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1

Akt signaling pathway: a target for radiosensitizing human malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy plays a central role in the treatment of glioblastoma, but it is not curative due to the high tumor radioresistance. Phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) and Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways serve to block the apoptosis process, keeping cells alive in very toxic environments such as chemotherapy or ionizing radiation. In the present study, from a panel of 8 human malignant glioma cell lines, investigations on the relationship between intrinsic radioresistance and Akt or STAT3 basal activation were done. Secondly, the impact of down-modulation of Akt or STAT3 signaling on in vitro intrinsic radiosensitivity was evaluated. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, our results revealed a significant correlation between the basal Akt activation and the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2). In contrast, no correlation was found between STAT3 activation and SF2. According to this, down-modulation of Akt with a specific chemical inhibitor (Akt inhibitor IV) demonstrated a significant enhancement of radiation sensitivity on glioma cells in a clonogenic survival assay. On the contrary, down-modulation of STAT3 signaling with a specific chemical inhibitor (JSI-124) or a neutralizing gp130 antibody failed to radiosensitize glioma cells. These data indicate that the Akt intercept node could be a more relevant therapeutic target than STAT3 for radiosensitizing human malignant glioma. PMID:20406894

Chautard, Emmanuel; Loubeau, Gaëlle; Tchirkov, Andreï; Chassagne, Jacques; Vermot-Desroches, Claudine; Morel, Laurent; Verrelle, Pierre

2010-01-01

2

Radiosensitization effect of zidovudine on human malignant glioma cells  

SciTech Connect

Telomeres are shortened with each cell division and play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and function. Telomerase, responsible for telomere synthesis, is activated in 90% of human tumor cells but seldom in normal somatic cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this study, we have investigated the effects of {gamma}-radiation in combination with AZT on telomerase activity (TA), telomere length, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the changes in radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cell line U251. The results showed that the TA was suppressed by AZT but enhanced by irradiation, resulting in a deceleration of restored rate of shortened telomere, decreased repair rate of DNA strand breaks, and increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Our results suggested that telomerase activity and telomere length may serve as markers for estimating the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, may be used clinically as a new radiosensitizer in cancer radiotherapy.

Zhou Fuxiang [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Liao Zhengkai [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Dai Jing [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xiong Jie [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xie CongHua [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Luo Zhiguo [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Liu Shiquan [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Zhou Yunfeng [Department of Chemo-Radiotherapy Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Cancer Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)]. E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com

2007-03-09

3

In vivo radiosensitizing effect of the adenovirus E1A gene in murine and human malignant tumors.  

PubMed

The adenovirus E1A gene is a potent inducer of chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity through p53-dependent and independent mechanisms. We have studied the sensitivity of murine (MSC11A5, a sarcomatoid epidermoid carcinoma) and human (HeLa, human cervix carcinoma) E1A-expressing tumors, in vivo, after treatment with cisplatin or gamma-irradiation. In athymic mice, half-body irradiation was performed in an AECL Cobalt unit, at an SSD of 80 cm. Daily fractions of 300 cGy over 3 days, up to a total dose of 9 Gy. Cisplatin was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 9 mg per kg of body weight. After gamma-irradiation or intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin, about 30% of the E1A-expressing tumors regressed completely or were associated with a marked decrease in tumorigenicity over the following weeks. We conclude that malignant tumors, when expressing adenovirus E1A, are very sensitive to treatment with DNA-damaging agents, in vivo, regardless of the p53 status of the tumors. PMID:10568823

Martin-Duque, P; Sánchez-Prieto, R; Romero, J; Martinez-Lamparero, A; Cebrian-Sagarriga, S; Guinea-Viniegra, J; Dominguez, C; Lleonart, M; Cano, A; Quintanilla, M; Ramón Y Cajal, S

1999-12-01

4

Radiation response of the cells of a human malignant melanoma xenograft. Effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers  

SciTech Connect

The radiation response of the cells of E. E. malignant melanoma irradiated in suspension in vitro and as solid tumors in the athymic mutant nude mouse was studied. The dose-response curves for cells irradiated in vitro under aerobic and extremely hypoxic conditions indicated that the cells have a considerable capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. The terminal slope of the dose-response curves for tumors irradiated in air-breathing or dead mice was not significantly different from that measured for extremely hypoxic cells irradiated in vitro. The shoulder of the dose-response curve for cells irradiated as tumors in dead mice (n = 42/sub -21//sup +43/) was at least as large as that for cells irradiated in suspension under extremely hypoxic conditions. By assuming that acute and chronically hypoxic cells showed the same response to radiation, the fraction of hypoxic cells in the tumors was determined to be 5 to 10%.

Rofstad, E.K.

1981-09-01

5

Bryostatin-1 causes radiosensitization of BMG-1 malignant glioma cells through differential activation of protein kinase-C? not evident in the non-malignant AA8 fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a non-phorbol ester, is known to sensitize mammalian cells against certain chemotherapeutic drugs. We assessed its ability to modify radiation response of mammalian cells using Chinese hamster fibroblasts AA8 cells and human malignant glioma BMG-1 cells. In the malignant glioma BMG-1 cell line, bryo-1 pre-treatment significantly enhanced radiation-induced growth inhibition and cytogenetic damage, and further reduced the clonogenic cell survival as compared to cells irradiated at the clinically relevant dose of 2 Gy. PKC? expression increased significantly when bryo-1 pre-treated BMG-1 glioma cells were irradiated at 2 Gy and induced prolonged ERK-1/2 activation associated with p21 overexpression. Silencing PKC? resulted in inhibition of bryo-1-induced radiosensitization. In contrast, bryo-1 failed to alter radiosensitivity (cell survival; growth inhibition; cytogenetic damage) or activate ERK1/2 pathway in the AA8 fibroblasts despite PKC? phosphorylation at its regulatory (Y155) domain, indicating alternate mechanisms in these non-malignant cells as compared to the glioma cells. This study suggests that bryo-1 may effectively enhance the radiosensitivity of malignant cells and warrants further in-depth investigations to evaluate its radiosensitizing potential in various cell types. PMID:25472878

Dagur, Raghubendra Singh; Hambarde, Shashank; Chandna, Sudhir

2014-12-01

6

Radiosensitization of malignant gliomas following intracranial delivery of paclitaxel biodegradable polymer microspheres  

PubMed Central

Object The aim of this study was to demonstrate that paclitaxel could function as a radiosensitizer for malignant glioma in vitro and in vivo. Methods The radiosensitizing effect of paclitaxel was tested in vitro using the human U373MG and rat 9L glioma cell lines. Cell cycle arrest in response to paclitaxel exposure was quantified by flow cytometry. Cells were subsequently irradiated, and toxicity was measured using the clonogenic assay. In vivo studies were performed in Fischer 344 rats implanted with intracranial 9L gliosarcoma. Rats were treated with control polymer implants, paclitaxel controlled-release polymers, radiotherapy, or a combination of the 2 treatments. The study end point was survival. Results Flow cytometry demonstrated G2-M arrest in both U373MG and 9L cells following 6–12 hours of paclitaxel exposure. The order in which the combination treatment was administered was significant. Exposure to radiation treatment (XRT) during the 6–12 hours after paclitaxel treatment resulted in a synergistic reduction in colony formation. This effect was greater than the effect from either treatment alone and was also greater than the effect of radiation exposure followed by paclitaxel. Rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma tumors treated with paclitaxel polymer administration followed by single-fraction radiotherapy demonstrated a synergistic improvement in survival compared with any other treatment, including radiotherapy followed by paclitaxel treatment. Median survival for control animals was 13 days; for those treated with paclitaxel alone, 21 days; for those treated with XRT alone, 21 days; for those treated with XRT followed by paclitaxel, 45 days; and for those treated with paclitaxel followed by XRT, more than 150 days (p < 0.0001). Conclusions These results indicate that paclitaxel is an effective radiosensitizer for malignant gliomas because it renders glioma cells more sensitive to ionizing radiation by causing G2-M arrest, and induces a synergistic response to chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24605841

Gabikian, Patrik; Tyler, Betty M.; Zhang, Irma; Li, Khan W.; Brem, Henry; Walter, Kevin A.

2015-01-01

7

Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. PMID:25220423

Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua; Liu, Fenju

2015-01-15

8

Hyaluronan in human malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2011-02-15

9

Enhanced G2 chromatid radiosensitivity, an early stage in the neoplastic transformation of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture  

SciTech Connect

A deficiency in DNA repair, manifest as enhanced chromatid radiosensitivity during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, together with a proliferative stimulus such as that provided by active oncogenes may be necessary and sufficient for the malignant neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes in culture. Normal epidermal keratinocytes established as continuous cell lines by transfection with pSV3-neo or infection with adeno 12-SV40 hybrid virus developed enhanced G2 chromatid radiosensitivity after 18 passages in culture. In contrast to cells from primary or secondary culture, these cells could be transformed to malignant neoplastic cells by infection with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus containing the Ki-ras oncogene or in one line by the chemical carcinogen, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine; both of these agents produced a marked proliferative response. Cytological heterogeneity and karyotypic instability characterized the cells during their progression to neoplasia. These results are interpreted in terms of a mechanism for neoplastic transformation.

Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Parshad, R.; Price, F.M.; Peterson, W.D. Jr.; Rhim, J.S.

1987-03-01

10

Radiosensitization effects of berberine on human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Berberine, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has recently been shown to have antitumor activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the concomitant administration of berberine and radiation on breast cancer. The effects of berberine on the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells were evaluated by using cell clonogenic assays. Cells pre-treated with berberine or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24 h were irradiated using a Faxitron Cabinet X-ray System to deliver the indicated doses (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy). Changes in cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. ?-H2AX foci were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of Ku70, Ku86 and RAD51 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. We observed that berberine increased the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell radiosensitivity with cell clonogenic assays. the radiation-induced G2/M cell cycle delay was reduced in the MCF-7 cells pre-teated with berberine. Berberine pre-treatment prolonged the persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in the MCF-7 cell line. In comparison with the control cells, the protein levels of RAD51 were decreased in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells treated with berberine, and in the cells pre-treated with 15 µM berberine for 24 h, the level of RAD51 protein decreased significantly at the indicated time-points (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) following X-ray exposure. In conclusion, berberine sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of the homologous recombination repair protein, RAD51. Berberine may be a promising radiosensitizer for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22895634

Wang, Jing; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Qifeng

2012-11-01

11

Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT increases breast cancer cell radiosensitivity compared with radiation alone. These findings have salient implications for designing clinical trials using fulvestrant and radiation therapy.

Wang, Jing, E-mail: wangstella5@163.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NB (United States); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiaoyanli1219@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2013-02-08

12

Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

1984-04-01

13

Elevated expression of artemis in human fibroblast cells is associated with cellular radiosensitivity and increased apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular radiosensitivity in two human fibroblast cell lines 84BR and 175BR derived from two cancer patients. Methods: Clonogenic assays were performed following exposure to increasing doses of gamma radiation to confirm radiosensitivity. ?-H2AX foci assays were used to determine the efficiency of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in cells. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) established the expression levels of key DNA DSB repair genes. Imaging flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC was used to compare artemis expression and apoptosis in cells. Results: Clonogenic cellular hypersensitivity in the 84BR and 175BR cell lines was associated with a defect in DNA DSB repair measured by the ?-H2AX foci assay. The Q-PCR analysis and imaging flow cytometry revealed a two-fold overexpression of the artemis DNA repair gene, which was associated with an increased level of apoptosis in the cells before and after radiation exposure. Overexpression of normal artemis protein in a normal immortalised fibroblast cell line NB1-Tert resulted in increased radiosensitivity and apoptosis. Conclusion: We conclude that elevated expression of artemis is associated with higher levels of DNA DSB, radiosensitivity and elevated apoptosis in two radio-hypersensitive cell lines. These data reveal a potentially novel mechanism responsible for radiosensitivity and show that increased artemis expression in cells can result in either radiation resistance or enhanced sensitivity. PMID:23093295

Ulus-Senguloglu, G; Arlett, C F; Plowman, P N; Parnell, J; Patel, N; Bourton, E C; Parris, C N

2012-01-01

14

Enhancement of P53Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and

Wen-Shu Chen; Yi-Jang Lee; Yi-Chu Yu; Ching-Hui Hsaio; Jui-Hung Yen; Sz-Hsien Yu; Yu-Jia Tsai; Shu-Jun Chiu

2010-01-01

15

Heterogeneity in antigenic expression and radiosensitivity in human colon carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

A panel of human colon carcinoma cell lines were characterized regarding both antigenic heterogeneity and variations in radiosensitivity. Monoclonal antibodies were used to study the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), gastrointestinal cancer antigen (GICA or CA 19-9) and carcinoma-associated antigen (CA-50). Radiosensitivity was studied with the clonogenic survival technique. Three cell lines, LS 174T, HCTC, and SW 1116 stained positive for all three antigens. HT-29 was positive for CA 19-9 and CA-50 whereas Caco-2 was positive for CEA and CA 19-9. The cell lines SW 620 and LIM 1215 only stained positive for one of the antigens, CA-50 and CEA, respectively. In nearly all positive cases the stainings were very heterogeneous with mixtures of positive and negative cells. One exception was the HCTC cells which stained homogeneously for the CA 19-9 and CA-50 antigens. The neuroendocrinelike COLO 320 cells were negative in all cases. The radiosensitivity varied strongly between the cell lines with Dq-values between 0.8 and 1.9, extrapolation numbers between 2.0 and 4.7, Do-values between 1.1 and 2.8. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy varied between 0.3 and 0.7 with HCTC as the most radiosensitive and HT-29 as the most radioresistant cell line. Thus, there were differences in antigenic expression and intrinsic radiosensitivity between the cell-lines and antigenic heterogeneities within each cell line. The analyzed panel of cell lines will be valuable in studies of dose-effect relations for monoclonal antibodies labeled with toxic radionuclides simulating both antigenic heterogeneity and variations in radiosensitivity. PMID:1757394

Frykholm, G; Glimelius, B; Richter, S; Carlsson, J

1991-12-01

16

MicroRNA-218 Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Human Cervical Cancer via Promoting Radiation Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

We previously reported frequent loss of microRNA-218 (miR-218) in cervical cancer, which was associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. As microRNAs were found invovled in the regulation of radiosensitivity in various human cancers, we therefore aim to investigate the effects of miR-218 on radiosensitivity of cervical cancer in the present study. The clonogenic survival assay demonstrated that loss of miR-218 could predict radioresistance in the primary cervical cancer cells (R2=0.6516, P<0.001). In vitro, abundant miR-218 increased the radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells (P<0.001 for HeLa, P=0.009 for SiHa, P=0.016 for C33A and P=0.01 for CaSki). Upregulation of miR-218 significantly enhanced the radiation-induced apoptosis, which was further enhanced by the combination of miR-218 overexpression and radiation In xenograft growth assay, combination of miR-218 overexpression and radiation notably induced cellular apoptosis and suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-218 resensitized cervical cancer cells to radiation via promoting cellular apoptosis. Moreover, we proved that miR-218 as a potent predictor of radiosensitivity in cervical cancer, especially for those patients with loss of miR-218. PMID:24843318

Yuan, Wang; Xiaoyun, Han; Haifeng, Qiu; Jing, Li; Weixu, Hu; Ruofan, Dong; Jinjin, Yu; Zongji, Shen

2014-01-01

17

The radiosensitizing effect of CpG ODN107 on human glioma cells is tightly related to its antiangiogenic activity via suppression of HIF-1?/VEGF pathway.  

PubMed

Malignant glioma displays invasive growth and is difficult to be completely excised; surgery combined with subsequent radiotherapy is a standard treatment for patients. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) can enhance radiotherapeutic effect in some tumors. Angiogenesis is crucial for tumor progression and metastasis. Anti-angiogenic strategy thus may be effective for tumor treatment. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity and radiosensitizing effect of CpG ODN107 on glioma were investigated. Our results showed that the growth of glioma cell line U87 was significantly inhibited by CpG ODN107 (10?g/ml) in combination with irradiation (5Gy) in vitro. In orthotopic implantation model of nude mice, the survival rate of mice significantly increased after treatment with CpG ODN107 (0.083mg/kg) in combination with radiotherapy (10Gy) as compared with treatment with local radiotherapy alone. CpG ODN107 in combination with radiotherapy significantly decreased microvessel density (MVD), VEGF level and HIF-1? expression in orthotopic implantation glioma. In conclusion, CpG ODN107 significantly increased the radiosensitivity of U87 human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The radiosensitizing effect of CpG ODN 107 is tightly related to its anti-angiogenic activity via suppression of HIF-1?/VEGF pathway. PMID:23791618

Liu, Dan; Cao, Guanqun; Cen, Yanyan; Liu, Tao; Peng, Wei; Sun, Jianguo; Li, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong

2013-10-01

18

Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon [Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnamsi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-Ah, E-mail: inah228@snu.ac.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15

19

Rosiglitazone enhances the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {gamma} used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, and may have the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of p53-wild type HCT116 cells but not p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiosensitivity in p53-mutant HT-29 cells but not HCT116 cells, and prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and enhanced radiation-induced cell growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone also suppressed radiation-induced H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and AKT activation for cell survival; on the contrary, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiation-induced caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells. In addition, pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, attenuated the levels of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in radiation-exposed cancer cells in combination with rosiglitazone pretreatment. Our results provide proof for the first time that rosiglitazone suppresses radiation-induced survival signals and DNA damage response, and enhances the radiation-induced apoptosis signaling cascade. These findings can assist in the development of rosiglitazone as a novel radiosensitizer.

Chiu, Shu-Jun, E-mail: chiusj@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China) [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Sciences, Tzu Chi Technology College, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsaio, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Su, Yu-Han [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Shih, Wen-Ling [Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chuah, Jennifer Qiu-Yu [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

2010-04-09

20

Host cell reactivation of gamma-irradiated adenovirus 5 in human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity.  

PubMed Central

DNA repair processes play an important role in the determination of radiation response in both normal and tumour cells. We have investigated one aspect of DNA repair in a number of human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity using the adenovirus 5 host cell reactivation assay (HCR). In this technique, gamma-irradiated virions are used to infect cells and the ability of the cellular repair systems to process this damage is assayed by a convenient immunoperoxidase method recognising viral structural antigen expression on the cell membrane 48 h after infection. Reduced HCR was exhibited by radioresistant HeLa cells and by a radiosensitive neuroblastoma cell line, HX142. In contrast, an ataxia telangiectasia cell line, AT5 BIVA, did not show reduced HCR. On the basis of these results we can make no general conclusions about the relevance of HCR to cellular radiosensitivity. We have extended these studies to determine whether our cell lines exhibited enhanced viral reactivation (ER) following a small priming dose of gamma-radiation given to the cells before viral infection. No evidence for this phenomenon was found either in normal or tumour cell lines. PMID:1637659

Eady, J. J.; Peacock, J. H.; McMillan, T. J.

1992-01-01

21

Radiosensitization of human lung cancer cells by the novel purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor, PU-H71.  

PubMed

The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in the maturation and stabilization of a wide range of oncogenic client proteins for oncogenesis and malignant cell proliferation, which renders this protein a promising target in the development of cancer therapeutics. PU-H71 is a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor with less toxicity in normal cells than in cancer cells. In this study, we examined the in vitro radiosensitizing activity and molecular mechanisms of action of PU-H71 in human lung cancer cell lines. PU-H71 enhanced the sensitivity of the SQ-5 and A549 cancer cells to radiation. When the cancer cells were pre-treated with PU-H71, the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) was markedly inhibited after irradiation compared with the cells that were not pre-treated with PU-H71, as evaluated by counting the foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We further demonstrated that post-irradiation, PU-H71 inhibited Rad51 foci formation, a critical protein for the homologous recombination pathway of DNA DSB repair. These data indicate that targeting Hsp90 with PU-H71 may be novel therapeutic strategy for radioresistant carcinomas. PMID:24366006

Segawa, Tatsuya; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Aya; Bando, Shin-Ichi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Ohnishi, Ken; Kubota, Nobuo

2014-03-01

22

Proliferation of human malignant astrocytomas is dependent on Ras activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), leads to proliferation of human malignant astrocytoma cells. Although oncogenic mutations affecting Ras are not prevalent in human malignant astrocytomas, we have investigated whether levels of activated Ras.GTP might be elevated in these tumors secondary to the mitogenic signals

Abhijit Guha; Matthias M Feldkamp; Nelson Lau; Gerry Boss; Anthony Pawson

1997-01-01

23

HLA-G1 increases the radiosensitivity of human tumoral cells.  

PubMed

Different molecules regulate the response of tumoral tissues to ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to determine if HLA-G1 expression modulates the radiosensitivity of human tumoral cell lines. To this end, human melanoma M8 and human erythroleukemia K562 cell lines, with their correspondent HLA-G1 negative and positive variants, were gamma irradiated and the survival frequency was determined by clonogenic assay. The survival fraction of HLA-G1 expressing cells was around 60% of HLA-G1 negative cells. The generation of acidic vesicular organelles was higher in HLA-G1 positive cells. Apoptosis levels showed statistically significant differences only in K562 cells, whereas the variation in G2/M cycle progression was only significant in M8 cells. In addition, irradiation diminished cell-surface HLA-G1 and increased soluble HLA-G1 levels. Soluble HLA-G1 has no influence on cell survival in any cell line. In summary, we could demonstrate that HLA-G1 confers higher radiosensitivity to HLA-G1 expressing cells. PMID:24487034

Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Trasci, Sofía Baffa; Lobos, Elizabeth Aballay; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

2014-02-01

24

Immunoprevention of human papillomavirus-associated malignancies.  

PubMed

Persistent infection by one of fifteen high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types is a necessary but not sufficient cause of 5% of all human cancers. This provides a remarkable opportunity for cancer prevention via immunization. Since Harald zur Hausen's pioneering identification of hrHPV types 16 and 18, found in ~50% and ~20% of cervical cancers respectively, two prophylactic HPV vaccines containing virus-like particles (VLP) of each genotype have been widely licensed. These vaccines are beginning to impact infection and HPV-associated neoplasia rates after immunization campaigns in adolescents. Here we review recent progress and opportunities to better prevent HPV-associated cancers, including: broadening immune-protection to cover all hrHPV types, reducing the cost of HPV vaccines especially for developing countries that have the highest rates of cervical cancer, and immune-based treatment of established HPV infections. Screening based upon George Papanicolaou's cervical cytology testing, and more recently detection of hrHPV DNA/RNA, followed by ablative treatment of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) have substantially reduced cervical cancer rates, and we examine their interplay with immune-based modalities for the prevention and eventual elimination of cervical cancer and other HPV-related malignancies. PMID:25488410

Wang, Joshua W; Hung, Chien-Fu; Huh, Warner K; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

2014-12-01

25

Adenoviral Transduction of Human Acid Sphingomyelinase into Neo-Angiogenic Endothelium Radiosensitizes Tumor Cure  

PubMed Central

These studies define a new mechanism-based approach to radiosensitize tumor cure by single dose radiotherapy (SDRT). Published evidence indicates that SDRT induces acute microvascular endothelial apoptosis initiated via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) translocation to the external plasma membrane. Ensuing microvascular damage regulates radiation lethality of tumor stem cell clonogens to effect tumor cure. Based on this biology, we engineered an ASMase-producing vector consisting of a modified pre-proendothelin-1 promoter, PPE1(3x), and a hypoxia-inducible dual-binding HIF-2?-Ets-1 enhancer element upstream of the asmase gene, inserted into a replication-deficient adenovirus yielding the vector Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase. This vector confers ASMase over-expression in cycling angiogenic endothelium in vitro and within tumors in vivo, with no detectable enhancement in endothelium of normal tissues that exhibit a minute fraction of cycling cells or in non-endothelial tumor or normal tissue cells. Intravenous pretreatment with Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase markedly increases SDRT cure of inherently radiosensitive MCA/129 fibrosarcomas, and converts radiation-incurable B16 melanomas into biopsy-proven tumor cures. In contrast, Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase treatment did not impact radiation damage to small intestinal crypts as non-dividing small intestinal microvessels did not overexpress ASMase and were not radiosensitized. We posit that combination of genetic up-regulation of tumor microvascular ASMase and SDRT provides therapeutic options for currently radiation-incurable human tumors. PMID:23936314

Fuller, John D.; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; García-Barros, Mónica; Feldman, Regina; Rao, Shyam; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Harats, Dror; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Fuks, Zvi; Sadelain, Michel; Kolesnick, Richard

2013-01-01

26

Guggulsterone-Mediated Enhancement of Radiosensitivity in Human Tumor Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To observe the effect of guggulsterone (GS) on the radiation response in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: The radiation response of cancer cells treated with GS was observed by cell survival studies, cell growth assay, NF-?B activity assay, western blotting of some key growth promoting receptors, the DNA repair protein ?H2AX, and flow cytometry for DNA analyses. Results: GS inhibited radiation induced NF-?B activation and enhanced radiosensitivity in the pancreatic cell line, PC-Sw. It reduced both cell cycle movement and cell growth. GS reduced ER? protein in MCF7 cells and IGF1-R? protein in colon cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells and inhibited DNA double strand break (DSB) repair following radiation. Conclusion: GS induced radiation sensitization may be due to several different mechanisms including the inhibition of NF-?B activation and reductions in IGF1-R?. In addition, GS induced ?H2AX formation, primarily in the S-phase, indicates that DNA DSB's in the S-phase may be another reason for GS induced radiosensitivity. ER? down-regulation in response to GS suggests that it can be of potential use in the treatment of estrogen positive tumors that are resistant to tamoxifen. PMID:22649756

Choudhuri, Rajani; DeGraff, William; Gamson, Janet; Mitchell, James B.; Cook, John A.

2011-01-01

27

Replication-Dependent Radiosensitization of Human Glioma Cells by Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current treatments for glioblastoma multiforme are inadequate and limited by the radiation sensitivity of normal brain. Because glioblastoma multiforme are rapidly proliferating tumors within nondividing normal tissue, the therapeutic ratio might be enhanced by combining radiotherapy with a replication-specific radiosensitizer. KU-0059436 (AZD2281) is a potent and nontoxic inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) undergoing a Phase II clinical trial as a single agent. Methods and Materials: Based on previous observations that the radiosensitizing effects of PARP inhibition are more pronounced in dividing cells, we investigated the mechanisms underlying radiosensitization of human glioma cells by KU-0059436, evaluating the replication dependence of this effect and its therapeutic potential. Results: KU-0059436 increased the radiosensitivity of four human glioma cell lines (T98G, U373-MG, UVW, and U87-MG). Radiosensitization was enhanced in populations synchronized in S phase and abrogated by concomitant exposure to aphidicolin. Sensitization was further enhanced when the inhibitor was combined with a fractionated radiation schedule. KU-0059436 delayed repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks and was associated with a replication-dependent increase in {gamma}H2AX and Rad51 foci. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that KU-0059436 increases radiosensitivity in a replication-dependent manner that is enhanced by fractionation. A mechanism is proposed whereby PARP inhibition increases the incidence of collapsed replication forks after ionizing radiation, generating persistent DNA double-strand breaks. These observations indicate that KU-0059436 is likely to enhance the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A Phase I clinical trial is in development.

Dungey, Fiona A.; Loeser, Dana A. [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Chalmers, Anthony J. [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.j.chalmers@sussex.ac.uk

2008-11-15

28

Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-mediated transgene delivery induces growth suppression, apoptosis, radiosensitization, and overcomes temozolomide resistance in malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

High-grade gliomas are among the most lethal of all cancers. Despite considerable advances in multi-modality treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the overall prognosis for patients with this disease remains dismal. Currently available treatments necessitate the development of more effective tumor-selective therapies. The use of gene therapy for malignant gliomas is promising as it allows in situ delivery and selectively targets brain tumor cells while sparing the adjacent normal brain tissue. Viral vectors to deliver pro-apoptotic genes to malignant glioma cells have been investigated. Although tangible results on patients’ survival remains to be further documented, significant advances in therapeutic gene transfer strategies have been made. Recently, cell-based gene delivery has been sought as an alternative method. In this paper, we report the pro-apoptotic effects of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-mediated mda-7/IL-24 delivery to malignant glioma cell lines. Our data show that these are similar to those observed using a viral vector. Additionally, acknowledging the heterogeneity of malignant glioma cells and their signaling pathways, we assessed the effects of conventional treatment for high grade gliomas, IR and TMZ, when combined with ESC-mediated transgene delivery. This combination resulted in synergistic effects on tumor cell death. The mechanisms involved in this beneficial effect included activation of both apoptosis and autophagy. Our in vitro data supports the concept that ESC-mediated gene delivery might offer therapeutic advantages over standard approaches to malignant gliomas. Our results corroborate the theory that combined treatments exploiting different signaling pathways are needed to succeed in the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:20523363

Germano, Isabelle M.; Emdad, Luni; Qadeer, Zulekha A.; Uzzaman, Mahmud

2010-01-01

29

Downregulation of high mobility group box 1 modulates telomere homeostasis and increases the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The expression of HMGB1 mRNA and the relative telomere length were examined by real-time PCR. Radiosensitivity was detected by clonogenic assay. The protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. The telomerase activity was detected by PCR-ELISA. Proliferation ability was examined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. DNA damage foci were detected by immunofluorescence. ShRNA-mediated downregulation of HMGB1 expression increased the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells, and reduced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1. Moreover, knockdown of HMGB1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited telomerase activity and cell proliferation, while increasing the extent of apoptosis. Downregulation of HMGB1 modulated telomere homeostasis by changing the level of telomere-binding proteins, such as TPP1 (PTOP), TRF1 and TRF2. This downregulation also inhibited the ATM and ATR signaling pathways. The current data demonstrate that knockdown of HMGB1 breaks telomere homeostasis, enhances radiosensitivity, and suppresses the repair of DNA damage in human breast cancer cells. These results suggested that HMGB1 might be a potential radiotherapy target in human breast cancer. PMID:25501936

Ke, Shaobo; Zhou, Fuxiang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Yuehua; Gong, Jun; Mei, Zijie; Wu, Lin; Yu, Haijun; Zhou, Yunfeng

2015-03-01

30

Radiosensitization of human leukemic HL-60 cells by ATR kinase inhibitor (VE-821): phosphoproteomic analysis.  

PubMed

DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapy are frequently used in oncology. DNA damage response (DDR)-triggered by radiation-induced double strand breaks-is orchestrated mainly by three Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs): Ataxia teleangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR). Their activation promotes cell-cycle arrest and facilitates DNA damage repair, resulting in radioresistance. Recently developed specific ATR inhibitor, VE-821 (3-amino-6-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamide), has been reported to have a significant radio- and chemo-sensitizing effect delimited to cancer cells (largely p53-deficient) without affecting normal cells. In this study, we employed SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics to describe the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of VE-821 in human promyelocytic leukemic cells HL-60 (p53-negative). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-prefractionation with TiO2-enrichment and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed 9834 phosphorylation sites. Proteins with differentially up-/down-regulated phosphorylation were mostly localized in the nucleus and were involved in cellular processes such as DDR, all phases of the cell cycle, and cell division. Moreover, sequence motif analysis revealed significant changes in the activities of kinases involved in these processes. Taken together, our data indicates that ATR kinase has multiple roles in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle and that its inhibitor VE-821 is a potent radiosensitizing agent for p53-negative HL-60 cells. PMID:25003641

Šalovská, Barbora; Fabrik, Ivo; ?urišová, Kamila; Link, Marek; Vávrová, Ji?ina; ?ezá?ová, Martina; Tichý, Aleš

2014-01-01

31

Combined EGFR and autophagy modulation impairs cell migration and enhances radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor due to its molecular heterogeneity and high motility and invasion capabilities of its cells, resulting in high resistance to current standard treatments (surgery, followed by ionizing radiation combined with Temozolomide chemotherapy administration). Locus amplification, gene overexpression, and genetic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are hallmarks of GBM that can ectopically activate downstream signaling oncogenic cascades such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Importantly, alteration of this pathway, involved also in the regulation of autophagy process, can improve radioresistance in GBM cells, thus promoting the aggressive phenotype of this tumor. In this work, the endogenous EGFR expression profile and autophagy were modulated to increase radiosensitivity behavior of human T98G and U373MG GBM cells. Our results primarily indicated that EGFR interfering induced radiosensitivity according to a decrease of the clonogenic capability of the investigated cells, and an effective reduction of the in vitro migratory features. Moreover, EGFR interfering resulted in an increase of Temozolomide (TMZ) cytotoxicity in T98G TMZ-resistant cells. In order to elucidate the involvement of the autophagy process as pro-death or pro-survival role in cells subjected to EGFR interfering, the key autophagic gene ATG7 was silenced, thereby producing a transient block of the autophagy process. This autophagy inhibition rescued clonogenic capability of irradiated and EGFR-silenced T98G cells, suggesting a pro-death autophagy contribution. To further confirm the functional interplay between EGFR and autophagy pathways, Rapamycin-mediated autophagy induction during EGFR modulation promoted further impairment of irradiated cells, in terms of clonogenic and migration capabilities. Taken together, these results might suggest a novel combined EGFR-autophagy modulation strategy, to overcome intrinsic GBM radioresistance, thus improving the efficacy of standard treatments. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1863-1873, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24691646

Palumbo, Silvia; Tini, Paolo; Toscano, Marzia; Allavena, Giulia; Angeletti, Francesca; Manai, Federico; Miracco, Clelia; Comincini, Sergio; Pirtoli, Luigi

2014-11-01

32

Radiosensitization of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoprotein E6*I  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) whose disease is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a significantly better outcome than those with HPV-negative disease, but the reasons for the better outcome are not known. We postulated that they might relate to an ability of HPV proteins to confer a better response to radiotherapy, a commonly used treatment for OSCC. Methods and Materials: We stably expressed the specific splicing-derived isoforms, E6*I and E6*II, or the entire E6 open reading frame (E6total), which gives rise to both full length and E6*I isoforms, in OSCC cell lines. Radiation resistance was measured in clonogenicity assays, p53 activity was measured using transfected reporter genes, and flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. Results: E6*I and E6total sensitized the OSCC cells to irradiation, E6*I giving the greatest degree of radiosensitization (approximately eightfold lower surviving cell fraction at 10 Gy), whereas E6*II had no effect. In contrast to radiosensitivity, E6*I was a weaker inhibitor than E6total of tumor suppressor p53 transactivator activity in the same cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that irradiated E6*I expressing cells had a much higher G2M:G1 ratio than control cells, indicating that, after G2, cells were diverted from the cell cycle to programmed cell death. Conclusion: This study supports a role for E6*I in the enhanced responsiveness of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas to p53-independent radiation-induced death.

