BTIC-like cell subpopulation. Our data indicated that pharmacological and genetic (siRNA) inhibitions of the ROCK pathway facilitates in vitro expansion of GSC/BTIC-like cells. Thus, ROCK pathway inhibition shows promise for future optimization of CSC culture media. PMID:26167936

  14. CAR-Engineered NK Cells Targeting Wild-Type EGFR and EGFRvIII Enhance Killing of Glioblastoma and Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jianfeng; Chu, Jianhong; Keung Chan, Wing; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Youwei; Cohen, Justus B.; Victor, Aaron; Meisen, Walter H.; Kim, Sung-hak; Grandi, Paola; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Nakano, Ichiro; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Glorioso III, Joseph C.; Kaur, Balveen; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Yu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) remains the most aggressive primary brain malignancy. Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells has emerged as a promising anti-cancer approach, yet the potential utility of CAR-engineered natural killer (NK) cells to treat GB has not been explored. Tumors from approximately 50% of GB patients express wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) and in fewer cases express both wtEGFR and the mutant form EGFRvIII; however, previously reported CAR T cell studies only focus on targeting EGFRvIII. Here we explore whether both wtEGFR and EGFRvIII can be effectively targeted by CAR-redirected NK cells to treat GB. We transduced human NK cell lines NK-92 and NKL, and primary NK cells with a lentiviral construct harboring a second generation CAR targeting both wtEGFR and EGFRvIII and evaluated the anti-GB efficacy of EGFR-CAR-modified NK cells. EGFR-CAR-engineered NK cells displayed enhanced cytolytic capability and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with GB cells or patient-derived GB stem cells in an EGFR-dependent manner. In two orthotopic GB xenograft mouse models, intracranial administration of NK-92-EGFR-CAR cells resulted in efficient suppression of tumor growth and significantly prolonged the tumor-bearing mice survival. These findings support intracranial administration of NK-92-EGFR-CAR cells represents a promising clinical strategy to treat GB. PMID:26155832

  15. Transfer of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles from human brain-derived endothelial cells to human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Halamoda Kenzaoui, Blanka; Angeloni, Silvia; Overstolz, Thomas; Niedermann, Philippe; Chapuis Bernasconi, Catherine; Liley, Martha; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used or explored for the development of biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, including imaging and drug delivery. Therefore, reliable tools are needed to study the behavior of NPs in biological environment, in particular the transport of NPs across biological barriers, including the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB), a challenging question. Previous studies have addressed the translocation of NPs of various compositions across cell layers, mostly using only one type of cells. Using a coculture model of the human BBTB, consisting in human cerebral endothelial cells preloaded with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO NPs) and unloaded human glioblastoma cells grown on each side of newly developed ultrathin permeable silicon nitride supports as a model of the human BBTB, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of USPIO NPs from human brain-derived endothelial cells to glioblastoma cells. The reduced thickness of the permeable mechanical support compares better than commercially available polymeric supports to the thickness of the basement membrane of the cerebral vascular system. These results are the first report supporting the possibility that USPIO NPs could be directly transferred from endothelial cells to glioblastoma cells across a BBTB. Thus, the use of such ultrathin porous supports provides a new in vitro approach to study the delivery of nanotherapeutics to brain cancers. Our results also suggest a novel possibility for nanoparticles to deliver therapeutics to the brain using endothelial to neural cells transfer. PMID:23578059

  16. Modeling invasion of brain tissue by glioblastoma cells: ECM alignment and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    A key stage in the development of highly malignant brain tumors (Glioblastoma Multiforme) is invasion of normal brain tissue by motile cells moving through a crowded, complex environment. Evidence from in vitro experiments suggests the cell motion is accompanied by considerable deformation and alignment of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of the brain. In the case of breast cancer, alignment effects of this sort have been seen in vivo. We have modeled features of this system including stress confinement in the non-linear elasticity of the ECM and contact guidance of the cell motion.

  17. Nanoparticle-programmed self-destructive neural stem cells for glioblastoma targeting and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Tobias, Alex; Auffinger, Brenda; Wainwright, Derek A; Zhang, Lingjiao; Yunis, Catherine; Han, Yu; Chen, Chin-Tu; Lo, Leu-Wei; Aboody, Karen S; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-12-20

    A 3-step glioblastoma-tropic delivery and therapy method using nanoparticle programmed self-destructive neural stem cells (NSCs) is demonstrated in vivo: 1) FDA-approved NSCs for clinical trials are loaded with pH-sensitive MSN-Dox; 2) the nanoparticle conjugates provide a delayed drug-releasing mechanism and allow for NSC migration towards a distant tumor site; 3) NSCs eventually undergo cell death and release impregnated MSN-Dox, which subsequently induces toxicity towards surrounding glioma cells. PMID:23873826

  18. Mitochondria-Targeted Analogues of Metformin Exhibit Enhanced Antiproliferative and Radiosensitizing Effects in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; Ouari, Olivier; Lopez, Marcos; McAllister, Donna; Boyle, Kathleen; Barrios, Christy S; Weber, James J; Johnson, Bryon D; Hardy, Micael; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2016-07-01

    Metformin (Met) is an approved antidiabetic drug currently being explored for repurposing in cancer treatment based on recent evidence of its apparent chemopreventive properties. Met is weakly cationic and targets the mitochondria to induce cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, albeit not very effectively. We hypothesized that increasing its mitochondria-targeting potential by attaching a positively charged lipophilic substituent would enhance the antitumor activity of Met. In pursuit of this question, we synthesized a set of mitochondria-targeted Met analogues (Mito-Mets) with varying alkyl chain lengths containing a triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP(+)). In particular, the analogue Mito-Met10, synthesized by attaching TPP(+) to Met via a 10-carbon aliphatic side chain, was nearly 1,000 times more efficacious than Met at inhibiting cell proliferation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Notably, in PDAC cells, Mito-Met10 potently inhibited mitochondrial complex I, stimulating superoxide and AMPK activation, but had no effect in nontransformed control cells. Moreover, Mito-Met10 potently triggered G1 cell-cycle phase arrest in PDAC cells, enhanced their radiosensitivity, and more potently abrogated PDAC growth in preclinical mouse models, compared with Met. Collectively, our findings show how improving the mitochondrial targeting of Met enhances its anticancer activities, including aggressive cancers like PDAC in great need of more effective therapeutic options. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3904-15. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216187

  19. Acid ceramidase upregulation in prostate cancer cells confers resistance to radiation: AC inhibition, a potential radiosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Ayman E M; Cheng, Joseph C; Li, Jun; Elojeimy, Saeed; Meacham, William D; Turner, Lorianne S; Bai, Aiping; Gault, Christopher R; McPherson, Alex S; Garcia, Nicole; Beckham, Thomas H; Saad, Antonio; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A; Keane, Thomas E; Taha, Mohhammed I; Hammouda, Hisham M; Norris, James S; Liu, Xiang

    2009-03-01

    Radiation resistance in a subset of prostate tumors remains a challenge to prostate cancer radiotherapy. The current study on the effects of radiation on prostate cancer cells reveals that radiation programs an unpredicted resistance mechanism by upregulating acid ceramidase (AC). Irradiated cells demonstrated limited changes of ceramide levels while elevating levels of sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate. By genetically downregulating AC with small interfering RNA (siRNA), we observed radiosensitization of cells using clonogenic and cytotoxicity assays. Conversely, AC overexpression further decreased sensitivity to radiation. We also observed that radiation-induced AC upregulation was sufficient to create cross-resistance to chemotherapy as demonstrated by decreased sensitivity to Taxol and C(6) ceramide compared to controls. Lower levels of caspase 3/7 activity were detected in cells pretreated with radiation, also indicating increased resistance. Finally, utilization of the small molecule AC inhibitor, LCL385, sensitized PPC-1 cells to radiation and significantly decreased tumor xenograft growth. These data suggest a new mechanism of cancer cell resistance to radiation, through upregulation of AC that is, in part, mediated by application of the therapy itself. An improved understanding of radiotherapy and the application of combination therapy achieved in this study offer new opportunities for the modulation of radiation effects in the treatment of cancer. PMID:19107118

  20. Glycolipid GD3 and GD3 synthase are key drivers for glioblastoma stem cells and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shih-Chi; Wang, Pao-Yuan; Lou, Yi-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Hsiao, Michael; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2016-05-17

    The cancer stem cells (CSCs) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, have been enriched by the expressed marker CD133. However, recent studies have shown that CD133(-) cells also possess tumor-initiating potential. By analysis of gangliosides on various cells, we show that ganglioside D3 (GD3) is overexpressed on eight neurospheres and tumor cells; in combination with CD133, the sorted cells exhibit a higher expression of stemness genes and self-renewal potential; and as few as six cells will form neurospheres and 20-30 cells will grow tumor in mice. Furthermore, GD3 synthase (GD3S) is increased in neurospheres and human GBM tissues, but not in normal brain tissues, and suppression of GD3S results in decreased GBM stem cell (GSC)-associated properties. In addition, a GD3 antibody is shown to induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity against cells expressing GD3 and inhibition of GBM tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrate that GD3 and GD3S are highly expressed in GSCs, play a key role in glioblastoma tumorigenicity, and are potential therapeutic targets against GBM. PMID:27143722

  1. Radiosensitization of human glioma cells by tamoxifen is associated with the inhibition of PKC-ι activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LEI; YUAN, XIAOPENG; WANG, JIE; GU, CHENG; ZHANG, HAOWEN; YU, JIAHUA; LIU, FENJU

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of tamoxifen (TAM), a non-steroidal anti-estrogen drug, in human glioma A172 and U251 cells in vitro. A colony-forming assay revealed that TAM enhances radiosensitivity in A172 and U251 cells. Treatment with TAM also increased the percentage of apoptotic cells subsequent to ionizing radiation, and increased the expression of apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Ionizing radiation induced G2/M phase arrest, which was alleviated within 24 h when the radiation-induced DNA damage was repaired. However, flow cytometry analysis revealed that TAM treatment delayed the recovery of cell cycle progression. Additional examination demonstrated that TAM-mediated protein kinase C-ι (PKC-ι) inhibition may lead to the activation of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2-associated death promoter, and the dephosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 7, resulting in increased cell apoptosis and sustained G2/M phase arrest following exposure to radiation. The present data indicate that the radiosensitizing effects of TAM on glioma cells are partly due to the inhibition of PKC-ι activity in vitro. PMID:26171054

  2. miR-494-3p Induces Cellular Senescence and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jui-Hung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Lee, Yueh-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Wen-Wei; Kuo, Yu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck. Although radiotherapy is used for OSCC treatment, the occurrence of radioresistant cancer cells limits its efficiency. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with lengths of 18-25 base pairs and known to be involved in carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that by targeting B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1), miR-494-3p functions as a putative tumor suppressor miRNA in OSCC. In this study, we further discovered that miR-494-3p could enhance the radiosensitivity of SAS OSCC cells and induce cellular senescence. The overexpression of miR-494-3p in SAS cells increased the population of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells, the expression of p16(INK4a) and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), as well as downregulated Bmi1. The knockdown of Bmi1 by lentiviral-mediated delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) also enhanced the radiosensitivity of SAS cells and the activation of the senescence pathway. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between Bmi1 and miR-494-3p expression was observed among OSCC tissues. Results suggest that miR-494-3p could increase the radiosensitivity of OSCC cells through the induction of cellular senescence caused by the downregulation of Bmi1. PMID:27399693

  3. miR-494-3p Induces Cellular Senescence and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jui-Hung; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Lee, Yueh-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Wen-Wei; Kuo, Yu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck. Although radiotherapy is used for OSCC treatment, the occurrence of radioresistant cancer cells limits its efficiency. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with lengths of 18–25 base pairs and known to be involved in carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that by targeting B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1), miR-494-3p functions as a putative tumor suppressor miRNA in OSCC. In this study, we further discovered that miR-494-3p could enhance the radiosensitivity of SAS OSCC cells and induce cellular senescence. The overexpression of miR-494-3p in SAS cells increased the population of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells, the expression of p16INK4a and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), as well as downregulated Bmi1. The knockdown of Bmi1 by lentiviral-mediated delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) also enhanced the radiosensitivity of SAS cells and the activation of the senescence pathway. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between Bmi1 and miR-494-3p expression was observed among OSCC tissues. Results suggest that miR-494-3p could increase the radiosensitivity of OSCC cells through the induction of cellular senescence caused by the downregulation of Bmi1. PMID:27399693

  4. Label-retaining assay enriches tumor-initiating cells in glioblastoma spheres cultivated in serum-free medium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingcheng; Zhao, Yiqing; Ouyang, Taohui; Zhao, Tianyuan; Zhang, Suojun; Chen, Jian; Yu, Jiasheng; Lei, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Label-retaining cells, which are characterized by dormancy or slow cycling, may be identified in a number of human normal and cancer tissues, and these cells demonstrate stem cell potential. In glioblastoma, label-retaining assays to enrich glioma stem cells remain to be fully investigated. In the present study, glioblastoma sphere cells cultured in serum-free medium were initially stained with the cell membrane fluorescent marker DiI. The fluorescence intensity during cell proliferation and sphere reformation was observed. At 2 weeks, the DiI-retaining cells were screened by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and compared phenotypically with the DiI-negative cells in terms of in vitro proliferation, clonogenicity and multipotency and for in vivo tumorigenicity, as well as sensitivity to irradiation and temozolomide treatment. It was observed that DiI-retaining cells accounted for a small proportion, <10%, within the glioblastoma spheres and that DiI-retaining cells proliferated significantly more slowly compared with DiI-negative cells (P=0.011, P=0.035 and P=0.023 in the of NCH421k, NCH441 and NCH644 glioblastoma sphere cell lines). Significantly increased clonogenicity (P=0.002, P=0.034 and P=0.016 in the NCH441, NCH644 and NCH421k glioblastoma sphere cell lines) and three-lineage multipotency were observed in DiI-retaining cells in vitro compared with DiI-negative cells. As few as 100 DiI-retaining cells were able to effectively generate tumors in the immunocompromised mouse brain, whereas the same number of DiI-negative cells possessed no such ability, indicating the increased tumorigenicity of DiI-retaining cells compared with DiI-negative cells. Furthermore, DiI-retaining cells demonstrated significant resistance following irradiation (P=0.012, P=0.024 and P=0.036) and temozolomide (P=0.003, P=0.005 and P=0.029) compared with DiI-negative cells in the NCH421k, NCH441 and NCH644 glioblastoma sphere cell lines, respectively. It was concluded that label

  5. Genome-Wide Profiling Identified a Set of miRNAs that Are Differentially Expressed in Glioblastoma Stem Cells and Normal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ming-Fei; Murai, Kiyohito; Wu, Xiwei; Wang, Jinhui; Gao, Hanlin; Brown, Christine E.; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Jiehua; Peng, Ling; Rossi, John J.; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer research field is to define molecular features that distinguish cancer stem cells from normal stem cells. In this study, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in human glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells using combined microarray and deep sequencing analyses. These studies allowed us to identify a set of 10 miRNAs that are considerably up-regulated or down-regulated in glioblastoma stem cells. Among them, 5 miRNAs were further confirmed to have altered expression in three independent lines of glioblastoma stem cells by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, two of the miRNAs with increased expression in glioblastoma stem cells also exhibited elevated expression in glioblastoma patient tissues examined, while two miRNAs with decreased expression in glioblastoma stem cells displayed reduced expression in tumor tissues. Furthermore, we identified two oncogenes, NRAS and PIM3, as downstream targets of miR-124, one of the down-regulated miRNAs; and a tumor suppressor, CSMD1, as a downstream target of miR-10a and miR-10b, two of the up-regulated miRNAs. In summary, this study led to the identification of a set of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and normal neural stem cells. Characterizing the role of these miRNAs in glioblastoma stem cells may lead to the development of miRNA-based therapies that specifically target tumor stem cells, but spare normal stem cells. PMID:22558405

  6. Molecular profiling indicates orthotopic xenograft of glioma cell lines simulate a subclass of human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shankavaram, Uma T; Bredel, Markus; Burgan, William E; Carter, Donna; Tofilon, Philip; Camphausen, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cell line models have been widely used to investigate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) pathobiology and in the development of targeted therapies. However, GBM tumours are molecularly heterogeneous and how cell lines can best model that diversity is unknown. In this report, we investigated gene expression profiles of three preclinical growth models of glioma cell lines, in vitro and in vivo as subcutaneous and intracerebral xenografts to examine which cell line model most resembles the clinical samples. Whole genome DNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression in a collection of 25 high-grade glioblastomas, and comparisons were made to profiles of cell lines under three different growth models. Hierarchical clustering revealed three molecular subtypes of the glioblastoma patient samples. Supervised learning algorithm, trained on glioma subtypes predicted the intracerebral cell line model with one glioma subtype (r = 0.68; 95% bootstrap CI –0.41, 0.46). Survival analysis of enriched gene sets (P < 0.05) revealed 19 biological categories (146 genes) belonging to neuronal, signal transduction, apoptosis- and glutamate-mediated neurotransmitter activation signals that are associated with poor prognosis in this glioma subclass. We validated the expression profiles of these gene categories in an independent cohort of patients from ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ project (r = 0.62, 95% bootstrap CI: –0.42, 0.43). We then used these data to select and inhibit a novel target (glutamate receptor) and showed that LY341595, a glutamate receptor specific antagonist, could prolong survival in intracerebral tumour-implanted mice in combination with irradiation, providing an in vivo cell line system of preclinical studies. PMID:21595825

  7. GlioLab-a space system for Glioblastoma multiforme cells on orbit behavior study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Twiggs, Robert J.

    Microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation pose significant health risks for human life in space. This is a concern for future missions and also for future space tourism flights. Nev-ertheless, at the same time it is very interesting to study the effects of these conditions in unhealthy organism like biological samples affected by cancer. It is possible that space envi-ronment increases, decreases or doesn't have any effect on cancer cells. In any case the test results give important informations about cancer treatment or space tourism flight for people affected by cancer. GlioLab is a joint project between GAUSS-Group of Astrodynamics at the "Sapienza" University of Roma and the Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center in Kentucky. The main goal of this project is the design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system to investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on a human glioblastoma multiforme cell line derived from a 65-year-old male and on Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA). In particular the samples are Glioblastoma multiforme cancer cells because the radiotherapy using ionizing radiation is the only treatment after surgery that can give on ground an improvement on the survival rate for this very malignant cancer. During a mission on the ISS, GlioLab mission has to test the in orbit behavior of glioblastoma cancer cells and healthy neuronal cells, which are extremely fragile and require complex experimentation and testing. In this paper engineering solutions to design and manufacturing of an autonomous space system that can allow to keep alive these kind of cells are described. This autonomous system is characterized also by an optical device dedicated to cells behavior analysis and by microdosimeters for monitoring space radiation environment.