Pang, Ervinna [Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Delic, Naomi C. [Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hong, Angela; Zhang Mei [Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Rose, Barbara R. [Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lyons, J. Guy, E-mail: guy.lyons@sydney.edu.a [Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2011-03-01

33

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting human telomerase mRNA increases the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with a high incidence rate in South China and is predominantly treated with radiotherapy; however, the survival rate remains low. The therapeutic effects of radiation and chemotherapy may be enhanced when combined with anti?sense oligonucleotides targeting human telomerase RNA (hTR ASODN). However, the influence of hTR ASODN on the anti?tumor effects of radiation in NPC remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of hTR ASODN on the proliferation and radiosensitivity of NPC cells, and further explored the underlying mechanisms. hTR ASODN significantly inhibited the proliferation and decreased the telomere length of CNE?2 human NPC cells. Furthermore, combined treatment of hTR ASODN with radiation significantly enhanced anti?tumor efficacy. The apoptotic rate and cleavage of caspase 9 were increased in the cells treated with the combined therapy, as compared with the cells treated with hTR ASODN or radiotherapy alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that hTR ASODN may inhibit the proliferation of NPC cells and enhance the anti?tumor effects of radiation by inducing cell apoptosis. Therefore hTR ASODN may be a potential adjuvant agent for the treatment of NPC combined with radiation therapy, and these findings are of translational importance. PMID:25523013

Yu, Change; Yu, Ying; Xu, Zumin; Li, Haiwen; Yang, Dongyan; Xiang, Mei; Zuo, Yufang; Li, Shuhui; Chen, Zihong; Yu, Zhonghua

2015-04-01

34

Restoration of IGFBP-rP1 increases radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate cancer.  

PubMed

We previously reported the tumor-suppressive activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) through induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IGFBP-rP1 for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate PC-3 cancer cells. Five assays were performed using PC-3 cells transfected with IGFBP-rP1 (PC-3rP1) and control cells transfected with an empty vector (PC-3N): PC-3rP1 and PC-3N were compared by clonogenic survival assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic assay for radiosensitivity. The number of colonies of PC-3rP1 cells significantly decreased after 4 and 8 Gy of irradiation, compared with those of PC-3N in the clonogenic survival assay. After 16 hr irradiation at 8 Gy, the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in PC-3rP1 compared with PC-3N. Growth of PC-3rP1 was significantly lower than that of PC-3N after docetaxel treatment both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that restoration of IGFBP-rP1 to PC-3 cells increases both their radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. PMID:23600329

Seki, Mitsuhiro; Teishima, Jun; Mochizuki, Hideki; Mutaguchi, Kazuaki; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Oka, Kiyotaka; Nagamatsu, Hirotaka; Shoji, Koichi; Matsubara, Akio

2013-03-01

35

Hyperthermia radiosensitization in human glioma cells comparison of recovery of polymerase activity, survival, and potentially lethal damage repair  

SciTech Connect

DNA polymerase inactivation is compared to thermal radiosensitization and inhibition of damage recovery in human glioma cells. Two human glioma cell lines (U87MG and U373MG) were exposed to hyperthermia and irradiation. Hyperthermia was given at 43[degrees]C and 45[degrees]C and DNA polymerase [alpha] + [delta] + [epsilon] and [beta] activities were measured. Hyperthermia was given at various times before irradiation and the degree of radiosensitization and polymerase activity was assessed at various times after heating. In addition the ability of cells to undergo repair of potentially lethal radiation damage was assessed for cells irradiated at various times after heating. Polymerase [alpha] + [delta] + [epsilon] and polymerase [beta] both recovered after heating but polymerase [beta] was faster and was complete in U373MG but not in the U87MG cell lines after 48 h incubation after heating (45[degrees]C, 60 min). Incubation, between hyperthermia and irradiation resulted in a loss of radiosensitization and a loss of inhibition of repair of potentially lethal damage. These changes correlated well with recovery of polymerase [beta] but not with polymerase [alpha] + [delta] + [epsilon]. The correlation of polymerase [beta] activity and thermoradiosensitization and its recovery indicate that polymerase [beta] may be one of the mechanisms involved in thermoradiosensitization. 35 refs., 7 figs.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Feeley, M.M. (Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada))

1994-04-30

36

Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong [Department of Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2010-09-01

37

Adenovirus-mediated IL-24 confers radiosensitization to human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The current paper aims to study the effect of adenovirus-mediated IL-24 (Ad-IL-24) on human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo and determine its possible mechanism of action. The growth-suppressing and apoptosis-inducing effects of Ad-IL-24, radiotherapy, and Ad-IL-24+ radiotherapy (hereinafter referred to as the joint group) on SPC-A1 lung carcinoma cells were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyliazolyl-2)-2,5-diphnyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry. A human lung model was established with SPC-A1 cells in nude mice. Groups of mice were subjected to multi-point injections to their tumors. Gross tumor volumes were measured dynamically. The ratios of tumor suppression and radiosensitization effect were evaluated according to the method of probability sum Q values. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Survivin, and Caspase-3 in tumor samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. The ratios of inhibition and apoptosis in the joint group were higher than those in the individual Ad-IL-24 and radiotherapy groups. In vitro, the joint group suppressed tumor growth conspicuously, showing a weight inhibition rate of about 64 %. The expressions of FasL, Bax and Caspase-3 were upregulated in the joint group, while the expressions of Cox,Bcl-2,VEGF,CD34 and Survivin were downregulated. The current study proves that Ad-IL-24 suppresses growth of SPC-A1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Its functions appear to be related to cell apoptosis and antiangiogenesis. PMID:25479732

Zheng, Shi-Ying; Ge, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Li, Fang

2014-12-01

38

Radiosensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells to ?-rays and protons  

PubMed Central

Introduction Proton radiation offers physical advantages over conventional radiation. Radiosensitivity of human 59M ovarian cancer and HTB140 melanoma cells was investigated after exposure to ?-rays and protons. Material and methods Irradiations were performed in the middle of a 62 MeV therapeutic proton spread out Bragg peak with doses ranging from 2 to 16 Gy. The mean energy of protons was 34.88 ±2.15 MeV, corresponding to the linear energy transfer of 4.7 ±0.2 keV/µm. Irradiations with ?-rays were performed using the same doses. Viability, proliferation and survival were assessed 7 days after both types of irradiation while analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed 48 h after irradiation. Results Results showed that ?-rays and protons reduced the number of viable cells for both cell lines, with stronger inactivation achieved after irradiation with protons. Surviving fractions for 59M were 0.91 ±0.01 for ?-rays and 0.81 ±0.01 for protons, while those for HTB140 cells were 0.93 ±0.01 for ?-rays and 0.86 ±0.01 for protons. Relative biological effectiveness of protons, being 2.47 ±0.22 for 59M and 2.08 ±0.36 for HTB140, indicated that protons provoked better cell elimination than ?-rays. After proton irradiation proliferation capacity of the two cell lines was slightly higher as compared to ?-rays. Proliferation was higher for 59M than for HTB140 cells after both types of irradiation. Induction of apoptosis and G2 arrest detected after proton irradiation were more prominent in 59M cells. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that protons exert better antitumour effects on ovarian carcinoma and melanoma cells than ?-rays. The dissimilar response of these cells to radiation is related to their different features. PMID:25097591

Keta, Otilija; Todorovi?, Danijela; Popovi?, Nataša; Kori?anac, Lela; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrovi?, Ivan

2014-01-01

39

Epstein-Barr virus infection and human malignancies  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpes virus which establishes a life-long persistent infection in over 90% of the human adult population world-wide. Based on its association with a variety of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, EBV has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article we discuss the evidence supporting an aetiological role for EBV in the pathogenesis of human tumours. The biology of EBV infection will be described with special emphasis on viral transforming gene products. A brief survey of EBV-associated tumours is followed by a discussion of specific problems. Evidence is presented which suggests that failures of the EBV-specific immunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumours also in patients without clinically manifest immunodeficiencies. Finally, the timing of EBV infection in the pathogenesis of virus-associated malignancies is discussed. There is good evidence that EBV infection precedes expansion of the malignant cell populations in some virus-associated tumours. However, this is clearly not always the case and for some of these tumours there are indications that clonal genetic alterations may occur prior to EBV infection. Thus, whilst there is good evidence to suggest that EBV is a human carcinogen, its precise role(s) in the development of virus-associated human tumours requires clarification. PMID:11488990

Niedobitek, Gerald; Meru, Nadine; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

2001-01-01

40

Analysis of Human Tumors and Human Malignant Cell Lines for BK Virus-Specific DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most humans in the United States have been infected with BK virus (BKV), a human papovavirus. Because BKV has oncogenic properties, we have investigated whether it may be a cause of human cancer. Basic principles of tumor virology imply that BKV-induced tumors should contain BKV DNA sequences. Therefore, we assayed (by molecular hybridization) DNA from human tumors and malignant cell

William S. M. Wold; Jesse K. Mackey; Karl H. Brackmann; Nobuyuki Takemori; Patricia Rigden; Maurice Green

1978-01-01

41

Human papillomaviruses: targeting differentiating epithelial cells for malignant transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia. Insights into the mechanisms by which HPV infection can, in a small numbers of cases, result in malignancy, comes from the observation that three proteins encoded by high-risk genital HPVs, E6, E7 and to a lesser extent E5, target factors that control the cell cycle and

Frauke Fehrmann; Laimonis A Laimins

2003-01-01

42

Analysis of RAS Oncogene Mutations in Human Lymphoid Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the frequency of mutations activating RAS oncogenes in human lymphoid malignancies, including B- and T-cell-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. By the polymerase chain reaction\\/oligonucleotide hybridization method, DNA from 178 cases was analyzed for activating mutations involving codons 12 and 61 of the HRAS, KRAS and NRAS genes and codon 13 of the NRAS

Antonino Neri; Daniel M. Knowles; Angela Greco; Frank McCormick; Riccardo dalla-Favera

1988-01-01

43

Phorbol Esters Induce Differentiation in Human Malignant T Lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

At nanomolar concentrations, phorbol esters, a class of potent tumor promoters, can promote differentiation in the human malignant T-lymphoblastic cell line MOLT-3. The optimal dose for induction, as measured by the increase of the number of cells containing sheep erythrocyte receptors (E-rosette assay), is between 8 and 16 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), although there were significant increases of E-rosette-positive (E+)

Kohei Nagasawa; Tak W. Mak

1980-01-01

44

Increased radiosensitivity with chronic hypoxia in four human tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It is well known that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells can be significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions. However, most of the reports in the literature refer to an experimental setup in which the supply of oxygen is kept low for a short period of time only. In tumors, chronic hypoxia would seem to be the more typical situation, because

Friedo Zölzer; Christian Streffer

2002-01-01

45

Telomere length and radiosensitivity in human fibroblast clones immortalized by ectopic telomerase expression.  

PubMed

Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, have a variable length among individuals and cell types. While studies in telomerase-deficient mice and cells showed an inverse correlation between telomere length and radiosensitivity, it is less clear whether this remains true in telomerase-proficient cells. To gain insight into this topic, we studied radiosensitivity in three telomerase immortalized fibroblast clones derived from the same cell line and characterized by different telomere length. In two clones, cen3tel4 and cen3tel5, the mean terminal restriction fragment length was approximately 13 and 10 kb, respectively and in the third clone, cen3pci16, it was approximately 4 kb, which is lower than in senescent fibroblasts. To test radiosensitivity, we determined survival to gamma-rays and the induction of chromosomal aberrations after irradiation. Neither the LD50, the gamma-ray dose that reduces survival to 50%, nor the frequency of aberrations detected in the three cell lines showed an inverse correlation with telomere length. In particular, the cen3pci16 cells, which have very short telomeres, did not show a higher sensitivity to irradiation or a greater frequency of chromosomal abnormalities compared to the other two cell lines. Our results suggest that, in the presence of telomerase activity, short telomeres are stabilized and do not cause an increase in radiosensitivity. PMID:18497972

Zongaro, Samantha; Verri, Annalisa; Giulotto, Elena; Mondello, Chiara

2008-06-01

46

Simultaneous Inhibition of EGFR and PI3K Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway are common in cancer. This pathway is imperative to the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of the simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and PI3K in breast cancer cells. Methods and Materials: MCF-7 cell lines with low expression of EGFR and wild-type PTEN and MDA-MB-468 cell lines with high expression of EGFR and mutant PTEN were used. The radiosensitizing effects by the inhibition of EGFR with AG1478 and/or PI3K with Ly294002 were determined by colony formation assay, Western blot was used to investigate the effects on downstream signaling. Flow cytometry was used for apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Mice-bearing xenografts of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells were also used to observe the radiosensitizing effect. Results: Simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and PI3K greatly enhanced radiosensitizing effect in MDA-MB-468 in terms of apoptosis and mitotic death, either inhibition of EGFR or PI3K alone could enhance radiosensitivity with a dose-modifying factor (DMF{sub SF2}) of 1.311 and 1.437, radiosensitizing effect was further enhanced by simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and PI3K with a DMF{sub SF2} at 2.698. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that dual inhibition combined with irradiation significantly induced G0/G1 phase arrest in MDA-MB-468 cells. The expression of phosphor-Akt and phosphor-Erk1/2 (induced by irradiation and PI3K inhibitor) were fully attenuated by simultaneous treatment with both inhibitors in combination with irradiation. In addition, dual inhibition combined with irradiation induced dramatic tumor growth delay in MDA-MB-468 xenografts. Conclusions: Our study indicated that simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and PI3K could further sensitize the cancer cells to irradiation compared to the single inhibitor with irradiation in vitro and in vivo. The approach may have important therapeutic implication in the treatment of a subset of breast cancer patients with high expression of EGFR and deficient function of PTEN.

Li Ping; Zhang Qing [Department of Radiation Oncology, 6th People's Hospital of Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Torossian, Artour [Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Li Zhaobin; Xu Wencai [Department of Radiation Oncology, 6th People's Hospital of Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Lu Bo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University and Hospitals, Inc. Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fu Shen, E-mail: fushen1117@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, 6th People's Hospital of Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China)

2012-07-01

47

Celecoxib Enhances the Radiosensitizing Effect of 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), a Chk1-specific inhibitor, showed promising in vitro and in vivo chemo- or radiosensitizing activity. However, there have been concerns about its limited therapeutic efficacy and risk of side effects. A method of enhancing the treatment efficacy of UCN-01 while not increasing its side effects on normal tissue may therefore be required to apply this drug in clinical settings. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor that downregulates ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) protein, an upstream kinase of Chk1. In this study, we investigated whether the addition of celecoxib can potentiate the radiosensitizing effect of UCN-01. Methods and Materials: The cooperative radiosensitizing effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of UCN-01 plus celecoxib were determined by clonogenic assay, tumor growth delay assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Synergism of the three agents combined (UCN-01 plus celecoxib plus radiation) were evaluated using median drug effect analysis and drug-independent action model analysis. Results: The combination of UCN-01 and celecoxib could induce synergistic cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing effects in in vitro and in vivo systems. The combination of both drugs also cooperatively inhibited IR-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, and increased the G{sub 2} to mitotic transition. Conclusions: Combined treatment with UCN-01 and celecoxib can exert synergistically enhanced radiosensitizing effects via cooperative inhibition of the ionizing radiation-activated G{sub 2} checkpoint. We propose that this combination strategy may be useful in clinical applications of UCN-01 for radiotherapy of cancer patients.

Kim, Young-Mee; Jeong, In-Hye [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Hongryull, E-mail: Quasar93@yahoo.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

48

Effect of Recombinant Human Endostatin on Radiosensitivity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To observe the effects of recombinant human endostatin (RHES) on the radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: First, 10 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC selected from 15 patients were used to determine the normalization window, a period during which RHES improves NSCLC hypoxia. Second, 50 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC (Stages I-III) were randomly divided into a RHES plus radiotherapy group (25 cases) and a radiotherapy-alone group (25 cases). Intensity = modulated radiotherapy with a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions for 6 weeks was adopted in the two groups. The target area included primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes. In the RHES plus radiotherapy group, RHES (15 mg/day) was intravenously given during the normalization window. Results: After RHES administration, the tumor-to=normal tissue radioactivity ratio and capillary permeability surface were first decreased and then increased, with their lowest points on the fifth day compared with the first day (all p < 0.01). Blood flow was first increased and then decreased, with the highest point on the fifth day, compared with the first and tenth day (all p < 0.01). In the RHES plus radiotherapy group and the radiotherapy-alone group, the total effective rates (complete response plus partial response) were 80% and 44% (p = 0.009), respectively. The median survival times were 21.1 {+-} 0.97 months and 16.5 {+-} 0.95 months (p = 0.004), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year local control rates were 78.9 {+-} 8.4% and 68.1 {+-} 7.8% (p = 0.027) and 63.6 {+-} 7.2% and 43.4 {+-} 5.7% (p = 0.022), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival rates were 83.3 {+-} 7.2% and 76.6 {+-} 9.3% (p = 0.247) and 46.3 {+-} 2.4% and 37.6 {+-} 9.1% (p = 0.218), respectively. Conclusion: The RHES normalization window is within about 1 week after administration. RHES combined with radiotherapy within the normalization window has better short-term therapeutic effects and local control rates and no severe adverse reactions in the treatment of NSCLC, but it failed to significantly improve the 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates.

Jiang Xiaodong; Dai Peng; Wu Jin; Song Daan [Department of Oncology, Lianyungang First People's Hospital, Lianyungang (China); Yu Jinming, E-mail: jxdysy@sohu.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan (China)

2012-07-15

49

Human papillomavirus detection in dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions.  

PubMed

The role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions is controversial since there is a wide range in the incidence of virus detection. This study used a multi-tiered method of HPV detection using DNA in-situ hybridisation (ISH) for low- and high-risk subtypes, consensus PCR, and HPV genotype analysis in archival tissue from 20 cases of dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions. The biological significance of HPV DNA detection was assessed by p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). While 1/7 carcinomas and 5/13 dysplasias contained HPV DNA by consensus PCR and genotype analysis, all specimens were negative for low- and high-risk HPV ISH and negative for p16 IHC. Results show that although high-risk HPV DNA is detectable in a subset of these lesions, the lack of p16 overexpression suggests that the oncogenic process is not driven by HPV oncoproteins. PMID:22174425

Stokes, Angela; Guerra, Eliete; Bible, Jon; Halligan, Eugene; Orchard, Guy; Odell, Edward; Thavaraj, Selvam

2012-03-01

50

Ectopically hTERT expressing adult human mesenchymal stem cells are less radiosensitive than their telomerase negative counterpart  

SciTech Connect

During the past several years increasing evidence indicating that the proliferation capacity of mammalian cells is highly radiosensitive, regardless of the species and the tissue of origin of the cells, has accumulated. It has also been shown that normal bone marrow cells of mice have a similar radiosensitivity to other mammalian cells so far tested. In this study, we investigated the genetic effects of ionizing radiation (2.5-15 Gy) on normal human mesenchymal stem cells and their telomerised counterpart hMSC-telo1. We evaluated overall genomic integrity, DNA damage/repair by applying a fluorescence-detected alkaline DNA unwinding assay together with Western blot analyses for phosphorylated H2AX and Q-FISH was applied for investigation of telomeric damage. Our results indicate that hMSC and TERT-immortalized hMSCs can cope with relatively high doses of {gamma}-rays and that overall DNA repair is similar in the two cell lines. The telomeres were extensively destroyed after irradiation in both cell types suggesting that telomere caps are especially sensitive to radiation. The TERT-immortalized hMSCs showed higher stability at telomeric regions than primary hMSCs indicating that cells with long telomeres and high telomerase activity have the advantage of re-establishing the telomeric caps.

Serakinci, Nedime [Department of Human Genetics, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark) and Institute of Medical Biology, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Southern Denmark University, Odense (Denmark)]. E-mail: nserakinci@health.sdu.dk; Christensen, Rikke [Department of Human Genetics, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Graakjaer, Jesper [Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle County Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Cairney, Claire J. [Centre for Oncology and Applied Pharmacology, University of Glasgow, Cancer Research UK, Beatson Laboratories, Garscube Estate, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Keith, W. Nicol [Centre for Oncology and Applied Pharmacology, University of Glasgow, Cancer Research UK, Beatson Laboratories, Garscube Estate, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alsner, Jan [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Saretzki, Gabriele [Henry Wellcome Laboratory for Biogerontology, Newcastle General Hospital, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle (United Kingdom); Kolvraa, Steen [Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle County Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

2007-03-10

51

Inhibition of human positive cofactor 4 radiosensitizes human esophageal squmaous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing XLF-mediated nonhomologous end joining.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy has the widest application to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Factors associated with DNA damage repair have been shown to function in cell radiosensitivity. Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) has a role in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and is involved in DNA damage repair. However, the clinical significance and biological role of PC4 in cancer progression and cancer cellular responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of PC4 in the radiosensitivity of ESCC. In this study, we showed that knockdown of PC4 substantially increased ESCC cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) both in vitro and in vivo and enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe (MC). Importantly, we demonstrated that silencing of PC4 suppressed NHEJ by downregulating the expression of XLF in ESCC cells, whereas reconstituting the expression of XLF protein in the PC4-knockdown ESCC cells restored NHEJ activity and radioresistance. Moreover, high expression of PC4 positively correlated with ESCC resistance to CRT and was an independent predictor for short disease-specific survival of ESCC patients in both of our cohorts. These findings suggest that PC4 protects ESCC cells from IR-induced death by enhancing the NHEJ-promoting activity of XLF and could be used as a novel radiosensitivity predictor and a promising therapeutic target for ESCCs. PMID:25321468

Qian, D; Zhang, B; Zeng, X-L; Le Blanc, J M; Guo, Y-H; Xue, C; Jiang, C; Wang, H-H; Zhao, T-S; Meng, M-B; Zhao, L-J; Hao, J-H; Wang, P; Xie, D; Lu, B; Yuan, Z-Y

2014-01-01

52

Inhibition of UBE2D3 Expression Attenuates Radiosensitivity of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells by Increasing hTERT Expression and Activity  

PubMed Central

The known functions of telomerase in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. We have previously shown the existence of a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Here we set out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation by telomerase of radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of a human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma radioresistant (Hep2R) cDNA library was first performed to search for potential hTERT interacting proteins. We identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D3 (UBE2D3) as a principle hTERT-interacting protein and validated this association biochemically. ShRNA-mediated inhibition of UBE2D3 expression attenuated MCF-7 radiosensitivity, and induced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1 in these cells. Moreover, down-regulation of UBE2D3 increased hTERT activity and cell proliferation, accelerating G1 to S phase transition in MCF-7 cells. Collectively these findings suggest that UBE2D3 participates in the process of hTERT-mediated radiosensitivity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by regulating hTERT and cyclin D1. PMID:23741361

Hu, Liu; Li, Fen; Ren, Li; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Yu; Xia, Ling; Lei, Han; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng

2013-01-01

53

5-Iodo-2-Pyrimidinone-2'-Deoxyribose-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Radiosensitization in U87 Human Glioblastoma Xenografts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: 5-Iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (p.o.) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine. Because p.o. IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high-grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87. Methods and Materials: Groups of 8 or 9 athymic male nude mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted with s.c. U87 xenograft tumors (4 x 10{sup 6} cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of p.o. IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (q.d.) x 14 days with or without radiotherapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d x 4 days) on days 11-14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and after IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes. Results: IPdR alone at doses of {>=}500 mg/kg/d resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR plus RT resulted in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay, with the maximum radiosensitization using {>=}500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d resulted in transient 5-15% body weight loss during treatment. Conclusions: In U87 human glioblastoma s.c. xenografts, p.o. IPdR given q.d. x 14 days and RT given 2 Gy/d x 4 days (days 11-14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of p.o. IPdR plus RT holds promise for Phase I/II testing in patients with high-grade gliomas.

Kinsella, Timothy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)], E-mail: timothy.kinsella@UHhospitals.org; Kinsella, Michael T.; Seo, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Berk, Gregory [Hana Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA (United States)

2007-11-15

54

Comprehensive Profiling of Radiosensitive Human Cell Lines with DNA Damage Response Assays Identifies the Neutral Comet Assay as a Potential Surrogate for Clonogenic Survival  

PubMed Central

In an effort to explore the possible causes of human radiosensitivity and identify more rapid assays for cellular radiosensitivity, we interrogated a set of assays that evaluate cellular functions involved in recognition and repair of DNA double-strand breaks: (1) neutral comet assay, (2) radiation-induced ?-H2AX focus formation, (3) the temporal kinetics of structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 phosphorylation, (4) intra-S-phase checkpoint integrity, and (5) mitochondrial respiration. We characterized a unique panel of 19 “radiosensitivehuman lymphoblastoid cell lines from individuals with undiagnosed diseases suggestive of a DNA repair disorder. Radiosensitivity was defined by reduced cellular survival using a clonogenic survival assay. Each assay identified cell lines with defects in DNA damage response functions. The highest concordance rate observed, 89% (17/19), was between an abnormal neutral comet assay and reduced survival by the colony survival assay. Our data also suggested that the neutral comet assay would be a more rapid surrogate for analyzing DNA repair/processing disorders. PMID:21962002

Nahas, Shareef A.; Davies, Robert; Fike, Francesca; Nakamura, Kotoka; Du, Liutao; Kayali, Refik; Martin, Nathan T.; Concannon, Patrick; Gatti, Richard A.

2015-01-01

55

Radiosensitizing effect of gold nanoparticles in carbon ion irradiation of human cervical cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Noble metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in biotechnology for their role in bio sensing due to surface plasmon resonance, medical diagnostics due to better imaging contrast and therapy. The radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has been gaining popularity in radiation therapy of cancer cells. The better depth dose profile of energetic ion beam proves its superiority over gamma radiation for fighting against cancer. In the present work, the glucose capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-AuNP) were synthesised and internalized in the HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells confirmed the internalization of Glu-AuNPs. Control HeLa cells and Glu-AuNp treated HeLa cells were irradiated at different doses of 62 MeV 12C ion beam (LET - 290keV/{mu}m) at BIO beam line of using 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The survival fraction was assessed by colony forming assay which revealed that the dose of carbon ion for 90% cell killing in Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells and control HeLa cells are 2.3 and 3.2 Gy respectively. This observation shows {approx} 28% reduction of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion dose for Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells as compared to control HeLa cells.

Kaur, Harminder; Avasthi, D. K.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post box-10502, New Delhi-110067 (India)

2013-07-18

56

Cytotoxicity of restriction enzyme-induced DNA strand breaks in radiosensitive and radioresistant human tumor cell lines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to examine the role of sensitivity to specific types of DNA double strand breaks in human tumor cell response. The X ray-sensitive human squamous carcinoma cell line SCC-61 and the X ray-resistant line SQ-20B were exposed to the restriction enzymes HaeIII, HinfI, PvuII, BamHI by electroporation. Cyotoxicity of these restriction endonucleases was measured by a colony formation assay. Cell killing by each enzyme occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The radiosensitive cell line was more sensitive to all four restriction enzymes than the radioresistant line, paralleling the response to ionizing radiation. However, the magnitude of the difference was smaller than for radiation. The 5-base sticky ended cutter HinfI and 6-base blunt ended cutter PvuII were much more effective in killing cells from both lines than BamHI, a 6-base sticky ended cutter, whereas the 4-base blunt ended cutter HaeIII was intermediate in its effectiveness. Thus, enzyme sensitivity could not be related to the type of cutter or the distance between cutting sites. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Kinashi, Y.; Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-09-20

57

Involvement of NANOG upregulation in malignant progression of human cells.  

PubMed

Previously, we isolated cell lines that display various degrees of transformed phenotypes from a single-cell population of human diploid fibroblasts (RB) containing a large deletion (13q14-22) in one copy of chromosome 13. They included a cell line transfected with SV40 early genes (RBSV), an immortalized cell line (RBI), an anchorage-independent cell line (RBS), and a tumorigenic cell line (RBT). Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles in these cell lines and showed that expression of some fibroblast-specified or mesenchyme-specified genes were downregulated, and those of stem cell-specified genes, including NANOG, were upregulated during malignant progression. When NANOG expression was knocked down with a short hairpin NANOG expression vector (shNANOG vector) in the RBS and RBT cells, the anchorage independency and tumorigenicity were repressed. We next examined various cancer cell lines for NANOG expression and showed that some cancer cell lines expressed a high level of normal and/or variant NANOG proteins. Overexpression of NANOG mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma was also shown by in situ hybridization. All these data indicate the involvement of NANOG in tumorigenesis. PMID:23427894

Li, Yang; Higashiyama, Shinji; Shimakage, Misuzu; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Yutsudo, Masuo; Watari, Akihiro

2013-03-01

58

Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7, mda-7\\/IL24, selectively induces growth suppression, apoptosis and radiosensitization in malignant gliomas in a p53-independent manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant gliomas are extremely aggressive cancers currently lacking effective treatment modalities. Gene therapy represents a promising approach for this disease. A requisite component for improving gene-based therapies of brain cancer includes tumor suppressor genes that exhibit cancer constrained inhibitory activity. Subtraction hybridization identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) as a gene associated with melanoma cell growth, differentiation and progression. Ectopic

Zao-Zhong Su; Irina V Lebedeva; Devanand Sarkar; Rahul V Gopalkrishnan; Moira Sauane; Carter Sigmon; Adly Yacoub; Kristoffer Valerie; Paul Dent; Paul B Fisher

2003-01-01

59

Human Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes Map to a Region of Translocations in Malignant B Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human immunoglobulin heavy chain (gamma 4) gene is mapped by chromosome hybridization in situ. This gene is located at band 14q32, a site commonly involved in a chromosomal translocation characteristic of malignant B cells.

Ilan R. Kirsch; Cynthia C. Morton; Kenneth Nakahara; Philip Leder

1982-01-01

60

September 28, 2005: Mechanisms Leading to the Formation of Human Malignancies  

Cancer.gov

Mechanisms Leading to the Formation of Human Malignancies Star Speakers Robert Weinberg, PhD Member, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research Daniel K. Ludwig and American Cancer Society Research Professor of Molecular Biology Dept. of Biology, Massachusetts

61

Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. Western blot analysis was used to analyze levels of securin, caspase-3, PARP, p53, p21, Rb, gamma-H2AX, and phospho-Chk2. Senescent cells were analyzed using a beta-galactosidase staining assay. A securin-expressed vector (pcDNA-securin) was stably transfected into securin-null HCT116 cells. Securin gene knockdown was performed by small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Results: Radiation was found to induce apoptosis in securin wild type HCT116 cells but induced senescence in securin-null cells. Restoration of securin reduced senescence and increased cell survival in securin-null HCT116 cells after irradiation. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation were induced transiently in securin-wild-type cells but exhibited sustained activation in securin-null cells. Securin gene knockdown switches irradiation-induced apoptosis to senescence in both HCT116 p53-null and MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of securin expression plays a determining role in the radiosensitivity and fate of cells. Depletion of securin impairs DNA repair after irradiation, increasing DNA damage and promoting senescence in the residual surviving cells regardless of functional p53 expression. The knockdown of securin may contribute to a novel radiotherapy protocol for the treatment of human cancer cells that are resistant to irradiation.

Chen Wenshu; Yu Yichu [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee Yijang [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-H. [Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-Y. [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiu, S.-J., E-mail: chiusj@mail.tcu.edu.t [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Sciences, Tzu Chi Technology College, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-01

62

Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review  

PubMed Central

Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck mucosal lesions include oral-genital contact, more than one sexual partner and perinatal transmission of HPV to the neonatal child. The increase in prevalence of HPV infection in these lesions may be due to wider acceptance of oral sex among teenagers and adults as this is perceived to be a form of safe sex. The prevalence of HPV in benign lesions as well as malignancies has been assessed by many techniques. Among these, the polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive method. Review of literature reveals that HPV may be a risk factor for malignancies, but not in all cases. For confirmation of the role of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, large population studies are necessary in an assortment of clinical settings. Prophylactic vaccination against high-risk HPV types eventually may prevent a significant number of cervical carcinomas. Of the two vaccines currently available, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Inc.) protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine, Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) protects against HPV types 16 and 18 only. However, the HPV vaccine has, to the best of our knowledge, not been tried in head and neck carcinoma. The role of HPV in etiopathogenesis, prevalence in benign and malignant lesions of this area and vaccination strategies are briefly reviewed here. PMID:19555477

Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Mamta; Sundaram, Shanthy; Mehrotra, Ravi

2009-01-01

63

? integrin targeting for radiosensitization of three-dimensionally grown human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Integrin cell adhesion molecules play a crucial role in tumor cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy and are therefore considered attractive targets for cancer therapy. Here, we assessed the role of ?1 integrin-interacting ? integrin subunits in more physiological three-dimensional extracellular matrix grown head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell cultures for evaluating cytotoxic and radiosensitizing potential. ?2, ?3, ?5 and ?6 integrins, which are overexpressed in HNSCC according to Oncomine database analysis, were coprecipitated with ?1 integrin. More potently than ?2, ?5 or ?6 integrin inhibition, siRNA-based ?3 integrin targeting resulted in reduced clonogenic cell survival, induced apoptosis and enhanced radiosensitivity. These events were associated with diminished phosphorylation of Akt, Cortactin and Paxillin. Cell line-dependently, simultaneous ?3 and ?1 integrin inhibition led to higher cytotoxicity and radiosensitization than ?3 integrin blocking alone. Stable overexpression of wild-type and constitutively active forms of the integrin signaling mediator focal adhesion kinase (FAK) revealed FAK as a key determinant of ?3 integrin depletion-mediated radiosensitization. Our findings show that ?3 integrin is essentially involved in HNSCC cell radioresistance and critical for a modified cellular radiosensitivity along with ?1 integrins. PMID:25497870

Steglich, Anne; Vehlow, Anne; Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils

2015-02-28

64

Human cytomegalovirus viral load in tumor and peripheral blood samples of patients with malignant gliomas.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults. The disease has no known etiology, progresses rapidly, and is fatal despite current therapies. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta herpes virus that is trophic for glial cells and infects 50% to 90% of the adult human population. HCMV-mediated disease in immunosuppressed patients has highlighted the possible role of this virus in the development of other diseases, particularly inflammatory diseases such as vascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and certain malignancies. Sensitive detection of viral DNA, mRNA, and antigens in tumor tissues, as well as seroepidemiologic evidence, suggest a link between HCMV and several human malignancies. HCMV gene products are proposed to dysregulate multiple cellular pathways involved in oncogenesis, such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. These theories, currently being researched, suggest that HCMV acts as an oncomodulator in malignancies. We investigated the association between HCMV infection and reactivation, and malignant gliomas. An open, matched case-control, parallel group pilot study was performed in a tertiary referral center. The HCMV viral load in peripheral blood and tumor samples of 19 patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme was compared with a matched control cohort comprising 19 patients newly diagnosed with non-malignant brain tumors. There was no significant correlation between peripheral blood and tumor tissue HCMV viral load in patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared to the control cohort. The findings of the present study did not support an oncomodulatory role for HCMV in malignant gliomas. PMID:25443081

Priel, Eldar; Wohl, Anton; Teperberg, Michal; Nass, Dvora; Cohen, Zvi R

2015-02-01

65

Evidence for the isolation, growth, and characterization of malignant cells in primary cultures of human tumors.  

PubMed

Isolation and growth of malignant cells from solid tumors have often met with disappointing results. Consequently, we have developed a cell culture methodology based on ex vivo explantation of tumor tissue, with subsequent monolayer cell outgrowth. In an attempt to assess methods for detection of malignant cells in these cultures, we analyzed and compared the results of cytopathology, growth in soft agar, and detection of telomerase activity with those of standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques for the detection of cytokeratins, tumor marker p53, and proliferation marker Ki-67. The sensitivity of detection of malignant cells was 85% (22/26) for cytopathological examination, 30% (3/10) for soft agar growth, and 100% (12/12) for detection of telomerase activity. From these data, we concluded that both cytopathological examination and assessment of telomerase activity contribute to the detection of malignant cells in primary cultures of human solid tumors, whereas growth in soft agar was not a good indicator of malignant cells. Although not specific for malignant cells per se, IHC detection for epithelial cell cytokeratins showed a high degree of sensitivity (100%, 23/23), whereas the sensitivity for detection of tumor marker p53 and proliferation marker Ki-67 was 30% (7/23) and 70% (16/23), respectively. These data also provide proof that malignant tumor cells, derived from a diverse number of human solid tumors, can be isolated and grown in primary cell culture. PMID:12892529

Ochs, Robert L; Fensterer, Jeffrey; Ohori, N Paul; Wells, Alan; Gabrin, Michael; George, Lisa D; Kornblith, Paul

2003-01-01

66

Comparative Evaluation of Trace Metal Distribution and Correlation in Human Malignant and Benign Breast Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected trace metals were analyzed in human malignant and nonmalignant (benign) breast tissue samples by the flame atomic\\u000a absorption spectrophotometric method. In malignant tissues, dominant mean concentrations were revealed by Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe,\\u000a Zn, and Al at 927, 552, 231, 61.7, 36.5, 18.3, and 8.94 ?g\\/g, respectively, while the mean metal levels in benign tissues\\u000a were 903, 435, 183,

Qaisara Pasha; Salman A. Malik; Javed Iqbal; Nazia Shaheen; Munir H. Shah

2008-01-01

67

Malignant transformation of human cells by constitutive expression of platelet-derived growth factor-BB.  

PubMed

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) comprise a family of growth factors strongly implicated in human oncogenesis. A number of human tumors overexpress PDGF family members or have translocations activating PDGF receptors. Whereas the epidemiologic evidence implicating PDGF in human tumors is strong, malignant transformation of human cells by overexpression of PDGF has not been demonstrated. We have previously developed a human cell line by the sequential introduction of large T cells and telomerase, and we have demonstrated that these cells express functionally active PDGF receptor (PDGFR) beta. In order to determine whether growth factor-mediated transformation of human cells could occur, these cells were transduced with a retrovirus encoding PDGF-BB. Constitutive expression of PDGF-BB led to malignant transformation in nude mice. This is the first demonstration of constitutive signaling causing malignant transformation of human cells. Some of the changes that occur because of constitutive growth factor expression can be reversed by the clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor Glivec, whereas other changes are not reversible by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our model allows the assessment of epigenetic changes that occur during human carcinogenesis. In addition, these studies provide insight into the clinical failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as monotherapy for advanced malignancy. PMID:15695519

Govindarajan, Baskaran; Shah, Asha; Cohen, Cynthia; Arnold, Rebecca S; Schechner, Jeffrey; Chung, Jun; Mercurio, Arthur M; Alani, Rhoda; Ryu, Byungwoo; Fan, Chun-Yang; Cuezva, Jose M; Martinez, Marta; Arbiser, Jack L

2005-04-01

68

Adenoviral-E2F-1 radiosensitizes p53{sup wild-type} and p53{sup null} human prostate cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: E2F-1 is a transcription factor that enhances the radiosensitivity of various cell lines by inducing apoptosis. However, there are conflicting data concerning whether this enhancement is mediated via p53 dependent pathways. Additionally, the role of E2F-1 in the response of human prostate cancer to radiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of Adenoviral-E2F-1 (Ad-E2F-1) on the radiosensitivity of p53{sup wild-type} (LNCaP) and p53{sup null} (PC3) prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: LNCaP and PC3 cells were transduced with Ad-E2F-1, Adenoviral-Luciferase (Ad-Luc) control vector, or Adenoviral-p53 (Ad-p53). Expression of E2F-1 and p53 was examined by Western blot analysis. Annexin V and caspase 3 + 7 assays were performed to estimate the levels of apoptosis. Clonogenic survival assays were used to determine overall cell death. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance, using the Bonferroni method to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: Western blot analysis confirmed the efficacy of transductions with Ad-E2F-1 and Ad-p53. Ad-E2F-1 transduction significantly enhanced apoptosis and decreased clonogenic survival in both cell lines. These effects were compounded by the addition of RT. Although E2F-1-mediated radiosensitization was independent of p53 status, this effect was more pronounced in p53{sup wild-type} LNCaP cells. When PC3 cells were treated with Ad-p53 in combination with RT and Ad-E2F-1, there was at least an additive reduction in clonogenic survival. Conclusions: Our results suggest that Ad-E2F-1 significantly enhances the response of p53{sup wild-type} and p53{sup null} prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy, although radiosensitization is more pronounced in the presence of p53. Ad-E2F-1 may be a useful adjunct to radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Nguyen, Khanh H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hachem, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Khor, L.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Salem, Naji [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Paoli-Calmette, Avignon (France); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Calkins, Peter R. [Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: Alan.Pollack@fccc.edu

2005-09-01

69

Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

Yang, Wei, E-mail: detachedy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Sun, Ting [Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Tian, Ye [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2012-05-01

70

Activation of Neural and Pluripotent Stem Cell Signatures Correlates with Increased Malignancy in Human Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of stem cell characteristics in glioma cells raises the possibility that mechanisms promoting the maintenance and self-renewal of tissue specific stem cells have a similar function in tumor cells. Here we characterized human gliomas of various malignancy grades for the expression of stem cell regulatory proteins. We show that cells in high grade glioma co-express an array of

Johan Holmberg; Xiaobing He; Inti Peredo; Abiel Orrego; Göran Hesselager; Christer Ericsson; Outi Hovatta; Sueli Mieko Oba-Shinjo; Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie; Monica Nistér; Jonas Muhr; Joseph Najbauer

2011-01-01

71

Human Papillomavirus Infection in Malignant and Benign Gynaecological Conditions: A Study in Greek Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPV infection is by far the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. Our aim in this prospective nonrandomized study was to investigate the frequency with which different subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV) are found in gynaecological malignant and benign conditions and to compare the rate of infection between them. Detailed data of 195 women were selected and divided into three

Socrates Konidaris; Evangelia E Kouskouni; Theodore Panoskaltsis; Georgios Kreatsas; Efstratios S. Patsouris; Apostolos Sarivalassis; Aphrodite Nonni; Andreas C. Lazaris

2007-01-01

72

Radiosensitization by Inhibiting STAT1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically regarded as a radioresistant malignancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is not understood. This study investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a transcription factor downstream of the interferon-signaling pathway, in radioresistant RCC. Methods and Materials: The expressions of STAT1 and STAT3 in 164 human clear cell RCC samples, 47 papillary RCC samples, and 15 normal kidney tissue samples were examined by microarray expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the total and phosphorylated STAT1 expression in CRL-1932 (786-O) (human clear cell RCC), SKRC-39 (human papillary RCC), CCL-116 (human fibroblast), and CRL-1441 (G-401) (human Wilms tumor). STAT1 was reduced or inhibited by fludarabine and siRNA, respectively, and the effects on radiation-induced cell death were investigated using clonogenic assays. Results: STAT1 expression, but not STAT3 expression, was significantly greater in human RCC samples (p = 1.5 x 10{sup -8} for clear cell; and p = 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for papillary). Similarly, the expression of STAT1 was relatively greater in the two RCC cell lines. STAT1 expression was reduced by both fludarabine and siRNA, significantly increasing the radiosensitivity in both RCC cell lines. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the overexpression of STAT1 in human clear cell and papillary RCC tissues. Radiosensitization in RCC cell lines was observed by a reduction or inhibition of STAT1 signaling, using fludarabine or siRNA. Our data suggest that STAT1 may play a key role in RCC radioresistance and manipulation of this pathway may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy.

Hui Zhouguang [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital (Institute), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tretiakova, Maria [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang Zhongfa; Li Yan [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Wang Xiaozhen [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital (Institute), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhu, Julie Xiaohong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Gao Yuanhong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Mai Weiyuan [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Furge, Kyle [Laboratory of Computational Biology, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Qian Chaonan [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Amato, Robert [Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Butler, E. Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital and Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)] (and others)

2009-01-01

73

SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling and Human Malignancies.  

PubMed

The SWI/SNF complexes, initially identified in yeast 20 years ago, are a family of multi-subunit complexes that use the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes. Chromatin remodeling processes mediated by the SWI/SNF complexes are critical to the modulation of gene expression across a variety of cellular processes, including stemness, differentiation, and proliferation. The first evidence of the involvement of these complexes in carcinogenesis was provided by the identification of biallelic, truncating mutations of the SMARCB1 gene in malignant rhabdoid tumors, a highly aggressive childhood cancer. Subsequently, genome-wide sequencing technologies have identified mutations in genes encoding different subunits of the SWI/SNF complexes in a large number of tumors. SWI/SNF mutations, and the subsequent abnormal function of SWI/SNF complexes, are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The mechanisms by which perturbation of the SWI/SNF complexes promote oncogenesis are not fully elucidated; however, alterations of SWI/SNF genes obviously play a major part in cancer development, progression, and/or resistance to therapy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 10 is January 24, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25387058

Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier

2014-10-27

74

Survival curves of irradiated glutathione-deficient human fibroblasts: indication of a reduced enhancement of radiosensitivity by oxygen and misonidazole  

SciTech Connect

Fibroblasts derived from a patient with 5-oxoprolinuria are genetically deficient in glutathione synthetase. This deficiency causes a dramatic decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. The radiosensitivity of GSH deficient cells (GSH) was studied in vitro using colony forming ability as an endpoint. Cells with normal GSH level, obtained from the healthy brother of the patient, were used as controls. When irradiated in 95% air-5% CO/sub 2/, GSH/sup -/ cells are slightly but significantly more radiosensitive than GSH/sup +/ controls (dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.2). When irradiated in argon, the survival curve of GSH/sup -/ cells indicates an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 1.5 when compared to the curve obtained in oxic conditions. The OER of control cells in the same conditions is 2.9. In comparison to results obtained in air, 100% oxygen moderately increases the radiosensitivity of GSH/sup +/ cells (DMF 1,23), while it has a very low effect on GSH/sup -/ cells (DMF 1.06). These results suggest that intracellular GSH plays an essential protective role in hypoxia, its effect is reduced in air and practically disappears in 100% oxygen. When cells are incubated with 8 mM misonidazole 2 hours before irradiation, the drug has a much greater sensitizing effect on GSH/sup +/ cells (DMF 2.33) than on GSH/sup -/ cells (DMF 1.55). The results demonstrate that intracellular GSH level plays a major role in the response of hypoxic cells, irradiated either alone or in the presence of misonidazole.

Midander, J. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden); Deschavanne, P.J.; Malaise, E.P.; Revesz, L.

1982-03-01

75

A Thiol Protease Inhibitor Released from Cultured Human Malignant Melanoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thiol protease inhibitor (TPI) was found in culture media of human malignant melanoma cells (Bowes) at 1.5 to 2.3 units\\/ day\\/flask (full sheet, 75 sq cm). This amount well exceeded that for cultured nonmalignant cells (human fetal lung fibroblasts). In the ¡ntracellularregion of the melanoma cells, TPI activity was localized mainly in the cytosol fraction. The difference in specific

Yasuhiro Nishida; Hisashi Mihara

1984-01-01

76

Melatonin inhibits cell proliferation and induces caspase activation and apoptosis in human malignant lymphoid cell lines.  

PubMed

Melatonin exerts strong anti-tumour activity via several mechanisms, including anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in addition to its potent antioxidant activity. Several studies have investigated the effects of melatonin on haematological malignancies. However, the previous studies investigating lymphoid malignancies have been largely restricted to a single type of malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). Thus, we examined the actions of melatonin on the growth and apoptosis in a small panel of cell lines representing different human lymphoid malignancies including Ramos (Epstein-Barr virus-negative BL), SU-DHL-4 (diffuse large B cell lymphoma), DoHH2 (follicular B non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and JURKAT (acute T cell leukaemia). We showed that melatonin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in all these cells, although there was marked variations in responses among different cell lines (sensitivity; Ramos/DoHH2 > SU-DHL-4 > JURKAT). Melatonin-induced apoptosis was relatively rapid, with increased caspase 3 and PARP cleavage detected within 0.5-1 h following melatonin addition. Moreover, there was evidence for rapid processing of both caspase 9, as well as a breakdown of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. On the contrary, caspase activation was detected only in SU-DHL-4 and Ramos cells following melatonin treatment suggesting that the extrinsic pathway does not make a consistent contribution to melatonin-induced apoptosis in malignant lymphocytes. Although all cell lines expressed the high-affinity melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2, melatonin-induced caspase activation appeared to be independent these receptors. Our findings confirm that melatonin could be a potential chemotherapeutic/preventive agent for malignant lymphocytes. However, it is necessary to take into account that different lymphoid malignancies may differ in their response to melatonin. PMID:22582944

Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Lee, Melanie; de la Lastra, Catalina A; Guerrero, Juan M; Packham, Graham

2012-11-01

77

From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

2004-04-01

78

Protein patterns of benign and malignant human melanocytes show consistent changes in gene expression.  

PubMed

For human malignant melanoma, no pattern of oncogene activation has yet been identified which consistently occurs in the malignant cells. In order to better understand the transformation process, we studied the overall gene expression at the protein level in human melanoma cells in vitro by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. For that, four established cell lines, MEWO, M5, SKMEL13, and IGR39, were used and compared with newly established cultures of normal human melanocytes. Considerable variations in the protein patterns of the different melanoma cell lines were found, whereas the patterns of normal human melanocytes correlated fairly well with each other. With respect to the expression of single proteins, we identified four major proteins which were consistently found in cultured melanocytes and stringently repressed in the four melanoma cell lines examined. On the other hand, induction of new proteins in the different melanoma cell lines was found to be less stringent and also less uniform. We propose that malignant transformation of melanocytes may be more associated with the suppression of melanocytic proteins rather than with new expression of melanoma specific proteins. PMID:7597285

Eberle, J; Garbe, C; Kroumpouzos, G; Orfanos, C E

1995-01-01

79

Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

2004-08-01

80

p120 GAP requirement in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

There is evidence to suggest that the p120 GAP (GAP), originally described as an inhibitor of p21ras, may also serve as a downstream effector of ras-regulated signal transduction. To determine whether GAP expression is required for the growth of human normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells, we used GAP antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to inhibit it and analyzed the effects of this inhibition on the colony- forming ability of nonadherent, T lymphocyte-depleted mononuclear cells and of highly purified progenitors (CD34+ MNC) obtained from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy volunteers or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, bcr-abl-positive) patients. The acute myelogenous leukemia cell line MO7, the Philadelphia BV173 cell line, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 and HL-60 cell lines were similarly examined. GAP antisense treatment inhibited colony formation from normal myelo-, erythro-, and megakaryopoietic progenitor cells as well as from CML progenitor cells. Proliferation of MO7 (growth factor- dependent) and BV173 (bcr-abl-dependent) cells, but not that of NB4 and HL-60 (growth factor-independent) cells, was also inhibited, even though a specific downregulation of GAP was observed in each cell line, as analyzed by either or both mRNA and protein expression. Stimulation of MO7 cells with hematopoietic growth factors increased the expression of GAP as well as the levels of active GTP-bound p21ras. Stimulation of GAP expression was inhibited upon GAP antisense treatment. These data indicate that p120 GAP is involved in human normal and leukemic hemopoiesis and strongly suggest that GAP is not only a p21ras inhibitor (signal terminator), but also a positive signal transducer. PMID:8245773

1993-01-01

81

Increased radiosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and U251 glioblastoma cell lines treated with the novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Heat shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds, stabilizes, and functionally regulates many cellular proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and in the regulation of radiosensitivity. It is upregulated in response to stress such a heat. Hyperthermia is a potent radiosensitizer, but induction of Hsp90 may potentially limit its efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the new Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 increases radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human tumor cell lines. Material and methods U251 glioblastoma and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were used. To determine clonogenic survival, colony forming assays were performed. Cell viability and proliferation were assesed by Trypan blue staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DAPI staining was used to detect mitotic catastrophe. Results NVP-HSP990 increased the thermosensitivity, radiosensitivity and radio-thermosensitivity of both cell lines in clonogenic assays. 72?hours after irradiation with 4?Gy, a significant reduction in cell number associated with considerable G2/M acumulation and mitotic catastrophe as well as cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Conclusions Treatment with NVP-HSP990 strongly sensitized U251 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to hyperthermia and ionizing radiation or combination thereof through augmentation of G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and associated apoptosis. PMID:23448094

2013-01-01

82

Localization of the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility locus to human chromosome 19ql2-13.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

MALIGNANT hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited human skeletal muscle disorder and is one of the main causes of death due to anaesthesia1. The reported incidence of MH varies from 1 in 12,000 in children to 1 in 40,000 in adults2,3. MH is triggered in susceptible people by all commonly used inhalational anaesthetics; it is characterized by a profoundly accelerated muscle

Tommie V. McCarthy; J. M. Sandra Healy; James J. A. Heffron; Mary Lehane; Thomas Deufel; Frank Lehmann-Horn; Martin Farrall; Keith Johnson

1990-01-01

83

p53 Mutations in Human Lymphoid Malignancies: Association with Burkitt Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in B- and T-cell human lymphoid malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. p53 exons 5-9 were studied by using genomic DNA from 197 primary tumors and 27 cell lines by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments. Mutations were

Gianluca Gaidano; Paola Ballerini; Jerry Z. Gong; Giorgio Inghirami; Antonino Neri; Elizabeth W. Newcomb; Ian T. Magrath; Daniel M. Knowles; Riccardo dalla-Favera

1991-01-01

84

Activating mutation of D835 within the activation loop of FLT3 in human hematologic malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases are implicated in the constitutive activation and development of human malignancy.An inter- nal tandem duplication (ITD) of the jux- tamembrane (JM) domain-coding sequence of the FLT3 gene (FLT3\\/ITD) is found in 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is strongly associated with leuko- cytosis and a poor prognosis. On the other hand, mutations

Yukiya Yamamoto; Hitoshi Kiyoi; Yasuyuki Nakano; Ritsuro Suzuki; Yoshihisa Kodera; Shuichi Miyawaki; Norio Asou; Kazutaka Kuriyama; Fumiharu Yagasaki; Chihiro Shimazaki; Hideki Akiyama; Kenji Saito; Miki Nishimura; Toshiko Motoji; Katsuji Shinagawa; Akihiro Takeshita; Hidehiko Saito; Ryuzo Ueda; Ryuzo Ohno; Tomoki Naoe

2010-01-01

85

Characterization of an established human, malignant, glioblastoma cell line (GBM) and its response to conventional drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell line, GBM, was established from a human malignant glioblastoma and was characterized with particular reference to its response to conventional drugs. The GBM cell line exhibited a 73±7 h doubling time in monolayer cultures. Experssion of glial fibrillary acidic and S-100 proteins was observed. Karyotype analysis of GBM cells at early passages revealed the presence of two near-triploid

Paola Perego; Amerigo Boiardi; Nives Carenini; Michelandrea De Cesare; Ersilia Dolfini; Roberto Giardini; Ivana Magnani; Stefania Martignone; Antonio Silvani; Carla Soranzo; Franco Zunino

1994-01-01

86

The mechanisms responsible for the radiosensitizing effects of sorafenib on colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and is generally treated more effectively by chemoradiotherapy rather than radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. Targeted radiosensitizers are often used in order to enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to identify the mechanism of radiosensitization by sorafenib in colorectal cancer. Three human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HCT116, HT29 and SW480) were treated with sorafenib alone or radiation followed by sorafenib. In vitro tests were performed using colony forming assays, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, tumor cell motility assays, invasion assays and endothelial tube formation assays. Sorafenib enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of radiation, reducing colony formation, increasing G2/M arrest and enhancing radiation-induced apoptosis by reactive oxygen species. Sorafenib also inhibited the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage by blocking the activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Combination treatment significantly inhibited tumor cell migration, tumor cell invasion and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. Taken together, our results provide a scientific rationale for the use of sorafenib with radiotherapy in colon cancer and suggest a clinical utility for this approach. PMID:25242034

Kim, Eun Ho; Kim, Mi-Sook; Jung, Won-Gyun

2014-12-01

87

The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process.  

PubMed

Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young's modulus) than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines). However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force. PMID:24778971

Ramos, Jorge R; Pabijan, Joanna; Garcia, Ricardo; Lekka, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

88

Voltage-dependent calcium release in human malignant hyperthermia muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) results from a defect of calcium release control in skeletal muscle that is often caused by point mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1). In malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) muscle, calcium release responds more sensitively to drugs such as halothane and caffeine. In addition, experiments on the porcine homolog of malignant hyperthermia (mutation Arg615Cys in RYR1) indicated a higher sensitivity to membrane depolarization. Here, we investigated depolarization-dependent calcium release under voltage clamp conditions in human MHS muscle. Segments of muscle fibers dissected from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle of MHN (malignant hyperthermia negative) and MHS subjects were voltage-clamped in a double vaseline gap system. Free calcium was determined with the fluorescent indicator fura-2 and converted to an estimate of the rate of SR calcium release. Both MHN and MHS fibers showed an initial peak of the release rate, a subsequent decline, and rapid turn-off after repolarization. Neither the kinetics nor the voltage dependence of calcium release showed significant deviations from controls, but the average maximal peak rate of release was about threefold larger in MHS fibers. PMID:9788935

Struk, A; Lehmann-Horn, F; Melzer, W

1998-11-01

89

Voltage-dependent calcium release in human malignant hyperthermia muscle fibers.  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) results from a defect of calcium release control in skeletal muscle that is often caused by point mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1). In malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) muscle, calcium release responds more sensitively to drugs such as halothane and caffeine. In addition, experiments on the porcine homolog of malignant hyperthermia (mutation Arg615Cys in RYR1) indicated a higher sensitivity to membrane depolarization. Here, we investigated depolarization-dependent calcium release under voltage clamp conditions in human MHS muscle. Segments of muscle fibers dissected from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle of MHN (malignant hyperthermia negative) and MHS subjects were voltage-clamped in a double vaseline gap system. Free calcium was determined with the fluorescent indicator fura-2 and converted to an estimate of the rate of SR calcium release. Both MHN and MHS fibers showed an initial peak of the release rate, a subsequent decline, and rapid turn-off after repolarization. Neither the kinetics nor the voltage dependence of calcium release showed significant deviations from controls, but the average maximal peak rate of release was about threefold larger in MHS fibers. PMID:9788935

Struk, A; Lehmann-Horn, F; Melzer, W

1998-01-01

90

MK886-induced apoptosis depends on the 5LO expression level in human malignant glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting evidence suggests that lipoxygenase (LO)-catalyzed products may play a key role in the development and progression\\u000a of human cancers. In this study, we analyzed the effects of a 5-LO inhibitor, which inhibits the conversion of arachidonic\\u000a acid to leukotrienes, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human malignant glioma cells, including 5-LO-expressing cells\\u000a U-87MG, A172 and 5-LO non-expressing cell U373.

Jung Yeon Lim; Ji Hyeon Oh; Ju Ri Jung; Seong Muk Kim; Chung Hun Ryu; Hong-Tae Kim; Sin-Soo Jeun

2010-01-01

91

Garlic compounds induced calpain and intrinsic caspase cascade for apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant (N-type) neuroblastoma continues to defy current chemotherapeutic regimens. We tested the garlic compounds diallyl\\u000a sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS) for induction of apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Viability\\u000a of human primary neurons was unaffected after 24 h treatment with 50 and 100 ?M DAS and 50 ?M DADS but slightly affected with\\u000a 100 ?M DADS. Treatment with 50 and 100 ?M

Surajit Karmakar; Naren L. Banik; Sunil J. Patel; Swapan K. Ray

2007-01-01

92

Curcumin Suppressed Anti-apoptotic Signals and Activated Cysteine Proteases for Apoptosis in Human Malignant Glioblastoma U87MG Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioblastoma is the most malignant human brain tumor that shows poor response to existing therapeutic agents. Search continues\\u000a for an effective therapy for controlling this deadliest brain tumor. Curcumin (CCM), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa, possesses anti-cancer properties in both in vitro and in vivo. In the present investigation, we evaluated the therapeutic\\u000a efficacy of CCM against human malignant

Surajit Karmakar; Naren L. Banik; Swapan K. Ray

2007-01-01

93

Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

2008-02-01

94

Drug metabolism and homologous recombination repair in radiosensitization with gemcitabine.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine (difluorodeoxycytidine; dFdCyd) is a potent radiosensitizer, noted for its ability to enhance cytotoxicity with radiation at noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro and subchemotherapeutic doses in patients. Radiosensitization in human tumor cells requires dFdCyd-mediated accumulation of cells in S phase with inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, resulting in ?80% deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) depletion and errors of replication in DNA. Less is known of the role of specific DNA replication and repair pathways in the radiosensitization mechanism. Here the role of homologous recombination (HR) in relationship to the metabolic and cell cycle effects of dFdCyd was investigated using a matched pair of CHO cell lines that are either proficient (AA8 cells) or deficient (irs1SF cells) in HR based on expression of the HR protein XRCC3. The results demonstrated that the characteristics of radiosensitization in the rodent AA8 cells differed significantly from those in human tumor cells. In the AA8 cells, radiosensitization was achieved only under short (?4 h) cytotoxic incubations, and S-phase accumulation did not appear to be required for radiosensitization. In contrast, human tumor cell lines were radiosensitized using noncytotoxic concentrations of dFdCyd and required early S-phase accumulation. Studies of the metabolic effects of dFdCyd demonstrated low dFdCyd concentrations did not deplete dATP by ?80% in AA8 and irs1SF cells. However, at higher concentrations of dFdCyd, failure to radiosensitize the HR-deficient irs1SF cells could not be explained by a lack of dATP depletion or lack of S-phase accumulation. Thus, these parameters did not correspond to dFdCyd radiosensitization in the CHO cells. To evaluate directly the role of HR in radiosensitization, XRCC3 expression was suppressed in the AA8 cells with a lentiviral-delivered shRNA. Partial XRCC3 suppression significantly decreased radiosensitization [radiation enhancement ratio (RER) = 1.6 ± 0.15], compared to nontransduced (RER = 2.7 ± 0.27; P = 0.012), and a substantial decrease compared to nonspecific shRNA-transduced (RER = 2.5 ± 0.42; P = 0.056) AA8 cells. Although the results support a role for HR in radiosensitization with dFdCyd in CHO cells, the differences in the underlying metabolic and cell cycle characteristics suggest that dFdCyd radiosensitization in the nontumor-derived CHO cells is mechanistically distinct from that in human tumor cells. PMID:25564718

Im, Michael M; Flanagan, Sheryl A; Ackroyd, Jeffrey J; Shewach, Donna S

2015-01-01

95

Role of phosphodiesterase 2 in growth and invasion of human malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the intracellular concentrations and effects of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). The role of PDEs in malignant tumor cells is still uncertain. The role of PDEs, especially PDE2, in human malignant melanoma PMP cell line was examined in this study. In PMP cells, 8-bromo-cAMP, a cAMP analog, inhibited cell growth and invasion. However, 8-bromo-cGMP, a cGMP analog, had little or no effect. PDE2 and PDE4, but not PDE3, were expressed in PMP cells. Growth and invasion of PMP cells were inhibited by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a specific PDE2 inhibitor, but not by rolipram, a specific PDE4 inhibitor. Moreover, cell growth and invasion were inhibited by transfection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for PDE2A and a catalytically-dead mutant of PDE2A. After treating cells with EHNA or rolipram, intracellular cAMP concentrations were increased. Growth and invasion were stimulated by PKA14-22, a PKA inhibitor, and inhibited by N(6)-benzoyl-c AMP, a PKA specific cAMP analog, whereas 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP, an Epac specific cAMP analog, did not. Invasion, but not growth, was stimulated by A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP) St-Ht31 inhibitory peptide. Based on these results, PDE2 appears to play an important role in growth and invasion of the human malignant melanoma PMP cell line. Selectively suppressing PDE2 might possibly inhibit growth and invasion of other malignant tumor cell lines. PMID:24705027

Hiramoto, Kenichi; Murata, Taku; Shimizu, Kasumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Inui, Madoka; Manganiello, Vincent C; Tagawa, Toshiro; Arai, Naoya

2014-09-01

96

Human cytomegalovirus inhibits apoptosis by regulating the activating transcription factor 5 signaling pathway in human malignant glioma cells  

PubMed Central

The activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), also termed ATFx, is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family of basic zipper proteins. ATF5 is an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in malignant glioma and is essential for glioma cell survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that human malignant gliomas are universally infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Recent studies have shown that HCMV may be resistant to the induction of apoptosis by disrupting cellular pathways in glioblastoma. To investigate the potential anti-apoptotic function of HCMV in glioma, malignant U87 glioma cells were infected with HCMV. The present study showed that HCMV infection suppressed apoptosis in glioblastoma U87 cells by regulating the expression of ATF5. Furthermore, in glioblastoma U87 cells, HCMV infection induced cellular proliferation in parallel with an increase in the expression level of ATF5 and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 to Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio. Loss of ATF5 function was achieved using a dominant-negative form of ATF5 in U87 cells, whereby cells appeared to grow marginally following HCMV infection when compared with the control. However, the anti-apoptotic ability was appeared to decline in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. These results indicate that ATF5 signaling pathways may be important in the anti-apoptotic activity of HCMV-infected glioblastoma cells; therefore, the anti-apoptotic molecular mechanisms of HCMV in human glioblastoma cells were investigated in the current study. Prevention of HCMV infection may present a potential and promising approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:25120656

WANG, TONGMEI; QIAN, DONGMENG; HU, MING; LI, LING; ZHANG, LI; CHEN, HAO; YANG, RUI; WANG, BIN

2014-01-01

97

Differential expression of two fibroblast growth factor-receptor genes is associated with malignant progression in human astrocytomas  

SciTech Connect

Malignant astrocytomas, which are highly invasive, vascular neoplasms, compose the majority of nervous system tumors in humans. Elevated expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in astrocytomas has implicated the FGF family of mitogens in the initiation and progression of astrocyte-derived tumors. In this study, the authors demonstrated that human astrocytomas undergo parallel changes in FGF-receptor (FGFR) expression during their progression from a benign to a malignant phenotype. FGFR type 2 (BEK) expression was abundant in normal white matter and in all low-grade astrocytomas but was not seen in malignant astrocytomas. Conversely, FGFR type 1 (FLG) expression was absent or barely detectable in normal white matter but was significantly elevated in malignant astrocytomas. Malignant astrocytomas also expressed an alternatively spliced form of FGFR-1 (FGFR-1[beta]) containing two immunoglobulin-like disulfide loops, whereas normal human adult and fetal brains expressed a receptor form (FGFR-1[alpha]) containing three immunoglobulin-like disulfide loops. Intermediate grades of astrocytic tumors exhibited a gradual loss of FGFR-2 and a shift in expression from FGFR-1[alpha] to FGFR-2 and a shift in expression from FGFR-1[alpha] to FGFR-1[beta] as they progressed from benign to malignant phenotype. These results suggest that differential expression and alternative splicing of FGFRs may be critical in the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors.

Yamaguchi, F.; Saya, H.; Bruner, J.M.; Morrison, R.S. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-01-18

98

Inflammation precedes the development of human malignant mesotheliomas in a SCID mouse xenograft model  

PubMed Central

Asbestos fibers cause chronic inflammation that may be critical to the development of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Two human MM cell lines (Hmeso, PPM Mill) were used in a SCID mouse xenograft model to assess time-dependent patterns of inflammation and tumor formation. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MM cells, mice were euthanized at 7, 14, and 30 days, and peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) was examined for immune cell profiles and human and mouse cytokines. Increases in human MM-derived IL-6, IL-8, bFGF, and VEGF were observed in mice at 7 days postinjection of either MM line, and a striking neutrophilia was observed at all time points. Free-floating tumor spheroids developed in mice at 14 days, and both spheroids and adherent MM tumor masses occurred in all mice at 30 days. Results suggest that inflammation and cytokine production precede and may be critical to the development of MMs. PMID:20716277

Hillegass, Jedd M.; Shukla, Arti; Lathrop, Sherrill A.; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Beuschel, Stacie L.; Butnor, Kelly J.; Testa, Joseph R.; Pass, Harvey I.; Carbone, Michele; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

2010-01-01

99

STAT3 as a possible therapeutic target in human malignancies: lessons from acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

STAT3 is important for transcriptional regulation in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAT3 has thousands of potential DNA binding sites but usually shows cell type specific binding preferences to a limited number of these. Furthermore, AML is a very heterogeneous disease, and studies of the prognostic impact of STAT3 in human AML have also given conflicting results. A more detailed characterization of STAT3 functions and the expression of various isoforms in human AML will therefore be required before it is possible to design clinical studies of STAT3 inhibitors in this disease, and it will be especially important to investigate whether the functions of STAT3 differ between patients. Several other malignancies also show extensive biological heterogeneity, and the present discussion and the suggested scientific approaches may thus be relevant for other cancer patients. PMID:25374305

Bruserud, Øystein; Nepstad, Ina; Hauge, Michelle; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne; Reikvam, Håkon

2015-02-01

100

A complete compilation of matrix metalloproteinase expression in human malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas are characterized by an aggressive local growth pattern, a marked degree of invasiveness and poor prognosis. Tumor invasiveness is facilitated by the increased activity of proteolytic enzymes which are involved in destruction of the extracellular matrix of the surrounding healthy brain tissue. Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were found in glioblastoma (GBM) cell-lines, as well as in GBM biopsies as compared with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) and normal brain samples, indicating a role in malignant progression. A careful review of the available literature revealed that both the expression and role of several of the 23 human MMP proteins is controversely discussed and for some there are no data available at all. We therefore screened a panel of 15 LGA and 15 GBM biopsy samples for those MMPs for which there is either no, very limited or even contradictory data available. Hence, this is the first complete compilation of the expression pattern of all 23 human MMPs in astrocytic tumors. This study will support a better understanding of the specific expression patterns and interaction of proteolytic enzymes in malignant human glioma and may provide additional starting points for targeted patient therapy. PMID:22582165

Hagemann, Carsten; Anacker, Jelena; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Vince, Giles H

2012-01-01

101

Human T-cell leukemia virus-I and hematologic malignancies in Panama.  