  8. NPM1 histone chaperone is upregulated in glioblastoma to promote cell survival and maintain nucleolar shape

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg Olausson, Karl; Elsir, Tamador; Moazemi Goudarzi, Kaveh; Nistér, Monica; Lindström, Mikael S.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma) is the most common and aggressive adult brain tumor. A better understanding of the biology of glioblastoma cells is crucial to identify molecular targets stimulating cell death. NPM1 (nucleophosmin) is a multifunctional chaperone that plays an important role in cancer development. Herein, NPM1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in human astrocytic gliomas. NPM1 was detected in all tumors but with a significantly higher staining intensity in grade IV than in low grade tumors. Depletion of NPM1 had only modest effects on the viability of U251MG, U1242MG, and U343MGa Cl2:6 glioma cells, despite alterations in nucleolar morphology. Glioma cell cultures depleted of NPM1 exposed to micromolar levels of actinomycin D were more prone to cell death (apoptosis) compared to cultures retaining NPM1. We had previously found that NPM1 binds to linker histone H1.5. Here we could show that silencing of H1.5 triggered glioma cell apoptosis as evidenced by a marked increase in both the numbers of cleaved caspase-3+ cells and in the amounts of cleaved PARP. Enforced expression of NPM1 suppressed apoptosis in H1.5 depleted glioma cells. Although our studies would suggest little effectiveness of targeting NPM1 alone there could be potential using it as a combination treatment. PMID:26559910

  9. Tamoxifen improves cytopathic effect of oncolytic adenovirus in primary glioblastoma cells mediated through autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, Ilya V.; Shah, Nameeta; Kaverina, Natalya V.; Lee, Hwahyang; Lin, Biaoyang; Lieber, Andre; Kadagidze, Zaira G.; Yoon, Jae-Guen; Schroeder, Brett; Hothi, Parvinder; Ghosh, Dhimankrishna; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y.; Cobbs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic gene therapy using viral vectors may provide an attractive therapeutic option for malignant gliomas. These viral vectors are designed in a way to selectively target tumor cells and spare healthy cells. To determine the translational impact, it is imperative to assess the factors that interfere with the anti-glioma effects of the oncolytic adenoviral vectors. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of survivin-driven oncolytic adenoviruses pseudotyping with adenoviral fiber knob belonging to the adenoviral serotype 3, 11 and 35 in their ability to kill glioblastoma (GBM) cells selectively without affecting normal cells. Our results indicate that all recombinant vectors used in the study can effectively target GBM in vitro with high specificity, especially the 3 knob-modified vector. Using intracranial U87 and U251 GBM xenograft models we have also demonstrated that treatment with Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus (CRAd-S-5/3) vectors can effectively regress tumor. However, in several patient-derived GBM cell lines, cells exhibited resistance to the CRAd infection as evident from the diminishing effects of autophagy. To improve therapeutic response, tumor cells were pretreated with tamoxifen. Our preliminary data suggest that tamoxifen sensitizes glioblastoma cells towards oncolytic treatment with CRAd-S-5/3, which may prove useful for GBM in future experimental therapy. PMID:25738357

  10. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlgans, Stephanie; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden ; Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  11. Cardamonin induces apoptosis by suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway in glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Yan, Zhiyong; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Cao, Shousong; Shi, Dayong; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are the initiating cells in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and contribute to the resistance of GBM to chemotherapy and radiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cardamonin (3,4,2,4-tetrahydroxychalcone) on the self-renewal and apoptosis of GSCs, and if its action is associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. CD133(+) GSCs, a kind of GSCs line, was established from human glioblastoma tissues. Cardamonin inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in CD133+ GSCs. The proapoptotic effects of temozolomide (TMZ) were further enhanced by cardamonin in CD133+ GSCs and U87 cells in vitro. For in vivo study, injection of 5 × 10(5) cells of CD133+ GSCs subcutaneously (s.c.) into nude mice, 100 % of large tumors were developed within 8 weeks in all mice; in contrast, only one out of five mice developed a small tumor when 5 × 10(5) cells of CD133(-) GMBs cells were injected. Cardamonin also inhibited STAT3 activation by luciferase assay and suppressed the expression of the downstream genes of STAT3, such as Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, survivin, and VEGF. Furthermore, cardamonin locked nuclear translocation and dimerization of STAT3 in CD133(+) GSCs. Docking analysis confirmed that cardamonin molecule was successfully docked into the active sites of STAT3 with a highly favorable binding energy of -10.78 kcal/mol. The study provides evidence that cardamonin is a novel inhibitor of STAT3 and has the potential to be developed as a new anticancer agent targeting GSCs. This study also reveals that targeting STAT3 signal pathway is an important strategy for the treatment of human GBM. PMID:26150336

  12. Modulation of cerebral endothelial cell function by TGF-β in glioblastoma: VEGF-dependent angiogenesis versus endothelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shanmugarajan; Szabo, Emese; Burghardt, Isabel; Frei, Karl; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Weller, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma are among the most angiogenic tumors. The molecular mechanisms that control blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (EC) in glioblastoma remain incompletely understood. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key regulatory cytokine that has proinvasive and stemness-maintaining autocrine properties in glioblastoma and confers immunosuppression to the tumor microenvironment. Here we characterize potential pro- and anti-angiogenic activities of TGF-β in the context of glioblastoma in vitro, using human brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) and glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GMEC) as model systems. We find that TGF-β induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) mRNA expression and protein release in a TGF-β receptor (TβR) II / activin-like kinase (ALK)-5-dependent manner under normoxia and hypoxia, defining potential indirect proangiogenic activity of TGF-β in glioblastoma. In parallel, exogenous TGF-β has also inhibitory effects on EC properties and induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in hCMEC and GMEC. Accordingly, direct inhibition of endogenous TGF-β/ALK-5 signalling increases EC properties such as tube formation, von-Willebrand factor (vWF) and claudin (CLDN) 5 expression. Yet, the supernatant of TGF-β-stimulated hCMEC and GMEC strongly promotes EC-related gene expression and tube formation in a cediranib-sensitive manner. These observations shed light on the complex pro- and anti-angiogenic pathways involving the cross-talk between TGF-β and VEGF/PLGF signalling in glioblastoma which may involve parallel stimulation of angiogenesis and EndMT in distinct target cell populations. PMID:26090865

  13. Modulation of cerebral endothelial cell function by TGF-β in glioblastoma: VEGF-dependent angiogenesis versus endothelial mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shanmugarajan; Szabo, Emese; Burghardt, Isabel; Frei, Karl; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Weller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma are among the most angiogenic tumors. The molecular mechanisms that control blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (EC) in glioblastoma remain incompletely understood. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key regulatory cytokine that has proinvasive and stemness-maintaining autocrine properties in glioblastoma and confers immunosuppression to the tumor microenvironment. Here we characterize potential pro- and anti-angiogenic activities of TGF-β in the context of glioblastoma in vitro, using human brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) and glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GMEC) as model systems. We find that TGF-β induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) mRNA expression and protein release in a TGF-β receptor (TβR) II / activin-like kinase (ALK)-5-dependent manner under normoxia and hypoxia, defining potential indirect proangiogenic activity of TGF-β in glioblastoma. In parallel, exogenous TGF-β has also inhibitory effects on EC properties and induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in hCMEC and GMEC. Accordingly, direct inhibition of endogenous TGF-β/ALK-5 signalling increases EC properties such as tube formation, von-Willebrand factor (vWF) and claudin (CLDN) 5 expression. Yet, the supernatant of TGF-β-stimulated hCMEC and GMEC strongly promotes EC-related gene expression and tube formation in a cediranib-sensitive manner. These observations shed light on the complex pro- and anti-angiogenic pathways involving the cross-talk between TGF-β and VEGF/PLGF signalling in glioblastoma which may involve parallel stimulation of angiogenesis and EndMT in distinct target cell populations. PMID:26090865

  14. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) epigenetic plasticity and interconversion between differentiated non-GSCs and GSCs

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Ahmad R.; Saadatzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.; Pollok, Karen E.; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer initiating cells (CICs) maintain self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties of various tumors, as well as the cellular heterogeneity consisting of several subpopulations within tumors. CSCs display the malignant phenotype, self-renewal ability, altered genomic stability, specific epigenetic signature, and most of the time can be phenotyped by cell surface markers (e.g., CD133, CD24, and CD44). Numerous studies support the concept that non-stem cancer cells (non-CSCs) are sensitive to cancer therapy while CSCs are relatively resistant to treatment. In glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), there is clonal heterogeneity at the genetic level with distinct tumorigenic potential, and defined GSC marker expression resulting from clonal evolution which is likely to influence disease progression and response to treatment. Another level of complexity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors is the dynamic equilibrium between GSCs and differentiated non-GSCs, and the potential for non-GSCs to revert (dedifferentiate) to GSCs due to epigenetic alteration which confers phenotypic plasticity to the tumor cell population. Moreover, exposure of the differentiated GBM cells to therapeutic doses of temozolomide (TMZ) or ionizing radiation (IR) increases the GSC pool both in vitro and in vivo. This review describes various subtypes of GBM, discusses the evolution of CSC models and epigenetic plasticity, as well as interconversion between GSCs and differentiated non-GSCs, and offers strategies to potentially eliminate GSCs. PMID:26137500

  15. Betulinyl Sulfamates as Anticancer Agents and Radiosensitizers in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bache, Matthias; Münch, Christin; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Theuerkorn, Katharina; Emmerich, Daniel; Paschke, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a natural compound of birch bark, is cytotoxic for many tumors. Recently, a betulinyl sulfamate was described that inhibits carbonic anhydrases (CA), such as CAIX, an attractive target for tumor-selective therapy strategies in hypoxic cancer cells. Data on combined CAIX inhibition with radiotherapy are rare. In the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF7, the effects of BA and betulinyl sulfamates on cellular and radiobiological behavior under normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated. The two most effective betulinyl sulfamates CAI 1 and CAI 3 demonstrated a 1.8–2.8-fold higher cytotoxicity than BA under normoxia in breast cancer cells, with IC50 values between 11.1 and 18.1 µM. BA exhibits its strongest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 8.2 and 16.4 µM under hypoxia. All three substances show a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis, inhibition of migration, and inhibition of hypoxia-induced gene expression. In combination with irradiation, betulinyl sulfamates act as radiosensitizers, with DMF10 values of 1.47 (CAI 1) and 1.75 (CAI 3) under hypoxia in MDA-MB231 cells. BA showed additive effects in combination with irradiation. Taken together; our results suggest that BA and betulinyl sulfamates seem to be attractive substances to combine with radiotherapy; particularly for hypoxic breast cancer. PMID:26540049

  16. Betulinyl Sulfamates as Anticancer Agents and Radiosensitizers in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Münch, Christin; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Theuerkorn, Katharina; Emmerich, Daniel; Paschke, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a natural compound of birch bark, is cytotoxic for many tumors. Recently, a betulinyl sulfamate was described that inhibits carbonic anhydrases (CA), such as CAIX, an attractive target for tumor-selective therapy strategies in hypoxic cancer cells. Data on combined CAIX inhibition with radiotherapy are rare. In the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF7, the effects of BA and betulinyl sulfamates on cellular and radiobiological behavior under normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated. The two most effective betulinyl sulfamates CAI 1 and CAI 3 demonstrated a 1.8-2.8-fold higher cytotoxicity than BA under normoxia in breast cancer cells, with IC50 values between 11.1 and 18.1 µM. BA exhibits its strongest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 8.2 and 16.4 µM under hypoxia. All three substances show a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis, inhibition of migration, and inhibition of hypoxia-induced gene expression. In combination with irradiation, betulinyl sulfamates act as radiosensitizers, with DMF10 values of 1.47 (CAI 1) and 1.75 (CAI 3) under hypoxia in MDA-MB231 cells. BA showed additive effects in combination with irradiation. Taken together; our results suggest that BA and betulinyl sulfamates seem to be attractive substances to combine with radiotherapy; particularly for hypoxic breast cancer. PMID:26540049

  17. miR-25 modulates NSCLC cell radio-sensitivity through directly inhibiting BTG2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhiwei Liu, Yi Xiao, Bing Qian, Xiaosen

    2015-02-13

    A large proportion of the NSCLC patients were insensitive to radiotherapy, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study explored the role of miR-25 in regulating sensitivity of NSCLC cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and its downstream targets. Based on measurement in tumor samples from NSCLC patients, this study found that miR-25 expression is upregulated in both NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC patients compared the healthy and radio-sensitive controls. In addition, BTG expression was found negatively correlated with miR-25a expression in the both tissues and cells. By applying luciferase reporter assay, we verified two putative binding sites between miR-25 and BTG2. Therefore, BTG2 is a directly target of miR-25 in NSCLC cancer. By applying loss-and-gain function analysis in NSCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that miR-25-BTG2 axis could directly regulated BTG2 expression and affect radiotherapy sensitivity of NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • miR-25 is upregulated, while BTG2 is downregulated in radioresistant NSCLC patients. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiation induced apoptosis. • miR-25 directly targets BTG2 and suppresses its expression. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiotherapy through inhibiting BTG2 expression.

  18. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

  19. TAT-ODD-p53 enhances the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibiting Parkin-mediated mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shasha; Ren, Chen; Wang, Yuxia; Yuan, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. Dysfunction p53 and hypoxia are typical biological characteristics of breast cancer that constitute barriers to the efficacy of radiotherapy. Mitophagy plays a protective role in cellular homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, while mitophagy is inhibited by p53 in normal cells. We explored the effects of a p53 fusion protein, TAT-ODD-p53, on the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as investigating the related molecular mechanisms. We found that selective accumulation of TAT-ODD-p53 occurred under hypoxic conditions and significantly increased tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. Mitophagy had an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Mitophagy was inhibited by TAT-ODD-p53 and this inhibition was suppressed by over-expression of Parkin in hypoxic irradiated breast cancer cells. In addition, mitophagy was induced by deletion of p53, with this effect being weakened by Parkin knockdown at a low oxygen tension. By interacting with Parkin, p53 inhibited the translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria, disrupting the protective mitophagy process. These results suggest that TAT-ODD-p53 has a significant and preferential radiosensitizing effect on hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibition of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:26025927

  20. FGFR1 Induces Glioblastoma Radioresistance through the PLCγ/Hif1α Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gouazé-Andersson, Valérie; Delmas, Caroline; Taurand, Marion; Martinez-Gala, Judith; Evrard, Solène; Mazoyer, Sandrine; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2016-05-15

    FGF2 signaling in glioblastoma induces resistance to radiotherapy, so targeting FGF2/FGFR pathways might offer a rational strategy for tumor radiosensitization. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated a specific role for FGFR1 in glioblastoma radioresistance as modeled by U87 and LN18 glioblastomas in mouse xenograft models. Silencing FGFR1 decreased radioresistance in a manner associated with radiation-induced centrosome overduplication and mitotic cell death. Inhibiting PLCγ (PLCG1), a downstream effector signaling molecule for FGFR1, was sufficient to produce similar effects, arguing that PLCγ is an essential mediator of FGFR1-induced radioresistance. FGFR1 silencing also reduced expression of HIF1α, which in addition to its roles in hypoxic responses exerts an independent effect on radioresistance. Finally, FGFR1 silencing delayed the growth of irradiated tumor xenografts, in a manner that was associated with reduced HIF1α levels but not blood vessel alterations. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept that FGFR1 targeting can degrade radioresistance in glioblastoma, a widespread problem in this tumor, prompting clinical investigations of the use of FGFR1 inhibitors for radiosensitization. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3036-44. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26896280

  1. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  2. Disrupting the PIKE-A/Akt interaction inhibits glioblastoma cell survival, migration, invasion and colony formation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Q; He, K; Liu, X; Pham, C; Meyerkord, C; Fu, H; Ye, K

    2013-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) amplicon is frequently amplified in numerous human cancers including gliomas. PIKE-A, a proto-oncogene that is one of the important components of the CDK4 amplicon, binds to and enhances the kinase activity of Akt, thereby promoting cancer progression. To define the roles of the PIKE-A/Akt interaction in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) progression, we used biochemical protein/protein interaction (PPI) assays and live cell fluorescence-based protein complementation assays to search for small peptide antagonist from these proteins that were able to block their interaction. Here, we show that disruption of the interaction between PIKE-A and Akt by the small peptides significantly reduces glioblastoma cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Disruption of PIKE-A/Akt association potently suppressed GBM cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to two clinical drugs that are currently used to treat GBM. Interestingly, GBM cells containing the CDK4 amplicon were more responsive to the inhibition of the PIKE-A/Akt interaction than GBM cells lacking this amplicon. Taken together, our findings provide proof-of-principle that blocking a PPI that is essential for cancer progression provides a valuable strategy for therapeutic discovery. PMID:22450747

  3. Global Profiling of Metabolic Adaptation to Hypoxic Stress in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Christianson, Helena C.; Belting, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenetic events and unique phenomena of the tumor microenvironment together induce adaptive metabolic responses that may offer new diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets of cancer. Hypoxia, or low oxygen tension, represents a well-established and universal feature of the tumor microenvironment and has been linked to increased tumor aggressiveness as well as resistance to conventional oncological treatments. Previous studies have provided important insights into hypoxia induced changes of the transcriptome and proteome; however, how this translates into changes at the metabolite level remains to be defined. Here, we have investigated dynamic, time-dependent effects of hypoxia on the cancer cell metabolome across all families of macromolecules, i.e., carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid, in human glioblastoma cells. Using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS, 345 and 126 metabolites were identified and quantified in cells and corresponding media, respectively, at short (6 h), intermediate (24 h), and prolonged (48 h) incubation at normoxic or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. In conjunction, we performed gene array studies with hypoxic and normoxic cells following short and prolonged incubation. We found that levels of several key metabolites varied with the duration of hypoxic stress. In some cases, metabolic changes corresponded with hypoxic regulation of key pathways at the transcriptional level. Our results provide new insights into the metabolic response of glioblastoma cells to hypoxia, which should stimulate further work aimed at targeting cancer cell adaptive mechanisms to microenvironmental stress. PMID:25633823

  4. miR-124 radiosensitizes human esophageal cancer cell TE-1 by targeting CDK4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y H; Wang, Q Q; Li, H; Ye, T; Gao, F; Liu, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatments for esophageal cancer, but radioresistance remains a major challenge. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are involved in human cancers. miR-124 has been widely reported in various cancers and it is intimately involved in proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the miR-124/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) axis and the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. In this study, we identified the reduced expression of miR-124 in 18 paired esophageal cancer tissues compared to their matched normal tissues. In order to investigate the physiological role of miR-124 in esophageal cancer, the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and wound healing assay were performed, and the results suggest that miR-124 overexpression decreases tumor growth and aggression. Next, we detected the effects of ectopic miR-124 expression on the apoptosis of an esophageal cancer cell line (TE-1) following radiotherapy. Using the CCK-8 assay and Hoechst 332528 stain, we found that ectopic expression of miR-124 led to a higher percentage of apoptotic cells. Finally, we identified that CDK4 is a direct target of miR-124 in TE-1 cells using target prediction algorithms and a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, western blot assay confirmed that CDK4 was downregulated during miR-124 transfection. Taken together, we illustrate that the miR-124/CDK4 axis plays an important role in radiation sensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells by targeting CDK4. PMID:27323123

  5. Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

  6. Synthesis of PEGylated Ferrocene Nanoconjugates as the Radiosensitizer of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Chen, Jie; Ge, Cuicui; Liu, Xu; He, Jinlin; Ni, Peihong; Pan, Yue

    2016-06-15

    Radiation is one of the most widely used methods for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report a new type of radiation sensitizer (Fc-PEG) by a facile one-step reaction of conjugating the hydrophilic PEG chain with hydrophobic ferrocene molecule. The chemical composition and structure of Fc-PEG have been thoroughly characterized by FT-IR, NMR, GPC, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This Fc-PEG conjugate could self-assemble in aqueous solution into spherical aggregates, and it was found that the exposure to 4 Gy of X-ray radiation have little influence on the shape and size of these aggregates. After the chemical bonding with PEG chains, the uptake level of Fe element could be enhanced via the formation of aggregates. The live/dead, CCK-8, as well as apoptosis assays, indicated that the death of cancer cells can be obviously increased by X-ray radiation after the incubation of these Fc-based nanoconjugates, which might be served as the radiation sensitizer toward cancer cells. We suggest that this radiosensitizing effect comes from the enhancement of reactive oxygen specimen (ROS) level as denoted by both flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic analysis. The enhanced radiation sensitivity of cancer cells is contributed by the synergic effect of Fe-induced radiation-sensitizing and the increased uptake of nanoconjugates after polymeric grafting. PMID:27120689

  7. c-MYC is a radiosensitive locus in human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Wade, M A; Sunter, N J; Fordham, S E; Long, A; Masic, D; Russell, L J; Harrison, C J; Rand, V; Elstob, C; Bown, N; Rowe, D; Lowe, C; Cuthbert, G; Bennett, S; Crosier, S; Bacon, C M; Onel, K; Scott, K; Scott, D; Travis, L B; May, F E B; Allan, J M

    2015-09-17

    Ionising radiation is a potent human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent and young women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer following exposure to ionising radiation compared with older women, and that risk is dose-dependent. Although it is well understood which individuals are at risk of radiation-induced breast carcinogenesis, the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie cell transformation are less clear. To identify genetic alterations potentially responsible for driving radiogenic breast transformation, we exposed the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A to fractionated doses of X-rays and examined the copy number and cytogenetic alterations. We identified numerous alterations of c-MYC that included high-level focal amplification associated with increased protein expression. c-MYC amplification was also observed in primary human mammary epithelial cells following exposure to radiation. We also demonstrate that the frequency and magnitude of c-MYC amplification and c-MYC protein expression is significantly higher in breast cancer with antecedent radiation exposure compared with breast cancer without a radiation aetiology. Our data also demonstrate extensive intratumor heterogeneity with respect to c-MYC copy number in radiogenic breast cancer, suggesting continuous evolution at this locus during disease development and progression. Taken together, these data identify c-MYC as a radiosensitive locus, implicating this oncogenic transcription factor in the aetiology of radiogenic breast cancer. PMID:25531321

  8. c-MYC is a radiosensitive locus in human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M A; Sunter, N J; Fordham, S E; Long, A; Masic, D; Russell, L J; Harrison, C J; Rand, V; Elstob, C; Bown, N; Rowe, D; Lowe, C; Cuthbert, G; Bennett, S; Crosier, S; Bacon, C M; Onel, K; Scott, K; Scott, D; Travis, L B; May, F E B; Allan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation is a potent human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent and young women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer following exposure to ionising radiation compared with older women, and that risk is dose-dependent. Although it is well understood which individuals are at risk of radiation-induced breast carcinogenesis, the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie cell transformation are less clear. To identify genetic alterations potentially responsible for driving radiogenic breast transformation, we exposed the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A to fractionated doses of X-rays and examined the copy number and cytogenetic alterations. We identified numerous alterations of c-MYC that included high-level focal amplification associated with increased protein expression. c-MYC amplification was also observed in primary human mammary epithelial cells following exposure to radiation. We also demonstrate that the frequency and magnitude of c-MYC amplification and c-MYC protein expression is significantly higher in breast cancer with antecedent radiation exposure compared with breast cancer without a radiation aetiology. Our data also demonstrate extensive intratumor heterogeneity with respect to c-MYC copy number in radiogenic breast cancer, suggesting continuous evolution at this locus during disease development and progression. Taken together, these data identify c-MYC as a radiosensitive locus, implicating this oncogenic transcription factor in the aetiology of radiogenic breast cancer. PMID:25531321

  9. The radiosensitizing effect of immunoadjuvant OM-174 requires cooperation between immune and tumor cells through interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, Mark de . E-mail: Mark.De.Ridder@vub.ac.be; Verovski, Valeri N.; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Berge, Dirk L. van den; Monsaert, Christinne; Law, Kalun; Storme, Guy A.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To explore whether antitumor immunoadjuvant OM-174 can stimulate immune cells to produce interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and thereby radiosensitize tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes from BALB/c mice were stimulated by OM-174 at plasma-achievable concentrations (0.03-3 {mu}g/mL), and afterward analyzed for the expression and secretion of IFN-{gamma} by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Stimulated splenocytes were used as a source of IFN-{gamma} to radiosensitize hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells through the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Results: OM-174 activated the production of IFN-{gamma} at high levels that reached 70 ng/mL in normoxia (21% oxygen) and 27 ng/mL in tumor-relevant hypoxia (1% oxygen). This caused up to 2.1-fold radiosensitization of EMT-6 tumor cells, which was associated with the iNOS-mediated production of the radiosensitizing molecule nitric oxide, as confirmed by accumulation of its oxidative metabolite nitrite, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both iNOS activation and radiosensitization were counteracted by neutralizing antibodies against IFN-{gamma}. The same mechanism of radiosensitization through the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway was identified for IL-12 + IL-18, which are known to mediate IFN-{gamma} responses. Hypoxia displayed a dual effect on the immune-tumor cell interaction, by downregulating the expression of the IFN-{gamma} gene while upregulating iNOS at transcriptional level. Conclusion: Immunoadjuvant OM-174 is an efficient radiosensitizer of tumor cells through activation of the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway in immune cells. This finding indicates a rationale for combining immunostimulatory and radiosensitizing strategies and extends the potential therapeutic applications of OM-174.

  10. Expression profile of genes modulated by Aloe emodin in human U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Haris, Khalilah; Ismail, Samhani; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment. PMID:24969876

  11. Targeting of β1 integrins impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dickreuter, E; Eke, I; Krause, M; Borgmann, K; van Vugt, M A; Cordes, N

    2016-03-17

    β1 Integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interactions allow cancer cell survival and confer therapy resistance. It was shown that inhibition of β1 integrins sensitizes cells to radiotherapy. Here, we examined the impact of β1 integrin targeting on the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). β1 Integrin inhibition was accomplished using the monoclonal antibody AIIB2 and experiments were performed in three-dimensional cell cultures and tumor xenografts of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. AIIB2, X-ray irradiation, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and Olaparib treatment were performed and residual DSB number, protein and gene expression, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) activity as well as clonogenic survival were determined. β1 Integrin targeting impaired repair of radiogenic DSB (γH2AX/53BP1, pDNA-PKcs T2609 foci) in vitro and in vivo and reduced the protein expression of Ku70, Rad50 and Nbs1. Further, we identified Ku70, Ku80 and DNA-PKcs but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 to reside in the β1 integrin pathway. Intriguingly, combined inhibition of β1 integrin and PARP using Olaparib was significantly more effective than either treatment alone in non-irradiated and irradiated HNSCC cells. Here, we support β1 integrins as potential cancer targets and highlight a regulatory role for β1 integrins in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage via classical NHEJ. Further, the data suggest combined targeting of β1 integrin and PARP as promising approach for radiosensitization of HNSCC. PMID:26073085

  12. Novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant; Wild, Aaron T.; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aziz, Khaled; Kato, Yoshinori; Gajula, Rajendra P.; Williams, Russell D.; Cades, Jessica A.; Annadanam, Anvesh; Song, Danny; Zhang, Yonggang; Hales, Russell K.; Herman, Joseph M.; Armour, Elwood; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes for poor-risk localized prostate cancers treated with radiation are still insufficient. Targeting the “non-oncogene” addiction or stress response machinery is an appealing strategy for cancer therapeutics. Heat-shock-protein-90 (Hsp90), an integral member of this machinery, is a molecular chaperone required for energy-driven stabilization and selective degradation of misfolded “client” proteins, that is commonly overexpressed in tumor cells. Hsp90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in prostate cancer cell survival and radioresistance, such as androgen receptor signaling and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. We examined the effects of a novel non-geldanamycin Hsp90 inhibitor, AUY922, combined with radiation (RT) on two prostate cancer cell lines, Myc-CaP and PC3, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γ-H2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for prostate cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined treatment (RT-AUY922) on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and AR pathways in a hind-flank tumor graft model. We observed that AUY922 caused supra-additive radiosensitization in both cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.4–1.7 (p < 0.01). RT-AUY922 increased apoptotic cell death compared with either therapy alone, induced G2-M arrest and produced marked changes in client protein expression. These results were confirmed in vivo, where RT-AUY922 combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in Myc-CaP and PC3 tumor grafts (both p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that combined RT-AUY922 therapy exhibits promising activity against prostate cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies. PMID:23358469

  13. Melanoma cells show a heterogeneous range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and are radiosensitized by inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032

    PubMed Central

    Sambade, Maria J.; Peters, Eldon C.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Kaufmann, William K.; Kimple, Randall J.; Shields, Janiel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relative radiosensitivities of a large collection of melanoma cell lines and to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of mutant B-RAF with PLX-4032 can radiosensitize B-Raf+ melanoma cells. Methods and Materials A large collection of melanoma cell lines (n=37) were treated with 0 – 8 Gy IR and clonogenic survival assays used to generate survival curves to rank relative radiosensitivities among the cell lines. The ability of a B-RAF inhibitor, PLX-4032, to radiosensitize highly radioresistant, B-Raf+ cells was also assessed by clonogenic cell survival and spheroid invasion assays and the effects of treatment on the cell cycle assessed by FACS. Results Melanoma cell lines displayed a very large, heterogeneous range of SF2 values (1.002 – 0.053) with a mean of 0.51. Cell lines with surviving fractions of 0.29 or less at SF2 and SF4 were observed at a high frequency of 18.9% and 70.2%, respectively. Treatment of B-Raf+ cells with the B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4032 in combination with radiation provided enhanced inhibition of both colony formation and invasion, and radiosensitized cells through an increase in G1 arrest. Conclusions Our data suggest that melanomas are not uniformly radioresistant with a significant subset displaying inherent radiosensitivity. Pharmacologic inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032 effectively radiosensitized B-Raf+ melanoma cells suggesting this combination approach could provide improved radiotherapeutic response in B-Raf+ melanoma patients. PMID:21295875

  14. Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmann, Klaus H. Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A.; Raju, Uma; Andratschke, Nickolaus H.; Milas, Luka; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by {gamma}H{sub 2}AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual {gamma}H2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2.

  15. Giant cell glioblastoma in the cerebrum of a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    PubMed

    Giri, D K; Aloisio, F; Alosio, F; Ajithdoss, D K; Ambrus, A; Lidbury, J A; Hein, H E; Porter, B F

    2011-05-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered female Pembroke Welsh corgi was presented with a 1-month history of ataxia and panting. The clinical signs progressed until the dog became anorexic, obtunded and exhibited circling to the left. At necropsy examination, a mass was detected in the left forebrain, impinging on the cribriform plate. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of round to pleomorphic neoplastic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclear atypia, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were common. Numerous bizarre, multinucleated giant cells containing 60 or more nuclei and giant mononuclear cells were present. The matrix contained abundant reticulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the neoplastic cells uniformly to express vimentin, and a small number of neoplastic cells expressed glial fibrillary acid protein. A diagnosis of giant cell glioblastoma was made. Although well recognized in man, this tumour has been documented rarely in the veterinary literature. PMID:21146179

  16. PKCδ activated by c-MET enhances infiltration of human glioblastoma cells through NOTCH2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Jae-Seong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Poor prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is attributable to the propensity of tumor cells to infiltrate into the brain parenchyma. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly expressed or aberrantly activated in GBM. However, how this signaling node translates to GBM cell invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that among PKC isoforms, PKCδ is strongly associated with infiltration of GBM cells. Notably, PKCδ enhanced Tyr418 phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC, which in turn activated STAT3 and subsequent NOTCH2 signaling, ultimately leading to GBM cell invasiveness. Furthermore, we showed that PKCδ was aberrantly activated in GBM cells by c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase hyperactivated in GBM. In agreement, inhibition either component in the c-MET/PKCδ/SRC/STAT3 signaling axis effectively blocked the NOTCH2 signaling and invasiveness of GBM cells. Taken together, our findings shed a light on the signaling mechanisms behind the constitutive activation of PKCδ signaling in GBM. PMID:26700818

  17. Short-Term Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells Induces Hypoxia Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Skjellegrind, Håvard K; Fayzullin, Artem; Johnsen, Erik O; Eide, Lars; Langmoen, Iver A; Moe, Morten C; Vik-Mo, Einar O

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain cancer. In spite of surgical removal, radiation and chemotherapy, this cancer recurs within short time and median survival after diagnosis is less than a year. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) left in the brain after surgery is thought to explain the inevitable recurrence of the tumor. Although hypoxia is a prime factor contributing to treatment resistance in many cancers, its effect on GSC has been little studied. Especially how differentiation influences the tolerance to acute hypoxia in GSCs is not well explored. We cultured GSCs from three patient biopsies and exposed these and their differentiated (1- and 4-weeks) progeny to acute hypoxia while monitoring intracellular calcium and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Undifferentiated GSCs were not hypoxia tolerant, showing both calcium overload and mitochondrial depolarization. One week differentiated cells were the most tolerant to hypoxia, preserving intracellular calcium stability and ΔΨm during 15 min of acute hypoxia. After 4 weeks of differentiation, mitochondrial mass was significantly reduced. In these cells calcium homeostasis was maintained during hypoxia, although the mitochondria were depolarized, suggesting a reduced mitochondrial dependency. Basal metabolic rate increased by differentiation, however, low oxygen consumption and high ΔΨm in undifferentiated GSCs did not provide hypoxia tolerance. The results suggest that undifferentiated GSCs are oxygen dependent, and that limited differentiation induces relative hypoxia tolerance. Hypoxia tolerance may be a factor involved in high-grade malignancy. This warrants a careful approach to differentiation as a glioblastoma treatment strategy. PMID:26915110

  18. REG Iα activates c-Jun through MAPK pathways to enhance the radiosensitivity of squamous esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Akiyuki; Motoyama, Satoru; Sato, Yusuke; Koyota, Souichi; Usami, Shuetsu; Yoshino, Kei; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the key molecules that mediate susceptibility to anticancer treatments would be highly desirable. Based on clinical and cell biological studies, we recently proposed that regenerating gene (REG) Iα may be such a molecule. In the present study, we hypothesized that REG Iα increases radiosensitivity through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. To test that idea, we transfected TE-5 and TE-9 squamous esophageal cancer cells with REG Iα and examined its involvement in MAPK signaling and its effect on susceptibility to radiotherapy. We found that REG Iα-expressing cells showed increased expression of c-Jun messenger RNA (mRNA) and phospho-c-Jun protein mediated via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, as well as increased radiosensitivity. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the activation of c-Jun in tumors expressing REG Iα. Collectively, these findings suggest that REG Iα activates c-Jun via the JNK and ERK pathway, thereby enhancing radiosensitivity. PMID:25656613

  19. Radiosensitization of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells via abrogating the G2 checkpoint and inhibiting DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Lai, Song-Tao; Ma, Ning-Yi; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Wei, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences have demonstrated the potential of metformin as a novel agent for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we investigated its ability of radiosensitization and the underlying mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we found that metformin at 5 mM concentration enhanced the radiosensitivity of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.39 and 1.27, respectively. Mechanistically, metformin caused abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and increase of mitotic catastrophe, associated with suppression of Wee1 kinase and in turn CDK1 Tyr15 phosphorylation. Furthermore, metformin inhibited both expression and irradiation-induced foci formation of Rad51, a key player in homologous recombination repair, ultimately leading to persistent DNA damage, as reflected by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 signaling. Finally, metformin-mediated AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K was identified as a possible upstream pathway controlling translational regulation of Wee1 and Rad51. Our data suggest that metformin radiosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells in vitro via abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and inhibition of DNA damage repair. However, the in vivo study is needed to further confirm the findings from the in vitro study. PMID:26304716

  20. Cancer stem cells from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis posits that deregulated neural stem cells (NSCs) form the basis of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM, however, usually forms in the cerebral white matter while normal NSCs reside in subventricular and hippocampal regions. We attempted to characterize CSCs from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall. Methods We described isolating CSCs from a GBM involving the lateral ventricles and characterized these cells with in vitro molecular biomarker profiling, cellular behavior, ex vivo and in vivo techniques. Results The patient’s MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass with associated edema, involving the left subventricular zone. Histological examination of the tumor established it as being a high-grade glial neoplasm, characterized by polygonal and fusiform cells with marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, frequent mitotic figures, irregular zones of necrosis and vascular hyperplasia. Recurrence of the tumor occurred shortly after the surgical resection. CD133-positive cells, isolated from the tumor, expressed stem cell markers including nestin, CD133, Ki67, Sox2, EFNB1, EFNB2, EFNB3, Cav-1, Musashi, Nucleostemin, Notch 2, Notch 4, and Pax6. Biomarkers expressed in differentiated cells included Cathepsin L, Cathepsin B, Mucin18, Mucin24, c-Myc, NSE, and TIMP1. Expression of unique cancer-related transcripts in these CD133-positive cells, such as caveolin-1 and −2, do not appear to have been previously reported in the literature. Ex vivo organotypic brain slice co-culture showed that the CD133+ cells behaved like tumor cells. The CD133-positive cells also induced tumor formation when they were stereotactically transplanted into the brains of the immune-deficient NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions This brain tumor involving the neurogenic lateral ventricular wall was comprised of tumor-forming, CD133-positive cancer stem cells, which are likely

  1. Cytotoxic constituents of Abutilon indicum leaves against U87MG human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rukaiyya Sirajuddin; Senthi, Mahibalan; Rao, Poorna Chandra; Basha, Ameer; Alvala, Mallika; Tummuri, Dinesh; Masubuti, Hironori; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Begum, Ahil Sajeli

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to identify cytotoxic leads from Abutilon indicum leaves for treating glioblastoma. The petroleum ether extract, methanol extract (AIM), chloroform and ethyl acetate sub-fractions (AIM-C and AIM-E, respectively) prepared from AIM were tested for cytotoxicity on U87MG human glioblastoma cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. These extracts exhibited considerable activity (IC50 values of 42.6-64.5 μg/mL). The most active AIM-C fraction was repeatedly chromatographed to yield four known compounds, methyl trans-p-coumarate (1), methyl caffeate (2), syringic acid (3) and pinellic acid (4). Cell viability assay of 1-4 against U87MG cells indicated 2 as most active (IC50 value of 8.2 μg/mL), whereas the other three compounds were much less active. Interestingly, compounds 1-4 were non-toxic towards normal human cells (HEK-293). The content of 2 in AIM-C was estimated as 3% by HPLC. Hence, presence of some more active substances besides methyl caffeate (2) in AIM-C is anticipated. PMID:25422029

  2. GRIM-19 opposes reprogramming of glioblastoma cell metabolism via HIF1α destabilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Zhaojuan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Jingxia; Liu, Guoliang; Guan, Dongshi; Cao, Xinmin; Zhang, Yanmin; Hao, Aijun

    2013-08-01

    The metabolism that sustains cancer cells is adapted preferentially to glycolysis, even under aerobic conditions (Warburg effect). This effect was one of the first alterations in cancer cells recognized as conferring a survival advantage. In this study, we show that gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19), which was previously identified as a tumor suppressor protein associated with growth inhibition and cell apoptosis, contributes to the switch between oxidative and glycolytic pathways. In parallel to this, vascular endothelial growth factor, which promotes neovascularization, is also regulated. We have identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) as the downstream factor of GRIM-19 in human glioblastoma cell lines. Downregulation of GRIM-19 promotes HIF1α synthesis in a STAT3-dependent manner, which acts as a potential competitive inhibitor for von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL)-HIF1α interaction, and thereby prevents HIF1α from pVHL-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Taken together, it is concluded that GRIM-19, a potential tumor suppressor gene, performs its function in part via regulating glioblastoma metabolic reprogramming through STAT3-HIF1α signaling axis, and this has added new perspective to its role in tumorigenesis, thus providing potential strategies for tumor metabolic therapy. PMID:23580587

  3. MicroRNA-203 As a Stemness Inhibitor of Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yifan; Zhu, Gang; Luo, Honghai; Zhao, Shiguang

    2016-08-31

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) are believed to be a subpopulation within all glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are in large part responsible for tumor growth and the high grade of therapeutic resistance that is so characteristic of GBM. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated in regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer stem cells, including GBM-SCs, and they are a potential target for cancer therapy. In the current study, miR-203 expression was reduced in CD133(+) GBM-SCs derived from six human GBM biopsies. MicroRNA-203 transfected GBM-SCs had reduced capacity for self-renewal in the cell sphere assay and increased expression of glial and neuronal differentiation markers. In addition, a reduced proliferation rate and an increased rate of apoptosis were observed. Therefore, miR-203 has the potential to reduce features of stemness, specifically in GBM-SCs, and is a logical target for GBM gene therapy. PMID:27484906

  4. MicroRNA-203 As a Stemness Inhibitor of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yifan; Zhu, Gang; Luo, Honghai; Zhao, Shiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) are believed to be a subpopulation within all glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are in large part responsible for tumor growth and the high grade of therapeutic resistance that is so characteristic of GBM. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated in regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer stem cells, including GBM-SCs, and they are a potential target for cancer therapy. In the current study, miR-203 expression was reduced in CD133+ GBM-SCs derived from six human GBM biopsies. MicroRNA-203 transfected GBM-SCs had reduced capacity for self-renewal in the cell sphere assay and increased expression of glial and neuronal differentiation markers. In addition, a reduced proliferation rate and an increased rate of apoptosis were observed. Therefore, miR-203 has the potential to reduce features of stemness, specifically in GBM-SCs, and is a logical target for GBM gene therapy. PMID:27484906

  5. Functional characterization of ENPP1 reveals a link between cell cycle progression and stem-like phenotype in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bageritz, Josephine; Goidts, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    A high-throughput phenotypic screen in glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) identified a novel molecular mechanism in which ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) plays an important role in balancing the pool of nucleotides, thus maintaining GSCs in an undifferentiated proliferative state. This finding highlights the connection between cell cycle length and the stem-like tumor state. PMID:27308351

  6. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zi-xuan; Rao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Nan-ding; Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang; Wang, Zong-ren

    2015-02-13

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion.

  7. Glioblastoma Inhibition by Cell Surface Immunoglobulin Protein EWI-2, In Vitro and In Vivo1,2

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikova, Tatiana V; Kazarov, Alexander R; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Lafleur, Marc A; Kesari, Santosh; Kung, Andrew L; Hemler, Martin E

    2009-01-01

    EWI-2, a cell surface IgSF protein, is highly expressed in normal human brain but is considerably diminished in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. Moreover, loss of EWI-2 expression correlated with a shorter survival time in human glioma patients, suggesting that EWI-2 might be a natural inhibitor of glioblastoma. In support of this idea, EWI-2 expression significantly impaired both ectopic and orthotopic tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. In vitro assays provided clues regarding EWI-2 functions. Expression of EWI-2 in T98G and/or U87-MG malignant glioblastoma cell lines failed to alter two-dimensional cell proliferation but inhibited glioblastoma colony formation in soft agar and caused diminished cell motility and invasion. At the biochemical level, EWI-2 markedly affects the organization of four molecules (tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MT1-MMP), which play key roles in the biology of astrocytes and gliomas. EWI-2 causes CD9 and CD81 to become more associated with each other, whereas CD81 and other tetraspanins become less associated with MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. We propose that EWI-2 inhibition of glioblastoma growth in vivo is at least partly explained by the capability of EWI-2 to inhibit growth and/or invasion in vitro. Underlying these functional effects, EWI-2 causes a substantial molecular reorganization of multiple molecules (CD81, CD9, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP) known to affect proliferation and/or invasion of astrocytes and/or glioblastomas. PMID:19107234

  8. mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Greither, Thomas; Wach, Sven; Taubert, Helge; Söling, Ariane; Bilkenroth, Udo; Kappler, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    The roles of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the development of malignancy and tumour progression are well known. However, there are a limited number of studies analysing the impact of mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the tissues of brain tumours and glioblastoma patients. In this study, tumour tissues from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and tumour adjacent tissues were analysed. We investigated mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and osteopontin (OPN), and stem cell-associated genes survivin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), Nanog and octamer binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our data revealed higher mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in tumour tissue than levels in the tumour adjacent tissues in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. A strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of HIF-2α, CA9, VEGF, GLUT-1 and OPN suggests a specific hypoxia-associated profile of mRNA expression in glioblastoma multiforme. Additionally, the results indicate the role of stem-cell-related genes in tumour hypoxia. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that high mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced markers showed a trend towards shorter overall survival in glioblastoma patients (P=0.061). Our data suggest that mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced genes are important tumour markers in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:25963717

  9. Downregulation of cell division cycle 25 homolog C reduces the radiosensitivity and proliferation activity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yachao; Dou, Xiaoyan; Duan, Shimiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Quanjing; Li, Hongwei; Li, Duojie

    2016-09-30

    Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods of contemporary cancer treatment. Cells in the G2 and M phases are more sensitive to radiation therapy, and cell division cycle 25 homolog C (CDC25C) is essential in shifting the cell cycle between these two phases. In this study, the knockdown of CDC25C in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC9706 cells was mediated by transfecting shRNA against human CDC25C-subcloning into pGV248. The levels of CDC25C mRNA and protein expression were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Moreover, cell proliferation and radiosensitivity were measured. Stable CDC25C-knockdown EC9706 cell lines were successfully established. Furthermore, the proliferation of both control and CDC25C-shRNA-EC9706 cells was inhibited after the cells were treated with increasing X-ray doses, and the proliferation of the control cells was affected more significantly (p<0.05). Moreover, cell colony formation assays allowed us to reach the same conclusion. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that the knockdown of CDC25C can reduce both the radiotherapy sensitivity and the proliferation activity of EC9706 cells. Thus, CDC25C might be a potential biomarker for radiotherapy treatment. PMID:27188256

  10. Inhibition of Nucleotide Synthesis Targets Brain Tumor Stem Cells in a Subset of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Laks, Dan R; Ta, Lisa; Crisman, Thomas J; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Radu, Caius G; Nathanson, David A; Kornblum, Harley I