PubMed

Serum samples were obtained in a 2-year period (November 1, 1984-December 31, 1986) from 136 Panamanian patients with hematologic malignancies identified by a population-based registry designed for studies investigating human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I. Only three patients had clinical and serologic findings of HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The authors conclude that although classical HTLV-I-associated ATLL occurs in the Panamanian population, it is not as prevalent as in other Caribbean populations. PMID:2720568

Levine, P H; Reeves, W C; Cuevas, M; Arosemena, J R; Jaffe, E S; Saxinger, W C; Altafulla, M; De Bernal, J; Espino, H; Rios, B

1989-06-01

102

Composition and distribution of glycosaminoglycans in cultures of human normal and malignant glial cells.  

PubMed Central

The glycosaminoglycans of human cultured normal glial and malignant glioma cells were studied. [35S]Sulphate or [3H]glucosamine added to the culture medium was incorporated into glycosaminoglycans; labelled glycosaminoglycans were isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography or gel chromatography. A simple procedure was developed for measurement of individual sulphated glycosaminoglycans in cell-culture fluids. In normal cultures the glycosaminoglycans of the pericellular pool (trypsin-susceptible material), the membrane fraction (trypsin-susceptible material of EDTA-detached cells) and the substrate-attached material consisted mainly of heparan sulphate. The intra- and extra-cellular pools showed a predominance of dermatan sulphate. The net production of hyaluronic acid was low. The accumulation of 35S-labelled glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular pool was essentially linear with time up to 72h. The malignant glioma cells differed in most aspects tested. The total production of glycosaminoglycans was much greater owing to a high production of hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid was the major cell-surface-associated glycosaminoglycan in these cultures. Among the sulphated glycosaminoglycans chondroitin sulphate, rather than heparan sulphate, was the predominant species of the pericellular pool. This was also true for the membrane fraction and substrate-attached material. Furthermore, the accumulation of extracellular 35S-labelled glycosaminoglycans was initially delayed for several hours and did not become linear with time until after 24 h of incubation. The glioma cells produced little dermatan sulphate and the dermatan sulphate chains differed from those of normal cultures with respect to the distribution of iduronic acid residues. The observed differences between normal glial and malignant glioma cells were not dependent on cell density; rather they were due to the malignant transformation itself. PMID:687354

Glimelius, B; Norling, B; Westermark, B; Wasteson, A

1978-01-01

103

Eph-A2 and Eph-A4 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions: An immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Eph-A2 and Eph-A4 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Material/Methods Eph-A2 and Eph-A4 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 131 patients with benign and malignant lesions. Results Eph-A2 was significantly overexpressed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p<0.001). Papillary carcinoma cases presented significantly increased Eph-A2 expression compared to those with hyperplasia nodules (p<0.001). Eph-A4 expression was not differentiated between cases with malignant or benign thyroid lesions. Papillary carcinoma cases presented significantly increased Eph-A4 expression compared to those with hyperplasia nodules (p=0.006). In the subgroup of malignant thyroid lesions, Eph-A2 and Eph-A4 expression was not associated with TNM stage, capsular, lymphatic or vascular invasion. Conclusions The present data suggest that Eph-A2, but not Eph-A4, overexpression may be associated with the malignant transformation of thyroid neoplasia. Further studies conducted on cohorts including a higher proportion of patients with advanced nodal and metastatic disease are recommended to draw definite conclusions on the clinical significance of Eph proteins in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:21873938

Karidis, Nikolaos P.; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Theocharis, Stamatios

2011-01-01

104

Radiosensitivity of Human Fibroblasts is Associated With Amino Acid Substitution Variants in Susceptible Genes And Correlates With The Number of Risk Alleles  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Genetic predictive markers of radiosensitivity are being sought for stratifying radiotherapy for cancer patients and risk assessment of radiation exposure. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in susceptible genes are associated with, and the number of risk alleles has incremental effect on, individual radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: Six amino acid substitution variants (ATM 1853 Asp/Asn G>A, p53 72 Arg/Pro G>C, p21 31 Ser/Arg C>A, XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln G>A, XRCC3 241 Thr/Met C>T, and TGF{beta}1 10 Leu/Pro T>C) were genotyped by direct sequencing in 54 fibroblast strains of different radiosensitivity. Results: The clonogenic survival fraction at 2 Gy range was 0.15-0.50 (mean, 0.34, standard deviation, 0.08). The mean survival fraction at 2 Gy divided the cell strains into radiosensitive (26 cases) and normal (28 controls). A significant association was observed between the survival fraction at 2 Gy and ATM 1853 Asn, XRCC3 241 Met, and TGF{beta}1 10 Leu alleles (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, and p = 0.02, respectively). The p53 72 Arg allele showed a borderline association (p = 0.07). The number of risk alleles increased with increasing radiosensitivity, and the group comparison showed a statistically significant difference between the radiosensitive and control groups (p {<=}0.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms in susceptible genes influence cellular radiation response and that the number of risk alleles has a combined effect on radiosensitivity. Individuals with multiple risk alleles could be more susceptible to radiation effects than those with fewer risk alleles. These results may have implications in predicting normal tissue reactions to radiotherapy and risk assessment of radiation exposure.

Alsbeih, Ghazi [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: galsbeih@kfshrc.edu.sa; El-Sebaie, Medhat [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Harbi, Najla [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Buhairi, Muneera [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hadyan, Khaled [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rajhi, Nasser [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2007-05-01

105

Down-Regulation of EBV-LMP1 Radio-Sensitizes Nasal Pharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via NF-?B Regulated ATM Expression  

PubMed Central

Background The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by EBV is expressed in the majority of EBV-associated human malignancies and has been suggested to be one of the major oncogenic factors in EBV-mediated carcinogenesis. In previous studies we experimentally demonstrated that down-regulation of LMP1 expression by DNAzymes could increase radiosensitivity both in cells and in a xenograft NPC model in mice. Results In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiosensitization caused by the down-regulation of LMP1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It was confirmed that LMP1 could up-regulate ATM expression in NPCs. Bioinformatic analysis of the ATM ptomoter region revealed three tentative binding sites for NF-?B. By using a specific inhibitor of NF-?B signaling and the dominant negative mutant of IkappaB, it was shown that the ATM expression in CNE1-LMP1 cells could be efficiently suppressed. Inhibition of LMP1 expression by the DNAzyme led to attenuation of the NF-?B DNA binding activity. We further showed that the silence of ATM expression by ATM-targeted siRNA could enhance the radiosensitivity in LMP1 positive NPC cells. Conclusions Together, our results indicate that ATM expression can be regulated by LMP1 via the NF-?B pathways through direct promoter binding, which resulted in the change of radiosensitivity in NPCs. PMID:22096476

Xiao, Lanbo; Tang, Min; Liu, Liyu; Li, Zijian; Deng, Mengyao; Sun, Lunquan; Cao, Ya

2011-01-01

106

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Type 1 Receptor Inhibitor NVP-AEW541 Enhances Radiosensitivity of PTEN Wild-Type but Not PTEN-Deficient Human Prostate Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: During the past decade, many clinical trials with both monoclonal antibodies and small molecules that target the insulin-like growth factor-type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been launched. Despite the important role of IGF-1R signaling in radioresistance, studies of such agents in combination with radiotherapy are lagging behind. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the small molecule IGF-1R kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541 on the intrinsic radioresistance of prostate cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effect of NVP-AEW541 on cell proliferation, cell viability, IGF-1R signaling, radiosensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and double strand break repair was determined in three human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145, 22Rv1). Moreover, the importance of the PTEN pathway status was explored by means of transfection experiments with constitutively active Akt or inactive kinase-dead Akt. Results: NVP-AEW541 inhibited cell proliferation and decreased cell viability in a time-and dose-dependent manner in all three cell lines. Radiosensitization was observed in the PTEN wild-type cell lines DU145 and 22Rv1 but not in the PTEN-deficient PC3 cell line. NVP-AEW541-induced radiosensitization coincided with downregulation of phospho-Akt levels and high levels of residual double strand breaks. The importance of PTEN status in the radiosensitization effect was confirmed by transfection experiments with constitutively active Akt or inactive kinase-dead Akt. Conclusions: NVP-AEW541 enhances the effect of ionizing radiation in PTEN wild-type, but not in PTEN-deficient, prostate cancer cells. Proper patient selection based on the PTEN status of the tumor will be critical to the achievement of optimal results in clinical trials in which the combination of radiotherapy and this IGF-1R inhibitor is being explored.

Isebaert, Sofie F., E-mail: sofie.isebaert@med.kuleuven.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Swinnen, Johannes V. [Department of Experimental Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haustermans, Karin M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2011-09-01

107

Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry and imaging in melanomas: comparison between pigmented and nonpigmented human malignant melanomas.  

PubMed

It has been known for a long time that the melanin pigments present in normal skin, hair, and most of malignant melanomas can be detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. In this study, we used EPR imaging as a tool to map the concentration of melanin inside ex vivo human pigmented and nonpigmented melanomas and correlated this cartography with anatomopathology. We obtained accurate mappings of the melanin inside pigmented human melanoma samples. The signal intensity observed on the EPR images correlated with the concentration of melanin within the tumors, visible on the histologic sections. In contrast, no EPR signal coming from melanin was observed from nonpigmented melanomas, therefore demonstrating the absence of EPR-detectable pigments inside these particular cases of skin cancer and the importance of pigmentation for further EPR imaging studies on melanoma. PMID:23651499

Godechal, Quentin; Ghanem, Ghanem E; Cook, Martin G; Gallez, Bernard

2013-06-01

108

In vivo study of breast carcinoma radiosensitization by targeting eIF4E  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer eIF4E is associated with the formation and progression for breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer pSecX-t4EBP1 can downregulated the expression of eIF4E in direct binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We transfected pSecX-t4EBP1 into a mouse xenograft model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can significantly inhibit tumor growth and enhance the radiosensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible mechanism is downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Background: Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E, an important regulator of translation, plays a crucial role in the malignant transformation, progression and radioresistance of many human solid tumors. The overexpression of this gene has been associated with tumor formation in a wide range of human malignancies, including breast cancer. In the present study, we attempted to explore the use of eIF4E as a therapeutic target to enhance radiosensitivity for breast carcinomas in a xenograft BALB/C mice model. Materials and methods: Ninety female BALB/C mice transfected with EMT-6 cells were randomly divided into six groups: control, irradiation (IR), pSecX-t4EBP1, pSecX-t4EBP1 + irradiation, pSecX and pSecX + irradiation. At the end of the experiments, all mice were sacrificed, the xenografts were harvested to measure the tumor volume and mass, and the tumor inhibition rates were calculated. Apoptosis was detected with a flow cytometric assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of HIF-1{alpha}. Results: The xenografts in pSecX-t4EBP1 mice showed a significantly delayed growth and smaller tumor volume, with a higher tumor inhibition rate compared with the control and pSecX groups. A similar result was obtained in the pSecX-t4EBP1 + IR group compared with IR alone and pSecX + irradiation. The expression of HIF-1{alpha} in the tumor cells was significantly decreased, while the apoptosis index was much higher. Conclusions: pSecX-t4EBP1 can significantly inhibit tumor growth and enhance the radiosensitivity of breast carcinoma xenografts in BALB/C mice. This is possibly associated with the downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression, which suggests that pSecX-t4EBP1 may serve as an ideal molecular target for the radiosensitization of breast carcinoma.

Yang, Hua [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li, Li-Wen [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China) [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China); Department of Bioscience, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, No. 229 North Taibai Road, Xi'an 710069 (China); Shi, Mei, E-mail: mshi82@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China); Wang, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Feng; Zhou, Bin; Diao, Li-Qiong; Long, Xiao-Li; Liu, Xiao-Li; Xu, Lin [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 Changle Western Road, Xi'an 710032 (China)

2012-07-13

109

Combination effect of photodynamic therapy using NPe6 with pemetrexed for human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.  

PubMed

To identify a possible new treatment modality for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we examined whether combination treatment consisting of pemetrexed chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the photosensitizer NPe6, enhanced the antitumor effect in both in vitro and in vivo models. We also investigated preclinical treatment schedules. Four human malignant mesothelioma cell lines (MSTO?211H, H2052, H2452 and H28) were assayed using the WST assay after treatment with pemetrexed and NPe6?PDT. The treatment schedule for the combination treatment was examined using nude mice. Pemetrexed pre?treatment enhanced the lethal effect of NPe6?PDT in the four malignant mesothelioma cell lines, but NPe6?PDT followed by pemetrexed treatment did not enhance cell lethality in the in vitro assay. Pemetrexed pre?treatment did not enhance the intracellular accumulation of NPe6, which is one of the determinants of the antitumor effect of PDT. In nude mice injected with MSTO?211H cells and then treated using a combination of pemetrexed and NPe6?PDT (10 mg/kg NPe6, 10 J/cm2 laser irradiation), the tumor volume decreased by 50% but subsequently increased, reaching the pre?treatment value after 14 days. Pemetrexed treatment followed by NPe6?PDT resulted in an 80% reduction in the tumor size and inhibited re?growth. NPe6?PDT followed by pemetrexed treatment resulted in a 60% reduction in tumor size but did not inhibit re?growth. NPe6?PDT induced the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), which confers resistance to pemetrexed, and NPe6?PDT followed by pemetrexed treatment did not enhance the treatment outcome in vivo. In conclusion, combination treatment, consisting of pemetrexed followed by NPe6?PDT, should be further investigated as a new treatment modality for MPM. In the future, this combination treatment may contribute to a reduction in local recurrence and a prolonged survival period in patients with MPM. PMID:25385189

Maehara, Sachio; Usuda, Jitsuo; Ishizumi, Taichiro; Ichinose, Shuji; Ohtani, Keishi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Imai, Kentaro; Furumoto, Hideyuki; Kudo, Yujin; Kajiwara, Naohiro; Ohira, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Norihiko

2015-02-01

110

Overexpression of CD99 Increases the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor, and its migration and invasiveness away from the primary tumor mass are considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Recently, gene expression profiling revealed that the transmembrane glycoprotein CD99 is more highly expressed in malignant glioma than in normal brain. Although its function is not completely understood, CD99 is implicated in cell adhesion and migration in a variety of different cell types. CD99 has wild-type and splice variant isoforms. Previous studies have shown that wild-type CD99 may be an oncosuppressor in some tumors, distinct from the role of the splice variant isoform. In this study, our data reveal that only wild-type CD99 is expressed in human glioma cells and tissues. Using a tissue microarray, we validated that gliomas demonstrate higher expression of CD99 compared with nonneoplastic brain. To assess the role of CD99 in glioma migration and invasion, we inhibited CD99 expression by siRNA and demonstrated decreased glioma migration and invasion. In contrast, when CD99 was overexpressed in glioma cells, we observed enhancement of cell migration and invasiveness. An orthotopic brain tumor model demonstrates that CD99 overexpression significantly increases invasiveness and decreases survival rate. Interestingly, Rac activity was decreased and Rho activity was increased in CD99 overexpressing glioma cells, and the proportion of amoeboid cells to mesenchymal cells was significantly increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that CD99 may play an important role in the migration and invasion of human gliomas independent of Akt, ERK, or JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, CD99 might be involved in amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in glioma migration. CD99 may be an important future target to inhibit migration and invasion, especially in CD99-expressing gliomas. PMID:23486730

Seol, Ho Jun; Chang, Jong Hee; Yamamoto, Junkoh; Romagnuolo, Rocco; Suh, Youngchul; Weeks, Adrienne; Agnihotri, Sameer; Smith, Christian A.

2012-01-01

111

Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus antibodies among patients with lymphoid malignancies at a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is a significant association of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) with lymphoid malignancies. HTLV causes a lymphoproliferative malignancy of CD4-activated cells called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). This study aims to determine the prevalence of HTLV among patients with lymphoid malignancies at a tertiary center in Lagos. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at the hematology clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. After obtaining consent, approximately 5 mL of venous blood was collected from each subject. The serum was separated and stored at ?20°C. Sera were assayed for HTLV by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to HTLV-1 and -2. Western blot confirmatory testing was done on reactive samples. All patients were also screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by rapid kits. Results A total of 39 patients with lymphoid malignancies were enrolled, consisting of 24 (61.5%) with solid malignancies, while 15 (38.5%) had leukemia. Only two patients (5.1%) with lymphoid malignancies were reactive on the ELISA test. On confirmatory testing with Western blot, two patients (5.1%) with lymphoid malignancies were also positive for HTLV. All patients were HIV negative, but four were positive to HBsAg and HCV. There was no association between history of previous blood transfusion and positivity to HTLV (P=0.544). Conclusion A prevalence of 5.1% of HTLV among patients with lymphoid malignancies was found in this study, and previous history of blood transfusion was not found to be a significant cause of HTLV infection. PMID:25228827

Akinbami, Akinsegun; Durojaiye, Idris; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; John-Olabode, Sarah; Adediran, Adewumi; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Uche, Ebele; Dada, Akinola; Odesanya, Mojeed; Okunoye, Olaitan

2014-01-01

112

Proton beam irradiation stimulates migration and invasion of human U87 malignant glioma cells  

PubMed Central

Migration and invasion of malignant glioma play a major role in tumor progression and can be increased by low doses of gamma or X-ray irradiation, especially when the migrated tumor cells are located at a distance from the main tumor mass or postoperative cavity and are irradiated in fractions. We studied the influence of proton beam irradiation on migration and invasion of human U87 malignant glioma (U87MG) cells. Irradiation at 4 and 8 Gy increased cell migration by 9.8% (±4, P = 0.032) and 11.6% (±6.6, P = 0.031) and invasion by 45.1% (±16.5, P = 0.04) and 40.5% (±12.7, P = 0.041), respectively. After irradiation at 2 and 16 Gy, cell motility did not differ from that at 0 Gy. We determined that an increase in proton beam irradiation dose to over 16 Gy might provide tumor growth control, although additional specific treatment might be necessary to prevent the potentially increased motility of glioma cells during proton beam therapy. PMID:24187331

Zaboronok, Alexander; Isobe, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Eisuke; Takada, Kenta; Sakae, Takeji; Tsurushima, Hideo; Matsumura, Akira

2014-01-01

113

Clonal selection in xenografted human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia recapitulates gain of malignancy at relapse  

PubMed Central

Genomic studies in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have revealed clonal heterogeneity at diagnosis and clonal evolution at relapse. In this study, we used genome-wide profiling to compare human T cell ALL samples at the time of diagnosis and after engraftment (xenograft) into immunodeficient recipient mice. Compared with paired diagnosis samples, the xenograft leukemia often contained additional genomic lesions in established human oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. Mimicking such genomic lesions by short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown in diagnosis samples conferred a selective advantage in competitive engraftment experiments, demonstrating that additional lesions can be drivers of increased leukemia-initiating activity. In addition, the xenograft leukemias appeared to arise from minor subclones existing in the patient at diagnosis. Comparison of paired diagnosis and relapse samples showed that, with regard to genetic lesions, xenograft leukemias more frequently more closely resembled relapse samples than bulk diagnosis samples. Moreover, a cell cycle– and mitosis-associated gene expression signature was present in xenograft and relapse samples, and xenograft leukemia exhibited diminished sensitivity to drugs. Thus, the establishment of human leukemia in immunodeficient mice selects and expands a more aggressive malignancy, recapitulating the process of relapse in patients. These findings may contribute to the design of novel strategies to prevent or treat relapse. PMID:21464223

Clappier, Emmanuelle; Gerby, Bastien; Sigaux, François; Delord, Marc; Touzri, Farah; Hernandez, Lucie; Ballerini, Paola; Baruchel, André

2011-01-01

114

Six1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and malignant conversion in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Six1, a member of the Six family of homeodomain transcription factors, is overexpressed in various human cancers, and SIX1 overexpression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis. Six1 messenger RNA levels increase during in vitro progression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) toward a differentiation-resistant (HKc/DR) phenotype. In this study, we show that HKc/DR-overexpressing Six1 exhibited a more mesenchymal phenotype, as characterized by a fibroblastic appearance and increased invasion. We utilized Whole Human Genome Microarrays to explore the gene expression changes associated with Six1 overexpression in HKc/DR. We found that overexpression of Six1 downregulated epithelial-related genes and upregulated mesenchymal-related genes, which suggests that Six1 overexpression induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Pathway analysis of the microarray data showed alterations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) pathway, including enhanced expression of the TGF-? receptor type II (T?RII), and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in HKc/DR-overexpressing Six1, suggesting that Smad-independent pathways of TGF-? signaling may be involved in Six1-mediated EMT. p38 MAPK activation was required for sustained Six1-induced EMT and T?RII overexpression. Finally, we determined that Six1 overexpression in HKc/DR resulted in malignant conversion and increased the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like population. Thus, Six1 overexpression promotes EMT, CSCs properties and malignant conversion in HKc/DR through MAPK activation, which supports the possible use of p38-T?RII inhibitors for the treatment of cancers overexpressing Six1. PMID:24574515

Xu, Hanwen; Zhang, Yu; Altomare, Diego; Peña, Maria M; Wan, Fang; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2014-06-01

115

Radiosensitizing Properties of Bortezomib Depend on Therapeutic Schedule  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the influence of the bortezomib (BTZ) on malignant glioma radiosensitivity in two xenograft models. Methods and Materials: For TCG3 and U87 models, we evaluated the antitumor activity of BTZ, radiotherapy, and BTZ plus radiothearapy according to two therapeutic schedules: a 'nonfractionated' schedule corresponding to a single dose of treatment per week, and a 'fractionated' schedule corresponding to the same weekly dose divided into 5 fractions. Treatments influence on proliferation and apoptosis indexes, cell cycle distribution, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway were explored. Results: The radiosensitizing properties of BTZ observed with the nonfractionated schedule were lost with the fractionated schedule. Bortezomib-mediated radiosensitization was associated with an increased apoptosis response and major changes in cell proliferation, but the nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway was not involved. Most of the cellular effects induced by BTZ when tumors received a single irradiation were cancelled out if radiotherapy was fractionated. Conclusion: The influence of BTZ on glioma radiosensitivity seems to depend on the treatment fractionation schedule, emphasizing the need to clarify the mechanisms underlying BTZ's radiosensitizing effects before further clinical trials are initiated.

Labussiere, Marianne [EA 4421 SiGReTO, UHP Nancy-University (France); Pinel, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Pinel@medecine.uhp-nancy.f [EA 4421 SiGReTO, UHP Nancy-University (France); Vandamme, Marc [EA 4421 SiGReTO, UHP Nancy-University (France); Plenat, Francois [EA 4421 SiGReTO, UHP Nancy-University (France); Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Hopital de Brabois CHU Nancy (France); Chastagner, Pascal [EA 4421 SiGReTO, UHP Nancy-University (France); Service d'Onco-Hematologie Pediatrique, Hopital d'Enfants CHU Nancy F-54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

2011-03-01

116

Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays.

Wen-Shu Chen; Yi-Chu Yu; Yi-Jang Lee; Ji-Hshiung Chen; Hsue-Yin Hsu; Shu-Jun Chiu

2010-01-01

117

FTIR microscopic comparative study on normal, premalignant, and malignant tissues of human intenstine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) employs a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathology based on the characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the tissue. The architectural changes in the cellular and sub-cellular levels developing in abnormal tissue, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest themselves in different optical signatures, which can be detected in infrared spectroscopy. The biological systems we have studied include normal, premalignant (polyp) and malignant human colonic tissues from three patients. Our method is based on microscopic infrared study (FTIR-microscopy) of thin tissue specimens and a direct comparison with normal histopathological analysis, which serves as a `gold' reference. The normal intestine tissue has a stronger absorption than polyp and cancerous types over a wide region in all three cases. The detailed analysis showed that there is a significant decrease in total phosphate and creatine contents for polyp and cancerous tissue types in comparison to the controls.

Mordechai, Shaul; Argov, Shmuel; Salman, Ahmad O.; Cohen, Beny; Ramesh, Jagannathan; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Goldstein, Jed; Sinelnikov, Igor

2000-07-01

118

Novel GHRH antagonists suppress the growth of human malignant melanoma by restoring nuclear p27 function.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer; the treatment of advanced and recurrent forms remains a challenge. It has recently been reported that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Therefore, we investigated the effects of our new GHRH antagonists on a human melanoma cancer cell line. Antiproliferative effects of GHRH antagonists, MIA-602, MIA-606 and MIA-690, on the human melanoma cell line, A-375, were studied in vitro using the MTS assay. The effect of MIA-690 (5 ?g/day 28 d) was further evaluated in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts of A-375. Subcellular localization of p27 was detected with Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. MIA-690 inhibited the proliferation of A-375 cells in a dose-dependent manner (33% at 10 ?M, and 19.2% at 5 ?M, P < 0 .05 vs. control), and suppressed the growth of xenografted tumors by 70.45% (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle effects following the administration of MIA-690 revealed a decrease in the number of cells in G2/M phase (from 19.7% to 12.9%, P < 0.001). Additionally, Western blot and immunofluorescent studies showed that exposure of A-375 cells to MIA-690 triggered the nuclear accumulation of p27. MIA-690 inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, and increased the translocation of p27 into the nucleus thus inhibiting progression of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that patients with malignant melanoma could benefit from treatment regimens, which combine existing chemotherapy agents and novel GHRH-antagonists. PMID:25486366

Szalontay, Luca; Schally, Andrew V; Popovics, Petra; Vidaurre, Irving; Krishan, Awtar; Zarandi, Marta; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Klukovits, Anna; Block, Norman L; Rick, Ferenc G

2014-09-01

119

Role of malignant ascites on human mesothelial cells and their gene expression profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant ascites is often present at diagnostic in women with advanced ovarian cancer (OC) and its presence is associated with a worse outcome. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) are key components of malignant ascites. Although the interplay between HPMCs and OC cells is believed to be critical for tumor progression, it has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ascites on HPMCs and clarify the role of HPMCs in OC progression. Methods Human OC ascites and benign peritoneal fluids were assessed for their ability to stimulate HPMC proliferation. Conditioned medium from ascites- and benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs were compared for their ability to attenuate apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We conducted a comparative analysis of global expression changes in ascites-stimulated HPMCs using Agilent oligonucleotide microarrays. Results As compared to benign peritoneal fluids, malignant ascites stimulated the proliferation of HPMCs. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was attenuated in OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from ascites-stimulated HPMCs as compared to OC cells exposed to conditioned medium from benign fluid-stimulated HPMCs. A total of 649 genes were differentially expressed in ascites-stimulated HPMCs. Based on a ratio of more than 1.5-fold and a P?

2014-01-01

120

Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy.  

PubMed

Human malignant melanoma has poor prognosis because of resistance to apoptosis and therapy. We describe identification of the expression profile of 1,037 mitochondria-focused genes and 84 survival-apoptosis genes in 21 malignant melanoma cell lines and 3 normal melanocyte controls using recently developed hMitChip3 cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of 1,037 informative genes, and 84 survival-apoptosis genes, classified these malignant melanoma cell lines into type A (n = 12) and type B (n = 9). Three hundred fifty-five of 1,037 (34.2%) genes displayed significant (P ? 0.030; false discovery rate ? 3.68%) differences (± ? 2.0-fold) in average expression, with 197 genes higher and 158 genes lower in type A than in type B. Of 84 genes with known survival-apoptosis functions, 38 (45.2%) displayed the significant (P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.15%) difference. Antiapoptotic (BCL2, BCL2A1, PPARD, and RAF1), antioxidant (MT3, PRDX5, PRDX3, GPX4, GLRX2, and GSR), and proapoptotic (BAD, BNIP1, APAF1, BNIP3L, CASP7, CYCS, CASP1, and VDAC1) genes expressed at higher levels in type A than in type B, whereas the different set of antiapoptotic (PSEN1, PPP2CA, API5, PPP2R1B, PPP2R1A, and FIS1), antioxidant (HSPD1, GSS, SOD1, ATOX1, and CAT), and proapoptotic (ENDOG, BAK1, CASP2, CASP4, PDCD5, HTRA2, SEPT4, TNFSF10, and PRODH) genes expressed at lower levels in type A than in type B. Microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results showed the presence of two types of malignant melanoma, each with a specific set of dysregulated survival-apoptosis genes, which may prove useful for development of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention and novel diagnostic biomarkers for treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma. PMID:19383853

Su, David M; Zhang, Qiuyang; Wang, Xuexi; He, Ping; Zhu, Yuelin Jack; Zhao, Jianxiong; Rennert, Owen M; Su, Yan A

2009-05-01

121

Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy  

PubMed Central

Human malignant melanoma has poor prognosis because of resistance to apoptosis and therapy. We describe identification of the expression profile of 1,037 mitochondria-focused genes and 84 survival-apoptosis genes in 21 malignant melanoma cell lines and 3 normal melanocyte controls using recently developed hMitChip3 cDNA micro-arrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of 1,037 informative genes, and 84 survival-apoptosis genes, classified these malignant melanoma cell lines into type A (n = 12) and type B (n = 9). Three hundred fifty-five of 1,037 (34.2%) genes displayed significant (P ? 0.030; false discovery rate ? 3.68%) differences (±?2.0-fold) in average expression, with 197 genes higher and 158 genes lower in type A than in type B. Of 84 genes with known survival-apoptosis functions, 38 (45.2%) displayed the significant (P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.15%) difference. Antiapoptotic (BCL2, BCL2A1, PPARD, and RAF1), antioxidant (MT3, PRDX5, PRDX3, GPX4, GLRX2, and GSR), and proapoptotic (BAD, BNIP1, APAF1, BNIP3L, CASP7, CYCS, CASP1, and VDAC1) genes expressed at higher levels in type A than in type B, whereas the different set of antiapoptotic (PSEN1, PPP2CA, API5, PPP2R1B, PPP2R1A, and FIS1), antioxidant (HSPD1, GSS, SOD1, ATOX1, and CAT), and proapoptotic (ENDOG, BAK1, CASP2, CASP4, PDCD5, HTRA2, SEPT4, TNFSF10, and PRODH) genes expressed at lower levels in type A than in type B. Microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results showed the presence of two types of malignant melanoma, each with a specific set of dysregulated survival-apoptosis genes, which may prove useful for development of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention and novel diagnostic biomarkers for treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma. PMID:19383853

Su, David M.; Zhang, Qiuyang; Wang, Xuexi; He, Ping; Zhu, Yuelin Jack; Zhao, Jianxiong; Rennert, Owen M.; Su, Yan A.

2011-01-01

122

Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

123

The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SWAP70 Modulates the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor. Its tendency to invade away from the primary tumor mass is considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Accordingly, the molecular pathogenesis of glioma invasion is currently under investigation. Previously, we examined a gene expression array databasecomparinghumangliomastononneoplasticcontrolsandidentifiedseveralRacguaninenucleotideexchange factors with differential expression. Here, we report that the

Ho Jun Seol; Christian A. Smith; Bodour Salhia; James T. Rutka

124

Short telomeres result in chromosomal instability in hematopoietic cells and precede malignant evolution in human aplastic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cell and animal models, telomere erosion promotes chromosomal instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, contributing to the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, evidence involving short telomeres in cancer development in humans is scarce, epidemiological and indirect. Here we directly implicate telomere shortening as a critical molecular event for malignant evolution in aplastic anemia (AA). Patients’ telomere lengths at diagnosis of AA,

R T Calado; J N Cooper; H M Padilla-Nash; E M Sloand; C O Wu; P Scheinberg; T Ried; N S Young

2012-01-01

125

Radiosensitization of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Ribonucleotide Reductase: Enhanced Radiation Response at Low-Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC no. 663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. Methods and Materials: The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate radiation (330 cGy/min) using a conventional cell irradiator. The radiation sensitivity of human cervical (CaSki, C33-a) cancer cells with or without RNR inhibition by 3-AP was evaluated using a clonogenic survival and an RNR activity assay. Alteration in the cell cycle distribution was monitored using flow cytometry. Results: Increasing radiation sensitivity of both CaSki and C33-a cells was observed with the incremental increase in radiation dose rates. 3-AP treatment led to enhanced radiation sensitivity in both cell lines, eliminating differences in cell cytotoxicity from the radiation dose rate. RNR blockade by 3-AP during low-dose-rate irradiation was associated with low RNR activity and extended G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: We conclude that RNR inhibition by 3-AP impedes DNA damage repair mechanisms that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production and thereby increases radiation sensitivity of human cervical cancers to low-dose-rate radiation.

Kunos, Charles A., E-mail: charles.kunos@UHhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Colussi, Valdir C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Pink, John [Department of General Medical Sciences, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Radivoyevitch, Tomas [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Oleinick, Nancy L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-07-15

126

Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a cell cycle-associated protein, and altered TPX2 expression has been found in various malignancies. However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines. TPX2 protein expression was detected in

Bin Li; Xiang-Qian Qi; Xin Chen; Xin Huang; Guo-Ying Liu; Huai-Rui Chen; Cheng-Guang Huang; Chun Luo; Yi-Cheng Lu

2010-01-01

127

Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. PMID:22289125

Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

2012-01-01

128

Radioprotection of Human Cell Nuclear DNA by Polyamines: Radiosensitivity of Chromatin is Influenced by Tightly Bound Spermine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polyamines putrescine (PUT) and spermine (SPM) were examined for their ability to protect human cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the formation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As observed previously, under conditions where polyamines were shown to be almost completely absent, association with nuclear matrix protein into a nucleoid, and organization into chromatin structure, protected DNA from induction of DSBs by factors of 4.5 and 95, respectively. At concentrations below 1 mM, PUT or SPM provided equivalent levels of protection to deproteinized nuclear DNA, consistent with their capacity to scavenge radiation-induced radicals. At constant ionic strength, 5 mM SPM protected deproteinized DNA and nucleoid DNA and DNA in nuclear chromatin by factors of 100 and 26, respectively. At 5 mM, SPM provided 15 times greater protection of deproteinized DNA than did PUT. Under physiologically relevant conditions, 5 mM SPM protected DNA in the intact nucleus from the induction of DSBs by a factor of 2 relative to DNA in the absence of SPM. Studies of SPM binding during cellular fractionation revealed that a significant fraction of the cellular SPM is tightly bound in the nucleus but can be removed by extended washing. Thus the association of SPM with nuclear chromatin appears to be a significant contributor to the resistance of the cell's DNA to the induction of DSBs.

Warters, Raymond L.; Newton, Gerald L.; Olive, Peggy L.; Fahey, Robert C.

1999-01-01

129

Integration of Principles of Systems Biology and Radiation Biology: Toward Development of in silico Models to Optimize IUdR-Mediated Radiosensitization of DNA Mismatch Repair Deficient (Damage Tolerant) Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

Over the last 7?years, we have focused our experimental and computational research efforts on improving our understanding of the biochemical, molecular, and cellular processing of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA base damage by DNA mismatch repair (MMR). These coordinated research efforts, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP), brought together system scientists with expertise in engineering, mathematics, and complex systems theory and translational cancer researchers with expertise in radiation biology. Our overall goal was to begin to develop computational models of IUdR- and/or IR-induced base damage processing by MMR that may provide new clinical strategies to optimize IUdR-mediated radiosensitization in MMR deficient (MMR?) “damage tolerant” human cancers. Using multiple scales of experimental testing, ranging from purified protein systems to in vitro (cellular) and to in vivo (human tumor xenografts in athymic mice) models, we have begun to integrate and interpolate these experimental data with hybrid stochastic biochemical models of MMR damage processing and probabilistic cell cycle regulation models through a systems biology approach. In this article, we highlight the results and current status of our integration of radiation biology approaches and computational modeling to enhance IUdR-mediated radiosensitization in MMR? damage tolerant cancers. PMID:22649757

Kinsella, Timothy J.; Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Evren; Du, Weinan; Loparo, Kenneth A.

2011-01-01

130

Loss of Canonical Smad4 Signaling Promotes KRAS Driven Malignant Transformation of Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRASG12V expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-? resistant (T?R) cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-?. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-? sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells. PMID:24386371

Leung, Lisa; Radulovich, Nikolina; Zhu, Chang-Qi; Wang, Dennis; To, Christine; Ibrahimov, Emin; Tsao, Ming-Sound

2013-01-01

131

Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject  

SciTech Connect

A 1-GHz multifrequency, multiwavelength frequency-domain photon migration instrument is used to measure quantitatively the optical absorption ({mu}{sub a}) and effective optical scattering ({mu}{sub s}{sup {prime}}) of normal and malignant tissues in a human subject. Large ellipsoidal ({approximately}10-cm major axis, {approximately}6-cm minor axes) subcutaneous malignant lesions were compared with adjacent normal sites in the abdomen and back. Absorption coefficients recorded at 674, 811, 849, and 956 nm were used to calculate tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total), water concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and blood volume fraction {ital in vivo}. Our results show that the normal and the malignant tissues measured in the patient have clearly resolvable optical and physiological property differences that may be broadly useful in identifying and characterizing tumors.{copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

Fishkin, J.B.; Coquoz, O.; Anderson, E.R.; Brenner, M.; Tromberg, B.J. [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California at Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road East, Irvine, California 92612 (United States)]|[EA Photonics, 2515 Fisk Lane, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

1997-01-01

132

Expression of peroxiredoxin 1 and 4 promotes human lung cancer malignancy.  

PubMed

Members of the Peroxiredoxin (Prx) family are major cellular antioxidants that scavenge hydrogen peroxide and play essential roles in oxidative stress and cell signaling. 2-Cys Prxs, including Prx1, 2, 3 and 4, have been indicated in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and thus may contribute to various processes of cancer development. The significance of 2-Cys Prxs in lung cancer development and their biological function in signal transduction have not been fully investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of 2-Cys Prxs in lung cancer, and examined their levels of expression in a variety of cell lines established from human lung normal or cancer tissues. We found that 2-Cys Prxs, in particular, Prx1 and Prx4, were preferentially expressed in cell lines derived from human lung cancer. Through isoform specific knockdown of individual Prx, we demonstrated that Prx1 and Prx4 (but not Prx3) were required for human lung cancer A549 cells to form soft agar colony and to invade through matrigel in culture. Knockdown of Prx1 or Prx4 significantly reduced the activation of c-Jun and repressed the AP-1 mediated promoter activity. In mouse xenograft models, knockdown of Prx4 in A549 cells reduced subcutaneous tumor growth and blocked metastasis formation initiated through tail vein injection. Moreover, overexpression of Prx1 or Prx4 further enhanced the malignancy of A549 cells both in culture and in mouse xenografts in vivo. These data provide an in-depth understanding of the contribution of Prx1 and Prx4 to lung cancer development and are of importance for future development of therapeutic methods that targeting 2-Cys Prxs. PMID:25232487

Jiang, Hong; Wu, Lisha; Mishra, Murli; Chawsheen, Hedy A; Wei, Qiou

2014-01-01

133

Involvement of placental/umbilical cord blood acid–base status and gas values on the radiosensitivity of human fetal/neonatal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Arterial cord blood (CB) acid–base status and gas values, such as pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3?and base excess, provide useful information on the fetal and neonatal condition. However, it remains unknown whether these values affect the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis. The present study evaluated the relationship between arterial CB acid–base status, gas values, and the radiosensitivity of CB hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). A total of 25 CB units were collected. The arterial CB acid–base status and gas values were measured within 30 min of delivery. The CD34+HSPCs obtained from CB were exposed to 2 Gy X-irradiation, and then assayed for colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), and colony-forming unit-granulocyte erythroid, macrophage and megakaryocyte cells. Acid–base status and gas values for PCO2and HCO3?showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the surviving fraction of BFU-E. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between gestational age and PCO2. Moreover, the surviving fraction of BFU-E showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. Thus, HSPCs obtained from CB with high PCO2/HCO3?levels were sensitive to X-irradiation, which suggests that the status of arterial PCO2/HCO3?influences the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis, especially erythropoiesis. PMID:23263728

Yamaguchi, Masaru; Ebina, Satoko; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

134

Malignant transformation potentials of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells both spontaneously and via 3-methycholanthrene induction.  

PubMed

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

Tang, Qiuling; Chen, Qiurong; Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

2013-01-01

135

Malignant Transformation Potentials of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Both Spontaneously and via 3-Methycholanthrene Induction  

PubMed Central

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

2013-01-01

136

RHBDL2 Is a Critical Membrane Protease for Anoikis Resistance in Human Malignant Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Anoikis resistance allows metastatic tumor cells to survive in a homeless environment. Activation of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is one of the key mechanisms for metastatic tumor cells to resist anoikis, yet the regulation mechanisms of homeless-triggered EGFR activation in metastatic tumor cells remain unclear. Rhomboid-like-2 (RHBDL2), an evolutionally conserved intramembrane serine protease, can cleave the EGF ligand and thus trigger EGFR activation. Herein, we demonstrated that RHBDL2 overexpression in human epithelial cells resulted in promotion of cell proliferation, reduction of cell adhesion, and suppression of anoikis. During long-term suspension cultures, increased RHBDL2 was only detected in aggressive tumor cell lines. Treatment with the rhomboid protease inhibitor or RHBDL2 shRNA increased cleaved caspase 3, a marker of apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of EGFR activation increased the cleaved caspase 3 and attenuated the detachment-induced focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the first time that RHBDL2 is a critical molecule in anoikis resistance of malignant epithelial cells, possibly through the EGFR-mediated signaling. Our study demonstrates RHBDL2 as a new therapeutic target for cancer metastasis. PMID:24977233

Lai, Chao-Han; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chang, Bi-Ing; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin

2014-01-01

137

Curcumin inhibits AP-2?-induced apoptosis in the human malignant testicular germ cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effects of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis in testicular cancer cells in vitro and to investigate its molecular mechanisms of action. Methods: NTera-2 human malignant testicular germ cell line and F9 mouse teratocarcinoma stem cell line were used. The anti-proliferative effect was examined using MTT and colony formation assays. Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays were used to analyze cell apoptosis. Protein expression was examined with Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Curcumin (5, 10 and 15 ?mol/L) inhibited the viability of NTera-2 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Curcumin significantly inhibited the colony formation in both NTera-2 and F9 cells. Curcumin dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NTera-2 cells by reducing FasL expression and Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, and activating caspase-9, -8 and -3. Furthermore, curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of AP transcription factor AP-2? in NTera-2 cells, whereas the pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked both the curcumin-induced reduction of AP-2? and antiproliferative effect. Curcumin inhibited ErbB2 expression, and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in NTera-2 cells. Conclusion: Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in NTera-2 cells via the inhibition of AP-2?-mediated downstream cell survival signaling pathways. PMID:23685957

Zhou, Chang; Zhao, Xiao-meng; Li, Xiao-feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ting; Liu, Xi-zhi; Ding, Xiao-feng; Xiang, Shuang-lin; Zhang, Jian

2013-01-01

138

Monoclonal antibody localization of A and B isoantigens in normal and malignant fixed human tissues.  

PubMed Central

The expression of human blood group A and B isoantigens in normal and malignant tissues from stomach, colon, and pancreas was analyzed in an immunoperoxidase assay using monoclonal antibodies specific for these isoantigens. Appropriate isoantigen expression was demonstrated in the normal epithelium from the stomach, pancreas, and proximal but not distal colon of blood group A, AB, or B patients. Half of all gastric carcinomas and of proximal colon carcinomas showed complete loss of isoantigen, whereas the adjacent mucosa in these cases continued to express appropriate isoantigen. Isoantigen expression was completely lost in only 13% of pancreatic carcinomas tested. Neither A nor B isoantigen was detected in normal epithelium from the distal colon. By contrast, 85% of carcinomas derived from this site showed reexpression of isoantigen. Inappropriate expression of A isoantigen was detected in pancreatic carcinomas (2/5) but not in gastric or colon carcinomas (0/21). Inappropriate expression of B substance was not detected in any tissue (0/38). Interestingly, differential binding of antibodies to Type 1 versus Type 2 and/or difucosyl versus monofucosyl blood group B substances was manifested by differences in intensity of staining for endothelium and red blood cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6507589

Ernst, C.; Thurin, J.; Atkinson, B.; Wurzel, H.; Herlyn, M.; Stromberg, N.; Civin, C.; Koprowski, H.

1984-01-01

139

Modulation of human leukocyte antigen and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression in malignant and nonmalignant human thyroid cells by cytokines in the context of extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Interactions between malignant cells and their environment are achieved via cell-surface receptors and adhesion molecules. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-bound cytokines modulate the expression of cell-surface molecules on target malignant cells, which may lead to changes in their susceptibility to cytolysis, in their ability to present antigens, and in the induction of local immune-cell activation and patrol. Eventually, these alterations may culminate in either the destruction, or escape and proliferation, of the tumor. We studied the effects of the ECM and its components in a "naive" form or following binding of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I, HLA class-II (HLA-DR), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on nonmalignant and malignant thyroid cells. The basal expression of HLA class-I molecules was not significantly changed either by naive ECM and its components or by ECM-bound cytokines. ECM synergized with IFNgamma and TNFalpha in inducing HLA-DR molecules on nonmalignant and malignant thyrocytes, with higher HLA-DR levels on the malignant cells. The laminin component, in particular, synergized with IFNgamma. Basal ICAM-1 expression on nonneoplastic cells was not significantly affected by the cytokines when grown in the absence of ECM, but was significantly upregulated when cells were cultured on ECM. In contrast, in malignant thyrocyte cultures, ECM significantly attenuated IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-mediated enhancement of ICAM-1 expression. We concluded that signals derived from ECM-embedded cytokines participate in the regulation of key thyroid cell surface molecules and, thus, may affect the final outcome of human thyroid malignancies. PMID:11128721

Miller, A; Kraiem, Z; Sobel, E; Lider, O; Lahat, N

2000-11-01

140

Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3? activation, while p38? phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors. PMID:24789042

Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

2014-07-01

141

Reduced expression of microRNA-134 correlates with malignancy and poor prognosis in human glioma.  

PubMed

MicroRNA-134 (miR-134) has been demonstrated to be dysregulated in glioma tissues. However, its clinical significance in this tumor type has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to explore the association of miR-134 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in human glioma. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, miR-134 expression was detected in 162 glioma specimens with various World Health Organization (WHO) grades and compared to the expression in 36 normal brain tissue samples. Glioma tissues exhibited significantly reduced expression of miR-134 (mean 2.15±standard deviation 0.82 versus 4.37±1.16, p<0.001) compared with normal brain tissues. In addition, miR-134 expression was notably associated with WHO grade (p<0.001) and Karnofsky Performance Scale score (KPS; p=0.02) in glioma tissues. Low miR-134 expression occurred more frequently in glioma tissues with high WHO grades and low KPS scores. In univariate analysis, both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of glioma patients with low miR-134 expression were significantly shorter than those with high miR-134 expression (both p<0.001). Additionally, glioma patients with high WHO grades, low KPS scores and subtotal resection attained significantly poorer PFS (p<0.001, 0.02 and 0.01, respectively) and OS (p<0.001, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). In multivariate analysis, miR-134 expression, WHO grade, KPS score and extent of resection were identified as the independent prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Collectively, our data prove that the reduced expression of miR-134 may predict aggressive progression and poor prognosis in human gliomas. miR-134 may represent both a prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target for this malignancy. PMID:25564273

Zhong, Jianfeng; Li, Bing

2015-03-01

142

Radioimmunoassay for human pancreatic ribonuclease and measurement of serum immunoreactive pancreatic ribonuclease in patients with malignant tumors  

SciTech Connect

A method for radioimmunoassay of human pancreatic RNase was developed. The method is sensitive, reproducible, and specific. Almost no cross-reactivity exists between human pancreatic and liver RNases. A good correlation was observed between the serum concentration of pancreatic RNase as measured by radioimmunoassay and its enzymatic activity using polycytidylic acid as substrate. The concentration of serum pancreatic RNase correlates well with age, blood urea nitrogen, and albumin contents but does not correlate with serum amylase activity. Using the data of 52 patients with malignant tumors except pancreatic cancer, serum RNase level could be expressed by a multiple regression equation: Immunoreactive RNase content in pancreatic cancer was elevated in patients with complications from renal failure. Serum pancreatic RNase contents in patients with pancreatic cancer measured by radioimmunoassay agreed well with the values calculated using the equation derived from the data of patients with other malignant tumors.

Kurihara, M.; Ogawa, M.; Ohta, T.; Kurokawa, E.; Kitahara, T.; Murata, A.; Matsuda, K.; Kosaki, G.; Watanabe, T.; Wada, H.

1984-05-01

143

Increased betulinic acid induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Betulinic acid (BA) is a novel antineoplastic agent under evaluation for tumor therapy. Because of the selective cytotoxic effects of BA in tumor cells (including gliomas), the combination of this agent with conservative therapies (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) may be useful. Previously, the combination of BA with irradiation under hypoxic conditions had never been studied. Methods In this study, the effects of 3 to 30 ?M BA on cytotoxicity, migration, the protein expression of PARP, survivin and HIF-1?, as well as radiosensitivity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were analyzed in the human malignant glioma cell lines U251MG and U343MG. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity were analyzed with clonogenic survival assays, migration was analyzed with Boyden chamber assays (or scratch assays) and protein expression was examined with Western blot analyses. Results Under normoxic conditions, a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23 ?M was observed in U251MG cells and 24 ?M was observed in U343MG cells. Under hypoxic conditions, 10 ?M or 15 ?M of BA showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in U251MG cells (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively) and U343MG cells (p < 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively). The combination of BA with radiotherapy resulted in an additive effect in the U343MG cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Weak radiation enhancement was observed in U251MG cell line after treatment with BA under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, under hypoxic conditions, the incubation with BA resulted in increased radiation enhancement. The enhancement factor, at an irradiation dose of 15 Gy after treatment with 10 or 15 ?M BA, was 2.20 (p = 0.02) and 4.50 (p = 0.03), respectively. Incubation with BA led to decreased cell migration, cleavage of PARP and decreased expression levels of survivin in both cell lines. Additionally, BA treatment resulted in a reduction of HIF-1? protein under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion Our results suggest that BA is capable of improving the effects of tumor therapy in human malignant glioma cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Further investigations are necessary to characterize its potential as a radiosensitizer. PMID:21906280

2011-01-01

144

The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SWAP-70 Modulates the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells12  

PubMed Central

The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor. Its tendency to invade away from the primary tumor mass is considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Accordingly, the molecular pathogenesis of glioma invasion is currently under investigation. Previously, we examined a gene expression array database comparing human gliomas to nonneoplastic controls and identified several Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors with differential expression. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SWAP-70 has increased expression in malignant gliomas and strongly correlates with lowered patient survival. SWAP-70 is a multifunctional signaling protein involved in membrane ruffling that works cooperatively with activated Rac. Using a glioma tissue microarray, we validated that SWAP-70 demonstrates higher expression in malignant gliomas compared with low-grade gliomas or nonneoplastic brain tissue. Through immunofluorescence, SWAP-70 localizes to membrane ruffles in response to the growth factor, epidermal growth factor. To assess the role of SWAP-70 in glioma migration and invasion, we inhibited its expression withsmall interfering RNAs and observed decreased glioma cell migration and invasion. SWAP-70 overexpression led to increased levels of active Rac even in low-serum conditions. In addition, when SWAP-70 was overexpressed in glioma cells, we observed enhanced membrane ruffle formation followed by increased cellmigration and invasiveness. Taken together, our findings suggest that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SWAP-70 plays an important role in the migration and invasion of human gliomas into the surrounding tissue. PMID:19956392

Seol, Ho Jun; Smith, Christian A; Salhia, Bodour; Rutka, James T

2009-01-01

145

Emergence of fractal behavior and other changes of cell surface during malignant transformation: AFM study of human cervical epithelial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal behavior, self-similarity when zooming in or out, is frequently found in natural patterns emerged from chaos or any far from equilibrium systems. While expected and observed for tissues, the emergence of fractal behavior associated with malignant transformations was not observed at the level of single cell. Here report on the appearance of fractal behavior when normal human cervical epithelial cells become malignant. This was found by analyzing the adhesion maps imaged with AFM working in HarmoniX mode. Normal and malignant (a mix of cancerous and precancerous) cells were enzymatic only extracted from cervical tissue of healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively. A surprising 100% discrimination of malignant and normal cells was observed. Although we previously reported differences in surface (brush) layer of cancer cells, the unambiguous quantitative divergence of the fractal behavior of the adhesion maps is a surprise (in particular, when compared to no difference found in the regular AFM images). The nature of the observed difference in the adhesion behavior will be discussed. These results may suggest that the fractal dimensionality can be treated as a new potential ``physicomarker'' for detection of individual cervical cancer cells.

Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia; Woodworth, Craig; Sokolov, Igor

2012-02-01

146

HSF1 Drives a Transcriptional Program Distinct from Heat Shock to Support Highly Malignant Human Cancers  

E-print Network

Heat-Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), master regulator of the heat-shock response, facilitates malignant transformation, cancer cell survival, and proliferation in model systems. The common assumption is that these effects are ...

Mendillo, Marc L.

147

5?-Reductase Type 3 Expression in Human Benign and Malignant Tissues: A Comparative Analysis During Prostate Cancer Progression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A third isozyme of human 5?-steroid reductase, 5?-reductase-3, was identified in prostate tissue at the mRNA level. However, the levels of 5?-reductase-3 protein expression and its cellular localization in human tissues remain unknown. METHODS A specific monoclonal antibody was developed, validated, and used to characterize for the first time the expression of 5?-reductase-3 protein in 18 benign and 26 malignant human tissue types using immunostaining analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In benign tissues, 5?-reductase-3 immunostaining was high in conventional androgen-regulated human tissues, such as skeletal muscle and prostate. However, high levels of expression also were observed in non-conventional androgen-regulated tissues, which suggest either multiples target tissues for androgens or different functions of 5?-reductase-3 among human tissues. In malignant tissues, 5?-reductase-3 immunostaining was ubiquitous but particularly over-expressed in some cancers compared to their benign counterparts, which suggests a potential role for 5?-reductase-3 as a biomarker of malignancy. In benign prostate, 5?-reductase-3 immunostaining was localized to basal epithelial cells, with no immunostaining observed in secretory/luminal epithelial cells. In high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 5?-reductase-3 immunostaining was localized in both basal epithelial cells and neoplastic epithelial cells characteristic of HGPIN. In androgen-stimulated and castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CaP), 5?-reductase-3 immunostaining was present in most epithelial cells and at similar levels, and at levels higher than observed in benign prostate. Analyses of expression and functionality of 5?-reductase-3 in human tissues may prove useful for development of treatment for benign prostatic enlargement and prevention and treatment of CaP. PMID:21557268

Godoy, Alejandro; Kawinski, Elzbieta; Li, Yun; Oka, Daizo; Alexiev, Borislav; Azzouni, Faris; Titus, Mark A.; Mohler, James L.

2015-01-01

148

Virus-like particles for the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated malignancies  

PubMed Central

As compared to peptide/protein-based vaccines, naked DNA vectors and even traditional attenuated or inactived virus vaccines, virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine platform because they offer a combination of safety, ease of production, and both high density B cell epitope display and intracellular presentation of T cell epitopes that induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses respectively. Indeed, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on VLP production by recombinant expression of major capsid antigen L1 in yeast (Gardasil®, Merck & Co.) or insect cells (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline) have been licensed for the prevention of cervical and anogenital infection and disease associated with the genotypes targeted by each vaccine. These HPV vaccines however have not been demonstrated as effective to treat existing infections, and efforts to develop a therapeutic HPV vaccine continue. Furthermore, current HPV L1-VLP vaccines provide type-restricted protection, requiring highly multivalent formulations to broaden coverage to the dozen or more oncogenic HPV genotypes. This raises the complexity and cost of vaccine production. The lack of access to screening and high disease burden in developing countries has spurred efforts to develop second generation HPV vaccines that are more affordable, induce wider protective coverage and offer therapeutic coverage against HPV-associated malignancies. Given the previous success with L1 VLP-based vaccines against HPV, VLPs have been also adopted as platforms for many second generation HPV and non-HPV vaccine candidates with both prophylactic and therapeutic intent. Here we examine the progress and challenges of these efforts, with a focus on how they inform VLP vaccine design. PMID:23414405

Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

2013-01-01

149

p53 mutations in human lymphoid malignancies: Association with Burkitt lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in B- and T-cell human lymphoid malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. p53 exons 5-9 were studied by using genomic DNA from 197 primary tumors and 27 cell lines by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and by direst sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments. Mutations were found associated with (i) Burkitt lymphoma (9/27 biopsoes; 17/27 cell lines) and its leukemic counterpart L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5/9), both of which also carry activated c-myc oncogenes, and (ii) B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (6/40) and, in particular, its stage of progression known as Richter's transformation (3/7). Mutations were not found at any significant frequency in other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In many cases, only the mutated allele was detectable, implying loss of the normal allele. These results suggest that (1) significant differences in the frequency of p53 mutations are present among subtypes of neoplasms derived from the same tissue; (2) p53 may play a role in tumor progression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; (3) the presence of both p53 loss/inactivation and c-myc oncogene activation may be important in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma and its leukemia form L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Gaidano, G.; Ballerini, P.; Gong, J.Z.; Inghirami, G.; Knowles, D.M.; Dalla-Favera, R. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Neri, A, (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Centro Malattie del Sangue G. Marcora, Milan (Italy)); Newcomb, E.W. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York (United States)); Magrath, I.T. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1991-06-15

150

Investigation of Radiosensitivity Gene Signatures in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic radiosensitivity is an important factor underlying radiotherapy response, but there is no method for its routine assessment in human tumours. Gene signatures are currently being derived and some were previously generated by expression profiling the NCI-60 cell line panel. It was hypothesised that focusing on more homogeneous tumour types would be a better approach. Two cell line cohorts were used derived from cervix [n?=?16] and head and neck [n?=?11] cancers. Radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2) by clonogenic assay. Differential gene expression between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell lines (SF2 median) was investigated using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0ST (cervix) or U133A Plus2 (head and neck) arrays. There were differences within cell line cohorts relating to tissue of origin reflected by expression of the stratified epithelial marker p63. Of 138 genes identified as being associated with SF2, only 2 (1.4%) were congruent between the cervix and head and neck carcinoma cell lines (MGST1 and TFPI), and these did not partition the published NCI-60 cell lines based on SF2. There was variable success in applying three published radiosensitivity signatures to our cohorts. One gene signature, originally trained on the NCI-60 cell lines, did partially separate sensitive and resistant cell lines in all three cell line datasets. The findings do not confirm our hypothesis but suggest that a common transcriptional signature can reflect the radiosensitivity of tumours of heterogeneous origins. PMID:24466029

Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Senra, Joana; Taylor, Janet; Armenoult, Lucile; Oguejiofor, Kenneth; Li, Yaoyong; Stratford, Ian; Stern, Peter L.; O’Connor, Mark J.; Miller, Crispin J.; West, Catharine M. L.

2014-01-01

151

The Involvement of Xanthohumol in the Expression of Annexin in Human Malignant Glioblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant and resistant tumor of the central nervous system in humans and new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Recently, we have shown that the potential chemotherapeutic polyphenol xanthohumol (XH), isolated from Humulus Lupulus, induces apoptosis of human T98G glioblastoma cells by increasing reactive oxygen species and activating MAPK pathways. Then we have found, by western blotting and microscopic analysis, that XH up-regulates cytosolic levels of ANXA1 and induces translocation of the protein on the cell membrane of T98G cells in a time-dependent manner with significant effects observed after 24 h. On the basis of the above evidence, the aim of this work was to investigate the role of intracellular and cell membrane localized ANXA1 in GBM cells. RT-PCR analysis has shown that XH up-regulates mRNA levels of ANXA1 after 16 h treatment. To demonstrate the involvement of ANXA1 in apoptosis of GBM cells we down-regulated ANXA1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and then analysed apoptosis in the presence and absence of apoptotic stimuli. Importantly, apoptosis induced by XH was reduced in siRNA-ANXA1 transfected cells where western blot analysis shows a significant reduction of ANXA1 protein levels. To investigate the role of ANXA1 expression on the cell membrane of T98G cells as potential “eat-me” signal we studied phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by human macrophages. We incubated apoptotic T98G cells with human blood monocyte derived macrophages (M=). After co-incubation period we analysed the percentage of M= phagocytosing the apoptotic cells by cytofluorimetric FACS analysis and by confocal microscopy. Our results show that XH induces phagocytosis of apoptotic T98G cells by human M= in a concentration-effect manner, a processes that is dependent on caspase mediated apoptosis. ANXA1 acts as an “eat-me” signal on the cell membrane of T98G cells, and interestingly, apoptotic siRNA-ANXA1 transfected cells are not completely ingested by M=. These results were confirmed by incubating apoptotic cells with a neutralizing anti-ANXA1 antiboby and ANXA1 membrane depletion by EDTA washing. ANXA1 was also detected in supernatants of apoptotic cells and the incubation of enriched supernatants enhanced the percentage of phagocytosis by M=. These results demonstrated that ANXA1 is involved both in the apoptosis and phagocytosis of glioblastoma cells. This study shows a possible role of ANXA1 in maintenance of brain homeostasis and may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for neuro-inflammatory diseases and chemotherapy targets in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:23407460

Festa, M; Caputo, M; Cipolla, C; D'Acunto, CW; Rossi, AG; Tecce, MF; Capasso, A

2013-01-01

152

The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation  

SciTech Connect

Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derived non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.

Serafino, A. [Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine - ARTOV, CNR via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 - Rome (Italy)], E-mail: annalucia.serafino@artov.inmm.cnr.it; Balestrieri, E. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Science - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', via Montpellier, 00133 - Rome (Italy); Pierimarchi, P. [Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine - ARTOV, CNR via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 - Rome (Italy); Matteucci, C.; Moroni, G. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Science - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', via Montpellier, 00133 - Rome (Italy); Oricchio, E. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Science - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', via Montpellier, 00133 - Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 - Rome (Italy); Rasi, G. [Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine - ARTOV, CNR via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 - Rome (Italy); Mastino, A. [Department of Life Sciences, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 - Messina (Italy); Spadafora, C. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 - Rome (Italy); Garaci, E.; Vallebona, P. Sinibaldi [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Science - University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', via Montpellier, 00133 - Rome (Italy)

2009-03-10

153

Natural History and Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Dysplasia and an Autopsy Review.  

PubMed

Introduction: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease in both children and adults, characterized by recurrent benign squamous papillomas of the respiratory mucosa. Malignant transformation is rare. The present report concerns the natural history of RRP in two children. Materials and Methods: Clinical records, autopsy material and tissue from previous surgical excisions were reviewed in both cases. Select surgical and autopsy specimens were examined using p16 immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization for low and high risk HPV. Results: Both children had pulmonary involvement with incidental invasive keratinizing squamous carcinoma of the lung at autopsy. Low-risk HPV was present in the papillomas and carcinoma at autopsy in both cases. Conclusions: The autopsy examinations in these two cases emphasize the serious, if uncommon, pulmonary complications of this disease. In conjunction with previously reported autopsies, destructive lung disease may be as frequent a cause of death as disseminated malignancy. PMID:25353697

Can, Nhu Thuy; Tretiakova, Maria S; Taxy, Jerome B

2014-10-29

154

Increased age of transformed mouse neural progenitor/stem cells recapitulates age-dependent clinical features of human glioma malignancy  

PubMed Central

Increasing age is the most robust predictor of greater malignancy and treatment resistance in human gliomas. However, the adverse association of clinical course with aging is rarely considered in animal glioma models, impeding delineation of the relative importance of organismal versus progenitor cell aging in the genesis of glioma malignancy. To address this limitation, we implanted transformed neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the presumed cells of glioma origin, from 3 and 18month old mice into 3 and 20-month host animals. Transplantation with progenitors from older animals resulted in significantly shorter (p ? 0.0001) median survival in both 3month (37.5 vs 83 days) and 20-month (38 vs 67 days) hosts, indicating that age-dependent changes intrinsic to NSPCs rather than host animal age accounted for greater malignancy. Subsequent analyses revealed that increased invasiveness, genomic instability, resistance to therapeutic agents and tolerance to hypoxic stress accompanied aging in transformed NSPCs. Greater tolerance to hypoxia in older progenitor cells, as evidenced by elevated HIF-1 promoter reporter activity and hypoxia response gene (HRG) expression, mirror the upregulation of HRGs in cohorts of older vs younger glioma patients revealed by analysis of gene expression databases, suggesting that differential response to hypoxic stress may underlie age-dependent differences in invasion, genomic instability and treatment resistance. Our study provides strong evidence that progenitor cell aging is responsible for promoting the hallmarks of age-dependent glioma malignancy and that consideration of progenitor aging will facilitate development of physiologically and clinically relevant animal models of human gliomas. PMID:22958206

Mikheev, Andrei M.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Stoll, Elizabeth A.; Mikheeva, Svetlana A.; Beyer, Richard P.; Plotnik, David A.; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silber, John R.; Born, Donald E.; Kosai, Yoshito; Horner, Philip J.; Rostomily, Robert C.

2012-01-01

155

Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important players in B-cell activation, maturation and memory and may be involved in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. Accumulating studies show differential expression in this heterogeneous group of cancers. Stimulation with TLR specific ligands, or agonists of their ligands, leads to aberrant responses in the malignant B-cells. According to current data, TLRs can be implicated in malignant transformation, tumor progression and immune evasion processes. Most of the studies focused on multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but in the last decade the putative role of TLRs in other types of B-cell lymphomas has gained much interest. The aim of this review is to discuss recent findings on the role of TLRs in normal B cell functioning and their role in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. PMID:25112836

2014-01-01

156

The radiosensitizing potential of glutaraldehyde on MCF7 breast cancer cells as quantified by means of the G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity assay.  

PubMed

Glutaraldehyde (GA) is a high production volume chemical that is very reactive with a wide spectrum of medical, scientific and industrial applications. Concerning the genotoxic and carcinogenic effect of GA, controversial results have been reported, while in humans no studies with positive carcinogenic results for GA have been published. However, our previous study concerning the combined effects of exposure to both GA and ionising radiation (IR) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors has shown that non-genotoxic doses of the chemical induces a statistically significant increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity. The lack of information concerning the radiosensitizing potential of GA on cancerous cells triggered us to test the radiosensitizing effect of GA on breast cancer cells (MCF7). For this purpose the G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity assay (G2-assay) was used. The assay involves G2-phase irradiation and quantitation of the chromosomal fragility in the subsequent metaphase. The experimental data show that 48 h exposure to GA, at doses that are not clastogenic to MCF7 breast cancer cells enhances G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity of this cell line. In an effort to evaluate whether the observed increase in GAs-induced G2-chromosomal radiosensitization is linked to GA-induced alterations in the cell cycle and feedback control mechanism, Mitotic Index analysis was performed. The results have shown that such a mechanism cannot be directly related to the observed GA-induced increase in G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity. Since increased G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity has been linked with cancer proneness, the radiosensitizing effect of GA at non-clastogenic doses highlights its potential carcinogenic profile. PMID:21556769

Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Barszczewska, Katarzyna; Makropoulos, Vasilios; Pantelias, Gabriel E

2012-01-01

157

Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human malignant testicular germ cell lines depends on MEK/ERK activation.  