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of both the de novo (DNP) and salvage (NSP) pathways of nucleoside synthesis has been demonstrated to impair leukemia cells. We endeavored to determine whether this approach would be efficacious in glioblastoma. To diminish nucleoside biosynthesis, we utilized compound DI-39, which selectively targets NSP, in combination with thymidine (dT), which selectively targets DNP. We employed in vitro and ex vivo models to determine the effects of pretreatment with dT + DI-39 on brain tumor stem cells (BTSC). Here, we demonstrate that this combinatorial therapy elicits a differential response across a spectrum of human patient-derived glioblastoma cultures. As determined by apoptotic markers, most cultures were relatively resistant to treatment, although a subset was highly sensitive. Sensitivity was unrelated to S-phase delay and to DNA damage induced by treatment. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that response across cultures was associated with the transcription factor PAX3 (associated with resistance) and with canonical pathways, including the nucleotide excision repair pathway, PTEN (associated with resistance), PI3K/AKT (associated with sensitivity), and ErbB2-ErbB3. Our in vitro assays demonstrated that, in sensitive cultures, clonal sphere formation was reduced upon removal from pretreatment. In contrast, in a resistant culture, clonal sphere formation was slightly increased upon removal from pretreatment. Moreover, in an intracranial xenograft model, pretreatment of a sensitive culture caused significantly smaller and fewer tumors. In a resistant culture, tumors were equivalent irrespective of pretreatment. These results indicate that, in the subset of sensitive glioblastoma, BTSCs are targeted by inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1271-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196770

  11. Radiosensitizing effect of carboplatin and paclitaxel to carbon-ion beam irradiation in the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line H460.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Nobuteru; Noda, Shin-ei; Takahashi, Akihisa; Yoshida, Yukari; Oike, Takahiro; Murata, Kazutoshi; Musha, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the ability of carboplatin and paclitaxel to sensitize human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to carbon-ion beam irradiation. NSCLC H460 cells treated with carboplatin or paclitaxel were irradiated with X-rays or carbon-ion beams, and radiosensitivity was evaluated by clonogenic survival assay. Cell proliferation was determined by counting the number of viable cells using Trypan blue. Apoptosis and senescence were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, respectively. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, p53 and p21 was analyzed by western blotting. Clonogenic survival assays demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of carboplatin and paclitaxel with carbon-ion beams; the sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) at the dose giving a 10% survival fraction (D10) were 1.21 and 1.22, respectively. Similarly, carboplatin and paclitaxel showed a radiosensitizing effect with X-rays; the SERs were 1.41 and 1.29, respectively. Cell proliferation assays validated the radiosensitizing effect of carboplatin and paclitaxel with both carbon-ion beam and X-ray irradiation. Carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment combined with carbon-ion beams increased TUNEL-positive cells and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, indicating the enhancement of apoptosis. The combined treatment also increased SA-β-gal-positive cells and the expression of p53 and p21, indicating the enhancement of senescence. In summary, carboplatin and paclitaxel radiosensitized H460 cells to carbon-ion beam irradiation by enhancing irradiation-induced apoptosis and senescence. PMID:25599995

  12. Endothelial cell subpopulations in vitro: cell volume, cell cycle, and radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Bauer, K.D. )

    1989-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are important clinical targets of radiation and other forms of free radical/oxidant stresses. In this study, we found that the extent of endothelial damage may be determined by the different cytotoxic responses of EC subpopulations. The following characteristics of EC subpopulations were examined: (1) cell volume; (2) cell cycle position; and (3) cytotoxic indexes for both acute cell survival and proliferative capacity after irradiation (137Cs, gamma, 0-10 Gy). EC cultured from bovine aortas were separated by centrifugal elutriation into subpopulations of different cell volumes. Through flow cytometry, we found that cell volume was related to the cell cycle phase distribution. The smallest EC were distributed in G1 phase and the larger cells were distributed in either early S, middle S, or late S + G2M phases. Cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation was not associated with acute cell loss. However, distribution in the cell cycle did relate to cell survival based on proliferative capacity (P less than 0.01). The order of increasing radioresistance was cells in G1 (D0 = 110 cGy), early S (135 cGy), middle S (145 cGy), and late S + G2M phases (180 cGy). These findings (1) suggest an age-related response to radiation in a nonmalignant differentiated cell type and (2) demonstrate EC subpopulations in culture.

  13. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. PMID:25542408

  14. EphrinB2 drives perivascular invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Krusche, Benjamin; Ottone, Cristina; Clements, Melanie P; Johnstone, Ewan R; Goetsch, Katrin; Lieven, Huang; Mota, Silvia G; Singh, Poonam; Khadayate, Sanjay; Ashraf, Azhaar; Davies, Timothy; Pollard, Steven M; De Paola, Vincenzo; Roncaroli, Federico; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Bertone, Paul; Parrinello, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours, which contain a subpopulation of tumour-propagating glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) thought to drive progression and recurrence. Diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma, including along preexisting blood vessels, is a leading cause of therapeutic resistance, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that ephrin-B2 mediates GSC perivascular invasion. Intravital imaging, coupled with mechanistic studies in murine GBM models and patient-derived GSC, revealed that endothelial ephrin-B2 compartmentalises non-tumourigenic cells. In contrast, upregulation of the same ephrin-B2 ligand in GSC enabled perivascular migration through homotypic forward signalling. Surprisingly, ephrin-B2 reverse signalling also promoted tumourigenesis cell-autonomously, by mediating anchorage-independent cytokinesis via RhoA. In human GSC-derived orthotopic xenografts, EFNB2 knock-down blocked tumour initiation and treatment of established tumours with ephrin-B2-blocking antibodies suppressed progression. Thus, our results indicate that targeting ephrin-B2 may be an effective strategy for the simultaneous inhibition of invasion and proliferation in GBM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14845.001 PMID:27350048

  15. Induction of Nuclear Enlargement and Senescence by Sirtuin Inhibitors in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyoung B; Park, Kyeong R; Kim, Soo Y; Han, Sun-Young

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuin family members with lysine deacetylase activity are known to play an important role in anti-aging and longevity. Cellular senescence is one of the hallmarks of aging, and downregulation of sirtuin is reported to induce premature senescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of small-molecule sirtuin inhibitors on cellular senescence. Various small molecules such as tenovin-1 and EX527 were employed for direct sirtuin activity inhibition. U251, SNB-75, and U87MG glioblastoma cells treated with sirtuin inhibitors exhibited phenotypes with nuclear enlargement. Furthermore, treatment of rat primary astrocytes with tenovin-1 also increased the size of the nucleus. The activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, was induced by tenovin-1 and EX527 treatment in U87MG glioblastoma cells. Consistent with the senescent phenotype, treatment with tenovin-1 increased p53 expression in U87MG cells. This study demonstrated the senescence-inducing effect of sirtuin inhibitors, which are potentially useful tools for senescence research. PMID:27340387

  16. Induction of Nuclear Enlargement and Senescence by Sirtuin Inhibitors in Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung B.; Park, Kyeong R.; Kim, Soo Y.

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin family members with lysine deacetylase activity are known to play an important role in anti-aging and longevity. Cellular senescence is one of the hallmarks of aging, and downregulation of sirtuin is reported to induce premature senescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of small-molecule sirtuin inhibitors on cellular senescence. Various small molecules such as tenovin-1 and EX527 were employed for direct sirtuin activity inhibition. U251, SNB-75, and U87MG glioblastoma cells treated with sirtuin inhibitors exhibited phenotypes with nuclear enlargement. Furthermore, treatment of rat primary astrocytes with tenovin-1 also increased the size of the nucleus. The activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, was induced by tenovin-1 and EX527 treatment in U87MG glioblastoma cells. Consistent with the senescent phenotype, treatment with tenovin-1 increased p53 expression in U87MG cells. This study demonstrated the senescence-inducing effect of sirtuin inhibitors, which are potentially useful tools for senescence research. PMID:27340387

  17. EphrinB2 drives perivascular invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Benjamin; Ottone, Cristina; Clements, Melanie P; Johnstone, Ewan R; Goetsch, Katrin; Lieven, Huang; Mota, Silvia G; Singh, Poonam; Khadayate, Sanjay; Ashraf, Azhaar; Davies, Timothy; Pollard, Steven M; De Paola, Vincenzo; Roncaroli, Federico; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Bertone, Paul; Parrinello, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours, which contain a subpopulation of tumour-propagating glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) thought to drive progression and recurrence. Diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma, including along preexisting blood vessels, is a leading cause of therapeutic resistance, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that ephrin-B2 mediates GSC perivascular invasion. Intravital imaging, coupled with mechanistic studies in murine GBM models and patient-derived GSC, revealed that endothelial ephrin-B2 compartmentalises non-tumourigenic cells. In contrast, upregulation of the same ephrin-B2 ligand in GSC enabled perivascular migration through homotypic forward signalling. Surprisingly, ephrin-B2 reverse signalling also promoted tumourigenesis cell-autonomously, by mediating anchorage-independent cytokinesis via RhoA. In human GSC-derived orthotopic xenografts, EFNB2 knock-down blocked tumour initiation and treatment of established tumours with ephrin-B2-blocking antibodies suppressed progression. Thus, our results indicate that targeting ephrin-B2 may be an effective strategy for the simultaneous inhibition of invasion and proliferation in GBM. PMID:27350048

  18. Curcumin and trans-resveratrol exert cell cycle-dependent radioprotective or radiosensitizing effects as elucidated by the PCC and G2-assay.

    PubMed

    Sebastià, N; Montoro, A; Hervás, D; Pantelias, G; Hatzi, V I; Soriano, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Terzoudi, G I

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are well-known antioxidant polyphenols with radiomodulatory properties, radioprotecting non-cancerous cells while radiosensitizing tumor cells. This dual action may be the result of their radical scavenging properties and their effects on cell-cycle checkpoints that are activated in response to radiation-induced chromosomal damage. It could be also caused by their effect on regulatory pathways with impact on detoxification enzymes, the up-regulation of endogenous protective systems, and cell-cycle-dependent processes of DNA damage. This work aims to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the dual action of these polyphenols and investigates under which conditions they exhibit radioprotecting or radiosensitizing properties. The peripheral blood lymphocyte test system was used, applying concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 140μM curcumin and 2.2 to 220μM trans-resveratrol. The experimental design focuses first on their radioprotective effects in non-cycling lymphocytes, as uniquely visualized using cell fusion-mediated premature chromosome condensation, excluding, thus, cell-cycle interference to repair processes and activation of checkpoints. Second, the radiosensitizing potential of these chemicals on the induction of chromatid breaks in cultured lymphocytes following G2-phase irradiation was evaluated by a standardized G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity predictive assay. This assay uses caffeine for G2-checkpoint abrogation and it was applied to obtain an internal control for radiosensitivity testing, which simulates conditions similar to those of the highly radiosensitive lymphocytes of AT patients. The results demonstrate for the first time the cell-cycle-dependent action of these polyphenols. When non-cycling cells are irradiated, the radioprotective properties of curcumin and trans-resveratrol are more prominent. However, when cycling cells are irradiated during G2-phase, the radiosensitizing features of these compounds are more

  19. Proteasome Inhibitors Block DNA Repair and Radiosensitize Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Deepa S.; Hsieh, Grace; Merzon, Dmitry; Rameseder, Jonathan; Chen, Clark C.; D’Andrea, Alan D.; Kozono, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite optimal radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy and/or surgery, a majority of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fail treatment. To identify novel gene targets for improved tumor control, we performed whole genome RNAi screens to identify knockdowns that most reproducibly increase NSCLC cytotoxicity. These screens identified several proteasome subunits among top hits, including the topmost hit PSMA1, a component of the core 20 S proteasome. Radiation and proteasome inhibition showed synergistic effects. Proteasome inhibition resulted in an 80–90% decrease in homologous recombination (HR), a 50% decrease in expression of NF-κB-inducible HR genes BRCA1 and FANCD2, and a reduction of BRCA1, FANCD2 and RAD51 ionizing radiation-induced foci. IκBα RNAi knockdown rescued NSCLC radioresistance. Irradiation of mice with NCI-H460 xenografts after inducible PSMA1 shRNA knockdown markedly increased murine survival compared to either treatment alone. Proteasome inhibition is a promising strategy for NSCLC radiosensitization via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated expression of Fanconi Anemia/HR DNA repair genes. PMID:24040035

  20. RNA interference for epidermal growth factor receptor enhances the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HEPING; LI, JIANCHENG; CHENG, WENFANG; LIU, DI; CHEN, CHENG; WANG, XIAOYING; LU, XUJING; ZHOU, XIFA

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, on the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. EGFR gene siRNAs (EGFR-siRNA) were introduced into esophageal cancer Eca109 cells using Lipofectamine® 2000. The EGFR messenger (m)RNA expression levels, EGFR protein expression and cell growth were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blot analysis and a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), respectively. In addition, colony assays were used to determine the inhibitory effects of X-ray radiation on EGFR-silenced cells. EGFR mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the Eca109 cells transfected with EGFR-siRNA. The relative EGFR mRNA expression levels were reduced to 26.74, 9.52 and 4.61% in Eca109 cells transfected with EGFR-siRNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. These mRNA levels were significantly reduced compared with the those of the control group (42.44%; P<0.0001). Transfection with siRNA3 resulted in the greatest reduction in EGFR mRNA expression, with an inhibition rate of 85%. The relative EGFR protein expression levels were reduced to 24.05, 34.91 and 34.14% in Eca109 cells transfected with EGFR-siRNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. These protein levels were significantly reduced compared with those of the control group (78.57%; P<0.0001). Transfection with siRNA1 resulted in the greatest reduction in EGFR protein expression, with an inhibition rate of 72.84%. This reduction in EGFR expression inhibited the proliferation of Eca109 cells, which was identified using the CCK-8 assay. The proliferation inhibition ratio was 28.2%. The cells treated with irradiation in addition to EGFR-siRNA, demonstrated reduced radiobiological parameters (D0, Dq and SF2) compared with those of cells treated with irradiation only, with a sensitization enhancing ratio of 1.5. In conclusion, suppression of EGFR expression may enhance the radiosensitivity

  1. Analysis of dysregulated long non-coding RNA expressions in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Balci, Tugce; Yilmaz Susluer, Sunde; Kayabasi, Cagla; Ozmen Yelken, Besra; Biray Avci, Cigir; Gunduz, Cumhur

    2016-09-15

    Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with various biological roles such as embryogenesis, stem cell biology, cellular development and present specific tissue expression profiles. Aberrant expression of lncRNAs are thought to play a critical role in the progression and development of various cancer types, including gliomas. Glioblastomas (GBM) are common and malignant primary brain tumours. Brain cancer stem cells (BCSC) are isolated from both low and high-grade tumours in adults and children, by cell fraction which express neuronal stem cell surface marker CD133. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of lncRNAs in brain tumour cells and determine its potential biological function. For this purpose, U118MG-U87MG; GBM stem cell series were used. Human parental brain cancer cells were included as the control group; the expressions of disease related human lncRNA profiles were studied by LightCycler 480 real-time PCR. Expression profiles of 83 lncRNA genes were analyzed for a significant dysregulation, compared to the control cells. Among lncRNAs, 51 lncRNA genes down-regulated, while 8 lncRNA genes were up-regulated. PCAT-1 (-2.36), MEG3 (-5.34), HOTAIR (-2.48) lncRNAs showed low expression in glioblastoma compared to the human (parental) brain cancer stem cells, indicating their role as tumour suppressor genes on gliomas. As a result, significant changes for anti-cancer gene expressions were detected with disease-related human lncRNA array plates. Identification of novel target genes may lead to promising developments in human brain cancer treatment. PMID:27306825

  2. Establishment and Characterization of a Tumor Stem Cell-Based Glioblastoma Invasion Model

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Meyer, Morten; Halle, Bo; Rosager, Ann Mari; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark; Kruse, Torben A.; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Aims Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Recurrence is inevitable and most likely connected to tumor invasion and presence of therapy resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim was therefore to establish and characterize a three-dimensional in vivo-like in vitro model taking invasion and tumor stemness into account. Methods Glioblastoma stem cell-like containing spheroid (GSS) cultures derived from three different patients were established and characterized. The spheroids were implanted in vitro into rat brain slice cultures grown in stem cell medium and in vivo into brains of immuno-compromised mice. Invasion was followed in the slice cultures by confocal time-lapse microscopy. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared tumor cell invasion as well as expression of proliferation and stem cell markers between the models. Results We observed a pronounced invasion into brain slice cultures both by confocal time-lapse microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This invasion closely resembled the invasion in vivo. The Ki-67 proliferation indexes in spheroids implanted into brain slices were lower than in free-floating spheroids. The expression of stem cell markers varied between free-floating spheroids, spheroids implanted into brain slices and tumors in vivo. Conclusion The established invasion model kept in stem cell medium closely mimics tumor cell invasion into the brain in vivo preserving also to some extent the expression of stem cell markers. The model is feasible and robust and we suggest the model as an in vivo-like model with a great potential in glioma studies and drug discovery. PMID:27454178

  3. Cell cycle and aging, morphogenesis, and response to stimuli genes are individualized biomarkers of glioblastoma progression and survival

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    associated glioblastoma survival included morphogenesis, cell cycle, aging, response to stimuli, and programmed cell death. Conclusions Known biomarkers of glioblastoma survival were confirmed, and new general and clinical-dependent gene profiles were uncovered. The comparison of biomarkers across glioblastoma phases and functional analyses offered insights into the role of genes. These findings support the development of more accurate and personalized prognostic tools and gene-based therapies that improve the survival and quality of life of individuals afflicted by glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:21649900

  4. Rapid and efficient transfer of the T cell aging marker CD57 from glioblastoma stem cells to CAR T cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuekai; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) holds great promise for cancer treatment. We recently developed CAR T cells targeting the prototypic cancer stem cell marker AC133 and showed that these CAR T cells killed AC133+ glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) in vitro and inhibited the growth of brain tumors initiated from GBM-SCs in xenograft mouse models in vivo. Upon coincubation with GBM-SCs, we observed strong upregulation of the T cell aging marker CD57, but other phenotypical or functional changes usually associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not immediately be detected. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that CD57 is rapidly and efficiently transferred from CD57+ GBM-SCs to preactivated T cells and that the transfer is greatly enhanced by specific CAR/ligand interaction. After separation from CD57+ tumor cells, CD57 epitope expression on T cells decreased only slowly over several days. We conclude that CD57 transfer from tumor cells to T cells may occur in patients with CD57+ tumors and that it may have to be considered in the interpretation of phenotyping results for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and perhaps also in the characterization of tumor-specific T cells from tumor or lymph node homogenates or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:26097880

  5. Radiosensitization of TPGS-emulsified docetaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles in CNE-1 and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Yuan, Yin; Chu, Min; Zhao, Shuang; Song, Qingle; Mu, Xiaoqian; Xu, Shuangbing; Zhang, Zhiping; Yang, Kunyu

    2016-03-01

    Docetaxel is among the most effective radiosensitizers. It is widely used as radiosensitizer in many tumors, including head and neck carcinoma. Nevertheless, poor solubility and severe hypersensitivity limit its clinical use and its therapeutic effect remains to be improved. In this study, docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method to be new radiosensitizer with lower side effects and higher efficacy. The physiochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles were studied. Two human tumor cell lines which are resistant to radiotherapy were used in this research. We have compared the radioenhancement efficacy of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles with docetaxel in A549 and CNE-1 cells. Compared with docetaxel, radiosensitization of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles was improved significantly (sensitization enhancement ratio in A549 increased 1.24-fold to 1.68-fold when the radiation was applied 2 h after the drug, p < 0.01, sensitization enhancement ratio in CNE-1 increased 1.32-fold to 1.61-fold, p < 0.05). We explored the mechanisms for the radiosensitization efficiency and the difference between docetaxel and docetaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, promoted apoptosis and the role of D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate which will enhance the cell uptake and inhibit the multiple drug resistance. Moreover, the radiosensitization efficacy of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles was more prominent than docetaxel. In conclusion, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-emulsified docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were more efficacious and fewer adverse effects were observed than with the commercial docetaxel formulation. Thus, PLGA nanoparticles hold promise as a radiosensitizing agent. PMID:26608458

  6. Modeling the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Cancer Stem Cells with Ordinary Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Kristen; Burke, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in cancer therapy and treatments, tumor recurrence is a common event in cancer patients. One explanation of recurrence is that cancer therapy focuses on treatment of tumor cells and does not eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are postulated to behave similar to normal stem cells in that their role is to maintain homeostasis. That is, when the population of tumor cells is reduced or depleted by treatment, CSCs will repopulate the tumor, causing recurrence. In this paper, we study the application of the CSC Hypothesis to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme by immunotherapy. We extend the work of Kogan et al. (2008) to incorporate the dynamics of CSCs, prove the existence of a recurrence state, and provide an analysis of possible cancerous states and their dependence on treatment levels. PMID:27022405

  7. Cathepsin L suppression increases the radiosensitivity of human glioma U251 cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest and DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-qing; Wang, Wen-juan; Li, Jun; Yang, Neng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhong; Liang, Zhong-qin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cathepsin L is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays important roles in cancer tumorigenesis, proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. The aim of this study was to determine how cathepsin L regulated the radiosensitivity of human glioma cells in vitro. Methods: Human glioma U251 cells (harboring the mutant type p53 gene) and U87 cells (harboring the wide type p53 gene) were irradiated with X-rays. The expression of cathepsin L was analyzed using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell survival and DNA damage were evaluated using clonogenic and comet assays, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle distribution. Apoptotic cells were observed using Hoechst 33258 staining and fluorescence microscopy. Results: Irradiation significantly increased the cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of cathepsin L in U251 cells but not in U87 cells. Treatment with the specific cathepsin L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO (10 μmol/L) or transfection with cathepsin L shRNA significantly increased the radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Both suppression and knockdown of cathepsin L in U251 cells increased irradiation-induced DNA damage and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Both suppression and knockdown of cathepsin L in U251 cells also increased irradiation-induced apoptosis, as shown by the increased levels of Bax and decreased levels of Bcl-2. Conclusion: Cathepsin L is involved in modulation of radiosensitivity in human glioma U251 cells (harboring the mutant type p53 gene) in vitro. PMID:26095040