PubMed

Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent the most common malignancies in young males. Whereas in 1970s, the survival rate in patients with metastatic testicular tumours was only 5%, these days, 80% of the patients treated by modern chemotherapy will survive their disease. The drug that revolutionised the cure rate for patients with metastatic testicular tumours was cisdiamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP). In vitro experiments on neoplastic germ cell lines showed that their exquisite sensitivity to CDDP could be attributed to p53-dependent and -independent pathways. Applying cDNA macroarray, semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, blocking experiments, caspase activity assays, and morphological methods, we sought here to define the p53-independent pathway(s) involved in the CDDP-induced apoptosis. For this purpose, we used the human TGCT cell line NCCIT, the mutated p53 of which is known to remain inactive during the course of CDDP-induced apoptosis. Our experiments showed that within hours of CDDP application, two prototype members of the 'mitogen-activated protein kinase' (MAPK) family, designated 'MAPK ERK kinase' (MEK) and 'extracellular signal-regulated kinase' (ERK), were dually phosphorylated and caspase-3 became active. Functional assays using MEK inhibitors demonstrated that the phosphorylation of MEK and ERK was required for the activation of caspase-3 as the executing caspase. Interestingly, experiments with the human malignant germ cell line NTERA, which is known to possess wild-type p53, revealed the same results. Thus, our data suggest that CDDP mediates its p53-independent apoptosis-inducing effect on the malignant human testicular germ cells--at least partially--through activation of the MEK-ERK signalling pathway. July 2004 PMID:15266324

Schweyer, S; Soruri, A; Meschter, O; Heintze, A; Zschunke, F; Miosge, N; Thelen, P; Schlott, T; Radzun, H J; Fayyazi, A

2004-08-01

158

MED12 Alterations in Both Human Benign and Malignant Uterine Soft Tissue Tumors  

PubMed Central

The relationship between benign uterine leiomyomas and their malignant counterparts, i.e. leiomyosarcomas and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), is still poorly understood. The idea that a leiomyosarcoma could derive from a leiomyoma is still controversial. Recently MED12 mutations have been reported in uterine leiomyomas. In this study we asked whether such mutations could also be involved in leiomyosarcomas and STUMP oncogenesis. For this purpose we examined 33 uterine mesenchymal tumors by sequencing the hot-spot mutation region of MED12. We determined that MED12 is altered in 66.6% of typical leiomyomas as previously reported but also in 11% of STUMP and 20% of leiomyosarcomas. The mutated allele is predominantly expressed in leiomyomas and STUMP. Interestingly all classical leiomyomas exhibit MED12 protein expression while 40% of atypical leiomyomas, 50% of STUMP and 80% of leiomyosarcomas (among them the two mutated ones) do not express MED12. All these tumors without protein expression exhibit complex genomic profiles. No mutations and no expression loss were identified in an additional series of 38 non-uterine leiomyosarcomas. MED12 mutations are not exclusive to leiomyomas but seem to be specific to uterine malignancies. A previous study has suggested that MED12 mutations in leiomyomas could lead to Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation however our immunohistochemistry results show that there is no association between MED12 status and ?-catenin nuclear/cytoplasmic localization. Collectively, our results show that subgroups of benign and malignant tumors share a common genetics. We propose here that MED12 alterations could be implicated in the development of smooth muscle tumor and that its expression could be inhibited in malignant tumors. PMID:22768200

Pérot, Gaëlle; Croce, Sabrina; Ribeiro, Agnès; Lagarde, Pauline; Velasco, Valérie; Neuville, Agnès; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Floquet, Anne; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Chibon, Frédéric

2012-01-01

159

Cell-surface glycoproteins of human sarcomas: differential expression in normal and malignant tissues and cultured cells  

SciTech Connect

Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human cells are characterized by specific changes in surface antigen phenotype. In the present study, the authors have defined six cell-surface antigens of human sarcomas and normal mesenchymal cells, by using mixed hemadsorption assays and immunochemical methods for the analysis of cultured cells and immunohistochemical staining for the analysis of normal tissues and > 200 tumor specimens. Differential patterns of F19, F24, G171, G253, S5, and Thy-1 antigen expression were found to characterize (i) subsets of cultured sarcoma cell lines, (ii) cultured fibroblasts derived from various organs, (iii) normal resting and activated mesenchymal tissues, and (iv) sarcoma and nonmesenchymal tumor tissues. These results provide a basic surface antigenic map for cultured mesenchymal cells and mesenchymal tissues and permit the classification of human sarcomas according to their antigenic phenotypes.

Rettig, W.F.; Garin-Chesa, P.; Beresford, H.R.; Oettgen, H.F.; Melamed, M.R.; Old, L.J.

1988-05-01

160

PME-1 protects ERK pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

ERK/MAPK pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies, however the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) promotes basal ERK pathway activity, and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and PKC. In malignant glioblastoma, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (N=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells, and suggest important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas. PMID:19293187

Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R.; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A.; Hector, Melissa E.; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C.; Westermarck, Jukka

2010-01-01

161

Short telomeres result in chromosomal instability in hematopoietic cells and precede malignant evolution in human aplastic anemia  

PubMed Central

In cell and animal models, telomere erosion promotes chromosomal instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, contributing to the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, evidence involving short telomeres in cancer development in humans is scarce, epidemiologic, and indirect. Here we directly implicate telomere shortening as a critical molecular event for malignant evolution in aplastic anemia. Patients’ telomere lengths at diagnosis of aplastic anemia, while comparable to age-matched controls, inversely correlated with the probability of developing a cytogenetically abnormal clone. A significantly increased number of telomere signal-free chromosomal ends and chromosomal numerical and structural abnormalities were observed in bone marrow cells of patients with shorter telomeres in comparison to patients with longer telomeres and healthy subjects. The proportion of monosomy 7 cells in the bone marrow at diagnosis of aplastic anemia inversely correlated with telomere length, years before the emergence of an autonomous and clinically detectable abnormal clone. Marrow cells of clinically healthy individuals carrying loss-of-function telomerase mutations and with extremely short telomeres also showed chromosomal instability in vitro. These results provide the first clinical direct evidence in humans that short telomeres in hematopoietic cells are dysfunctional, mediate chromosomal instability, and predispose to malignant transformation in a human disease. PMID:22005790

Calado, Rodrigo T.; Cooper, James N.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Wu, Colin O.; Scheinberg, Phillip; Ried, Thomas; Young, Neal S.

2014-01-01

162

Targeting the Interleukin-6/Jak/Stat Pathway in Human Malignancies  

PubMed Central

The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway was discovered 20 years ago as a mediator of cytokine signaling. Since this time, more than 2,500 articles have been published demonstrating the importance of this pathway in virtually all malignancies. Although there are dozens of cytokines and cytokine receptors, four Jaks, and seven Stats, it seems that interleukin-6–mediated activation of Stat3 is a principal pathway implicated in promoting tumorigenesis. This transcription factor regulates the expression of numerous critical mediators of tumor formation and metastatic progression. This review will examine the relative importance and function of this pathway in nonmalignant conditions as well as malignancies (including tumor intrinsic and extrinsic), the influence of other Stats, the development of inhibitors to this pathway, and the potential role of inhibitors in controlling or eradicating cancers. PMID:22355058

Sansone, Pasquale; Bromberg, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

163

Activating FGFR3 mutations cause mild hyperplasia in human skin, but are insufficient to drive benign or malignant skin tumors.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) activating mutations are drivers of malignancy in several human tissues, including bladder, lung, cervix, and blood. However, in skin, these mutations are associated predominantly with benign, common epidermal growths called seborrheic keratoses (SKs). How epidermis resists FGFR3 mediated transformation is unclear, but previous studies have suggested that FGFR3 activation in skin keratinocytes may serve a tumor-suppressive role by driving differentiation and antagonizing Ras signaling. To define the role of FGFR3 in human normal and neoplastic epidermis, and to directly test the hypothesis that FGFR3 antagonizes Ras, we engineered human skin grafts in vivo with mutant active FGFR3 or shRNA FGFR3 knockdown. We show that FGFR3 active mutants drive mild hyperproliferation, but are insufficient to support benign or malignant tumorigenesis, either alone, or in combination with G 1-S checkpoint release. This suggests that additional cell-intrinsic or stromal cues are required for formation of benign SKs with FGFR3 mutations. Further, FGFR3 activation does not alter the growth kinetics or differentiation status of engineered human epidermal SCCs driven by Ras, and FGFR3 protein itself is dispensable for Ras-driven SCC. To extend these findings to patients, we examined a uniquely informative human tumor in which SCC developed in continuity with a SK, raising the hypothesis that one of the tumors evolved from the other. However, mutational analysis from each tumor indicates that the overlapping SK and SCC evolved independently and supports our conclusion that FGFR3 activation is insufficient to drive SCC. PMID:24626198

Duperret, Elizabeth K; Oh, Seung Ja; McNeal, Andrew; Prouty, Stephen M; Ridky, Todd W

2014-05-15

164

A NotI– EcoRV promoter library for studies of genetic and epigenetic alterations in mouse models of human malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant promoter methylation and associated chromatin changes are primarily studied in human malignancies. Thus far, mouse models for human cancer have been rarely utilized to study the role of DNA methylation in tumor onset and progression. It would be advantageous to use mouse tumor models to a greater extent to study the role and mechanism of DNA methylation in cancer

Li Yu; Chunhui Liu; Kristi Bennett; Yue-Zhong Wu; Zunyan Dai; Jeff Vandeusen; Rene Opavsky; Aparna Raval; Prashant Trikha; Ben Rodriguez; Brian Becknell; Charlene Mao; Stephen Lee; Ramana V. Davuluri; Gustavo Leone; Ignatia B. Van den Veyver; Michael A. Caligiuri; Christoph Plass

2004-01-01

165

Long non-coding RNA CASC2 suppresses malignancy in human gliomas by miR-21.  

PubMed

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many diseases including cancer. LncRNA CASC2 (cancer susceptibility candidate 2) has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer and colorectal cancer. However, the role and function of CASC2 in human gliomas remain unknown. In this study, we confirmed that CASC2 was lowly expressed in glioma tissues as well as in U251 and U87 glioma cell lines. Overexpression of CASC2 inhibited the malignancy of glioma cells, including proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been reported to be overexpressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines, which is responsible for the malignant progression of glioma. We found that up-regulated CASC2 decreased the expression of miR-21 significantly and there is a reciprocal repression between CASC2 and miR-21 in an Argonaute2-dependent manner. Furthermore, bioinformatics, luciferase reporter assays and pull-down assay confirmed that miR-21 binds to CASC2 in a sequence-specific manner. Introduction of miR-21 largely abrogated CASC2-mediated inhibition of glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promotion of cell apoptosis. This study demonstrated that CASC2 plays a tumor suppressive role in glioma via negative regulation of miR-21, which may be a novel therapeutic target for treating gliomas. PMID:25446261

Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Yao, Yi-Long; Li, Zhen; Li, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yi-Xue

2015-02-01

166

Deregulation of cancer-related miRNAs is a common event in both benign and malignant human breast tumors.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs, which play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression during carcinogenesis. The role of miRNAs in breast cancer has been thoroughly investigated, and although many miRNAs are identified as cancer related, little is known about their involvement in benign tumors. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression profiles in the two most common types of human benign tumors (fibroadenoma/fibroadenomatosis) and in malignant breast tumors and explored their role as oncomirs and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Here, we identified 33 miRNAs with similar deregulated expression in both benign and malignant tumors compared with the expression levels of those in normal tissue, including breast cancer-related miRNAs such as let-7, miR-21 and miR-155. Additionally, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles were obtained for some of the same samples. Using integrated mRNA/miRNA expression analysis, we observed that overexpression of certain miRNAs co-occurred with a significant downregulation of their candidate target mRNAs in both benign and malignant tumors. In support of these findings, in vitro functional screening of the downregulated miRNAs in non-malignant and breast cancer cell lines identified several possible tumor suppressor miRNAs, including miR-193b, miR-193a-3p, miR-126, miR-134, miR-132, miR-486-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-195 and miR-497, showing reduced growth when re-expressed in cancer cells. The finding of deregulated expression of oncomirs and tumor suppressor miRNAs in benign breast tumors is intriguing, indicating that they may play a role in proliferation. A role of cancer-related miRNAs in the early phases of carcinogenesis and malignant transformation can, therefore, not be ruled out. PMID:24104550

Tahiri, Andliena; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Lüders, Torben; Steinfeld, Israel; Ragle Aure, Miriam; Geisler, Jürgen; Mäkelä, Rami; Nord, Silje; Riis, Margit L H; Yakhini, Zohar; Kleivi Sahlberg, Kristine; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Perälä, Merja; Bukholm, Ida R K; Kristensen, Vessela N

2014-01-01

167

Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative  

SciTech Connect

A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives.

Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

1982-08-01

168

[Radiation therapy for malignant lymphoma].  

PubMed

Malignant lymphoma is usually radiosensitive and radiation therapy is an effective modality for local control of lymphoma. However, lymphoma is a typical systemic disease, and chemotherapy is performed for many cases. Recently, the late adverse events associated with radiotherapy (especially extended field radiation therapy), such as cardiovascular disease and secondary cancers, become a serious problem for long-term lymphoma survivors. In combination with chemotherapy, it is possible to reduce both the treatment volume and the overall treatment dose to minimise the risks of late adverse events. PMID:24724405

Asakawa, Isao; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

2014-03-01

169

Molecular changes in the expression of human colonic nutrient transporters during the transition from normality to malignancy  

PubMed Central

Healthy colonocytes derive 60–70% of their energy supply from short-chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate. Butyrate has profound effects on differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells by regulating expression of various genes associated with these processes. We have previously shown that butyrate is transported across the luminal membrane of the colonic epithelium via a monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1. In this paper, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation histochemistry, we have determined the profile of MCT1 protein and mRNA expression along the crypt to surface axis of healthy human colonic tissue. There is a gradient of MCT1 protein expression in the apical membrane of the cells along the crypt-surface axis rising to a peak in the surface epithelial cells. MCT1 mRNA is expressed along the crypt-surface axis and is most abundant in cells lining the crypt. Analysis of healthy colonic tissues and carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed a significant decline in the expression of MCT1 protein during transition from normality to malignancy. This was reflected in a corresponding reduction in MCT1 mRNA expression, as measured by Northern analysis. Carcinoma samples displaying reduced levels of MCT1 were found to express the high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT1, suggesting that there is a switch from butyrate to glucose as an energy source in colonic epithelia during transition to malignancy. The expression levels of MCT1 in association with GLUT1 could potentially be used as determinants of the malignant state of colonic tissue. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1262–1269. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600264 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953883

Lambert, D W; Wood, I S; Ellis, A; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

2002-01-01

170

Highly aneuploid zebrafish malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors have genetic alterations similar to human cancers  

E-print Network

Aneuploidy is a hallmark of human cancers, but most mouse cancer models lack the extensive aneuploidy seen in many human tumors. The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying cancer. Here we report ...

Zhang, GuangJun

171

Central role of c-Myc during malignant conversion in human hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistage process in which precursor lesions progress into early hepatocellular carcinomas (eHCC) by sequential accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. To decode the molecular events during early stages of liver carcinogenesis, we performed gene expression profiling on cirrhotic (regenerative) and dysplastic nodules (DN), as well as eHCC. Although considerable heterogeneity was observed at the regenerative and dysplastic stages, overall, 460 differentially expressed genes were detected between DN and eHCC. Functional analysis of the significant gene set identified the MYC oncogene as a plausible driver gene for malignant conversion of the DNs. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis revealed global activation of the MYC up-regulated gene set in eHCC versus dysplasia. Presence of the MYC signature significantly correlated with increased expression of CSN5, as well as with higher overall transcription rate of genes located in the 8q chromosome region. Furthermore, a classifier constructed from MYC target genes could robustly discriminate eHCC from high-grade and low-grade DNs. In conclusion, our study identified unique expression patterns associated with the transition of high-grade DNs into eHCC and showed that activation of the MYC transcription signature is strongly associated with the malignant conversion of preneoplastic liver lesions. PMID:19276364

Kaposi-Novak, Pal; Libbrecht, Louis; Woo, Hyun Goo; Lee, Yun-Han; Sears, Nathaniel C; Coulouarn, Cedric; Conner, Elizabeth A; Factor, Valentina M; Roskams, Tania; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

2009-04-01

172

Transcutaneous application of CO2 enhances the antitumor effect of radiation therapy in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma.  

PubMed

Sarcomas are relatively resistant because of hypoxia. We previously demonstrated that the transcutaneous CO(2) therapy reduced hypoxic conditions in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Therefore, we hypothesized that transcutaneous CO(2) therapy could enhance the antitumor effect of radiation therapy in human MFH. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous CO(2) therapy on the antitumor efficacy of X-ray irradiation using MFH. First, in an in vitro study, we assessed apoptotic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using flow cytometric and immunoblot analysis at 24 h after X-ray irradiation under three different oxygen conditions (normoxic, reoxygenated and hypoxic). In addition, in the in vivo study, 24 male athymic BALB/c nude mice with MFH tumors that were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous area were randomized into four groups: control, CO(2), X-ray irradiation and combination (CO(2) and X-ray irradiation). Treatments were performed twice weekly for 2 weeks, four times in total. Tumor volume was calculated. All tumors were excised and apoptotic activity, ROS production, related proteins and HIF-1? expression were assessed using flow cytometric and immunoblot analysis. The in vitro study revealed that X-ray irradiation induced increased apoptosis and ROS production in MFH cells under normoxic and reoxygenated conditions relative to hypoxic conditions (P<0.01). In the in vivo study, tumor volume in the combination group was reduced to 28, 42 and 47% of that in the control, CO(2), and X-ray groups, respectively (P<0.05). Apoptotic activity and ROS production in the combination group were strongly increased with decreasing HIF-1? expression relative to the control, CO(2) and X-ray groups. The transcutaneous CO(2) system enhanced the antitumor action of X-ray irradiation and could be a novel therapeutic tool for overcoming radio-resistance in human malignancies. PMID:24889546

Onishi, Yasuo; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Hara, Hitomi; Toda, Mitsunori; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Morishita, Masayuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2014-08-01

173

Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted. PMID:25427911

Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

2015-01-01

174

Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to {gamma}-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors.

Aloy, Marie-Therese [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Radiotherapie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)], E-mail: marie-therese.aloy@sante.univ-lyon1.fr; Hadchity, Elie; Bionda, Clara [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Diaz-Latoud, Chantal [Universite de Lyon 1, UMR-CNRS-5534, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Villeurbanne (France); Claude, Line; Rousson, Robert [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Arrigo, Andre-Patrick [Universite de Lyon 1, UMR-CNRS-5534, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Villeurbanne (France); Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France)

2008-02-01

175

Prognostic applications of DNA analysis in solid malignant lesions in humans.  

PubMed

Analysis of the DNA of tumors using flow cytometry is a technologic method that can be used to investigate the biologic nature of tumors. While not conclusive, results suggest that this biologic information may be useful in identifying patients with malignant disease who have a worse prognosis. The differentiation of patients with aneuploid tumors into those with hypoploid tumors and those whose tumors are hyperploid may be a further refinement of the technique. Also, a combination of this biologic criteria may allow a more accurate selection of patients than either method alone. Further investigative work needs to be done to fully evaluate the clinical usefulness of flow cytometric DNA analysis and answer these and other questions. PMID:1925907

Ellis, C N; Burnette, J J; Sedlak, R; Dyas, C; Blakemore, W S

1991-10-01

176

The Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Cell Proliferation and Cell Death in Human Malignancies  

PubMed Central

It is well admitted that the link between chronic inflammation and cancer involves cytokines and mediators of inflammatory pathways, which act during the different steps of tumorigenesis. The cyclooxygenases (COXs) are a family of enzymes, which catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin biosynthesis. This family contains three members: ubiquitously expressed COX-1, which is involved in homeostasis; the inducible COX-2 isoform, which is upregulated during both inflammation and cancer; and COX-3, expressed in brain and spinal cord, whose functions remain to be elucidated. COX-2 was described to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis mainly in solid tumors, that is, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, and, more recently, in hematological malignancies. These findings prompt us to analyze here the effects of a combination of COX-2 inhibitors together with different clinically used therapeutic strategies in order to further improve the efficiency of future anticancer treatments. COX-2 modulation is a promising field investigated by many research groups. PMID:20339581

Sobolewski, Cyril; Cerella, Claudia; Dicato, Mario; Ghibelli, Lina; Diederich, Marc

2010-01-01

177

LIM Mineralization Protein-1 Inhibits the Malignant Phenotypes of Human Osteosarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS), also known as osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common primary malignancy of bone tumor in children and adolescents. However, its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still only vaguely understood. Recently, LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) was reported to be an essential positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that the expression of LMP-1 is downregulated in OS tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, we restored the expression of LMP-1 through a recombinant adenovirus. Overexpression of LMP-1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, arrested cell cycle progression, and induced apoptosis in vitro. Finally, ectopic LMP-1 expression suppressed the expression of Runx2 and BMP-2 in OS cells. These data demonstrate that LMP-1 is an essential tumor suppressor in the OS pathological process, which will provide a new opportunity for discovering and identifying novel effective treatment strategies. PMID:24762763

Liu, Huiwen; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Zhongzu; Zhang, Zhanming; Yu, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Zhuo; Zen, Yongping; Yang, Dong; Han, Zhimin; Shu, Yong; Dai, Min; Cao, Kai

2014-01-01

178

Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. {yields} SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. {yields} SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. {yields} The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.

Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Toshihiro [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Aoe, Keisuke; Okabe, Kazunori; Mimura, Yusuke [Departments of Medical Oncology, Yamaguchi-Ube Medical Center, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [Departments of Medical Oncology, Yamaguchi-Ube Medical Center, Yamaguchi (Japan); Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kishimoto, Takumi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama (Japan)] [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama (Japan); Yamada, Taketo [Department of Pathology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Xu, C. Wilson [Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan) [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2011-01-14

179

Photodynamic therapy of human malignant tumors: a comparative study between photohem and tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating malignant neoplasms of the skin, mammary glands, tongue, oral mucous, lower lip, larynx, lungs, urinary bladder, rectum and other locations has been made. During 1992-1995 543 tumoral foci in 146 patients have been treated with PDT. All patients were previously treated with conventional techniques without effect or they were not treated due to contraindications either because of severe accompanying diseases or because of old age. A part of the patients had PDT because of recurrences or intradermal metastases in 1-2 years after surgical, radial or combined treatment. Two home-made preparations were used as photosensitizers: Photohem (hematoporphyrine derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine). Light sources were: the argon pumped dye laser ('Innova-200,' 'Coherent') and home-made laser devices: copper-vapor laser-pumped dye laser ('Yakhroma-2,' Frjazino), gas-discharge unit 'Xenon' (wavelength 630 nm), gold-vapor laser (wavelength 627.8 nm) for Photohem; while for Photosense sessions we used solid-state laser on ittrium aluminate 'Poljus-1' (wavelength 670 mn). Up to now we have follow-up control data within 2 months and 3 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 92.4% of patients including complete regression of tumors in 62.3% and partial -- in 30.1%. Currently, this new perspective technique of treating malignant neoplasms is successfully being used in Russia; new photosensitizers and light sources for PDT and fluorescent tumour diagnostics are being developed as well.

Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litvin, Grigory D.; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

1996-01-01

180

Clinical trials of radiosensitizers: what should we expect?  

PubMed

The lack of positive results from the clinical trials undertaken so far with misonidazole (MISO) are widely considered as disappointing. This is leading to a growing sentiment that hypoxic cells may not be a significant limitation to local control of human tumors. To examine whether this is a reasonable conclusion, the relevant in vitro and in vivo data have been summarized so that predictions of the extent of radiosensitization of the hypoxic cells can be made from a knowledge of the clinically achievable levels of MISO. This analysis shows the following: First, the original curve of Adams with V-79 cells is probably over-optimistic in predicting sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs). A new curve based on the available in vivo data predicts lower sensitization so that even at the highest MISO doses used clinically, SERs for the hypoxic cells to large single X-ray doses of only 1.45 would be expected. In a clinical trial, reoxygenation of the hypoxic cells is likely to occur, thereby considerably reducing the SER for the total tumor cell population. This, together with the problems of heterogeneous tumors and insufficient patient numbers, could well have been responsible for the negative clinical results. Second, even if tumor levels of the new radiosensitizer SR-2508 10 times those of MISO can be achieved clinically, this will still not lead to full radiosensitization of the hypoxic cells (although an SER in excess of 2.0 should be attainable). In conclusion the in vitro and in vivo data with radiosensitizers suggest that only a small effect, if any, is likely to be demonstrated in the clinical trials with MISO, even for those tumors the control of which is limited by hypoxic cells. Thus the question of whether hypoxic cells may or may not limit the local control of tumors by radiotherapy has not been addressed adequately by the presently available radiosensitizing drugs. PMID:6231272

Brown, J M

1984-03-01

181

Cytogenetic characterization of radiosensitive mouse mutants.  

PubMed

In order to develop mouse models for human mutagen-sensitive syndromes, we carried out cytogenetic characterization of several mouse mutants and MS/Ae mice showing enhanced radiosensitivities. The applied cytogenetic techniques include chromosomal analysis of in vitro cell cultures and lymphocyte cultures as well as in vivo UDS in hepatocytes, induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes and translocation induction in spermatogonial stem cells. Among the mutations studied, namely the contrasted allele of steel (Slcon), viable dominant spotting (Wc), wasted (wst), varitint-waddler (Va) and dystonia musculorum (dt) as well as MS/Ae mice, various iso-, hyper- or hypo-sensitive conditions were recorded. Only Va and dt appear to be associated with some deficiency in DNA repair. PMID:1720867

van Buul, P P; Tuinenburg-Bol Raap, A; Goudzwaard, H J; Seelen, C M; Beechey, C V; Natarajan, A T; Searle, A G

1991-12-01

182

Anogenital malignancies and pre-malignancies.  

PubMed

Anogenital pre-malignancies and malignancies are frequently encountered. Aetiopathogenetically, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a critical role. However, there is a variable degree of association of HPV infection with the development of anogenital malignancies. In this context, the high level of clinically unapparent HPV infection should be considered. Therefore, the question arises if the association with HPV is always causative. Besides HPV, pre-existent lichen sclerosus is also an important aetiopathologic factor in the development of anogenital malignancies. Common anogenital pre-malignancies comprise Bowen's disease (BD), Bowenoid papulosis (BP) and erythroplasia of Queyrat (EQ). From a clinical point of view, these are clearly different entities, but from a histopathological point of view, BD, BP and EQ are indistinguishable. They all represent forms of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (IN). Intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) is not only restricted to squamous variants, but also includes non-squamous IN, Paget's disease (PD) and melanoma in situ. The risk of developing anogenital (pre)malignancies or other tumours is higher in immunocompromised and immunodeficient patients, in particular those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Such risk factors will affect treatment and follow-up modalities. Regarding prophylactic measures, a relatively recent but very important development is the availability of HPV vaccination on a large scale. Momentarily, the effects of such vaccination, on a population-based scale, are not yet clear but will become apparent in the near future. Management of anogenital pre-malignancies and malignancies should be tailor-made and may be organized in a multidisciplinary fashion. PMID:21272092

Henquet, C J M

2011-08-01

183

Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ?-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer. PMID:25336096

Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

2014-10-22

184

Renal allograft recipients with high susceptibility to cutaneous malignancy have an increased prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in skin tumours and a greater risk of anogenital malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal allograft recipients (RARs) have a well-documented increased incidence of viral warts and cutaneous neoplasia, particularly those with long graft life and high sun exposure. A clinicopathological survey of 69 RARs in south-east Scotland, with follow-up periods of up to 28 years after transplantation, revealed marked variation in patient susceptibility to cutaneous malignancy with concomitant variation in HPV prevalence. Skin

MJ Arends; EC Benton; KM McLaren; LA Stark; JAA Hunter; CC Bird

1997-01-01

185

Comparative analysis of the expression patterns of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in breast neoplasia, sporadic colorectal neoplasia, pulmonary carcinomas and malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in humans.  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMPs) play essential roles in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Results of in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is altered in neoplasia, contributing to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumours. In this study we have analysed the expression of five MMP genes and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in 37 benign and malignant lesions of human breast using Northern blot analysis. MMP-9 (92 kDa gelatinase) and MMP-11 (stromelysin 3) were most consistently expressed by carcinomas. Based on detection of either MMP-9 or MMP-11 mRNAs, we were able to distinguish between malignant and benign disease with a predictive accuracy of 90% with 94% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Subsequently, these results were compared with results for carcinomas of colon and lung and malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Elevated MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression was observed in all four systems. MMP-11 characterised all carcinomas as well as carcinomas in situ but was not detectable in NHL. Our data therefore argue that there are remarkably similar patterns of specific functions involved in ECM remodelling that correlate with malignancy in different human tumours of different histogenesis. However, MMP-11 expression is a characteristic of tumours of epithelial origin that is not found in lymphoid neoplasia. Thus it suggests that MMP-11 may play a regulatory role in the invasion and metastasis of carcinomas. Images Figure 1 PMID:8645587

Kossakowska, A. E.; Huchcroft, S. A.; Urbanski, S. J.; Edwards, D. R.

1996-01-01

186

Antibody-based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Human B cell Malignancies  

PubMed Central

The dynamic expression of various phenotypic markers during B cell development not only defines the particular stage in ontogeny but also provides the necessary growth, differentiation, maturation and survival signals. When a B cell at any given stage becomes cancerous, these cell surface molecules, intracellular signaling molecules, and the over-expressed gene products become favorite targets for potential therapeutic intervention. Various adaptive and adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches induce T cell and antibody responses against cancer cells, and successful remission leading to minimal residual disease has been obtained. Nonetheless, subsequent relapse and development of resistant clones prompted further development and several novel strategies are evolving. Engineered monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity to target antigens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. They are also used as vehicles to deliver cytotoxic drugs, toxins, or radio-nuclides that are either directly conjugated or encapsulated in liposomal vesicles. Likewise, genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors are used to redirect cytotoxicity to antigen-positive target cells. This review describes recent advancements in some of these adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies targeting B cell malignancies. PMID:23229130

2013-01-01

187

Effect of host-cell interactions on clonogenic carcinoma cells in human malignant effusions.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the clonogenic capacity of tumour cells in agar from 38 malignant effusions from 31 patients with epithelial tumours. Colony formation of unfractionated cells, varies considerably from patient to patient, and is positively correlated with the percentage of tumour cells in the sample. Clonogenicity was shown to be reduced in 8/9 cases by removal of plastic-adherent and iron-phagocytic cells. In the ninth case, increased clonogenicity occurred after this procedure. When the autologous adherent cells were removed from the effusion and used in reconstitution experiments as an underlayer in a two-layer agar system, they were able to reverse the effect of the initial fractionation in a dose-dependent fashion. This indicates cellular communication based on release of a diffusible product of plastic-adherent cells. Morphological, phagocytic and prostaglandin-synthetic analysis of the fractions involved in the reconstitution experiments implicate the macrophage as the operative cell in this interaction. However, an accessory role for lymphoid cells or tumour cells themselves cannot be excluded. PMID:7426298

Buick, R. N.; Fry, S. E.; Salmon, S. E.

1980-01-01

188

Microwave-induced local hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy of human malignant tumors  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, two groups of patients have been treated with local microwave hyperthermia immediately following ionizing radiation. Group A patients had measurable multiple lesions assigned radiotherapy only, microwave hyperthermia only, or combined treatment. Ionizing radiation in 200 to 600 rad fractions was used 2 to 5 times per week to a total of 1800 to 4200 rad in 5 to 14 fractions. Group B patients had combination treatment only, with radiation fractions of 200 to 600 rad 2 to 5 times per week to a total of 200 to 4800 rad total in 6 to 20 fractions. Both groups received hyperthermia (42 to 44 C) 2 to 3 times per week, maximum ten sessions in four weeks. The 19 patients treated have had squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, malignant melanoma, plasmacytoma, epithelioid sarcoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. After more than 150 hyperthermia sessions, we find: (1) local hyperthermia with microwave alone or in combination with ionizing radiation can be used with excellent normal tissue tolerance provided local tissue temperatures are carefully monitored and controlled; (2) a higher level of heat induction in tumor tissue as compared to surrounding normal tissues; and (3) repeated hyperthermia at 42 to 43.5 C for 45 minutes per session immediately following photon irradiation yields a favorable therapeutic result, occasionally dramatic. Local microwave hyperthermia in combination withradiotherapy offers the possibility of substantial impact on clinical cancer therapy, whether of curative or palliative intent.

U, R.; Noell, K.T.; Woodward, K.T.; Worde, B.T.; Fishburn, R.I.; Miller, L.S.

1980-02-15

189

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30

190

Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations. RESULTS: We compared the serial analysis

Giorgia Egidy; Sophia Julé; Philippe Bossé; Florence Bernex; Claudine Geffrotin; Silvia Vincent-Naulleau; Vratislav Horak; Xavier Sastre-Garau; Jean-Jacques Panthier

2008-01-01

191

Expression of vimentin filaments in canine malignant mammary gland tumors: A simulation of clinicopathological features of human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Canine malignant mammary gland tumors (CMMGTs) are the most common malignancies observed in females. Several biological similarities have been reported between CMMGTs and human breast cancer (HBC). The present study aimed to assess the correlation of vimentin filaments overexpression, as part of the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the clinicopathological characteristics in CMMGTs. The clinicopathological characteristics of 42 CMMGTs were collected. Paraffin-embedded blocks underwent immunohistochemistry staining, which was performed using vimentin (to assess the evolution of the EMT process), Ki-67 (for evaluation of tumor proliferation) and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) (for evaluation of angiogenesis) antibodies. The tumor stage, grade, vascular invasion, margin status, rate of expression of the vimentin filaments, microvessel density-CD34 and proliferation rate data were obtained. Finally, the association between the expression of the vimentin filaments and those parameters was resolved statistically. A significant association was shown between the overexpression of the vimentin filaments and tumor size (r=0.71, P=0.03), tumor grade (r=0.80, P=0.021), angiogenesis (r=0.57, P=0.043), proliferation coefficient (r=0.06, P=0.001) and vascular invasion (r=0.76, P=0.043). Vimentin overexpression did not statistically correlate with the tumor stage or the margin status. Similar to the findings of the present study, certain recent studies have indicated that vimentin filament expression in HBC and CMMGTs is associated with the severity of cancer. Thus, spontaneous canine mammary tumor models appear to be an appropriate animal model for breast cancer research, and the results of the present study could aid to reinforce the association. PMID:25054018

Rismanchi, Sanaz; Yadegar, Orly; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Amanpour, Saeid; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Muhammadnejad, Ahad

2014-09-01

192

Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

2007-04-06

193

Expression of vimentin filaments in canine malignant mammary gland tumors: A simulation of clinicopathological features of human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Canine malignant mammary gland tumors (CMMGTs) are the most common malignancies observed in females. Several biological similarities have been reported between CMMGTs and human breast cancer (HBC). The present study aimed to assess the correlation of vimentin filaments overexpression, as part of the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the clinicopathological characteristics in CMMGTs. The clinicopathological characteristics of 42 CMMGTs were collected. Paraffin-embedded blocks underwent immunohistochemistry staining, which was performed using vimentin (to assess the evolution of the EMT process), Ki-67 (for evaluation of tumor proliferation) and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) (for evaluation of angiogenesis) antibodies. The tumor stage, grade, vascular invasion, margin status, rate of expression of the vimentin filaments, microvessel density-CD34 and proliferation rate data were obtained. Finally, the association between the expression of the vimentin filaments and those parameters was resolved statistically. A significant association was shown between the overexpression of the vimentin filaments and tumor size (r=0.71, P=0.03), tumor grade (r=0.80, P=0.021), angiogenesis (r=0.57, P=0.043), proliferation coefficient (r=0.06, P=0.001) and vascular invasion (r=0.76, P=0.043). Vimentin overexpression did not statistically correlate with the tumor stage or the margin status. Similar to the findings of the present study, certain recent studies have indicated that vimentin filament expression in HBC and CMMGTs is associated with the severity of cancer. Thus, spontaneous canine mammary tumor models appear to be an appropriate animal model for breast cancer research, and the results of the present study could aid to reinforce the association. PMID:25054018

RISMANCHI, SANAZ; YADEGAR, ORLY; MUHAMMADNEJAD, SAMAD; AMANPOUR, SAEID; TAGHIZADEH-JAHED, MASOUD; MUHAMMADNEJAD, AHAD

2014-01-01

194

Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate.  