  8. ATM-Dependent Hyper-Radiosensitivity in Mammalian Cells Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Lian; Yu Dong Furusawa, Yoshiya; Cao Jianping; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fan Saijun

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and the later appearing radioresistance (termed induced radioresistance [IRR]) was mainly studied in low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation with survival observation. The aim of this study was to find out whether equivalent hypersensitivity occurred in high LET radiation, and the roles of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Methods and Materials: Survival and mutation were measured by clonogenic assay and HPRT mutation assay. ATM Ser1981 activation was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment of specific ATM inhibitor (10 {mu}M KU55933) and activator (20 {mu}g/mL chloroquine) before carbon radiation were adopted to explore the involvement of ATM. The roles of ATM were also investigated in its G2/M checkpoint function with histone H3 phosphorylation analysis and flow cytometric assay, and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair function measured using {gamma}-H2AX foci assay. Results: HRS/IRR was observed with survival and mutation in normal human skin fibroblast cells by carbon ions, while impaired in cells with intrinsic ATM deficiency or normal cells modified with specific ATM activator or inhibitor before irradiation. The dose-response pattern of ATM kinase activation was concordant with the transition from HRS to IRR. The ATM-dependent 'early' G2 checkpoint arrest and DNA DSB repair efficiency could explain the difference between HRS and IRR. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the HRS/IRR by carbon ion radiation is an ATM-dependent phenomenon in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  9. γ-Secretase inhibitor-resistant glioblastoma stem cells require RBPJ to propagate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Targeting glioblastoma stem cells with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) disrupts the Notch pathway and has shown some benefit in both pre-clinical models and in patients during phase I/II clinical trials. However, it is largely unknown why some glioblastoma (GBM) does not respond to GSI treatment. In this issue of the JCI, Xie et al. determined that GSI-resistant brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from GBM express a higher level of the gene RBPJ, which encodes a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, compared to non-BTICs. Knockdown of RBPJ in BTICs decreased propagation in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, RBPJ was shown to regulate a different transcription program than Notch in BTICs by binding CDK9, thereby affecting Pol II-regulated transcript elongation. Targeting CDK9 or c-MYC, an upstream regulator of RBPJ, with small molecules also decreased BTIC propagation, and prolonged survival in mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts. This study not only provides a mechanism for GSI treatment resistance, but also identifies two potential therapeutic strategies to target GSI-resistant BTICs. PMID:27322058

  10. Radiosensitization by PARP Inhibition in DNA Repair Proficient and Deficient Tumor Cells: Proliferative Recovery in Senescent Cells.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Moureq; Sharma, Khushboo; Saleh, Tareq; Povirk, Lawrence F; Hendrickson, Eric A; Gewirtz, David A

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy continues to be a primary modality in the treatment of cancer. In addition to promoting apoptosis, radiation-induced DNA damage can promote autophagy and senescence, both of which can theoretically function to prolong tumor survival. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that autophagy and/or senescence could be permissive for DNA repair, thereby facilitating tumor cell recovery from radiation-induced growth arrest and/or cell death. In addition, studies were designed to elucidate the involvement of autophagy and senescence in radiosensitization by PARP inhibitors and the re-emergence of a proliferating tumor cell population. In the context of this work, the relationship between radiation-induced autophagy and senescence was also determined. Studies were performed using DNA repair-proficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and a repair-deficient ligase IV(-/-) isogenic cell line. Exposure to radiation promoted a parallel induction of autophagy and senescence that was strongly correlated with the extent of persistent H2AX phosphorylation in both cell lines, however, inhibition of autophagy failed to suppress senescence, indicating that the two responses were dissociable. Exposure to radiation resulted in a transient arrest in the HCT116 cells while arrest was prolonged in the ligase IV(-/-) cells, however, both cell lines ultimately recovered proliferative function, which may reflect maintenance of DNA repair capacity. The PARP inhibitors, olaparib and niraparib, increased the extent of persistent DNA damage induced by radiation exposure as well as the extent of both autophagy and senescence. Neither cell line underwent significant apoptosis by radiation exposure alone or in the presence of the PARP inhibitors. Inhibition of autophagy failed to attenuate radiosensitization, indicating that autophagy was not involved in the action of the PARP inhibitors. As with radiation alone, despite sensitization by PARP inhibition, proliferative recovery was evident

  11. Retention of the In Vitro Radiosensitizing Potential of Gemcitabine Under Anoxic Conditions, in p53 Wild-Type and p53-Deficient Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Lambrechts, Hilde A.J.; Pattyn, Greet G.O.; Ides, Johan; Baay, Marc; Meijnders, Paul; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B.; Lardon, Filip

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Whereas radiosensitization by gemcitabine is well studied under normal oxygen conditions, little is known about its radiosensitizing potential under reduced oxygen conditions. Therefore, the present study evaluated the impact of anoxia on gemcitabine-mediated radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The clonogenic assay was performed in three isogenic A549 cell lines differing in p53 status (24 h, 0-15 nM gemcitabine, 0-8 Gy irradiation, normoxia vs. anoxia). Using radiosensitizing conditions, cells were collected for cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection. Results: Whereas wild-type p53 A549-LXSN cells were more sensitive to radiation than p53-deficient A549-E6 cells, both cell lines showed similar radiosensitization by gemcitabine under normoxia and anoxia. Independent of p53 functionality, gemcitabine was able to overcome anoxia-induced G{sub 0/1} arrest and established an (early) S phase block in normoxic and anoxic cells. The percentage early and late apoptotic/necrotic cells increased with the gemcitabine/radiation combination, with a significant difference between A549-LXSN and A549-E6. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that gemcitabine retains its radiosensitizing potential under low oxygen conditions. Although radiosensitization was observed in both p53 wild-type and p53-deficient cells, p53 status might influence induction of apoptosis after gemcitabine/radiation treatment, whereas no effect on cell cycle progression was noticed.

  12. Sodium Selenite Radiosensitizes Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Xenograft Tumors but Not Intestinal Crypt Cells In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Junqiang; Ning Shouchen; Knox, Susan J.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that sodium selenite (SSE) increases radiation-induced cell killing of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study we further evaluated the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of SSE in prostate cancer xenograft tumors and normal radiosensitive intestinal crypt cells. Methods and Materials: Immunodeficient (SCID) mice with hormone-independent LAPC-4 (HI-LAPC-4) and PC-3 xenograft tumors (approximately 200 mm{sup 3}) were divided into four groups: control (untreated), radiation therapy (XRT, local irradiation), SSE (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 3 times/week), and XRT plus SSE. The XRT was given at the beginning of the regimen as a single dose of 5 Gy for HI-LAPC-4 tumors and a single dose of 7 Gy followed by a fractional dose of 3 Gy/d for 5 days for PC-3 tumors. The tumor volume was measured 3 times per week. The radiosensitizing effect of SSE on normal intestinal epithelial cells was assessed by use of a crypt cell microcolony assay. Results: In the efficacy study, SSE alone significantly inhibited the tumor growth in HI-LAPC-4 tumors but not PC-3 tumors. Sodium selenite significantly enhanced the XRT-induced tumor growth inhibition in both HI-LAPC-4 and PC-3 tumors. In the toxicity study, SSE did not affect the intestinal crypt cell survival either alone or in combination with XRT. Conclusions: Sodium selenite significantly enhances the effect of radiation on well-established hormone-independent prostate tumors and does not sensitize the intestinal epithelial cells to radiation. These results suggest that SSE may increase the therapeutic index of XRT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  14. TARGETING SPHINGOSINE KINASE 1 INHIBITS AKT SIGNALING, INDUCES APOPTOSIS, AND SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELLS AND XENOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Kapitonov, Dmitri; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Mitchell, Clint; Hait, Nitai C.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Adams, Jeffrey K.; Zipkin, Robert E.; Dent, Paul; Kordula, Tomasz; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent sphingolipid mediator of diverse processes important for brain tumors, including cell growth, survival, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), one of the two isoenzymes that produce S1P, is upregulated in glioblastoma and has been linked to poor prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In the present study, we found that a potent isotype-specific SphK1 inhibitor, SK1-I, suppressed growth of LN229 and U373 glioblastoma cell lines and non-established human GBM6 cells. SK1-I also enhanced GBM cell death and inhibited their migration and invasion. SK1-I rapidly reduced phosphorylation of Akt but had no significant effect on activation of ERK1/2, another important survival pathway for GBM. Inhibition of the concomitant activation of the JNK pathway induced by SK1-I attenuated death of GBM cells. Importantly, SK1-I markedly reduced tumor growth rate of glioblastoma xenografts, inducing apoptosis and reducing tumor vascularization and enhanced the survival of mice harboring LN229 intracranial tumors. Our results support the notion that SphK1 may be an important factor in GBM and suggest that an isozyme-specific inhibitor of SphK1 deserves consideration as a new therapeutic agent for this disease. PMID:19723667

  15. NAC, Tiron and Trolox Impair Survival of Cell Cultures Containing Glioblastoma Tumorigenic Initiating Cells by Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Stigliani, Sara; Carra, Elisa; Monteghirfo, Stefano; Longo, Luca; Daga, Antonio; Dono, Mariella; Zupo, Simona; Giaretti, Walter; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are metabolism by-products that may act as signaling molecules to sustain tumor growth. Antioxidants have been used to impair cancer cell survival. Our goal was to determine the mechanisms involved in the response to antioxidants of a human cell culture (PT4) containing glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenic initiating cells (TICs). ROS production in the absence or presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), tiron, and trolox was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The effects of these antioxidants on cell survival and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) and FCM. The biological processes modulated by these drugs were determined by oligonucleotide microarray gene expression profiling. Our results showed that NAC, tiron and trolox impaired PT4 cell survival, had minor effects on ROS levels and caused wide deregulation of cell cycle genes. Furthermore, tiron and trolox caused inhibition of cell survival in two additional cell cultures containing TICs, FO-1 and MM1, established from a melanoma and a mesothelioma patient, respectively. NAC, instead, impaired survival of the MM1 cells but not of the FO-1 cells. However, when used in combination, NAC enhanced the inhibitory effect of PLX4032 (BRAF V600E inhibitor) and Gefitinib (EGFR inhibitor), on FO-1 and PT4 cell survival. Collectively, NAC, tiron and trolox modulated gene expression and impaired the growth of cultures containing TICs primarily by inhibiting cell cycle progression. PMID:24587218

  16. A radiosensitivity MiRNA signature validated by the TCGA database for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Boohaker, Rebecca J; Jiang, Chunling; Boohaker, James R; Xu, Bo

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNA, a class of small non-coding RNAs, play critical roles in the cellular response to DNA damage induced by ionizing irradiation (IR). Growing evidence shows alteration of miRNAs, in response to radiation, controls cellular radiosensitivity in DNA damage response pathways. However, it is less clear about the clinical relevance of miRNA regulation in radiosensitivity. Using an in vitro system, we conducted microarray to identify a miRNA signature to assess radiosensitivity. The data were validated by analyzing available Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) samples in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. A total of 27 miRNAs showed differential alteration in response to IR in an Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase-dependent manner. We validated the list and identified a five miRNA signature that can predict radiation responsiveness in HNSCC. Furthermore, we found that the expression level of ATM in these patients was correlated with the radiation responsiveness. Together, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a miRNA signature to predict the clinical responsiveness of HNSCC radiotherapy. PMID:26452218

  17. Bortezomib sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to induction of apoptosis by type I interferons through NOXA expression and Mcl-1 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruishan; Davidoff, Andrew M; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastomas are highly invasive and aggressive primary brain tumors. Type I interferons have significant, pleiotropic anticancer activity. However, through various pathways many cancers become interferon-resistant, limiting interferon's clinical utility. In this study, we demonstrated that the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib sensitized human glioblastoma cells to the antiproliferative action of interferons, which involved the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis but not necroptosis. We found that death ligands such as TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) were not involved in interferon/bortezomib-induced apoptosis, although interferon induced TRAIL expression. However, apoptosis was induced through an intrinsic pathway involving increased NOXA expression and Mcl-1 cleavage. Our findings may provide an important rationale for combining type I interferons with bortezomib for glioblastoma therapy. PMID:27450810

  18. Direct inhibition of Retinoblastoma phosphorylation by Nimbolide causes cell cycle arrest and suppresses glioblastoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jane; Liu, Xiaona; Henry, Heather; Gasilina, Anjelika; Nassar, Nicholas; Ghosh, Jayeeta; Clark, Jason P; Kumar, Ashish; Pauletti, Giovanni M.; Ghosh, Pradip K; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Classical pharmacology allows the use and development of conventional phytomedicine faster and more economically than conventional drugs. This approach should be tested for their efficacy in terms of complementarity and disease control. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms by which nimbolide, a triterpenoid found in the well-known medicinal plant Azadirachta indica controls glioblastoma (GBM) growth. Experimental Design Using in vitro signaling, anchorage-independent growth, kinase assays, and xenograft models, we investigated the mechanisms of its growth inhibition in glioblastoma. Results We show that nimbolide or an ethanol soluble fraction of A. indica leaves (Azt) that contains nimbolide as the principal cytotoxic agent is highly cytotoxic against GBM in vitro and in vivo. Azt caused cell cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1-S stage in GBM cells expressing EGFRvIII, an oncogene present in about 20-25% of GBMs. Azt/nimbolide directly inhibited CDK4/CDK6 kinase activity leading to hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein, cell cycle arrest at G1-S and cell death. Independent of RB hypophosphorylation, Azt also significantly reduced proliferative and survival advantage of GBM cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts by downregulating Bcl2 and blocking growth factor induced phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2 and STAT3. These effects were specific since Azt did not affect mTOR or other cell cycle regulators. In vivo, Azt completely prevented initiation and inhibited progression of GBM growth. Conclusions Our preclinical findings demonstrate Nimbolide as a potent anti-glioma agent that blocks cell cycle and inhibits glioma growth in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24170547

  19. Prediction of radiosensitivity in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chenlu; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Qian, Tianyi; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Jian; Sui, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for predicting tumor response to radiotherapy in patients with suspected primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs). Methods DCE-MRI parameters of 35 patients with suspected primary CNS GCTs were obtained prior to diagnostic radiation, using the Tofts and Kermode model. Radiosensitivity was determined in tumors diagnosed 2 weeks after radiation by observing changes in tumor size and markers as a response to MRI. Taking radiosensitivity as the gold standard, the cut-off value of DCE-MRI parameters was measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI parameters for predicting radiosensitivity was evaluated by ROC curve. Results A significant elevation in transfer constant (Ktrans) and extravascular extracellular space (Ve) (P=0.000), as well as a significant reduction in rate constant (Kep) (P=0.000) was observed in tumors. Ktrans, relative Ktrans, and relative Kep of the responsive group were significantly higher than non-responsive groups. No significant difference was found in Kep, Ve, and relative Ve between the two groups. Relative Ktrans showed the best diagnostic value in predicting radiosensitivity with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 91.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 95.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. Conclusions Relative Ktrans appeared promising in predicting tumor response to radiation therapy (RT). It is implied that DCE-MRI pre-treatment is a requisite step in diagnostic procedures and a novel and reliable approach to guide clinical choice of RT. PMID:26157319

  20. Ectopically hTERT expressing adult human mesenchymal stem cells are less radiosensitive than their telomerase negative counterpart

    SciTech Connect

    Serakinci, Nedime . E-mail: nserakinci@health.sdu.dk; Christensen, Rikke; Graakjaer, Jesper; Cairney, Claire J.; Keith, W. Nicol; Alsner, Jan; Saretzki, Gabriele; Kolvraa, Steen

    2007-03-10

    During the past several years increasing evidence indicating that the proliferation capacity of mammalian cells is highly radiosensitive, regardless of the species and the tissue of origin of the cells, has accumulated. It has also been shown that normal bone marrow cells of mice have a similar radiosensitivity to other mammalian cells so far tested. In this study, we investigated the genetic effects of ionizing radiation (2.5-15 Gy) on normal human mesenchymal stem cells and their telomerised counterpart hMSC-telo1. We evaluated overall genomic integrity, DNA damage/repair by applying a fluorescence-detected alkaline DNA unwinding assay together with Western blot analyses for phosphorylated H2AX and Q-FISH was applied for investigation of telomeric damage. Our results indicate that hMSC and TERT-immortalized hMSCs can cope with relatively high doses of {gamma}-rays and that overall DNA repair is similar in the two cell lines. The telomeres were extensively destroyed after irradiation in both cell types suggesting that telomere caps are especially sensitive to radiation. The TERT-immortalized hMSCs showed higher stability at telomeric regions than primary hMSCs indicating that cells with long telomeres and high telomerase activity have the advantage of re-establishing the telomeric caps.

  1. Distinct sulfonation activities in resveratrol-sensitive and resveratrol-insensitive human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Hong; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Qing-You; Wu, Mo-Li; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to resveratrol. In this study, we found that U251 cells were sensitive and LN229 cells were insensitive to resveratrol. Thus, these two cell lines were taken as comparable models for elucidating the influence of sulfonation activities on resveratrol sensitivity. HPLC showed identical resveratrol metabolic patterns in both cell lines. LC/MS and high-resolution mass MS analyses further demonstrated that resveratrol monosulfate generated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) was the major metabolite of human GBM cells. The levels of brain-associated SULT (SULT1A1, SULT1C2, and SULT4A1) expression in U251 cells were lower than those in LN229 cells, suggesting the inverse relationship of SULT-mediated sulfonation activity with high intracellular resveratrol bioavailability and resveratrol sensitivity of human GBM cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in expression of the three brain-associated SULTs in 72.8%, 47.5% and 66.3% of astrocytomas, respectively. Therefore, the levels of brain-associated SULTs and sulfonation activity mediated by them could be important parameters for evaluating the potential response of human GBM cells to resveratrol, and may have value in the personalized treatment of GBMs with resveratrol. PMID:22540632

  2. Inhibition of Dopamine Receptor D4 Impedes Autophagic Flux, Proliferation, and Survival of Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Dolma, Sonam; Selvadurai, Hayden J; Lan, Xiaoyang; Lee, Lilian; Kushida, Michelle; Voisin, Veronique; Whetstone, Heather; So, Milly; Aviv, Tzvi; Park, Nicole; Zhu, Xueming; Xu, ChangJiang; Head, Renee; Rowland, Katherine J; Bernstein, Mark; Clarke, Ian D; Bader, Gary; Harrington, Lea; Brumell, John H; Tyers, Mike; Dirks, Peter B

    2016-06-13

    Glioblastomas (GBM) grow in a rich neurochemical milieu, but the impact of neurochemicals on GBM growth is largely unexplored. We interrogated 680 neurochemical compounds in patient-derived GBM neural stem cells (GNS) to determine the effects on proliferation and survival. Compounds that modulate dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic signaling pathways selectively affected GNS growth. In particular, dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) antagonists selectively inhibited GNS growth and promoted differentiation of normal neural stem cells. DRD4 antagonists inhibited the downstream effectors PDGFRβ, ERK1/2, and mTOR and disrupted the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, leading to accumulation of autophagic vacuoles followed by G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These results demonstrate a role for neurochemical pathways in governing GBM stem cell proliferation and suggest therapeutic approaches for GBM. PMID:27300435

  3. Standard sub-thermoneutral caging temperature influences radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Eng, Jason W-L; Dougher, Christopher W; Curtin, Leslie; Capitano, Maegan L; Sailsbury-Ruf, Christi T; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Nemeth, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI). Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C) resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI. PMID:25793392

  4. Standard Sub-Thermoneutral Caging Temperature Influences Radiosensitivity of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Jason W.-L.; Dougher, Christopher W.; Curtin, Leslie; Capitano, Maegan L.; Sailsbury-Ruf, Christi T.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Nemeth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI). Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C) resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI. PMID:25793392

  5. AZD5438, an Inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Pavithra; Tumati, Vasu; Yu Lan; Chan, Norman; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; Burma, Sandeep; Bristow, Robert G.; Saha, Debabrata

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary modalities for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the intrinsic radiation resistance of these tumors, many patients experience RT failure, which leads to considerable tumor progression including regional lymph node and distant metastasis. This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of a new-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, AZD5438, as a radiosensitizer in several NSCLC models that are specifically resistant to conventional fractionated RT. Methods and Materials: The combined effect of ionizing radiation and AZD5438, a highly specific inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, was determined in vitro by surviving fraction, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and homologous recombination (HR) assays in 3 NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, and H460). For in vivo studies, human xenograft animal models in athymic nude mice were used. Results: Treatment of NSCLC cells with AZD5438 significantly augmented cellular radiosensitivity (dose enhancement ratio rangeing from 1.4 to 1.75). The degree of radiosensitization by AZD5438 was greater in radioresistant cell lines (A549 and H1299). Radiosensitivity was enhanced specifically through inhibition of Cdk1, prolonged G{sub 2}-M arrest, inhibition of HR, delayed DNA DSB repair, and increased apoptosis. Combined treatment with AZD5438 and irradiation also enhanced tumor growth delay, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2-1.7. Conclusions: This study supports the evaluation of newer generation Cdk inhibitors, such as AZD5438, as potent radiosensitizers in NSCLC models, especially in tumors that demonstrate variable intrinsic radiation responses.

  6. RGD-conjugated gold nanorods induce radiosensitization in melanoma cancer cells by downregulating αvβ3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wencai; Luo, Teng; Li, Ping; Zhou, Chuanqing; Cui, Daxiang; Pang, Bo; Ren, Qiushi; Fu, Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background Melanoma is known to be radioresistant and traditional treatments have been intractable. Therefore, novel approaches are required to improve the therapeutic efficacy of melanoma treatment. In our study, gold nanorods conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp peptides (RGD-GNRs) were used as a sensitizer to enhance the response of melanoma cells to 6 mV radiation. Methods and materials A375 melanoma cells were treated by gold nanorods or RGD-GNRs with or without irradiation. The antiproliferative impact of the treatments was measured by MTT assay. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle data were measured by flow cytometry. Integrin αvβ3 expression was also investigated by flow cytometry. Results Addition of RGD-GNRs enhanced the radiosensitivity of A375 cells with a dose-modifying factor of 1.35, and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that RGD-GNRs plus irradiation induced significant G2/M phase arrest in A375 cells. Both spontaneous and radiation-induced expressions of integrin αvβ3 were downregulated by RGD-GNRs. Conclusion Our study indicated that RGD-GNRs could sensitize melanoma A375 cells to irradiation. It was hypothesized that this was mainly through downregulation of radiation-induced αvβ3, in addition to induction of a higher proportion of cells within the G2/M phase. The combination of RGD-GNRs and radiation needs further investigation. PMID:22412298

  7. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy γ rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy γ rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few γ irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy γ irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to γ irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  8. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy {gamma} rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy {gamma} rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few {gamma} irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy {gamma} irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to {gamma} irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  9. The DNA damage/repair cascade in glioblastoma cell lines after chemotherapeutic agent treatment.

    PubMed

    Annovazzi, Laura; Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Riganti, Chiara; Battaglia, Luigi; Chirio, Daniela; Melcarne, Antonio; Schiffer, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been linked to a subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like properties, the glioma stem cells (GSCs), responsible for cancer progression and recurrence. This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of three chemotherapeutics, temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PTX) on glioma cell lines, by analyzing the molecular mechanisms leading to DNA repair and cell resistance, or to cell death. The drugs were tested on 16 GBM cell lines, grown as neurospheres (NS) or adherent cells (AC), by studying DNA damage occurrence by Comet assay, the expression by immunofluorescence and western blotting of checkpoint/repair molecules and apoptosis. The three drugs were able to provoke a genotoxic injury and to inhibit dose- and time-dependently cell proliferation, more evidently in AC than in NS. The first cell response to DNA damage was the activation of the damage sensors (p-ATM, p-53BP1, γ-H2AX), followed by repair effectors; the expression of checkpoint/repair molecules appeared higher in NS than in AC. The non-homologous repair pathway (NHEJ) seemed more involved than the homologous one (HR). Apoptosis occurred after long treatment times, but only a small percentage of cells in NS underwent death, even at high drug concentration, whereas most cells survived in a quiescent state and resumed proliferation after drug removal. In tumor specimens, checkpoint/repair proteins were constitutively expressed in GBMs, but not in low-grade gliomas. PMID:25892134

  10. Alterations in cellular metabolome after pharmacological inhibition of Notch in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Ulf D; Cheng, Menglin; Koch, Katharina; Marchionni, Luigi; Fan, Xing; Raabe, Eric H; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Glunde, Kristine; Eberhart, Charles G

    2016-03-01

    Notch signaling can promote tumorigenesis in the nervous system and plays important roles in stem-like cancer cells. However, little is known about how Notch inhibition might alter tumor metabolism, particularly in lesions arising in the brain. The gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 was used to treat glioblastoma neurospheres, and they were subdivided into sensitive and insensitive groups in terms of canonical Notch target response. Global metabolomes were then examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and changes in intracellular concentration of various metabolites identified which correlate with Notch inhibition. Reductions in glutamate were verified by oxidation-based colorimetric assays. Interestingly, the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, the mTOR-inhibitor MLN0128, and the WNT inhibitor LGK974 did not reduce glutamate levels, suggesting that changes to this metabolite might reflect specific downstream effects of Notch blockade in gliomas rather than general sequelae of tumor growth inhibition. Global and targeted expression analyses revealed that multiple genes important in glutamate homeostasis, including glutaminase, are dysregulated after Notch inhibition. Treatment with an allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase, compound 968, could slow glioblastoma growth, and Notch inhibition may act at least in part by regulating glutaminase and glutamate. PMID:26422827

  11. Alterations in cellular metabolome after pharmacological inhibition of Notch in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kahlert, Ulf D.; Cheng, Menglin; Koch, Katharina; Marchionni, Luigi; Fan, Xing; Raabe, Eric H.; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Glunde, Kristine; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling can promote tumorigenesis in the nervous system and plays important roles in stem-like cancer cells. However, little is known about how Notch inhibition might alter tumor metabolism, particularly in lesions arising in the brain. The gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 was used to treat glioblastoma neurospheres, and they were subdivided into sensitive and insensitive groups in terms of canonical Notch target response. Global metabolomes were then examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and changes in intracellular concentration of various metabolites identified which correlate with Notch inhibition. Reductions in glutamate were verified by oxidation-based colorimetric assays. Interestingly, the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, the mTOR-inhibitor MLN0128, and the WNT inhibitor LGK974 did not reduce glutamate levels, suggesting that changes to this metabolite might reflect specific downstream effects of Notch blockade in gliomas rather than general sequelae of tumor growth inhibition. Global and targeted expression analyses revealed that multiple genes important in glutamate homeostasis, including glutaminase, are dysregulated after Notch inhibition. Treatment with an allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase, compound 968, could slow glioblastoma growth, and Notch inhibition may act at least in part by regulating glutaminase and glutamate. PMID:26422827

  12. Computational techniques to the topology and dynamics of lipidomic networks found in glioblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Görke, Robert; He, Huan; Emmett, Mark R.; Marshall, Alan G.; Conrad, Charles A.

    2010-04-01

    Newly emerging advances in both measurement as well as bio-inspired computation techniques have facilitated the development of so-called lipidomics technologies and offer an excellent opportunity to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. The analysis and the understanding of the global interactional behavior of lipidomic networks remains a challenging task and can not be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. The present contribution aims at developing novel computational approaches to assess the topological and functional aspects of lipidomic networks and discusses their benefits compared to recently proposed techniques. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. The dynamic description of the lipidomic network is given through multi-mode nonlinear autonomous stochastic systems to model the interactions at the molecular level and to study the success of novel gene therapies for eradicating the aggressive glioblastoma. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  13. Enhancement of glioblastoma radioresponse by a selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Khong Bee . E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg; Wang, Ting Ting; Woon, Chow Thai; Cheah, Elizabeth S.; Moore, Xiao Lei; Zhu Congju; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Toward improved glioblastoma multiforme treatment, we determined whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, could enhance glioblastoma radiosensitivity by inducing tumor necrosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Methods and Materials: U-87MG cells treated with celecoxib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival and angiogenic factor protein analysis (angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). In vivo, survival of mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells and treated with celecoxib and/or irradiation was monitored. Isolated tumors were assessed for tumor necrosis and tumor microvascular density by von Williebrand's factor (vWF) immunohistochemical staining. Results: Celecoxib (4 and 30 {mu}M; 24, 48, and 72 h) enhanced U-87MG cell radiosensitivity by significantly reducing clonogenic survival of irradiated cells. Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF proteins were decreased, whereas angiopoietin-2 expression increased after 72 h of celecoxib alone and when combined with irradiation. In vivo, median survival of control mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells was 18 days. Celecoxib (100 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) significantly extended median survival of irradiated mice (24 Gy total) from 34 to 41 days, with extensive tumor necrosis [24.5 {+-} 8.6% of tumor region, compared with irradiation alone (2.7 {+-} 1.8%)]. Tumor microvascular density was significantly reduced in combined celecoxib and irradiated tumors (52.5 {+-} 2.9 microvessels per mm{sup 2} tumor region), compared with irradiated tumors alone (65.4 {+-} 4.0 microvessels per mm{sup 2}). Conclusion: Celecoxib significantly enhanced glioblastoma radiosensitivity, reduced clonogenic survival, and prolonged survival of glioblastoma-implanted mice by inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necr0010os.

  14. The Synergistic Effect of Combination Progesterone and Temozolomide on Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Fahim; Patel, Neil R.; Yousuf, Seema; Stein, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant brain tumor. Despite optimal treatment and evolving standard of care, the median survival of patients diagnosed with GBM is only 12–15 months. In this study, we combined progesterone (PROG) and temozolomide (TMZ), a standard chemotherapeutic agent for human GBM, to test whether PROG enhances the antitumor effects of TMZ and reduces its side effects. Two WHO grade IV human GBM cells lines (U87MG and U118MG) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were repeatedly exposed to PROG and TMZ either alone or in combination for 3 and 6 days. Cell death was measured by MTT reduction assay. PROG and TMZ individually induced tumor cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PROG at high doses produced more cell death than TMZ alone. When combined, PROG enhanced the cell death-inducing effect of TMZ. In HDFs, PROG did not reduce viability even at the same high cytotoxic doses, but TMZ did so in a dose-dependent manner. In combination, PROG reduced TMZ toxicity in HDFs. PROG alone and in combination with TMZ suppressed the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MGMT expression in U87MG cells, thus suppressing cell proliferation. PROG and TMZ individually reduced cell migration in U87MG cells but did so more effectively in combination. PROG enhances the cytotoxic effects of TMZ in GBM cells and reduces its toxic side effects in healthy primary cells. PMID:26110872

  15. Ionizing Radiation and Glioblastoma Exosomes: Implications in Tumor Biology and Cell Migration12

    PubMed Central

    Arscott, W Tris; Tandle, Anita T; Zhao, Shuping; Shabason, Jacob E; Gordon, Ira K; Schlaff, Cody D; Zhang, Guofeng; Tofilon, Philip J; Camphausen, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized lipid vesicles released ubiquitously by cells, which have been shown to have a normal physiological role, as well as influence the tumor microenvironment and aid metastasis. Recent studies highlight the ability of exosomes to convey tumor-suppressive and oncogenic mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins to a receiving cell, subsequently activating downstream signaling pathways and influencing cellular phenotype. Here, we show that radiation increases the abundance of exosomes released by glioblastoma cells and normal astrocytes. Exosomes derived from irradiated cells enhanced the migration of recipient cells, and their molecular profiling revealed an abundance of molecules related to signaling pathways important for cell migration. In particular, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) protein levels were elevated, and coculture of nonirradiated cells with exosomes isolated from irradiated cells increased CTGF protein expression in the recipient cells. Additionally, these exosomes enhanced the activation of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA), focal adhesion kinase, Paxillin, and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) in recipient cells, molecules involved in cell migration. Collectively, our data suggest that radiation influences exosome abundance, specifically alters their molecular composition, and on uptake, promotes a migratory phenotype. PMID:24466366

  16. Targeting a Plk1-Controlled Polarity Checkpoint in Therapy-Resistant Glioblastoma-Propagating Cells.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Robin G; Grossauer, Stefan; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Meyers, Ian; Sidorov, Maxim; Koeck, Katharina; Hashizume, Rintaro; Ozawa, Tomoko; Phillips, Joanna J; Berger, Mitchel S; Nicolaides, Theodore; James, C David; Petritsch, Claudia K

    2015-12-15

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) remains challenging in part due to the presence of stem-like tumor-propagating cells that are resistant to standard therapies consisting of radiation and temozolomide. Among the novel and targeted agents under evaluation for the treatment of GBM are BRAF/MAPK inhibitors, but their effects on tumor-propagating cells are unclear. Here, we characterized the behaviors of CD133(+) tumor-propagating cells isolated from primary GBM cell lines. We show that CD133(+) cells exhibited decreased sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of BRAF/MAPK inhibition compared to CD133(-) cells. Furthermore, CD133(+) cells exhibited an extended G2-M phase and increased polarized asymmetric cell divisions. At the molecular level, we observed that polo-like kinase (PLK) 1 activity was elevated in CD133(+) cells, prompting our investigation of BRAF/PLK1 combination treatment effects in an orthotopic GBM xenograft model. Combined inhibition of BRAF and PLK1 resulted in significantly greater antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects beyond those achieved by monotherapy (P < 0.05). We propose that PLK1 activity controls a polarity checkpoint and compensates for BRAF/MAPK inhibition in CD133(+) cells, suggesting the need for concurrent PLK1 inhibition to improve antitumor activity against a therapy-resistant cell compartment. PMID:26573800

  17. MicroRNA-449a enhances radiosensitivity by downregulation of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Aihong; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Chao; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in DNA damage response induced by ionizing radiation (IR). c-Myc is reduced when cells treated with IR or other DNA damaging agents. It is unknown whether miRNAs participate in c-Myc downregulation in response to IR. In the present study, we found that miR-449a enhanced radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo by targeting c-Myc in prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. MiR-449a was upregulated and c-Myc was downregulated in response to IR in LNCaP cells. Overexpression of miR-449a or knockdown of c-Myc promoted the sensitivity of LNCaP cells to IR. By establishing c-Myc as a direct target of miR-449a, we revealed that miR-449a enhanced radiosensitivity by repressing c-Myc expression in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, we showed that miR-449a enhanced radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest by directly downregulating c-Myc, which controlled the Cdc2/CyclinB1 cell cycle signal by modulating Cdc25A. These results highlight an unrecognized mechanism of miR-449a-mediated c-Myc regulation in response to IR and may provide alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:27250340

  18. MicroRNA-449a enhances radiosensitivity by downregulation of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Aihong; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Chao; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in DNA damage response induced by ionizing radiation (IR). c-Myc is reduced when cells treated with IR or other DNA damaging agents. It is unknown whether miRNAs participate in c-Myc downregulation in response to IR. In the present study, we found that miR-449a enhanced radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo by targeting c-Myc in prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. MiR-449a was upregulated and c-Myc was downregulated in response to IR in LNCaP cells. Overexpression of miR-449a or knockdown of c-Myc promoted the sensitivity of LNCaP cells to IR. By establishing c-Myc as a direct target of miR-449a, we revealed that miR-449a enhanced radiosensitivity by repressing c-Myc expression in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, we showed that miR-449a enhanced radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest by directly downregulating c-Myc, which controlled the Cdc2/CyclinB1 cell cycle signal by modulating Cdc25A. These results highlight an unrecognized mechanism of miR-449a-mediated c-Myc regulation in response to IR and may provide alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:27250340

  19. Molecular and cellular effects of a novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor - belinostat - in glioblastoma cell lines: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kusaczuk, Magdalena; Krętowski, Rafał; Stypułkowska, Anna; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2016-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are now intensively investigated as potential cytostatic agents in many malignancies. Here, we provide novel information concerning the influence of belinostat (Bel), a hydroxamate-based pan-HDAC inhibitor, on glioblastoma LN-229 and LN-18 cells. We found that LN-229 cells stimulated with 2 μmol/L of Bel for 48 h resulted in 70 % apoptosis, while equivalent treatment of LN-18 cells resulted in only 28 % apoptosis. In LN-229 cells this effect was followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes including Puma, Bim, Chop and p21. In treated LN-18 cells only p21 was markedly overexpressed. Simultaneously, LN-229 cells treated with 2 μmol/L of Bel for 48 h exhibited down-regulation of molecular chaperones GRP78 and GRP94 at the protein level. In contrast, in LN-18 cells Western blot analysis did not show any marked changes in GRP78 nor GRP94 expression. Despite noticeable overexpression of p21, there were no signs of evident G1 nor G2/M cell cycle arrest, however, the reduction in number of the S phase cells was observed in both cell lines. These results collectively suggest that Bel can be considered as potential anti-glioblastoma agent. To our knowledge this is the first report presenting the effects of belinostat treatment in glioblastoma cell lines. PMID:27468826

  20. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    SciTech Connect

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael; and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  1. The SHIP2 interactor Myo1c is required for cell migration in 1321 N1 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edimo, William's Elong; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Ghosh, Somadri; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Erneux, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases consist of several enzymes that have been shown to modulate cell migration and invasion. SHIP2, one family member, is known to interact with growth factor receptors and cytoskeletal proteins. In a human model of glioblastoma 1321 N1 cells, we recently identified Myo1c as a new interactor of SHIP2. This was shown in a complex of proteins also containing filamin A. We show here that SHIP2 localization at lamellipodia and ruffles is impaired in Myo1c depleted cells. In the absence of Myo1c, N1 cells tend to associate to form clusters. Cell migration is very much reduced in Myo1c depleted cells, concomitantly with a decrease in FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation, focal adhesion length and PI(4,5)P2 immunostaining. In N1 cells, Myo1c is thus important for lamellipodia formation to assemble a protein complex containing SHIP2 to facilitate cell migration. PMID:27246739

  2. Paris Saponins enhance radiosensitivity in a gefitinib‑resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle phase arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng-Jun; Song, Shui-Chuan; Du, Lei-Wen; Zhou, Guo-Hua; Ma, Sheng-Lin; Li, Jin-Hui; Feng, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Xin-Hai; Jiang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor inhibitors has been reported to be associated with cross‑resistance to radiation. Paris Saponins (PSs) exert a wide range of pharmacological activities, including cell apoptosis induction, multidrug resistance inhibition, angiogenesis inhibition and tumor cell migration by modulating various signaling pathways. The present study aimed to investigate the radiosensitization effects of PSII, PSVI and PSVII in a gefitinib‑resistant PC‑9‑ZD lung adenocarcinoma cell line, and the possible mechanism underlying their function. A clonogenic assay was performed to determine the effects of PS radiosensitization on the PC‑9‑ZD cell line. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and cell apoptosis was analyzed with Annexin V/propidium iodide and Hoechst staining. Protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. The results of the present study revealed a significant increase in PC‑9‑ZD cell line radiosensitivity following treatment with PSs. PSs induced G2/M cell cycle phase arrest and apoptosis of the irradiated PC‑9‑ZD cells. Notably, the expression levels of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) were downregulated, and those of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and p21/Waf1/Cip1 were upregulated following treatment with PSs. The present results demonstrated that PSs induced radiosensitivity in gefitinib‑resistant cells by inducing G2/M phase arrest and by enhancing the apoptotic response via the modulation of caspase‑3, Bax, Bcl‑2 and p21/Waf1/Cip1 expression. PMID:26846193

  3. Genome-wide transcriptional analyses of Chinese patients reveal cell migration is attenuated in IDH1-mutant glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huimin; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanwei; Zhang, Chuanbao; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Kuanyu; Cai, Jinquan; Cheng, Wen; Huang, Hua; Jiang, Tao

    2015-02-28

    Patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-mutant glioblastoma exhibit increased survival compared with those with wild-type IDH1 tumors. The magnitude of this finding has led to the use of IDH1 mutations as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, the mechanisms underlying the reported correlation between the IDH1 mutation and increased survival have not been fully revealed. In this work, based on genome-wide transcriptional analyses of 69 Chinese patients with glioblastoma, we have found that the focal adhesion pathway is significantly downregulated in IDH1-mutant glioblastomas. The impaired focal adhesion leads to compromised cell migration and tumor invasion, contributing to the optimistic prognosis of these patients. Moreover, the signature genes of HIF-1α, the downstream factor of mutated IDH1, are found to be suppressed in IDH1-mutant gliomas. Given the role of HIF-1α in cell migration, we conclude that the attenuation of HIF-1α-dependent glioblastoma cell infiltration contributes to the better outcomes of patients with IDH1-mutant gliomas. PMID:25511738

  4. Hexamethylene bisacetamide induces morphologic changes and increased synthesis of procollagen in cell line from glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed Central

    Rabson, A S; Stern, R; Tralka, T S; Costa, J; Wilczek, J

    1977-01-01

    Addition to hexamethylene bisacetamide (diacetyldiaminohexane) to cultures of a malignant mesenchymal cell line derived from a human glioblastoma multiforme induces morphological changes and stimulates the synthesis of procollagen. The morphological changes include cell elongation, an increase of extracellular material with staining properties of collagen by light microscopy, and an increase in extracellular 220-A fibrils by electron microscopy. The rate of procollagen synthesis increased as much as 20-fold, and the ratio of type I:type III procollagen changed, with type I becoming the predominant form. The change in type I:type III ratio is similar to that seen in the maturation of normal fetal to adult connective tissue. Images PMID:200944

  5. Targeting and treatment of glioblastomas with human mesenchymal stem cells carrying ferrociphenol lipid nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Clavreul, Anne; Montagu, Angélique; Lainé, Anne-Laure; Tétaud, Clément; Lautram, Nolwenn; Franconi, Florence; Passirani, Catherine; Vessières, Anne; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Menei, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed drug delivery nanosystems, such as lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), hold great promise for the treatment of glioblastomas (GBs). In this study, we used a subpopulation of human mesenchymal stem cells, “marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible” (MIAMI) cells, which have endogenous tumor-homing activity, to deliver LNCs containing an organometallic complex (ferrociphenol or Fc-diOH), in the orthotopic U87MG GB model. We determined the optimal dose of Fc-diOH-LNCs that can be carried by MIAMI cells and compared the efficacy of Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells with that of the free-standing Fc-diOH-LNC system. We showed that MIAMI cells entrapped an optimal dose of about 20 pg Fc-diOH per cell, with no effect on cell viability or migration capacity. The survival of U87MG-bearing mice was longer after the intratumoral injection of Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells than after the injection of Fc-diOH-LNCs alone. The greater effect of the Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells may be accounted for by their peritumoral distribution and a longer residence time of the drug within the tumor. These results confirm the potential of combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology to improve the local tissue distribution of anticancer drugs in GB. PMID:25709447

  6. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  7. Targeting and treatment of glioblastomas with human mesenchymal stem cells carrying ferrociphenol lipid nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Clavreul, Anne; Montagu, Angélique; Lainé, Anne-Laure; Tétaud, Clément; Lautram, Nolwenn; Franconi, Florence; Passirani, Catherine; Vessières, Anne; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Menei, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed drug delivery nanosystems, such as lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), hold great promise for the treatment of glioblastomas (GBs). In this study, we used a subpopulation of human mesenchymal stem cells, "marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible" (MIAMI) cells, which have endogenous tumor-homing activity, to deliver LNCs containing an organometallic complex (ferrociphenol or Fc-diOH), in the orthotopic U87MG GB model. We determined the optimal dose of Fc-diOH-LNCs that can be carried by MIAMI cells and compared the efficacy of Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells with that of the free-standing Fc-diOH-LNC system. We showed that MIAMI cells entrapped an optimal dose of about 20 pg Fc-diOH per cell, with no effect on cell viability or migration capacity. The survival of U87MG-bearing mice was longer after the intratumoral injection of Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells than after the injection of Fc-diOH-LNCs alone. The greater effect of the Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells may be accounted for by their peritumoral distribution and a longer residence time of the drug within the tumor. These results confirm the potential of combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology to improve the local tissue distribution of anticancer drugs in GB. PMID:25709447

  8. P17.15AUTOCRINE SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE FUELS GROWTH AND STEMNESS IN GLIOBLASTOMA STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Di Vito, C.; Navone, S.; Abdel Hadi, L.; Giussani, P.; Viani, P.; Rampini, P.M.; Caroli, M.; Marfia, G.; Campanella, R.; Riboni, L.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an onco-promoter lipid that, after interaction with specific membrane receptors, acts as a key regulator of growth, invasion, and therapy-resistance of different tumors, including human glioblastomas (GBMs). These are the most common and lethal primary brain cancer in adults, exhibiting a dismal prognosis, despite diverse therapeutic approaches. Accumulating reports suggest that human GBMs contain glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), a small subpopulation of cells determinant in tumor growth, and malignant progression. Little is known about the role of S1P in GSCs. Using GSCs derived from human GBM specimens with different proliferative index and stemness marker expression, we investigated the possible role of S1P in the proliferative and stemness properties of GSCs. Metabolic studies demonstrated that GSCs can rapidly export newly synthesized S1P, this process being enhanced in fast proliferating cells. Released S1P levels reached nM concentrations in response to increased extracellular sphingosine. Moreover, EGF and bFGF, recognized autocrine factors in GSC, potentiated the constitutive capacity of GSCs to secrete S1P, suggesting that cooperation between S1P and these growth factors is of relevance in GSC maintenance and proliferation. Of relevance, we then found that S1P is able to act as a proliferative and pro-stemness autocrine factor for GSCs, promoting both cell cycle progression and stemness phenotypic profile, in a receptor-dependent fashion. Overall, our results suggest that the GSC population is critically modulated by microenvironmental S1P, that acts as an autocrine signal to maintain a pro-stemness microenvironment and favoring GSC survival, proliferation and maintenance of stem properties. These findings could open novel opportunities for the development of effective treatments for GBMs.