PubMed

Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182-1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous "antiangiogenic" agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

Godoy, Alejandro S; Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S; Smith, Gary J

2013-06-01

195

Human exposure to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and incidence of selected malignancies -central European experience.  

PubMed

This paper describes results of two ecological studies design to analyze the incidence of selected malignancies in two populations exposed to polychlorinated hydrocarbons, mostly PCBs and TCDDs/Fs by comparing data available in the National Cancer Registry of the Slovak Republic and National Oncological Registry of the Czech Republic databases for the Slovak Republic (approximately 5M inhabitants) and the Czech Republic (10,3 M inhabitants) to the data relevant for the population of Michalovce District, the Slovak Republic (approximately 112,000 inhabitants) and Uherske Hradiste, the Czech Republic (146,000 inhabitants). Those districts are recognized as PCB-contaminated areas due to production and industrial use of PCBs. Data were analyzed for the 10-year period 1987-1996. The age adjusted world standard ratio (WSR) incidence of thyroid, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, bladder, and brain tumors in females and thyroid, pancreatic, breast, bladder, brain, prostate and testicular tumors in males were compared. Neither PCBs nor TCDDs/Fs appear to contribute to the observed significantly lower incidence of breast and prostate cancer in the Michalovce District and lower bladder cancer incidence in Uherske Hradiste District. However, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties have been described for hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl PCB metabolites. These properties could contribute to a mechanism through which these metabolites might modulate the development of breast, prostate and bladder cancer. The results of our analysis points to substantial potential problems of risk assessment for cancer incidence in populations exposed to xenobiotics, or more generally, as it relates to a wide spectrum of confoundings of cancer risk factors. PMID:19469657

Bencko, V; Rames, J; Ondrusova, M; Plesko, I; Jurickova, L; Trnovec, T

2009-01-01

196

Ubiquitination and cancer: Histone H2B monoubiquitination - roles to play in human malignancy.  

PubMed

Ubiquitination has traditionally been viewed in the context of polyubiquitination that is essential for marking proteins for degradation via the proteasome. Recent discoveries have shed light on key cellular roles for monoubiquitination, including as a post-translational modification (PTM) of histones such as histone H2B. Monoubiquitination occupies a significant role as one of the largest histone PTMs, alongside smaller, better studied modifications such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation. Monoubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120 (H2Bub1) has been shown to have key roles in transcription, the DNA damage response and stem cell differentiation. The H2Bub1 enzymatic cascade involves E3 RING finger ubiquitin ligases, the main E3 generally accepted to be the RNF20-RNF40 complex, and deubiquitinases (DUBs) including USP7, USP22 and USP44. H2Bub1 has been shown to physically disrupt chromatin strands, fostering a more open chromatin structure accessible to transcription factors and DNA repair proteins. It also acts as a recruiting signal, actively attracting proteins with roles in transcription and DNA damage. H2Bub1 also appears to occupy central roles in histone cross-talk, influencing methylation events on histone H3, including H3K4 and H3K79. Most significantly, global levels of H2Bub1 are low to absent in advanced cancers including breast, colorectal, lung and parathyroid, marking H2Bub1 and the enzymes that regulate it as key molecules of interest as possible new therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. This review offers an overview of current knowledge regarding H2Bub1 and highlights links between dysregulation of H2Bub1-associated enzymes, stem cells and malignancy. PMID:24891457

Cole, Alexander John; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Marsh, Deborah J

2014-06-01

197

Photoacoustic Tomography of Human Hepatic Malignancies Using Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging  

PubMed Central

Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n?=?10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed to improve the visibility of photoacoustic signals emitted from deeply-located lesions. PMID:25379674

Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

2014-01-01

198

The endothelin axis as therapeutic target in human malignancies: present and future.  

PubMed

To assure their growth advantage cancer cells require the appropriation of key pathways, such as those controlled by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), that influence cell growth, migration, and death, as well as the expansion of vascular networks. Accumulating molecular and in vivo evidences demonstrate that the activation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) axis elicites pleiotropic effects on tumour cells and on the tumour microenvironment as well, modulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, chemoresistance, and other tumourassociated processes. As ET-1 axis blockade has been shown to reduce tumor growth in preclinical models, several small molecule antagonists of ET-1 receptors are currently undergoing clinical trial as novel agents in cancer therapy. To fully appreciate the potential hegemony of the ET-1 axis in cancer, here we review emerging preclinical and clinical data outlining the spectrum of cellular activities triggered by ET-1 signaling and the challenges facing molecular targeted therapy. Because scaffold proteins, such as ?-arrestin, create signalling platforms that drive cellular transformation upon GPCR activation, mechanisms mediated by ?-arrestin in ET-1 signalling are discussed. Deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms activated by ET-1 receptor, as well as of how pathway crosstalk can influence ET-1 signalling outcome in cancer, is of paramount translational relevance in the study of ET-1 receptor-targeted therapy. The improved knowledge of the interconnected molecular mechanism promoted by ET-1 axis in cancer will certainly result in more effective and durable mechanism-guided combinations of ET-1 receptor antagonists with cytotoxic drugs or other targeted agents in the clinical management of ET-1 axis-dependent malignancies. PMID:22390759

Bagnato, Anna

2012-01-01

199

Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182–1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous “antiangiogenic” agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S.; Smith, Gary J.

2013-01-01

200

Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.

Li Hongzhen [Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Zhou Jianjun [Dermatology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Miki, Jun [Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Furusato, Bungo [Department of Genitourinary Pathology, Armed Forces Institutes of Pathology, Washington, DC 20307 (United States); Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G. [Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Vogel, Jonathan C. [Dermatology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Rhim, Johng S. [Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)], E-mail: jrhim@cpdr.org

2008-01-01

201

Competitive but Not Allosteric mTOR Kinase Inhibition Enhances Tumor Cell Radiosensitivity1  

PubMed Central

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical kinase in the regulation of gene translation and has been suggested as a potential target for radiosensitization. The goal of this study was to compare the radiosensitizing activities of the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with that of the competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, whereas rapamycin only partially inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and had no effect on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), PP242 inhibited the activity of both mTOR-containing complexes. Irradiation alone had no effect on mTORC1 or mTORC2 activity. Clonogenic survival was used to define the effects of the mTOR inhibitors on in vitro radiosensitivity. In the two tumor cell lines evaluated, PP242 treatment 1 hour before irradiation increased radiosensitivity, whereas rapamycin had no effect. Addition of PP242 after irradiation also enhanced the radiosensitivity of both tumor lines. To investigate the mechanism of radiosensitization, the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks were evaluated according ?H2AX foci. PP242 exposure did not influence the initial level of ?H2AX foci after irradiation but did significantly delay the dispersal of radiation-induced ?H2AX foci. In contrast to the tumor cell lines, the radiosensitivity of a normal human fibroblast cell line was not influenced by PP242. Finally, PP242 administration to mice bearing U251 xenografts enhanced radiation-induced tumor growth delay. These results indicate that in a preclinical tumor model PP242 enhances tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this effect involves an inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:23730416

Hayman, Thomas J; Kramp, Tamalee; Kahn, Jenna; Jamal, Muhammad; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

2013-01-01

202

The human Bosniak model applied to a cat with renal cystadenoma. A classification to differentiate benign and malignant cystic renal masses via computed tomography and ultrasound.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with weight loss and azotemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic space- occupying lesion with multiple septae in the left kidney. A core needle biopsy yielded a renal cystadenoma originating from the epithelial cells. This report describes the clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features and the growth progression of a renal cystadenoma. We describe the first attempt to apply the human Bosniak classification to a cat with renal cystic neoplasia to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Cystadenoma should be a differential diagnosis in cases of renal cystic space-occupying lesions. Other differentials, imaging features to differentiate benign and malignant lesions and the risk of malignant transformation will be discussed. PMID:25599531

Baloi, P; Del Chicca, F; Ruetten, M; Gerber, B

2015-02-17

203

Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G/sub 2/ phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative  

SciTech Connect

A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G/sub 2/ phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or ..beta..-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G/sub 2/ phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G/sub 2/ phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives.

Parshad, R. (Howard Univ. College of Medicine, Washington, DC); Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

1982-08-01

204

Impact of MACC1 on human malignant glioma progression and patients' unfavorable prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been established as an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis formation and metastasis-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. However, no data are available concerning MACC1 expression in human astrocytic tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent primary brain tumor of adulthood, and due to its invasive and rapid growth, patients have unfavorable prognoses. Although these tumors rarely metastasize, their invasive and migratory behavior is similar to those of metastatic cells of tumors of different origin. Thus, we hypothesized that MACC1 may be involved in progression of human gliomas. Methods We performed real-time measurements of proliferation and migration in MACC1-transfected GBM cell lines (U138, U251) and evaluated tumor formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of mice. Semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses were performed for MACC1 and for its transcriptional target c-Met in human astrocytoma of World Health Organization grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) and GBM biopsies. Data were validated by MACC1 immunohistochemistry in independent matched samples of low-grade astrocytoma and GBM. Results MACC1 increases the proliferative, migratory, and tumor-formation abilities of GBM cells. The c-Met inhibitor crizotinib reduced MACC1-induced migration and tumor formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of mice. Analyzing patients’ biopsies, MACC1 expression increased concomitantly with increasing World Health Organization grade. Moreover, MACC1 expression levels allowed discrimination of dormant and recurrent low-grade astrocytomas and of primary and secondary GBM. Strong MACC1 expression correlated with reduced patient survival. Conclusions MACC1 may represent a promising biomarker for prognostication and a new target for treatment of human gliomas. PMID:24220141

Hagemann, Carsten; Fuchs, Steffen; Monoranu, Camelia M.; Herrmann, Pia; Smith, Janice; Hohmann, Tim; Grabiec, Urszula; Kessler, Almuth F.; Dehghani, Faramarz; Löhr, Mario; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Vince, Giles H.; Stein, Ulrike

2013-01-01

205

Loss of betaglycan contributes to the malignant properties of human granulosa tumor cells.  

PubMed

Betaglycan is a type III TGFbeta receptor that modulates cellular sensitivity to inhibins and TGFbeta. Previous studies have suggested that betaglycan acts as a tumor suppressor in certain human epithelial cancers. However, the roles of betaglycan in ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether human GCTs exhibit betaglycan expression and, if so, what impact this receptor has on tumor biology. Real-time PCR was used to quantify betaglycan transcripts in human GCTs (n = 17) and normal premenopausal ovaries (n = 11). This analysis established that GCTs exhibited a significant 2-fold lower mean betaglycan mRNA level as compared with the normal ovary (P < 0.05). Similarly, two human GCT cell lines, KGN and COV434, exhibited low betaglycan expression and poor responsiveness to TGFbeta and inhibin A in luciferase reporter assays, which was restored by stable transfection of wild-type betaglycan. Betaglycan significantly increased the adhesion of COV434 (P < 0.05) and KGN (P < 0.0001) cells, decreased cellular invasion through Matrigel, and inhibited wound healing. Expression of mutant forms of betaglycan that are defective in TGFbeta and/or inhibin binding in each GCT cell line revealed that the inhibitory effects of betaglycan on wound healing were most strongly linked to the inhibin-binding region of betaglycan. Furthermore, knockdown of INHA mRNA expression abrogated the betaglycan-mediated inhibition of wound healing and invasion, whereas both INHA silencing and TGFbeta neutralization abolished the betaglycan-mediated increase in adhesion to substrate. These data suggest that loss of betaglycan contributes to the pathogenesis of GCTs. PMID:19164448

Bilandzic, Maree; Chu, Simon; Farnworth, Paul G; Harrison, Craig; Nicholls, Peter; Wang, Yao; Escalona, Ruth M; Fuller, Peter J; Findlay, Jock K; Stenvers, Kaye L

2009-04-01

206

The human anti-CD30 antibody 5F11 shows in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

CD30 is a promising target for antibody-based immunotherapy of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. To overcome the limitations from currently available murine anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a new fully human anti-CD30 antibody was generated. Binding properties were evaluated by recombinant CD30 capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) flow cytometry. Activity of this new mAb was assessed in vitro using growth inhibition and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays on several cell lines. In vivo activity was determined in a solid as well as in a disseminated xenografted model of HL in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. The mAb 5F11 showed specific binding to CD30 (cluster A). The ADCC assays indicated dose-dependent lysis of L540 cells when 5F11 was combined with human effector cells. Upon cross-linking in vitro, 5F11 inhibited the growth of CD30-expressing cell lines. In vivo, treatment with 5F11 induced a marked growth delay or even a complete regression of established xenografted HL in SCID mice. In the disseminated HL model, a high proportion of 5F11-treated mice experienced long-term survival. The new human anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody 5F11 shows promise as a means of CD30-targeted immunotherapy of malignant lymphomas. Based on these results, a clinical phase 1 study in patients with refractory CD30+ lymphoma has been initiated. PMID:12881320

Borchmann, Peter; Treml, John F; Hansen, Hinrich; Gottstein, Claudia; Schnell, Roland; Staak, Oliver; Zhang, Hui-fen; Davis, Thomas; Keler, Tibor; Diehl, Volker; Graziano, Robert F; Engert, Andreas

2003-11-15

207

Optimization and comprehensive characterization of a faithful tissue culture model of the benign and malignant human prostate  

PubMed Central

Few preclinical models accurately depict normal human prostate tissue or primary prostate cancer (PCa). In vitro systems typically lack complex cellular interactions among structured prostatic epithelia and a stromal microenvironment, and genetic and molecular fidelity are concerns in both in vitro and in vivo models. “Tissue slice cultures” (TSC) provide realistic preclinical models of diverse tissues and organs, but have not been fully developed or widely utilized for prostate studies. Problems encountered include degeneration of differentiated secretory cells, basal cell hyperplasia, and poor survival of PCa. Here, we optimized, characterized, and applied a TSC model of primary human PCa and benign prostate tissue that overcomes many deficiencies of current in vitro models. Tissue cores from fresh prostatectomy specimens were precision-cut at 300-µm and incubated in a rotary culture apparatus. The ability of varied culture conditions to faithfully maintain benign and cancer cell and tissue structure and function over time was evaluated by immunohistological and biochemical assays. After optimization of the culture system, molecular and cellular responses to androgen ablation and to piperlongumine, purported to specifically reduce androgen signaling in PCa, were investigated. Optimized culture conditions successfully maintained the structural and functional fidelity of both benign and PCa TSCs for 5 days. TSCs exhibited androgen-dependence, appropriately undergoing ductal degeneration, reduced proliferation, and decreased prostate-specific antigen expression upon androgen ablation. Furthermore, TSCs revealed cancer-specific reduction of androgen receptor and increased apoptosis upon treatment with piperlongumine, validating data from cell lines. We demonstrate a TSC model that authentically recapitulates the structural, cellular, and genetic characteristics of the benign and malignant human prostate, androgen-dependence of the native tissue, and cancer-specific response to a potential new therapeutic for PCa. The work described herein provides a basis for advancing the experimental utility of the TSC model. PMID:24296879

Maund, Sophia L.; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna M.

2013-01-01

208

Analysis of Mammalian Septin Expression in Human Malignant Brain Tumors1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Septins are a highly conserved subfamily of GTPases that play an important role in the process of cytokinesis. To increase our understanding of the expression and localization of the different mammalian septins in human brain tumors, we used antibodies against septins 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 in immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses of astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. We then characterized the expression and subcellular distribution of the SEPT2 protein in aphidicolin-synchronized U373 MG astrocytoma cells by immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. To determine the role of SEPT2 in astrocytoma cytokinesis, we inducibly expressed a dominant-negative (DN) SEPT2 mutant in U373 MG astrocytoma cells. We show variable levels and expression patterns of the different septins in brain tissue, brain tumor specimens, and human brain tumor cell lines. SEPT2 was abundantly expressed in all brain tumor samples and cell lines studied. SEPT3 was expressed in medulloblastoma specimens and cell lines, but not in astrocytoma specimens or cell lines. SEPT2 expression was cell cycle-related, with maximal levels in G2-M. Immunocytochemical analysis showed endogenous levels of the different septins within the perinuclear and peripheral cytoplasmic regions. In mitosis, SEPT2 was concentrated at the cleavage furrow. By immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, we show that a DN SEPT2 mutant inhibits the completion of cell division and results in the accumulation of multinucleated cells. These results suggest that septins are variably expressed in human brain tumors. Stable expression of the DN SEPT2 mutant leads to a G2-M cell cycle block in astrocytoma cells. PMID:15140406

Kim, Dong-Seok; Hubbard, Sherri-Lynn; Peraud, Aurelia; Salhia, Bodour; Sakai, Keiichi; Rutka, James T

2004-01-01

209

Radiosensitization Effect of STI-571 on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine STI-571-induced radiosensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Bxpc-3, Capan-1, and MiaPaCa-2) exhibiting different expression levels of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and showing different K-ras mutation types were used. For evaluation of the antitumor activity of STI-571 in combination with radiation, clonogenic survival assays, Western blot analysis, and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay with microscopic evaluation by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were conducted. Results: Dramatic phosphorylated (p)-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta attenuation, a modest dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition, and significant radiosensitization were observed after STI-571 treatment in view of apoptosis, although the levels of growth inhibition and increased radiosensitization were different according to cell lines. The grades of radiosensitivity corresponded to the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta by STI-571, particularly to those of p-c-Kit, and the radiosensitivity was partially affected by K-ras mutation in pancreatic cancer cells. Among downstream pathways associated with c-Kit or PDGFRbeta, p-PLCgamma was more closely related to radiosensitivity compared with p-Akt1 or p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1. Conclusion: STI-571 enhances radiation response in pancreatic cancer cells. This effect is affected by the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit or p-PDGFRbeta, and K-ras mutation status. Among them, p-c-Kit plays more important roles in the radiosensitivity in pancreatic cancer compared with p-PDGFRbeta or K-ras mutation status.

Chung, Hye Won [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wen, Jing [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong-Baeck [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Seung Min; Park, Seung Woo [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Si Young, E-mail: sysong@yuhs.a [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-01

210

Radiosensitizing Effects of Ectopic miR-101 on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells Depend on the Endogenous miR-101 Level  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previously, we showed that ectopic miR-101 could sensitize human tumor cells to radiation by targeting ATM and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to inhibit DNA repair, as the endogenous miR-101 levels are low in tumors in general. However, the heterogeneity of human cancers may result in an exception. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a few tumor cell lines with a high level of endogenous miR-101 would prove less response to ectopic miR-101. Methods and Materials: Fourteeen non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and one immortalized non-malignant lung epithelial cell line (NL20) were used for comparing endogenous miR-101 levels by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on the different miR-101 levels, four cell lines with different miR-101 levels were chosen for transfection with a green fluorescent protein-lentiviral plasmid encoding miR-101. The target protein levels were measured by using Western blotting. The radiosensitizing effects of ectopic miR-101 on these NSCLC cell lines were determined by a clonogenic assay and xenograft mouse model. Results: The endogenous miR-101 level was similar or lower in 13 NSCLC cell lines but was 11-fold higher in one cell line (H157) than in NL20 cells. Although ectopic miR-101 efficiently decreased the ATM and DNA-PKcs levels and increased the radiosensitization level in H1299, H1975, and A549 cells, it did not change the levels of the miR-101 targets or radiosensitivity in H157 cells. Similar results were observed in xenograft mice. Conclusions: A small number of NSCLC cell lines could have a high level of endogenous miR-101. The ectopic miR-101 was able to radiosensitize most NSCLC cells, except for the NSCLC cell lines that had a much higher endogenous miR-101 level. These results suggest that when we choose one miRNA as a therapeutic tool, the endogenous level of the miRNA in each tumor should be considered.

Chen, Susie; Wang Hongyan; Ng, Wooi Loon; Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wang Ya, E-mail: ywang94@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2011-12-01

211

Microbial regulation of intestinal radiosensitivity  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for treating germ-free (GF) mice with ?-irradiation and transplanting them with normal or genetically manipulated bone marrow while maintaining their GF status. This approach revealed that GF mice are markedly resistant to lethal radiation enteritis. Furthermore, administering lethal doses of total body irradiation to GF mice produces markedly fewer apoptotic endothelial cells and lymphocytes in the mesenchymal cores of their small intestinal villi, compared with conventionally raised animals that have acquired a microbiota from birth. Analysis of GF and conventionally raised Rag1-/- mice disclosed that mature lymphocytes are not required for the development of lethal radiation enteritis or the microbiota-associated enhancement of endothelial radiosensitivity. Studies of gnotobiotic knockout mice that lack fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf), a fibrinogen/angiopoietin-like protein normally secreted from the small intestinal villus epithelium and suppressed by the microbiota, showed that Fiaf deficiency results in loss of resistance of villus endothelial and lymphocyte populations to radiation-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings provide insights about the cellular and molecular targets involved in microbial regulation of intestinal radiosensitivity. PMID:16129828

Crawford, Peter A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

212

Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function.  

PubMed

Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. PMID:25576094

Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

2015-02-15

213

Prognostic role of microRNA-205 in multiple human malignant neoplasms: a meta-analysis of 17 studies  

PubMed Central

Objective MicroRNA-205 (miRNA-205) was revealed as an attractive prognostic tumour biomarker in recent studies. However, the results of different studies have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to elucidate the precise predictive value of miRNA-205 in various human malignant neoplasms. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources Qualified studies were identified up to 5 June 2014 by performing online searches in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, and additional quality evaluations. Participants Seventeen eligible studies with 4827 patients were ultimately enrolled in this meta-analysis. Outcome measures The heterogeneity between studies was assessed using I2 statistics. Pooled HRs with 95% CIs for patient survival and disease recurrence were calculated to investigate the correlation between miRNA-205 expression and cancer prognosis. Results Our results indicate that elevated miRNA-205 was significantly associated with enhanced overall survival in the breast cancer subgroup (HR=0.78, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) and superior disease-free survival/recurrence-free survival in the adenocarcinoma subgroup (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.94). Conclusions miRNA-205 is a promising biomarker for predicting the recurrence and progression of patients with adenocarcinomas or breast cancer. Owing to its complex roles, further relevant studies are warranted. PMID:25613953

Zhang, Jia-yi; Sun, Meng-yan; Song, Ning-hong; Deng, Zhong-lei; Xue, Chun-yu; Yang, Jie

2015-01-01

214

Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex: promising targets for radiosensitization.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy plays a central part in cancer treatment, and use of radiosensitizing agents can greatly enhance this modality. Although studies have shown that several chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells, investigators have also studied a number of molecularly targeted agents as radiosensitizers in clinical trials based on reasonably promising preclinical data. Recent intense research into the DNA damage-signaling pathway revealed that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 (MRN) complex play central roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints and that these molecules are promising targets for radiosensitization. Researchers recently developed three ATM inhibitors (KU-55933, CGK733, and CP466722) and an MRN complex inhibitor (mirin) and showed that they have great potential as radiosensitizers of tumors in preclinical studies. Additionally, we showed that a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus that we developed (OBP-301 [telomelysin]) produces profound radiosensitizing effects by inhibiting the MRN complex via the adenoviral E1B55kDa protein. A recent Phase I trial in the United States determined that telomelysin was safe and well tolerated in humans, and this agent is about to be tested in combination with radiotherapy in a clinical trial based on intriguing preclinical data demonstrating that telomelysin and ionizing radiation can potentiate each other. In this review, we highlight the great potential of ATM and MRN complex inhibitors, including telomelysin, as radiosensitizing agents. PMID:22525466

Kuroda, Shinji; Urata, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

2012-01-01

215

Enhanced Anti-Tumor Effect of Zoledronic Acid Combined with Temozolomide against Human Malignant Glioma Cell Expressing O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance. PMID:25111384

Fukai, Junya; Koizumi, Fumiaki; Nakao, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

216

Accumulation of 99mTc-low-density lipoprotein in human malignant glioma.  

PubMed Central

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in gliomas was studied to find out if LDL has potential as a drug carrier of boron, especially for boron neutron capture therapy. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed 2 h and 20 h after intravenous injection of autologous 99mTc-labelled LDL in four patients with untreated and five patients with recurrent glioma. 99mTc-LDL uptake was compared with the uptake of 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA), an established blood pool marker. The intra- and peritumoral distributions of radioactivity in the SPET images were not identical for radiolabelled LDL and HSA. The mean LDL tumour to brain ratio, determined from transversal SPET slices at 20 h post injection, was 1.5 in untreated and 2.2 in recurrent gliomas; the corresponding ratios for HSA were 1.6 and 3.4. The brain to blood ratio remained constant at 2 h and 20 h in both types of tumours. These data are not consistent with highly selective, homogeneous uptake of LDL in gliomas. However, the different tumoral distribution and rate of uptake of 99mTc-LDL, as compared with 99mTc-HSA, indicate that the uptake of LDL is different from that of HSA and that further studies on the mechanism of LDL uptake in glioma are warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7841057

Leppälä, J.; Kallio, M.; Nikula, T.; Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Savolainen, S.; Gylling, H.; Hiltunen, J.; Callaway, J.

1995-01-01

217

Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

Although mechanisms for chromosomal instability in tumors have been described in animal and in vitro models, little is known about these processes in man. To explore cytogenetic evolution in human tumors, chromosomal breakpoint profiles were constructed for 102 pancreatic carcinomas and 140 osteosarcomas, two tumor types characterized by extensive genomic instability. Cases with few chromosomal alterations showed a preferential clustering of breakpoints to the terminal bands, whereas tumors with many changes showed primarily interstitial and centromeric breakpoints. The terminal breakpoint frequency was negatively correlated to telomeric TTAGGG repeat length, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric TTAGGG probes consistently indicated shortened telomeres and >10% of chromosome ends lacking telomeric signals. Because telomeric dysfunction may lead to formation of unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes, mitotic figures were also evaluated. Anaphase bridges were found in all cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated extensive structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with terminal transferase detection showing fragmented DNA in 5–20% of interphase cells. Less than 2% of cells showed evidence of necrosis or apoptosis, and telomerase was expressed in the majority of cases. Telomeric dysfunction may thus trigger chromosomal fragmentation through persistent bridge-breakage events in pancreatic carcinomas and osteosarcomas, leading to a continuous reorganization of the tumor genome. Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival. PMID:11675499

Gisselsson, David; Jonson, Tord; Petersén, ?sa; Strömbeck, Bodil; Dal Cin, Paola; Höglund, Mattias; Mitelman, Felix; Mertens, Fredrik; Mandahl, Nils

2001-01-01

218

arrayMap: A Reference Resource for Genomic Copy Number Imbalances in Human Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background The delineation of genomic copy number abnormalities (CNAs) from cancer samples has been instrumental for identification of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes and proven useful for clinical marker detection. An increasing number of projects have mapped CNAs using high-resolution microarray based techniques. So far, no single resource does provide a global collection of readily accessible oncogenomic array data. Methodology/Principal Findings We here present arrayMap, a curated reference database and bioinformatics resource targeting copy number profiling data in human cancer. The arrayMap database provides a platform for meta-analysis and systems level data integration of high-resolution oncogenomic CNA data. To date, the resource incorporates more than 40,000 arrays in 224 cancer types extracted from several resources, including the NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), EBI’s ArrayExpress (AE), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), publication supplements and direct submissions. For the majority of the included datasets, probe level and integrated visualization facilitate gene level and genome wide data review. Results from multi-case selections can be connected to downstream data analysis and visualization tools. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, currently no data source provides an extensive collection of high resolution oncogenomic CNA data which readily could be used for genomic feature mining, across a representative range of cancer entities. arrayMap represents our effort for providing a long term platform for oncogenomic CNA data independent of specific platform considerations or specific project dependence. The online database can be accessed at http//www.arraymap.org. PMID:22629346

Baudis, Michael

2012-01-01

219

Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas.  

PubMed

We have shown that the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis, has antitumor effects. Because of the limitation of the blood-brain barrier, the Bdph dosage required for treatment of glioma is relatively high. To solve this problem, we developed a local-release system with Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA; Bdph-Wafer), and investigated its antitumor effects. On the basis of in vitro release kinetics, we demonstrated that the Bdph-Wafer released 50% of the available Bdph by the sixth day, and the release reached a plateau phase (90% of Bdph) by the 30th day. To investigate the in situ antitumor effects of the Bdph-Wafer on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we used 2 xenograft animal models-F344 rats (for rat GBM) and nude mice (for human GBM)-which were injected with RG2 and DBTRG-05MG cells, respectively, for tumor formation and subsequently treated subcutaneously with Bdph-Wafers. We observed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, with no significant adverse effects on the rodents. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Bdph on RG2 cells was via the PKC pathway, which upregulated Nurr77 and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, to study the effect of the interstitial administration of Bdph in cranial brain tumor, Bdph-Wafers were surgically placed in FGF-SV40 transgenic mice. Our Bdph-Wafer significantly reduced tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our study showed that p(CPP-SA) containing Bdph delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma. PMID:21565841

Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Po-Cheng; Liu, Cyong-Yue; Liu, Po-Yen; Chang, Li-Fu; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Liu, Fu-Chen; Tai, Dar-Fu; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

2011-06-01

220

TPX2 in malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells by anti-benzo[ a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the function of the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (Xklp2) (TPX2) in the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide (anti-BPDE), TPX2 was characterized in cells at both the gene and the protein levels. TPX2 was present at higher levels in 16HBE-C cells than in 16HBE cells as demonstrated

Lijuan Zhang; He Huang; Luyao Deng; Ming Chu; Lan Xu; Juanling Fu; Yunlan Zhu; Xiuchun Zhang; Shulin Liu; Zongcan Zhou; Yuedan Wang

2008-01-01

221

The anti-cancer compound Nordy inhibits CXCR4-mediated production of IL8 and VEGF by malignant human glioma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our previous studies showed\\u000a that Nordy, a synthetic chiral compound of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of various malignant\\u000a tumors. In this study we examined the capacity of Nordy to regulate CXCR4–mediated production of angiogenic factors by human\\u000a glioblastoma cells. We found that Nordy

Yi-fang Ping; Xiao-hong Yao; Jian-hong Chen; Hong Liu; Dai-lun Chen; Xiang-dong Zhou; Ji Ming Wang; Xiu-wu Bian

2007-01-01

222

Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ?40 nm; intermediates ?40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ? First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ? Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in FEMX-I melanoma. ? Down-regulation of prominin-1 results in decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin. ? Wnt signaling as mediator of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1.

Rappa, Germana [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Le, Thuc T. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Johlfs, Mary G. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Fiscus, Ronald R. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Corbeil, Denis [Tissue Engineering Laboratories (BIOTEC) and DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Tatzberg 47–49, 01307 Dresden, Germany Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Lorico, Aurelio, E-mail: alorico@roseman.edu [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States)

2013-04-01

223

Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells  

SciTech Connect

Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro network formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG controlled growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin knockdown induced neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination therapy inhibited invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis as well. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So, combination therapy showed multiple anti-cancer mechanisms in neuroblastoma.

Hossain, Md. Motarab [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Banik, Naren L. [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)] [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)

2012-08-01

224

Modification of radiosensitivity in cancer treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 27 selections divided among six sections. The section titles are: General Review, Chemical Protection, Hypoxic Cell Sensitizer, Biological Sensitization, Hyperthermia, and Cellular Radiosensitivity and its Mechanisms.

Sugahara, T.

1984-01-01

225

The radiosensitivity of rat thymocytes.  

PubMed Central

gamma-Irradiation in vitro apparently blocked a plasma-membrane associated, superoxide-producing, NADPH oxidase in rat thymocytes. Differential centrifugation of the mixed thymocytes indicated the smaller lymphocytes (approx. 6 microns diameter) to be the radiosensitive population. The oxidase system co-isolated in part with thymus nuclei and could be solubilized by detergent treatment [Bellavite, Jones, Cross, Papini & Rossi (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 639-648]. Endogenous NADPH was the rate-limiting component for superoxide formation in vitro. The level of NADPH was lowered by gamma-irradiation, an effect mimicked by GSSG in the presence of 50 microM-ZnCl2 to inhibit GSSG reductase. These findings are suggested as the metabolic basis for interphase death of small lymphocytes exposed to ionizing radiation. PMID:3026355

Ord, M G; Stocken, L A

1986-01-01

226

Silencing SATB1 Inhibits the Malignant Phenotype and Increases Sensitivity of Human Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells to Arsenic Trioxide  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, we found that the global genome organizer Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) is highly expressed in mesenchymal-derived human osteosarcoma U2OS cells and that the knock-down of SATB1 results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of silencing SATB1 on cell migration, invasion, apoptosis and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug arsenic trioxide. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound-healing assays and trans-well invasion assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by an in situ Cell Death Detection POD Kit, based on terminal deoxynucleotydyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and mRNAs were analyzed by real time qRT-PCR. We found that cell migration and invasion were inhibited and that the proportion of apoptotic cells and sensitivities to the chemotherapeutic drug arsenic trioxide were enhanced by knockdown of SATB1 in U2OS cells. Furthermore, mRNA of ABCC1 and ABCG2 were decreased strikingly after SATB1 silencing. It was concluded that the elevated expression of SATB1 in U2OS cells contributes to maintenance of the malignant phenotype and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs ATO, suggesting that silencing SATB1 in the cells might improve the effects of arsenic trioxides in the treatment of osteosarcoma in which SATB1 is over-expressed and that ABCC1 and ABCG2 were involved in SATB1 mediated resistance of U2OS cells to ATO. PMID:25317073

Zhang, Haiying; Su, Xuejin; Guo, Li; Zhong, Lingzhi; Li, Wenxue; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Xiaotong; Mu, Yan; Li, Xinna; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

2014-01-01

227

Long-term low-dose ?-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy ?-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1-2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1-2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of ?-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway. PMID:24746471

Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

2014-05-01

228

Prediction of the Number of Activated Genes in Multiple Independent Cd+2- and As+3-Induced Malignant Transformations of Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa)  

PubMed Central

Background Many toxic environmental agents such as cadmium and arsenic are found to be epidemiologically linked to increasing rates of cancers. In vitro studies show that these toxic agents induced malignant transformation in human cells. It is not clear whether such malignant transformation induced by a single toxic agent is driven by a common set of genes. Although the advancement of high-throughput technology has facilitated the profiling of global gene expression, it remains a question whether the sample size is sufficient to identify this common driver gene set. Results We have developed a statistical method, SOFLR, to predict the number of common activated genes using a limited number of microarray samples. We conducted two case studies, cadmium and arsenic transformed human urothelial cells. Our method is able to precisely predict the number of stably induced and repressed genes and the number of samples to identify the common activated genes. The number of independent transformed isolates required for identifying the common activated genes is also estimated. The simulation study further validated our method and identified the important parameters in this analysis. Conclusions Our method predicts the degree of similarity and diversity during cell malignant transformation by a single toxic agent. The results of our case studies imply the existence of common driver and passenger gene sets in toxin-induced transformation. Using a pilot study with small sample size, this method also helps microarray experimental design by determining the number of samples required to identify the common activated gene set. PMID:24465620

Garrett, Scott H.; Somji, Seema; Sens, Donald A.; Zhang, Ke K.