  9. DNA Damage of Glioblastoma Multiform Cells Induced by Beta Radiation of Iodine-131 in The Presence or Absence of Topotecan: A Picogreen and Colonogenic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Eyvazzadeh, Nazila; Neshasteh-Riz, Ali; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabee

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors, is highly resistant to radiotherapy. Numerous approaches have been pursued to find new radiosensitizers. We used a picogreen and colonogenic assay to appraise the DNA damage and cell death in a spheroid culture of GBM cells caused by iodine-131 (I-131) beta radiation in the presence of topotecan (TPT). Materials and Methods U87MG cells were cultured as spheroids with approximate diameters of 300 μm. Cells were treated with beta radiation of I-131 (at a dose of 2 Gy) and/ or TPT (1 μg/ml for 2 hours). The numbers of cells that survived were compared with untreated cells using a colonogenic assay. In addition, we evaluated possible DNA damages by the picogreen method. The relation between DNA damage and cell death was assessed in the experimental study of groups. Results The findings showed that survival fraction (SF) in the I-131+TPT group (39%) was considerably less than the I-131 group (58.92%; p<0.05). The number of single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB), in the DNA of U87MG cells treated with beta radiation of I-131 and TPT (I-131+TPT) significantly increased compared to cells treated with only I-131 or TPT (p<0.05). The amount of SSB repair was more than DSB repair (p<0.05). The relationship between cell death and DNA damage was close (r≥0.6) and significant (p<0.05) in the irradiated and treated groups. Also the maximum rate of DNA repair occurred 24 hours after the treatments. A significant difference was not observed on other days of the restoration. Conclusion The findings in the present study indicated that TPT can sensitize U87MG cells to radiation and increase DNA damages. Potentially, TPT can cause an increase in damage from DSB and SSB by its inhibitory effects on topoisomerase enzyme and the cell cycle. The increased complex damages following the use of a genotoxic agent and beta I-131 radiation, causes a significant increase

  10. Aligned Nanotopography Promotes a Migratory State in Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Beliveau, Alexander; Thomas, Gawain; Gong, Jiaxin; Wen, Qi; Jain, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, Grade IV astrocytoma with a poor survival rate, primarily due to the GBM tumor cells migrating away from the primary tumor site along the nanotopography of white matter tracts and blood vessels. It is unclear whether this nanotopography influences the biomechanical properties (i.e. cytoskeletal stiffness) of GBM tumor cells. Although GBM tumor cells have an innate propensity to migrate, we believe this capability is enhanced due to the influence of nanotopography on the tumor cells' biomechanical properties. In this study, we used an aligned nanofiber film that mimics the nanotopography in the tumor microenvironment to investigate the mechanical properties of GBM tumor cells in vitro. The data demonstrate that the cytoskeletal stiffness, cell traction stress, and focal adhesion area were significantly lower in the GBM tumor cells compared to healthy astrocytes. Moreover, the cytoskeletal stiffness was significantly reduced when cultured on aligned nanofiber films compared to smooth and randomly aligned nanofiber films. Gene expression analysis showed that tumor cells cultured on the aligned nanotopography upregulated key migratory genes and downregulated key proliferative genes. Therefore, our data suggest that the migratory potential is elevated when GBM tumor cells are migrating along aligned nanotopographical substrates. PMID:27189099

  11. Regulation of Glioblastoma Tumor-Propagating Cells by the Integrin Partner Tetraspanin CD15112

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, Jessica; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lal, Bachuchu; Ying, Mingyao; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Xia, Shuli; Laterra, John

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) represent tumor-propagating cells with stem-like characteristics (stemness) that contribute disproportionately to GBM drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Understanding the mechanisms supporting GSC stemness is important for developing therapeutic strategies for targeting GSC-dependent oncogenic mechanisms. Using GBM-derived neurospheres, we identified the cell surface tetraspanin family member CD151 as a novel regulator of glioma cell stemness, GSC self-renewal capacity, migration, and tumor growth. CD151 was found to be overexpressed in GBM tumors and GBM neurospheres enriched in GSCs. Silencing CD151 inhibited neurosphere forming capacity, neurosphere cell proliferation, and migration and attenuated the expression of markers and transcriptional drivers of the GSC phenotype. Conversely, forced CD151 expression promoted neurosphere self-renewal, cell migration, and expression of stemness-associated transcription factors. CD151 was found to complex with integrins α3, α6, and β1 in neurosphere cells, and blocking CD151 interactions with integrins α3 and α6 inhibited AKT phosphorylation, a downstream effector of integrin signaling, and impaired sphere formation and neurosphere cell migration. Additionally, targeting CD151 in vivo inhibited the growth of GBM neurosphere-derived xenografts. These findings identify CD151 and its interactions with integrins α3 and α6 as potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting stemness-driving mechanisms and stem cell populations in GBM. PMID:26992919

  12. Analysis of the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles, Diamond and Graphite, in Human Glioblastoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests. PMID:25816103

  13. Celecoxib Enhances the Radiosensitizing Effect of 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mee; Jeong, In-Hye; Pyo, Hongryull

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), a Chk1-specific inhibitor, showed promising in vitro and in vivo chemo- or radiosensitizing activity. However, there have been concerns about its limited therapeutic efficacy and risk of side effects. A method of enhancing the treatment efficacy of UCN-01 while not increasing its side effects on normal tissue may therefore be required to apply this drug in clinical settings. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor that downregulates ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) protein, an upstream kinase of Chk1. In this study, we investigated whether the addition of celecoxib can potentiate the radiosensitizing effect of UCN-01. Methods and Materials: The cooperative radiosensitizing effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of UCN-01 plus celecoxib were determined by clonogenic assay, tumor growth delay assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Synergism of the three agents combined (UCN-01 plus celecoxib plus radiation) were evaluated using median drug effect analysis and drug-independent action model analysis. Results: The combination of UCN-01 and celecoxib could induce synergistic cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing effects in in vitro and in vivo systems. The combination of both drugs also cooperatively inhibited IR-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, and increased the G{sub 2} to mitotic transition. Conclusions: Combined treatment with UCN-01 and celecoxib can exert synergistically enhanced radiosensitizing effects via cooperative inhibition of the ionizing radiation-activated G{sub 2} checkpoint. We propose that this combination strategy may be useful in clinical applications of UCN-01 for radiotherapy of cancer patients.

  14. Hyperthermic killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization in Chinese hamster ovary cells: effects of pH and thermal tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holahan, E.V.; Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, P.K.; Dewey, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    To quantitatively relate heat killing and heat radiosensitization, asynchronous or G/sub 1/ Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) at pH 7.1 or 6.75 were heated and/or X-irradiated 10 min. later. Since no progression of G/sub 1/cells into S phase occurred during the heat and radiation treatments, cell cycle artifacts were minimized. Hyperthermic radiosensitizaiton was expressed as the thermal enhancement factor (TEF), defined as the ratio of the D/sub 0/ of the radiation survival curve to that of the D/sub 0/ radiation survival curve for heat plus radiation. The TEF increased continuously with increased of the heat killing at 45.5/sup 0/ C, and for a given amount of heat killing, the amount of heat radiosensitization was the same for both pH's. When cells were heated chronically at 42.4/sup 0/ C at pH 7.4, the TEF increased initially to 2.0-2.5 and then returned to near 1.0 during continued heating as thermal tolerance developed for both heat killing and heat radiosensitization. However, the shoulder (D/sub q/) of the radiation survival curve for heat plus radiation did not manifest thermal tolerance. These results suggest that heat killing and heat radiosensitization have a target(s) in common (TEF results), along with either a different target(s) or a difference in the manifestation of heat damage (D/sub q/ results). Since low pH reduced the rate of development of thermal tolerance during heating at low temperatures, low pH enhanced heat killing more at 42-42.5/sup 0/ C than at 45.5 C where thermal tolerance did not develop. These findings agree with animal experiments suggesting that in the clinic, a therapeutic gain for tumor cells at low pH may be greater for temperatures of 42-42.5/sup 0/ C than of 45.5/sup 0/ C.

  15. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP(+) cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP(+) cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1(+) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP(+)/EYFP(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  16. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP+ cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP+ cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1+ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP+/EYFP+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  17. Generation of CAR T Cells for Adoptive Therapy in the Context of Glioblastoma Standard of Care

    PubMed Central

    Riccione, Katherine; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Snyder, David; Cui, Xiuyu; Sampson, John H.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy offers a promising strategy for specifically targeting and eliminating malignant gliomas. T cells can be engineered ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for glioma antigens (CAR T cells). The expansion and function of adoptively transferred CAR T cells can be potentiated by the lymphodepletive and tumoricidal effects of standard of care chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We describe a method for generating CAR T cells targeting EGFRvIII, a glioma-specific antigen, and evaluating their efficacy when combined with a murine model of glioblastoma standard of care. T cells are engineered by transduction with a retroviral vector containing the anti-EGFRvIII CAR gene. Tumor-bearing animals are subjected to host conditioning by a course of temozolomide and whole brain irradiation at dose regimens designed to model clinical standard of care. CAR T cells are then delivered intravenously to primed hosts. This method can be used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells in the context of standard of care. PMID:25741761

  18. Aligned Nanotopography Promotes a Migratory State in Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beliveau, Alexander; Thomas, Gawain; Gong, Jiaxin; Wen, Qi; Jain, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, Grade IV astrocytoma with a poor survival rate, primarily due to the GBM tumor cells migrating away from the primary tumor site along the nanotopography of white matter tracts and blood vessels. It is unclear whether this nanotopography influences the biomechanical properties (i.e. cytoskeletal stiffness) of GBM tumor cells. Although GBM tumor cells have an innate propensity to migrate, we believe this capability is enhanced due to the influence of nanotopography on the tumor cells’ biomechanical properties. In this study, we used an aligned nanofiber film that mimics the nanotopography in the tumor microenvironment to investigate the mechanical properties of GBM tumor cells in vitro. The data demonstrate that the cytoskeletal stiffness, cell traction stress, and focal adhesion area were significantly lower in the GBM tumor cells compared to healthy astrocytes. Moreover, the cytoskeletal stiffness was significantly reduced when cultured on aligned nanofiber films compared to smooth and randomly aligned nanofiber films. Gene expression analysis showed that tumor cells cultured on the aligned nanotopography upregulated key migratory genes and downregulated key proliferative genes. Therefore, our data suggest that the migratory potential is elevated when GBM tumor cells are migrating along aligned nanotopographical substrates. PMID:27189099

  19. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation. PMID:27132626

  20. Connection between Cell Phone use, p53 Gene Expression in Different Zones of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Survival Prognoses

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan-Sigari, Reza; Baf, Morteza Mazloum Farsi; Ariabod, Vahid; Rohde, Veit; Rahighi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in patients who use cell phones ≥3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females), diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size), as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65%) with the highest level of cell phone use (≥3 hours/day) had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034). Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ≥3 hours a day. PMID:25276320

  1. Preclinical Evaluation of Genexol-PM, a Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel, as a Novel Radiosensitizer for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Michael E.; Cummings, Natalie D.; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina C.; Sukumar, Rohit; Moore, Dominic T.; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: A key research objective in radiation oncology is to identify agents that can improve chemoradiation therapy. Nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics possess several properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors, that are uniquely suited for chemoradiation therapy. To facilitate the clinical translation of NP chemotherapeutics in chemoradiation therapy, we conducted preclinical evaluation of Genexol-PM, the only clinically approved NP chemotherapeutic with a controlled drug release profile, as a radiosensitizer using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a model disease. Methods and Materials: The physical characteristics and drug release profile of Genexol-PM were characterized. Genexol-PM's efficacy as a radiosensitizer was evaluated in vitro using NSCLC cell lines and in vivo using mouse xenograft models of NSCLC. Paclitaxel dose to normal lung and liver after Genexol-PM administration were quantified and compared with that after Taxol administration. Results: Genexol-PM has a size of 23.91 ± 0.41 nm and surface charge of −8.1 ± 3.1 mV. It releases paclitaxel in a controlled release profile. In vitro evaluation of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer showed it is an effective radiosensitizer and is more effective than Taxol, its small molecule counterpart, at the half maximal inhibitory concentration. In vivo study of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer demonstrated that it is more effective as a radiosensitizer than Taxol. We also found that Genexol-PM leads to lower paclitaxel exposure to normal lung tissue than Taxol at 6 hours postadministration. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that Genexol-PM is more effective than Taxol as a radiosensitizer in the preclinical setting and holds high potential for clinical translation. Our data support the clinical evaluation of Genexol-PM in chemoradiation therapy for NSCLC.

  2. The TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365 inhibits glioblastoma cell growth by enhancing reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and increasing intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Song, M; Chen, D; Yu, S P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE SKF 96365 is well known for its suppressing effect on human glioblastoma growth by inhibiting pre-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels and Ca2+ influx. The effect of SKF 96363 on glioblastoma cells, however, may be multifaceted and this possibility has been largely ignored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of SKF 96365 on cell cycle and cell viability of cultured human glioblastoma cells were characterized. Western blot, Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp recordings were used to delineate cell death mechanisms. siRNA gene knockdown provided additional evidence. KEY RESULTS SKF 96365 repressed glioblastoma cell growth via increasing intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) irrespective of whether TRPC channels were blocked or not. The effect of SKF 96365 primarily resulted from enhanced reverse operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) with an EC50 of 9.79 μM. SKF 96365 arrested the glioblastoma cells in the S and G2 phases and activated p38-MAPK and JNK, which were all prevented by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM or EGTA. The expression of NCX in glioblastoma cells was significantly higher than in normal human astrocytes. Knockdown of the NCX1 isoforms diminished the effect of SKF 96365 on glioblastoma cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At the same concentration, SKF 96365 blocks TRPC channels and enhances the reverse mode of the NCX causing [Ca2+]i accumulation and cytotoxicity. This finding suggests an alternative pharmacological mechanism of SKF 96365. It also indicates that modulation of the NCX is an effective method to disrupt Ca2+ homeostasis and suppress human glioblastoma cells. PMID:24641279

  3. Expression of Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) Is Elevated in Glioblastoma, and FTL Silencing Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation via the GADD45/JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tingfeng; Li, Yuntao; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Shenqi; Wu, Liquan; Zhu, Xiaonan; Chen, Qianxue

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that iron-associated proteins contribute to tumor initiation and development. Ferritin light chain (FTL), a key protein in iron metabolism, is associated with the survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of FTL in the pathogenesis of GBM. By using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we found that expression of FTL was higher in patients with GBM than in those with low-grade glioma. Immunofluorescence showed that FTL was mainly localized in the nucleus of GBM cells and was closely associated with mitotic spindles. Knockdown of FTL resulted in inhibition of cell growth and activation of the GADD45A/JNK pathway in GBM cells. Immunoblotting revealed that levels of GADD45A protein decreased in GBM cells when FTL expression increased. Furthermore, transfection of GADD45A in GBM cells significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect was impeded by co-transfection of FTL. Moreover, FTL was found to localize with GADD45A in GBM cells, and a coimmunoprecipitation experiment showed that the two proteins physically interacted. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which FTL regulates the growth of GBM cells via the GADD45/JNK pathway. PMID:26871431

  4. Inhibition of human positive cofactor 4 radiosensitizes human esophageal squmaous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing XLF-mediated nonhomologous end joining

    PubMed Central

    Qian, D; Zhang, B; Zeng, X-L; Le Blanc, J M; Guo, Y-H; Xue, C; Jiang, C; Wang, H-H; Zhao, T-S; Meng, M-B; Zhao, L-J; Hao, J-H; Wang, P; Xie, D; Lu, B; Yuan, Z-Y

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy has the widest application to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Factors associated with DNA damage repair have been shown to function in cell radiosensitivity. Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) has a role in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and is involved in DNA damage repair. However, the clinical significance and biological role of PC4 in cancer progression and cancer cellular responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of PC4 in the radiosensitivity of ESCC. In this study, we showed that knockdown of PC4 substantially increased ESCC cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) both in vitro and in vivo and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe (MC). Importantly, we demonstrated that silencing of PC4 suppressed NHEJ by downregulating the expression of XLF in ESCC cells, whereas reconstituting the expression of XLF protein in the PC4-knockdown ESCC cells restored NHEJ activity and radioresistance. Moreover, high expression of PC4 positively correlated with ESCC resistance to CRT and was an independent predictor for short disease-specific survival of ESCC patients in both of our cohorts. These findings suggest that PC4 protects ESCC cells from IR-induced death by enhancing the NHEJ-promoting activity of XLF and could be used as a novel radiosensitivity predictor and a promising therapeutic target for ESCCs. PMID:25321468

  5. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  6. Single-Cell Phosphoproteomics Resolves Adaptive Signaling Dynamics and Informs Targeted Combination Therapy in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shin, Young Shik; Xue, Min; Matsutani, Tomoo; Masui, Kenta; Yang, Huijun; Ikegami, Shiro; Gu, Yuchao; Herrmann, Ken; Johnson, Dazy; Ding, Xiangming; Hwang, Kiwook; Kim, Jungwoo; Zhou, Jian; Su, Yapeng; Li, Xinmin; Bonetti, Bruno; Chopra, Rajesh; James, C David; Cavenee, Webster K; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Mischel, Paul S; Heath, James R; Gini, Beatrice

    2016-04-11

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of signaling networks may contribute to targeted cancer therapy resistance, including in the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). We performed single-cell phosphoproteomics on a patient-derived in vivo GBM model of mTOR kinase inhibitor resistance and coupled it to an analytical approach for detecting changes in signaling coordination. Alterations in the protein signaling coordination were resolved as early as 2.5 days after treatment, anticipating drug resistance long before it was clinically manifest. Combination therapies were identified that resulted in complete and sustained tumor suppression in vivo. This approach may identify actionable alterations in signal coordination that underlie adaptive resistance, which can be suppressed through combination drug therapy, including non-obvious drug combinations. PMID:27070703

  7. Dynamic Proteomic Overview of Glioblastoma Cells (A172) Exposed to Perillyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    de Saldanha da Gama Fischer, Juliana; Liao, Lujian; Carvalho, Paulo C.; Barbosa, Valmir C; Domont, Gilberto B.; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria da Costa; Yates, John R

    2010-01-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a naturally occurring terpene and a promising chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma multiform; yet, little is known about its molecular effects. Here we present results of a semi-quantitative proteomic analysis of A172 cells exposed to POH for different time-periods (1′, 10′, 30′, 60′, 4h, and 24h). The analysis identified more than 4,000 proteins; which were clustered using PatternLab for proteomics and then linked to Ras signaling, tissue homeostasis, induction of apoptosis, metallopeptidase activity, and ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Our results make available one of the most complete protein repositories for the A172. Moreover, we detected the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Glycogen synthase kinase) and the inhibition of ERK’s (extracellular regulated kinase) phosphorylation after 10′, which suggests a new mechanism of POH’s activation for apoptosis. PMID:20083244

  8. The role of glioma stem cells in chemotherapy resistance and glioblastoma multiforme recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Auffinger, Brenda; Spencer, Drew; Pytel, Peter; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a slow-dividing, small population within a heterogeneous glioblastoma. They are able to self-renew, recapitulate a whole tumor, and differentiate into other specific GBM subpopulations. Therefore, they have been held responsible for malignant relapse after primary standard therapy and the poor prognosis of recurrent GBM. The failure of current therapies to eliminate specific GSC subpopulations has been considered a major factor contributing to the inevitable recurrence in GBM patients following treatment. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of GSCs and the reasons why complete eradication of GSCs is so difficult to achieve. We will also describe the targeted therapies currently available towards GSCs and possible mechanisms to overcome such chemoresistance and avoid therapeutic relapse. PMID:26027432

  9. Lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 supports glioblastoma stem cell maintenance and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeting cell metabolism offers promising opportunities for the development of drugs to treat cancer. We previously found that the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase VL3 (ACSVL3) is elevated in malignant brain tumor tissues and involved in tumorigenesis. This study investigates the role of ACSVL3 in the maintenance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell self-renewal and the capacity of GBM stem cells to initiate tumor xenograft formation. Methods We examined ACSVL3 expression during differentiation of several GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. To study the function of ACSVL3, we performed loss-of-function by using small interfering RNAs to target ACSVL3 and examined stem cell marker expression, neurosphere formation and tumor initiation properties. Results ACSVL3 expression levels were substantially increased in GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures and decreased after differentiation of the neurospheres. Down-regulating ACSVL3 with small inhibiting RNAs decreased the expression of markers and regulators associated with stem cell self-renewal, including CD133, ALDH, Musashi-1 and Sox-2. ACSVL3 knockdown in neurosphere cells led to increased expression of differentiation markers GFAP and Tuj1. Furthermore, ACSVL3 knockdown reduced anchorage-independent neurosphere cell growth, neurosphere-forming capacity as well as self-renewal of these GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. In vivo studies revealed that ACSVL3 loss-of-function substantially inhibited the ability of neurosphere cells to propagate orthotopic tumor xenografts. A link between ACSVL3 and cancer stem cell phenotype was further established by the findings that ACSVL3 expression was regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that support GBM stem cell self-renewal and tumor initiation, including EGFR and HGF/c-Met pathways. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 is involved in GBM stem cell maintenance and the tumor-initiating capacity of

  10. Recent developments in radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Linam, Justin; Yang, Li-Xi

    2015-05-01

    Radiation therapy is essential for local tumor control for many types of cancer histologies. Technological advancements in recent years have allowed for precise irradiation of target tissues while minimizing the dose to non-target tissues. To enhance radiation damage to cancer cells and further limit the radiation effects on normal tissue, researchers have explored compounds that specifically target cancer cells and make them more sensitive to ionizing radiation. Recent radiosensitization research has focused on promising compounds that alter hypoxia, inhibit topoisomerases, interfere with microtubules, and activate caspases, among other mechanisms. Many such compounds have shown impressive results in pre-clinical trials against a variety of cell types, but their safety, efficacy and practicability in clinical trials remains to be demonstrated. This review seeks to provide an overview of recent research in radiosensitization, detailing some of the more successful compounds, and illustrating avenues for future research. PMID:25964520

  11. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kanaklata; Wang, Lilin; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Price, Brendan D. . E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-06-09

    Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

  12. Propentofylline inhibits glioblastoma cell invasion and survival by targeting the TROY signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dhruv, Harshil D; Roos, Alison; Tomboc, Patrick J; Tuncali, Serdar; Chavez, Ashley; Mathews, Ian; Berens, Michael E; Loftus, Joseph C; Tran, Nhan L

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary tumor of the CNS and carries a dismal prognosis. The aggressive invasion of GBM cells into the surrounding normal brain makes complete resection impossible, significantly increases resistance to the standard therapy regimen, and virtually assures tumor recurrence. Median survival for newly diagnosed GBM is 14.6 months and declines to 8 months for patients with recurrent GBM. New therapeutic strategies that target the molecular drivers of invasion are required for improved clinical outcome. We have demonstrated that TROY (TNFRSF19), a member of the TNFR super-family, plays an important role in GBM invasion and resistance. Knockdown of TROY expression inhibits GBM cell invasion, increases sensitivity to temozolomide, and prolongs survival in an intracranial xenograft model. Propentofylline (PPF), an atypical synthetic methylxanthine compound, has been extensively studied in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia where it has demonstrated blood-brain permeability and minimal adverse side effects. Here we showed that PPF decreased GBM cell expression of TROY, inhibited glioma cell invasion, and sensitized GBM cells to TMZ. Mechanistically, PPF decreased glioma cell invasion by modulating TROY expression and downstream signaling, including AKT, NF-κB, and Rac1 activation. Thus, PPF may provide a pharmacologic approach to target TROY, inhibit cell invasion, and reduce therapeutic resistance in GBM. PMID:26559543

  13. Pioglitazone Effect on Glioma Stem Cell Lines: Really a Promising Drug Therapy for Glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Butta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the most frequent malignant brain tumors. Current therapies do not provide real solutions to this pathology. Their failure can be ascribed to a cell subpopulation with stem-like properties called glioma stem cells (GSCs). Therefore, new therapeutic strategies GSC-targeted are needed. PPARγ, a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism, has already been indicated as a promising target for antineoplastic therapies. Recent studies have reported that synthetic PPARγ agonists, already in clinical use for the treatment of type II diabetes, exhibit antineoplastic effects in a wide range of malignant tumor cells, including glioma cells. We investigated the effect of the synthetic PPARγ agonist Pioglitazone on viability, proliferation, morphology, and differentiation in six GSC lines isolated from GBM patients. We also analyzed Pioglitazone-induced changes in transcriptional levels of Wnt/β catenin related genes. Results showed that response to Pioglitazone was heterogeneous inducing an evident decrease of cell viability and proliferation only in a subset of GSC lines. We did not find any sign of cell differentiation neither observing cell morphology nor analyzing the expression of stemness and differentiation markers. Moreover, Wnt/β signaling pathway was only mildly affected from a transcriptional point of view after Pioglitazone exposure. PMID:27313600

  14. Differential response of patient-derived primary glioblastoma cells to environmental stiffness.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Thomas James; De Leon, Ellen; Griffin, Kaitlyn Rose; Stringer, Brett William; Day, Bryan William; Fabry, Ben; Cooper-White, Justin; O'Neill, Geraldine Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The ability of cancer cells to sense external mechanical forces has emerged as a significant factor in the promotion of cancer invasion. Currently there are conflicting reports in the literature with regard to whether glioblastoma (GBM) brain cancer cell migration and invasion is rigidity-sensitive. In order to address this question we have compared the rigidity-response of primary patient-derived GBM lines. Cells were plated on polyacrylamide gels of defined rigidity that reflect the diversity of the brain tissue mechanical environment, and cell morphology and migration were analysed by time-lapse microscopy. Invasiveness was assessed in multicellular spheroids embedded in 3D matrigel cultures. Our data reveal a range of rigidity-dependent responses between the patient-derived cell lines, from reduced migration on the most compliant tissue stiffness to those that are insensitive to substrate rigidity and are equally migratory irrespective of the underlying substrate stiffness. Notably, the rigidity-insensitive GBM cells show the greatest invasive capacity in soft 3D matrigel cultures. Collectively our data confirm both rigidity-dependent and independent behaviour in primary GBM patient-derived cells. PMID:26996336

  15. Differential response of patient-derived primary glioblastoma cells to environmental stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Thomas James; De Leon, Ellen; Griffin, Kaitlyn Rose; Stringer, Brett William; Day, Bryan William; Fabry, Ben; Cooper-White, Justin; O’Neill, Geraldine Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The ability of cancer cells to sense external mechanical forces has emerged as a significant factor in the promotion of cancer invasion. Currently there are conflicting reports in the literature with regard to whether glioblastoma (GBM) brain cancer cell migration and invasion is rigidity-sensitive. In order to address this question we have compared the rigidity-response of primary patient-derived GBM lines. Cells were plated on polyacrylamide gels of defined rigidity that reflect the diversity of the brain tissue mechanical environment, and cell morphology and migration were analysed by time-lapse microscopy. Invasiveness was assessed in multicellular spheroids embedded in 3D matrigel cultures. Our data reveal a range of rigidity-dependent responses between the patient-derived cell lines, from reduced migration on the most compliant tissue stiffness to those that are insensitive to substrate rigidity and are equally migratory irrespective of the underlying substrate stiffness. Notably, the rigidity-insensitive GBM cells show the greatest invasive capacity in soft 3D matrigel cultures. Collectively our data confirm both rigidity-dependent and independent behaviour in primary GBM patient-derived cells. PMID:26996336

  16. Inhibition of UBE2D3 Expression Attenuates Radiosensitivity of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells by Increasing hTERT Expression and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liu; Li, Fen; Ren, Li; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Yu; Xia, Ling; Lei, Han; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    The known functions of telomerase in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. We have previously shown the existence of a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Here we set out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation by telomerase of radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of a human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma radioresistant (Hep2R) cDNA library was first performed to search for potential hTERT interacting proteins. We identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D3 (UBE2D3) as a principle hTERT-interacting protein and validated this association biochemically. ShRNA-mediated inhibition of UBE2D3 expression attenuated MCF-7 radiosensitivity, and induced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1 in these cells. Moreover, down-regulation of UBE2D3 increased hTERT activity and cell proliferation, accelerating G1 to S phase transition in MCF-7 cells. Collectively these findings suggest that UBE2D3 participates in the process of hTERT-mediated radiosensitivity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by regulating hTERT and cyclin D1. PMID:23741361

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 is a new predictor of radiosensitivity on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-Ling; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Ying-Xue; Tian, Xiao-Peng; Xi, Mian; Shen, Jing-Xian; He, Li-Ru; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Liu, Shi-Liang; Zhang, Peng; Xie, Dan; Liu, Meng-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) plays an essential role in radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we observed that IGFBP-3 had favorable impact on the tumorigenicity of ESCC cells in nude mice by using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) to monitor tumor growth treated with ionizing radiation (IR). Downregulation of IGFBP-3 expression enhanced tumor growth, inhibited anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity and result in IR resistance in vivo. Cell cycle antibody array suggested that silencing IGFBP-3 promoted transition from G0/G1 to S phase, perhaps though influencing Smad3 dephosphorylation and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. Downregulation of P21 and P27, and upregulation of p-P27 (phospho-Thr187), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and cyclin E1 might contribute to the G0/G1 to S phase transition promoted by IGFBP-3. Our results suggest that Smad3-P27/P21-cyclin E1/CDK2-phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein pathways might be involved in this IGFBP-3 mediated radiosensitivity transition in ESCC. PMID:26670461

  18. CXCL12 Mediates Trophic Interactions between Endothelial and Tumor Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Eun Joo; Woerner, B. Mark; Jackson, Erin; Sun, Tao; Leonard, Jeffrey; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests endothelial cells (EC) play a critical role in promoting Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell proliferation and resistance to therapy. The molecular basis for GBM-EC interactions is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 could mediate direct interactions between GBM cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells and that disruption of this interaction might be the molecular basis for the anti-tumor effects of CXCR4 antagonists. We investigated this possibility in vivo and in an in vitro co-culture model that incorporated extracellular matrix, primary human brain microvascular ECs (HBMECs) and either an established GBM cell line or primary GBM specimens. Depletion of CXCR4 in U87 GBM cells blocked their growth as intracranial xenografts indicating that tumor cell CXCR4 is required for tumor growth in vivo. In vitro, co-culture of either U87 cells or primary GBM cells with HBMECs resulted in their co-localization and enhanced GBM cell growth. Genetic manipulation of CXCL12 expression and pharmacological inhibition of its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 revealed that the localizing and trophic effects of endothelial cells on GBM cells were dependent upon CXCL12 and CXCR4. These findings indicate that the CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway directly mediates endothelial cell trophic function in GBMs and that inhibition of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling may uniquely target this activity. Therapeutic disruption of endothelial cell trophic functions could complement the structural disruption of anti-angiogenic regimens and, in combination, might also improve the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy in treating GBMs. PMID:22427929

  19. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei; Peng, Gang; Liu, Dingyang; Wang, Zeyou; Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing; Wu, Minghua; Yuan, Xianrui

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  20. Kinetics of mouse jejunum radiosensitization by 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine) and its relationship with pharmacodynamics of DNA synthesis inhibition and cell cycle redistribution in crypt cells.

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, V.; Beauduin, M.; Rosier, J. F.; De Coster, B.; Bruniaux, M.; Octave-Prignot, M.; Scalliet, P.

    1997-01-01

    Gemcitabine (dFdC), a deoxycitidine nucleoside analogue, inhibits DNA synthesis and repair of radiation-induced chromosome breaks in vitro, radiosensitizes various human and mouse cells in vitro and shows clinical activity in several tumours. Limited data are however available on the effect of dFdC on normal tissue radiotolerance and on factors associated with dFdC's radiosensitization in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dFdC on mouse jejunum radiosensitization and to investigate the kinetics of DNA synthesis inhibition and cell cycle redistribution in the jejunal crypts as surrogates of radiosensitization in vivo. For assessment of jejunum tolerance, the mice were irradiated on the whole body with 60Co gamma rays (3.5-18 Gy single dose) with or without prior administration of dFdC (150 mg kg-1). Jejunum tolerance was evaluated by the number of regenerated crypts per circumference at 86 h after irradiation. For pharmacodynamic studies, dFdC (150 or 600 mg kg-1) was given i.p. and jejunum was harvested at various times (0-48 h), preceded by a pulse BrdUrd labelling. Labelled cells were detected by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections. DNA synthesis was inhibited within 3 h after dFdC administration. After an early wave of apoptosis (3-6 h), DNA synthesis recovered by 6 h, and crypt cells became synchronized. At 48 h, the labelling index returned almost to background level. At a level of 40 regenerated crypts, radiosensitization was observed for a 3 h time interval (dose modification factor of 1.3) and was associated with DNA synthesis inhibition, whereas a slight radioprotection was observed for a 48-h time interval (dose modification factor of 0.9) when DNA synthesis has reinitiated. In conclusion, dFdC altered the radioresponse of the mouse jejunum in a schedule-dependent fashion. Our data tend to support the hypothesis that DNA synthesis inhibition and cell cycle redistribution are surrogates for radiosensitization

  1. MEKs/ERKs inhibitor U0126 increases the radiosensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo by down regulating growth and DNA repair signals

    PubMed Central

    Marampon, Francesco; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Di Rocco, Agnese; Bonfili, Pierluigi; Di Staso, Mario; Fardella, Caterina; Polidoro, Lorella; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Festuccia, Claudio; Popov, Vladimir M.; Pestell, Richard G.; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Zani, Bianca Maria

    2010-01-01

    Multimodal treatment has improved the outcome of many solid tumors, and in some cases the use of radiosensitizers has significantly contributed to this gain. Activation of the extracellular signaling kinase pathway (MEK/ERK) generally results in stimulation of cell growth and confers a survival advantage playing the major role in human cancer. The potential involvement of this pathway in cellular radiosensitivity remains unclear. We previously reported that the disruption of c-Myc through MEK/ERK inhibition blocks the expression of the transformed phenotype, affects in vitro and in vivo growth, angiogenic signaling, and induces myogenic differentiation in the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) cell lines (RD). The present study was designed to examine whether the ERK pathway affects intrinsic radiosensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma cancer cells. Exponentially growing human ERMS, RD, xenograft-derived RD-M1 and TE671 cell lines were used. The specific MEK/ERK inhibitor, U0126, reduced the clonogenic potential of the three cell lines, and was effected by radiation. U0126 inhibited phospho/active ERK1/2 and reduced DNAPKcs suggesting that ERKs and DNA-PKcs cooperate in radioprotection of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The TE671 cell line-xenotransplanted in mice showed a reduction in tumor mass and increase in the time of tumor progression with U0126 treatment associated with reduced DNAPKcs, an effect enhanced by radiotherapy. Thus, our results show that MEK/ERK inhibition enhances radiosensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma cells suggesting a rational approach in combination with radiotherapy. PMID:21220498

  2. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    de Los Reyes V, Aurelio A; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating 'invisible' migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  3. Autophagy induction impairs migration and invasion by reversing EMT in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Myriam; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Lepore, Francesca; Corazzari, Marco; Caldarola, Sara; Valacca, Cristina; Faienza, Fiorella; Esposito, Vincenzo; Limatola, Cristina; Cecconi, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Cell migration and invasion are highly regulated processes involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here we show that autophagy modulation regulates the migration and invasion capabilities of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. We observed that during autophagy occurrence, obtained by nutrient deprivation or by pharmacological inhibition of the mTOR complexes, GBM migration and chemokine-mediated invasion were both impaired. We also observed that SNAIL and SLUG, two master regulators of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT process), were down-regulated upon autophagy stimulation and, as a consequence, we found a transcriptional and translational up-regulation of N- and R-cadherins. Conversely, in BECLIN 1-silenced GBM cells, an increased migration capability and an up-regulation of SNAIL and SLUG was observed, with a resulting decrease in N- and R-cadherin mRNAs. ATG5 and ATG7 down-regulation also resulted in an increased migration and invasion of GBM cells combined to an up-regulation of the two EMT regulators. Finally, experiments performed in primary GBM cells from patients largely confirmed the results obtained in established cell cultures. Overall, our results indicate that autophagy modulation triggers a molecular switch from a mesenchymal phenotype to an epithelial-like one in GBM cellular models. Since the aggressiveness and lethality of GBM is defined by local invasion and resistance to chemotherapy, we believe that our evidence provides a further rationale for including autophagy/mTOR-based targets in the current therapeutical regimen of GBM patients. PMID:26022108

  4. Cancer stem cell-specific scavenger receptor CD36 drives glioblastoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Hale, James S.; Otvos, Balint; Sinyuk, Maksim; Alvarado, Alvaro G.; Hitomi, Masahiro; Stoltz, Kevin; Wu, Qiulian; Flavahan, William; Levison, Bruce; Johansen, Mette L.; Schmitt, David; Neltner, Janna M.; Huang, Ping; Ren, Bin; Sloan, Andrew E.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Gladson, Candece L.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Brown, J. Mark; McIntyre, Thomas; Hazen, Stanley L.; Horbinski, Craig; Rich, Jeremy N.; Lathia, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) contains a self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cell (CSC) population which contributes to tumor propagation and therapeutic resistance. While the tumor microenvironment is essential to CSC self-renewal, the mechanisms by which CSCs sense and respond to microenvironmental conditions are poorly understood. Scavenger receptors are a broad class of membrane receptors that are well characterized on immune cells and instrumental in sensing apoptotic cellular debris and modified lipids. Here we provide evidence that CSCs selectively utilize the scavenger receptor CD36 to promote their maintenance using patient-derived CSCs and in vivo xenograft models. We detected CD36 expression in GBM cells in addition to previously described cell types including endothelial cells, macrophages and microglia. CD36 was enriched in CSCs and was able to functionally distinguish self-renewing cells. CD36 was co-expressed with integrin alpha 6 and CD133, previously described CSC markers, and CD36 reduction resulted in concomitant loss of integrin alpha 6 expression, self-renewal and tumor initiation capacity. We confirmed that oxidized phospholipids, ligands of CD36, were present in GBM and found that the proliferation of CSCs, but not non-CSCs, increased with exposure to oxidized low-density lipoprotein. CD36 was an informative biomarker of malignancy and negatively correlated to patient prognosis. These results provide a paradigm for CSCs to thrive by the selective enhanced expression of scavenger receptors, providing survival and metabolic advantages. PMID:24737733

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase mu regulates glioblastoma cell growth and survival in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Burden-Gulley, Susan M.; Phillips-Mason, Polly J.; Basilion, James P.; Sloan, Andrew E.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain tumor. Extensive proliferation and dispersal of GBM tumor cells within the brain limits patient survival to approximately 1 year. Hence, there is a great need for the development of better means to treat GBM. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)µ is proteolytically cleaved in GBM to yield fragments that promote dispersal of GBM cells. While normal brain tissue retains expression of full-length PTPµ, low-grade human astrocytoma samples have varying amounts of full-length PTPµ and cleaved PTPµ. In the highest-grade astrocytomas (i.e., GBM), PTPµ is completely proteolyzed into fragments. We demonstrate that short hairpin RNA mediated knockdown of full-length PTPµ and PTPµ fragments reduces glioma cell growth and survival in vitro. The reduction in growth and survival following PTPµ knockdown is enhanced when cells are grown in the absence of serum, suggesting that PTPµ may regulate autocrine signaling. Furthermore, we show for the first time that reduction of PTPµ protein expression decreases the growth and survival of glioma cells in vivo using mouse xenograft flank and i.c. tumor models. Inhibitors of PTPµ could be used to reduce the growth and survival of GBM cells in the brain, representing a promising therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:22505657

  6. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes V, Aurelio A.; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating ‘invisible’ migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  7. Effects of Single or Combined Treatments with Radiation and Chemotherapy on Survival and Danger Signals Expression in Glioblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Pasi, Francesca; Nano, Rosanna; Di Liberto, Riccardo; Capelli, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    The success of chemo- and radiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and lethal primary brain tumour, could rely on the induction of immunogenic tumour cell death and on the induction of anticancer immune response. In this study we investigated cell survival to single treatments or combination of X-rays and temozolomide in glioblastoma cell lines (T98G and U251MG) and we attempted to identify danger signals (HMGB1 and HSP70) released by dying cells in the microenvironment that could activate antitumour immunity contributing to the therapeutic efficacy of conventional treatments. Our data suggest that HSP70 translocates from cytoplasm to extracellular environment after an increase in radiation dose and HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and subsequently is released into the extracellular space, confirming a role of these proteins as signals released after radiation-induced damage in glioblastoma cells. We also could state that TMZ had limited effectiveness in activating HMGB