2014-01-01

229

Systemic delivery and preclinical evaluation of Au nanoparticle containing ?-lapachone for radiosensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective delivery of radiosensitizer to target tumor cells, causing preferentially increased tumor cytotoxicity, while simultaneously minimizing damage to healthy cells around the tumor, is an ideal strategy for the improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy against human cancer. We aimed to enhance radiotherapeutic efficacy by using biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNP) as a vehicle for systemic delivery of ß-lapachone (lap). Lap is a

Seong-Yun Jeong; Sung-Jin Park; Sang Min Yoon; Joohee Jung; Ha Na Woo; So Lyoung Yi; Si Yeol Song; Heon Joo Park; Chulhee Kim; Jin Seong Lee; Jung Shin Lee; Eun Kyung Choi

2009-01-01

230

Effect of Paris saponin I on radiosensitivity in a gefitinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

Previous studies have observed that Paris saponin I (PSI) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic activity against a number of malignancies, such as non-small cell lung cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the radiosensitization of PSI treatment on a gefitinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line, PC-9-ZD, and its possible mechanism. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the growth inhibition effect of PSI. A clonogenic assay was performed to determine the radiosensitizing effect of PSI treatment on the PC-9-ZD cell line. A single-hit multi-target model was used to plot survival curves and calculate sensitizing enhancement ratios. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was analyzed with fluorescein-isothiocyanate-Annexin V/propidium iodide and Hoechst staining. The expression levels of the proteins were detected by western blotting. There was a significant reduction observed in the proliferation of the PC-9-ZD cell lines that were treated with PSI. PSI enhanced the radiosensitivity of the PC-9-ZD cells with a sensitization enhancement ratio of 1.77. Furthermore, PSI induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of the irradiated PC-9-ZD cells. Notably, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was downregulated, and caspase-3, Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (P21(waf1/cip1)) were upregulated by the PSI treatment. The present study showed that PSI treatment exhibited potent radiosensitivity against gefitinib-resistant PC-9-ZD cells in vitro. This radiosensitivity was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis via an increase in caspase-3, Bax and P21(waf1/cip1) as well as a decrease in Bcl-2 production. PMID:24932289

Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Pengjun; Feng, Jianguo; Su, Dan; Ma, Shenglin

2014-06-01

231

Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing gammaH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2mug/mL], Trinovin [10mug/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 mug/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10mug/mL) and Prostate Rx (6mug/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D. [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Marples, Brian, E-mail: brian.marples@beaumont.ed [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2010-03-01

232

Immunotherapy with recombinant human interleukin 2 in patients with hematological malignancies after bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

High-dose chemotherapy in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is increasingly being used for treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. Residual tumor cells, resistant to high-dose chemoradiotherapy, are responsible for reccurence of the disease. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a pleiotropic cytokine which plays a central role in immune response, has been introduced in several clinical trials in patients with hematological malignancies after BMT or PBSCT to increase immunocompetence of these patients and eradicate residual malignant cells. At present there is no general agreement on the optimum dosage or route of administration and clinical trials also gave conflicting results. Establishment of optimum dosage schedules and methods of administration should enable a better assessment of the place of IL-2 in the treatment of these patients. PMID:10483870

Frydecka, I; Kosmaczewska, A; Bo?ko, D; Ciszak, L; Kaczmarek, P

1999-01-01

233

Anticancer activity of extracts derived from the mature roots of Scutellaria baicalensis on human malignant brain tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Flavonoid-rich extracts from the mature roots of Scutellaria baicalensis have been shown to exhibit antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. We assessed the ability of an ethanolic extract of S. baicalensis root to inhibit the proliferation of malignant glioma cells. METHODS: Cell lines derived from primary and recurrent brain tumors from the same patient and cells selected for

Adrienne C Scheck; Krya Perry; Nicole C Hank; W Dennis Clark

2006-01-01

234

An integrated approach for comparative proteomic analysis of human bile reveals overexpressed cancer-associated proteins in malignant biliary stenosis.  

PubMed

Proteomics is a key tool in the identification of new bile biomarkers for differentiating malignant and nonmalignant biliary stenoses. Unfortunately, the complexity of bile and the presence of molecules interfering with protein analysis represent an obstacle for quantitative proteomic studies in bile samples. The simultaneous need to introduce purification steps and minimize the use of pre-fractionation methods inevitably leads to protein loss and limited quantifications. This dramatically reduces the chance of identifying new potential biomarkers. In the present study, we included differential centrifugation as a preliminary step in a quantitative proteomic workflow involving iTRAQ labeling, peptide fractionation by OFFGEL electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS, to compare protein expression in bile samples collected from patients with malignant or nonmalignant biliary stenoses. A total of 1267 proteins were identified, including a set of 322 newly described bile proteins, mainly belonging to high-density cellular fractions. The subsequent comparative analysis led to a 5-fold increase in the number of quantified proteins over previously published studies and highlighted 104 proteins overexpressed in malignant samples. Finally, immunoblot verifications performed on a cohort of 8 malignant (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, n=4; cholangiocarcinoma, n=4) and 5 nonmalignant samples (chronic pancreatitis, n=3; biliary stones, n=2) confirmed the results of proteomic analysis for three proteins: olfactomedin-4, syntenin-2 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:23872482

Lukic, Natalija; Visentin, Rémy; Delhaye, Myriam; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Farina, Annarita

2014-05-01

235

Analysis of the expression profile of Dickkopf-1 gene in human glioma and the association with tumor malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gliomas represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors, yet little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. The highly-regulated Wnt signal transduction pathway is essential for normal developmental processes, and defects in the pathway are closely linked to oncogenesis. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a secreted protein that acts as a potent inhibitor of the Wnt pathway. The

Youxin Zhou; Fang Liu; Qinian Xu; Xiuyun Wang

2010-01-01

236

Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Previous reports have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) tend to develop genomic alterations and progress to a malignant state during long-term in vitro culture. This raises concerns of the clinical safety in using cultured hESCs. However, transformed hESCs might serve as an excellent model to determine the process of embryonic stem cell transition. In this study, ITRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify normal and aberrant karyotypic hESCs proteins from simple to more complex karyotypic abnormalities. We identified and quantified 2583 proteins, and found that the expression levels of 316 proteins that represented at least 23 functional molecular groups were significantly different in both normal and abnormal hESCs. Dysregulated protein expression in epigenetic regulation was further verified in six pairs of hESC lines in early and late passage. In summary, this study is the first large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of the malignant transformation of aberrant karyotypic hESCs. The data generated should serve as a useful reference of stem cell-derived tumor progression. Increased expression of both HDAC2 and CTNNB1 are detected as early as the pre-neoplastic stage, and might serve as prognostic markers in the malignant transformation of hESCs. PMID:24465727

Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

2014-01-01

237

PME-1 protects extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies; however, the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here, we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A promotes basal ERK pathway activity and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically, PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and protein kinase C. In malignant gliomas, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (n=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells and suggest an important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas. PMID:19293187

Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A; Hector, Melissa E; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C; Westermarck, Jukka

2009-04-01

238

A morphological study of 608 cases of canine malignant lymphoma in France with a focus on comparative similarities between canine and human lymphoma morphology.  

PubMed

This study reports cytomorphological, histomorphological, and immunological characterization of 608 biopsy cases of canine malignant lymphoma, with epidemiological and clinical data, collected from 7 French veterinary pathology laboratories. It compares morphological characteristics of malignant lymphoma in canines, per the updated Kiel classification system, with those reported in humans, per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Of tumors described, 24.5% and 75.5% were classified as low- and high-grade malignant lymphomas, respectively. Presenting clinical signs included generalized or localized lymphadenopathy (82.4%) and extranodal diseases (17.6%) involving the skin (12.34%) and other sites (5.26%). Immunohistochemistry confirmed 63.8% B-cell (CD3-, CD79a+), 35.4% T-cell (CD3+, CD79a-), and 0.8% null-cell (CD3-, CD79a-) lymphomas. Most B-cell cases (38.49%) were of high-grade centroblastic polymorphic subtype; most T-cell cases (8.55%), high-grade pleomorphic mixed and large T-cell lymphoma subtypes. Some B-cell tumors showed morphologic characteristics consistent with follicular lymphomas and marginal zone lymphomas per the Revised European American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms and WHO canine classification systems and the WHO human classification system. Unusual high-grade B-cell subtypes included an atypical high-grade small B-cell lymphoma (0.66%), Burkitt-type B-cell lymphoma (1.64%), plasmacytoid lymphoma (0.99%), and mediastinal anaplastic large B-cell lymphoma (0.16%). Unusual T-cell subtypes included a previously undescribed high-grade canine immunoblastic T-cell type (1.15%), a rare low-grade prolymphocytic T-cell lymphoma (0.16%), and a recently described high-grade canine T-cell entity--aggressive granulocytic large-cell lymphoma (0.16%). Marginal zone lymphomas were common (10.86%); follicular lymphomas were rare (0.49%). Canine primary cutaneous malignant lymphoma subtypes were present (11.84%). There was no significant difference between B- and T-cell malignant lymphoma in regard to canine age and sex. A significant overrepresentation of Boxers (24.19%) was found for T-cell lymphomas. PMID:20472804

Ponce, F; Marchal, T; Magnol, J P; Turinelli, V; Ledieu, D; Bonnefont, C; Pastor, M; Delignette, M L; Fournel-Fleury, C

2010-05-01

239

Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2’ deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

2014-01-01

240

Cadmium Induced Cell Apoptosis, DNA Damage, Decreased DNA Repair Capacity, and Genomic Instability during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Cadmium and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA damage in cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We analyzed cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression, genomic instability, and the sequence of exons in DNA repair genes in several kinds of cells. These cells consisted of untreated control cells, cells in the fifth, 15th, and 35th passage of cadmium-treated cells, and tumorigenic cells from nude mice using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, comet assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis. We observed a progressive increase in cell population of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the rate of apoptosis, DNA damage, and cadmium-induced apoptotic morphological changes in cerebral cortical neurons during malignant transformation. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of cell proliferation (PCNA), cell cycle (CyclinD1), pro-apoptotic activity (Bax), and DNA damage of the checkpoint genes ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, Cdc25A. Decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and the DNA repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and hOGG1 was observed. RAPD-PCR revealed genomic instability in cadmium-exposed cells, and sequence analysis showed mutation of exons in hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 in tumorigenic cells. This study suggests that Cadmium can increase cell apoptosis and DNA damage, decrease DNA repair capacity, and cause mutations, and genomic instability leading to malignant transformation. This process could be a viable mechanism for cadmium-induced cancers. PMID:24046522

Zhou, Zhiheng; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Haibai; Huang, Qinhai; Wang, Min; Lei, Yixiong

2013-01-01

241

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis. Both intracellular and extracellular Nampt (iNampt and eNampt) levels are increased in several human malignancies and some studies demonstrate increased iNampt in more aggressive/invasive tumors and in tumor metastases. Several different molecular targets have been identified that promote carcinogenesis following iNampt overexpression, including SirT1, CtBP, and PARP-1. Additionally, eNampt is elevated in several human cancers and is often associated with a higher tumor stage and worse prognoses. Here we review the roles of Nampt in malignancy, some of the known mechanisms by which it promotes carcinogenesis, and discuss the possibility of employing Nampt inhibitors in cancer treatment. PMID:24386506

Shackelford, Rodney E.; Mayhall, Kim; Maxwell, Nicole M.; Kandil, Emad

2013-01-01

242

Inhibition of malignant phenotypes of human osteosarcoma cells by a gene silencer, a pyrrole–imidazole polyamide, which targets an E-box motif  

PubMed Central

Gene amplification and/or overexpression of the transcription factor c-MYC, which binds to the E-box sequence (5?-CACGTG-3?), has been observed in many human tumors. In this study, we have designed 5 pyrrole–imidazole (PI) polyamides recognizing E-box, and found that, among them, Myc-6 significantly suppresses malignant phenotypes of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, knockdown of the putative Myc-6 target MALAT1 encoding long noncoding RNA remarkably impaired cell growth of MG63 cells. Collectively, our present findings strongly suggest that Myc-6 exerts its tumor-suppressive ability at least in part through the specific down-regulation of MALAT1. PMID:24918046

Taniguchi, Masashi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Nakai, Yuji; Ozaki, Toshinori; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Toshio, Kojima; Kataba, Motoaki; Oguni, Asako; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki

2014-01-01

243

CXCR7: a new SDF-1-binding receptor in contrast to normal CD34(+) progenitors is functional and is expressed at higher level in human malignant hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

CXCR7 was identified as another stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-binding receptor that also binds the interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC), and we became interested in its potential role in migration/adhesion of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) as well as selected leukemia cell lines. To address this normal human bone marrow-, umbilical cord blood-, and mobilized peripheral blood-derived cells as well as 16 selected human leukemic cell lines were phenotyped for CXCR7 expression. The expression of CXCR7 in hematopoietic cell lines was analyzed at transcriptional level. The biologic significance of CXCR7 expression was subsequently tested in signal transduction studies as well as in in vitro proliferation and chemotactic assays. We noted that CXCR7 is expressed at very low levels (approximately 3-6%) in normal human CD34(+) cells isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and mobilized peripheral blood. More importantly, when we employed I-TAC, which activates CXCR7, but not CXCR4, we did not observe any chemotactic responsiveness in human clonogenic progenitors. As expected, I-TAC also did not affect clonogenic growth of human CD34(+) cells. In contrast, functional CXCR7, whose expression is regulated in an NF-??-dependent manner, as we report here, is highly expressed in several human myeloid malignant cell lines. I-TAC-induced activation of CXCR7 in human hematopoietic cell lines leads to phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT, and enhanced cell adhesion and slightly cell migration. In conclusion, CXCR7 is expressed at very low level on normal human HSPCs and does not play a direct role in their proliferation or slightly cell migration; however, in contrast, it is involved in trafficking/adhesion of human leukemic cells. PMID:20887389

Tarnowski, Maciej; Liu, Rui; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

2010-12-01

244

Simvastatin impairs mitogen-induced proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes from humans— in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells express lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity and higher 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA\\u000a (HMG-CoA) reductase activity than normal mononuclear blood cells indicating that CLL cells may depend on cholesterol synthesis\\u000a for their proliferation. We studied the effects of competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase on malignant lymphocyte proliferation\\u000a in vitro and in vivo. Tumor B-cells from 13 patients

S. Vitols; B. Angelin; G. Juliusson

1997-01-01

245

The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity by BSO on retinoblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children. Previous investigations have reported that buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) can deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) by specific inhibition and increase cellular radiosensitivity. The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity effects of BSO on retinoblastoma cells are reported in this paper. GSH content of retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, So-Rb50 and retinoblastoma xenograft is 2.7 [+-] 1.3 X 1.0[sup [minus]12] mmol/cell, 1.4 [+-] 0.2 X 1.0[sup [minus]12] mmol/cell, and 2.8 [+-] 1.2 [mu]mol/g, respectively. The ID[sub 50] of BSO on Y-79 and So-Rb50 in air for 3 h exposure is 2.5 mM and 0.2 mM, respectively. GSH depletion by 0.1 mM BSO for 24 h on Y-79 cells and 0.01 mM BSO for 24 h on So-Rb50 cells is 16.35%, and 4.7% of control. GSH depletion in tumor and other organ tissues in retinoblastoma-bearing nude mice after BSO administration is differential. GSH depletion after BSO exposure in Y-79 cells in vitro decreases the Do value of retinoblastoma cells. The SER of 0.01 mM and 0.05 mM BSO for 24 h under hypoxic conditions is 1.21 and 1.36, respectively. Based on these observations, the authors conclude that BSO toxicity on retinoblastoma cells depends on the characteristics of the cell line and that BSO can increase hypoxic retinoblastoma cells' radiosensitivity in vitro. Further study of BSO radiosensitization on retinoblastoma in vivo using nude mouse xenografts is needed. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Xianjin Yi; Li Ding; Yizun Jin; Chuo Ni; Wenji Wang (Shanghai Medical Univ., Shanghai (China))

1994-05-15

246

Homozygous mutation of MTPAP causes cellular radiosensitivity and persistent DNA double-strand breaks.  

PubMed

The study of rare human syndromes characterized by radiosensitivity has been instrumental in identifying novel proteins and pathways involved in DNA damage responses to ionizing radiation. In the present study, a mutation in mitochondrial poly-A-polymerase (MTPAP), not previously recognized for its role in the DNA damage response, was identified by exome sequencing and subsequently associated with cellular radiosensitivity. Cell lines derived from two patients with the homozygous MTPAP missense mutation were radiosensitive, and this radiosensitivity could be abrogated by transfection of wild-type mtPAP cDNA into mtPAP-deficient cell lines. Further analysis of the cellular phenotype revealed delayed DNA repair, increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased cell death after irradiation (IR). Pre-IR treatment of cells with the potent anti-oxidants, ?-lipoic acid and n-acetylcysteine, was sufficient to abrogate the DNA repair and clonogenic survival defects. Our results firmly establish that mutation of the MTPAP gene results in a cellular phenotype of increased DNA damage, reduced repair kinetics, increased cell death by apoptosis, and reduced clonogenic survival after exposure to ionizing radiation, suggesting a pathogenesis that involves the disruption of ROS homeostasis. PMID:24651433

Martin, N T; Nakamura, K; Paila, U; Woo, J; Brown, C; Wright, J A; Teraoka, S N; Haghayegh, S; McCurdy, D; Schneider, M; Hu, H; Quinlan, A R; Gatti, R A; Concannon, P

2014-01-01

247

Homozygous mutation of MTPAP causes cellular radiosensitivity and persistent DNA double-strand breaks  

PubMed Central

The study of rare human syndromes characterized by radiosensitivity has been instrumental in identifying novel proteins and pathways involved in DNA damage responses to ionizing radiation. In the present study, a mutation in mitochondrial poly-A-polymerase (MTPAP), not previously recognized for its role in the DNA damage response, was identified by exome sequencing and subsequently associated with cellular radiosensitivity. Cell lines derived from two patients with the homozygous MTPAP missense mutation were radiosensitive, and this radiosensitivity could be abrogated by transfection of wild-type mtPAP cDNA into mtPAP-deficient cell lines. Further analysis of the cellular phenotype revealed delayed DNA repair, increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased cell death after irradiation (IR). Pre-IR treatment of cells with the potent anti-oxidants, ?-lipoic acid and n-acetylcysteine, was sufficient to abrogate the DNA repair and clonogenic survival defects. Our results firmly establish that mutation of the MTPAP gene results in a cellular phenotype of increased DNA damage, reduced repair kinetics, increased cell death by apoptosis, and reduced clonogenic survival after exposure to ionizing radiation, suggesting a pathogenesis that involves the disruption of ROS homeostasis. PMID:24651433

Martin, N T; Nakamura, K; Paila, U; Woo, J; Brown, C; Wright, J A; Teraoka, S N; Haghayegh, S; McCurdy, D; Schneider, M; Hu, H; Quinlan, A R; Gatti, R A; Concannon, P

2014-01-01

248

The Origin of Malignant Malaria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

249

Characterization of cancer stem cell properties of CD24 and CD26-positive human malignant mesothelioma cells.  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos-related malignancy characterized by rapid growth and poor prognosis. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that several cancer stem cell (CSC) markers correlated with CSC properties in MM cells. Among these markers, we focused on two: CD24, the common CSC marker, and CD26, the additional CSC marker. We further analyzed the CSC properties of CD24 and CD26-positve MM cells. We established RNAi-knockdown cells and found that these markers were significantly correlated with chemoresistance, proliferation, and invasion potentials in vitro. Interestingly, while Meso-1 cells expressed both CD24 and CD26, the presence of each of these two markers was correlated with different CSC property. In addition, downstream signaling of these markers was explored by microarray analysis, which revealed that their expressions were correlated with several cancer-related genes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK by EGF stimulation was significantly affected by the expression of CD26, but not CD24. These results suggest that CD24 and CD26 differentially regulate the CSC potentials of MM and could be promising targets for CSC-oriented therapy. PMID:22369943

Yamazaki, Hiroto; Naito, Motohiko; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Dang, Nam H; Iwata, Satoshi; Morimoto, Chikao

2012-03-16

250

Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and bleomycin: an in vitro study using human malignant testicular germ cells.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols used for testicular cancer; however, side-effects are common. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in a number of malignancies. However, to date no study has been carried out to elucidate its anticancer activity and interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of curcumin, bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on apoptotic signaling pathways. Curcumin (20 µM), bleomycin (400 µg/ml) and H2O2 (400 µM) incubation for 24 h decreased the viability of NTera-2 cells, and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, Bax and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels and decreased Bcl-2 levels. The concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin induced caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities to a greater extent in NTera-2 cells than the use of each drug alone. Our observations suggest that the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptotic signaling pathways are synergistic. Therefore, we propose to use curcumin together with bleomycin to decrease its therapeutic dose and, therefore, its side-effects. PMID:22469952

Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Kucuksayan, Ertan; Ozben, Tomris

2012-06-01

251

The human Rgr oncogene is overexpressed in T-cell malignancies and induces transformation by acting as a GEF for Ras and Ral.  

PubMed

The Ras superfamily of GTPases is involved in the modification of many cellular processes including cellular motility, proliferation and differentiation. Our laboratory has previously identified the RalGDS-related (Rgr) oncogene in a DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[?]anthracene)-induced rabbit squamous cell carcinoma and its human orthologue, hRgr. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of the human hRgr transcript in a panel of human hematopoietic malignancies and found that a truncated form (diseased-truncated (Dtr-hrgr)) was significantly overexpressed in many T-cell-derived neoplasms. Although the Rgr proto-oncogene belongs to the RalGDS family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), we show that upon the introduction of hRgr into fibroblast cell lines, it is able to elicit the activation of both Ral and Ras GTPases. Moreover, in vitro guanine nucleotide exchange assays confirm that hRgr promotes Ral and Ras activation through GDP dissociation, which is a critical characteristic of GEF proteins. hRgr has guanine nucleotide exchange activity for both small GTPases and this activity was reduced when a point mutation within the catalytic domain (CDC25) of the protein, (cd) Dtr-hRgr, was utilized. These observations prompted the analysis of the biological effects of hRgr and (cd) hRgr expression in cultured cells. Here, we show that hRgr increases proliferation in low serum, increases invasion, reduces anchorage dependence and promotes the progression into the S phase of the cell cycle; properties that are abolished or severely reduced in the presence of the catalytic dead mutant. We conclude that the ability of hRgr to activate both Ral and Ras is responsible for its transformation-inducing phenotype and it could be an important contributor in the development of some T-cell malignancies. PMID:21441953

Osei-Sarfo, K; Martello, L; Ibrahim, S; Pellicer, A

2011-08-25

252

Fusion Toxin BLyS-Gelonin Inhibits Growth of Malignant Human B Cell Lines In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines. The biological activity of BLyS is mediated by three cell surface receptors: BR3/BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA. The expression of these receptors is highly restricted to B cells, both normal and malignant. A BLyS-gelonin fusion toxin (BLyS-gel) was generated consisting of the recombinant plant-derived toxin gelonin fused to the N-terminus of BLyS and tested against a large and diverse panel of B-NHL cell lines. Interestingly, B-NHL subtypes mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B cell precursor-acute lymphocytic leukemia (BCP-ALL) were preferentially sensitive to BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity, with low picomolar EC50 values. BLyS receptor expression did not guarantee sensitivity to BLyS-gel, even though the construct was internalized by both sensitive and resistant cells. Resistance to BLyS-gel could be overcome by treatment with the endosomotropic drug chloroquine, suggesting BLyS-gel may become trapped within endosomal/lysosomal compartments in resistant cells. BLyS-gel induced cell death was caspase-independent and shown to be at least partially mediated by the “ribotoxic stress response.” This response involves activation of p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK, and BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity was inhibited by the p38/JNK inhibitor SB203580. Finally, BLyS-gel treatment was shown to localize to sites of disease, rapidly reduce tumor burden, and significantly prolong survival in xenograft mouse models of disseminated BCP-ALL, DLBCL, and MCL. Together, these findings suggest BLyS has significant potential as a targeting ligand for the delivery of cytotoxic “payloads” to malignant B cells. PMID:23056634

Luster, Troy A.; Mukherjee, Ipsita; Carrell, Jeffrey A.; Cho, Yun Hee; Gill, Jeffrey; Kelly, Lizbeth; Garcia, Andy; Ward, Christopher; Oh, Luke; Ullrich, Stephen J.; Migone, Thi-Sau; Humphreys, Robin

2012-01-01

253

Characterization of cancer stem cell properties of CD24 and CD26-positive human malignant mesothelioma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on CD24 and CD26 for further analysis of CSC properties in MM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were correlated with chemoresistance, cell growth, and invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were also correlated with several cancer related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of each marker was correlated with different CSC property in Meso1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of ERK by EGF was regulated by expression of CD26, but not CD24. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos-related malignancy characterized by rapid growth and poor prognosis. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that several cancer stem cell (CSC) markers correlated with CSC properties in MM cells. Among these markers, we focused on two: CD24, the common CSC marker, and CD26, the additional CSC marker. We further analyzed the CSC properties of CD24 and CD26-positve MM cells. We established RNAi-knockdown cells and found that these markers were significantly correlated with chemoresistance, proliferation, and invasion potentials in vitro. Interestingly, while Meso-1 cells expressed both CD24 and CD26, the presence of each of these two markers was correlated with different CSC property. In addition, downstream signaling of these markers was explored by microarray analysis, which revealed that their expressions were correlated with several cancer-related genes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK by EGF stimulation was significantly affected by the expression of CD26, but not CD24. These results suggest that CD24 and CD26 differentially regulate the CSC potentials of MM and could be promising targets for CSC-oriented therapy.

Yamazaki, Hiroto; Naito, Motohiko; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Dang, Nam H. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)] [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Iwata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-03-16

254

Nimotuzumab as a radiosensitizing agent in the treatment of high grade glioma: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to human epidermal growth factor receptor, blocking receptor activation. Evidence of its radiosensitizing capacity has been widely evaluated. This article integrates published research findings regarding the role of nimotuzumab in the treatment of high grade glioma in combination with radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy in adult and pediatric populations. First, the mechanisms of action of nimotuzumab and its current applications in clinical trials containing both radiation and chemoradiation therapies are reviewed. Second, a comprehensive explanation of potential mechanisms driving radiosensitization by nimotuzumab in experimental settings is given. Finally, future directions of epidermal growth factor receptor targeting with nimotuzumab in combination with radiation containing regimens, based on its favorable toxicity profile, are proposed. It is hoped that this review may provide further insight into the rational design of new approaches employing nimotuzumab as a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of high grade glioma. PMID:23926436

Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Martinez, Giselle Saurez

2013-01-01

255

The advent of precision therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies: Targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor family in colorectal and esophagogastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Until recently, systemic therapy for gastrointestinal malignancies was restricted to relatively noncancer-specific cytotoxic chemotherapy. Over the last 15 years targeted therapies have become available, most notably bevacizumab in the case of advanced colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, there are no predictive biomarkers to guide the use of this agent. In this review article, we describe the advent of “Precision Medicine” (in part, the use of patient-specific molecular markers to inform treatment) in gastrointestinal cancers: The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor in advanced colorectal cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-neu in advanced esophagogastric cancer. In both instances, biomarkers help in selecting appropriate patients for such treatment. PMID:25525412

Desautels, Danielle; Harlos, Craig; Czaykowski, Piotr

2014-01-01

256

Down-regulation of GnT-V enhances nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-2 radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First investigated the role of GnT-V on the radiosensitivity of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms of the changing radiosensitivity were also investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, more than one experiment methods were used to investigate a problem. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of GnT-V on radiosensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the possible mechanism. The GnT-V stably suppressed cell line CNE-2 GnT-V/2224 was constructed from CNE-2 by transfection. The radiosensitivity of the cells was studied by CCK-8 assay, flow-cytometry, caspases-3 activity analysis and tumor xenografts model. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xl was analyzed with or without radiation. The results showed that down-regulation of GnT-V enhanced CNE-2 radiosensitivity. The underlying mechanisms may be link to the cell cycle G2-M arrest and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The results suggest that GnT-V may be a potential target for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy.

Zhuo, Enqing; He, Jiao; Wei, Ting; Zhu, Weiliang; Meng, Hui; Li, Yan [Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guo, Linlang, E-mail: linlangg@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: 13925091863@139.com [Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

2012-08-03

257

Identification of Mre11 as a Target for Heat Radiosensitization  

PubMed Central

Thermal radiosensitization is believed to be mediated by an inhibition of double-strand break (DSB) repair, but the exact mechanism of radiosensitization remains to be elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that proteins of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex (MRN) translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in cells have that been heated or heated and then irradiated; this finding led us to propose that heat radiosensitization was due at least in part to translocation of MRN. In the current study, we used leptomycin B to inhibit MRN translocation in heated, irradiated cells, but we found that heat radiosensitization was not altered. Thus enhanced radiosensitivity was not attributed to translocation of MRN proteins. To determine which of the MRN subunits contributed to heat radiosensitization, we compared the extent of heat radiosensitization in wild-type cells with that of cells hypomorphic for Mre11 or Nbs1 or cells in which the level of Rad50 was suppressed. We found that neither Nbs1 nor Rad50 is involved in heat radiosensitization, because a similar amount of heat radiosensitization was observed in cells deficient in those proteins compared to cells expressing normal levels. However, heat radiosensitization was not observed in A-TLD1 cells deficient in Mre11. Measurement of exonuclease activity of purified Mre11 heated at 42.5°C or 45.5°C indicated that the protein is very heat-labile. Immunoprecipitation of Mre11 from heated HeLa cells also revealed that hsp70 associates with Mre11 and that this association is maintained long after heating. Taken together, these findings implicate Mre11 as a target for heat radiosensitization and suggest that heat radiosensitization and inhibition of DSB repair may be mediated by heat-induced conformational changes in Mre11. PMID:21699368

Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Batuello, Christopher N.; Lopez, Jennifer T.; Kim, Kyung Keun; Turchi, John J.

2011-01-01

258

Detection of 14q32 translocations in B-cell malignancies by in situ hybridization with yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the human IgH gene locus.  

PubMed

Partner sites of 14q32 translocations found in B-cell malignancies were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, Y20 and Y6, containing the human Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene locus. Y20 spans a 160-kb upstream and 40-kb downstream region of the JH segments on chromosome band 14q32.33. Y6 is 300-kb upstream of Y20, and spans a further 320-kb telomeric region. The human DNA sequences amplified by Alu polymerase chain reaction of the YAC clones were used as probes for FISH to study six patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), one patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one cell line FR4 established from a plasmacytoma. Three telomeric YAC clones each specific for 3q, 8q, and 18q were also used to further characterize 14q32 translocations. The IgH YACs were successfully applied to detect cytogenetically invisible subtelomeric translocation of the IgH gene locus to each partner site in t(14;18), t(8;14), and t(14;19), and to identify t(3;14) (q27;q32.33) in three patients with 14q32 translocation of unknown origin. Furthermore, complex translocations involving more than three chromosomes were detected in an NHL patient with t(8;14), and t(3;12), and in the FR4 with der(14)t(8;14), der(8)dic(1;8), and del(1)(q21). The technique would be a useful tool in elucidating the mechanisms of a 14q32 translocation in B-cell malignancies. PMID:8180392

Taniwaki, M; Matsuda, F; Jauch, A; Nishida, K; Takashima, T; Tagawa, S; Sugiyama, H; Misawa, S; Abe, T; Kashima, K

1994-05-15

259

Angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapy for malignant gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is crucial to the growth of malignant gliomas. Therefore, antiangiogenic therapy represents a new, promising\\u000a therapeutic modality for malignant gliomas. This study was designed to define the malignant glioma cases most suitable for\\u000a antiangiogenic therapy in humans and to demonstrate the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy in animals. Protein expression\\u000a of the most potent angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor

Shingo Takano; Hiroshi Kamiyama; Koji Tsuboi; Akira Matsumura

2004-01-01

260

Hypothesis: exertional heat stroke-induced myopathy and genetically inherited malignant hyperthermia represent the same disorder, the human stress syndrome.  

PubMed

Exertional heat stroke is usually experienced as a result of a prolonged and intensive exercise. It is a life-threatening condition that is characterized by an increase in core body temperature and rhabdomyolysis. The associated hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis may lead to an acute renal, cardiac, and hemostatic failure. Exactly, the same symptoms are noticed in case of the anesthesia-induced malignant hyperthermia (MH), an inherited disorder of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. This receptor is a Ca(2+) channel that is activated by the volatile anesthetic agents and depolarizing muscle relaxant. The presence of MH-associated ryanodine receptor variant in the individuals who suffered from EH and improvement of the symptoms with dantrolene has frequently raised the question as to whether the two disorders actually represent one and the same disease. Nevertheless, an exact explanation of the susceptibility of the genetically predisposed MH individuals to ER remains elusive. We have attempted to review the published clinical reports to explore the possibility that ER and EH represent one and the same disorder. PMID:24948473

Zhao, Xuesheng; Song, Qing; Gao, Yan

2014-11-01

261

EGR1 decreases the malignancy of human non-small cell lung carcinoma by regulating KRT18 expression  

PubMed Central

Early growth response 1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor; Positive and negative functions of EGR1 in various tumors rely on the integrated functions of various genes it regulates. In this study, we observed the role of EGR1 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and identified genes that influence cell fate and tumor development. Various assays showed that EGR1 arrested cell mobility, inhibited migration, and induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that 100 genes, including CDKN1C, CDC27 and PRKDC, changed their mRNA expressions with the increase of EGR1 and contributed to intervention of tumor progression. Bioinformatics analysis and promoter analysis indicated that an EGR1 binding site was situated in the promoter of KRT18 (also named CK18) and KRT18 could assist in inhibition of NSCLC development. The expression level of EGR1 and KRT18 in NSCLC clinical cases was investigated by immunohistochemistry, in which the protein expression of KRT18 was found to be significantly associated with EGR1 and lymph node metastasis. The results collectively confirm that EGR1 functions as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC. This study is the first to report KRT18 expression is directly regulated by EGR1, and contributes to decrease malignancy of NSCLC. PMID:24990820

Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Jiakang; Guang, Wenhua; Han, Wei; Zhang, Hang; Tan, Xuan; Gu, Yong

2014-01-01

262

Evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes in hematological malignancies of dogs and humans – man and his best friend share more than companionship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathophysiological similarities shared by many forms of human and canine disease, combined with the sophisticated genomic\\u000a resources now available for the dog, have placed ‘man’s best friend’ in a position of high visibility as a model system for\\u000a a variety of biomedical concerns, including cancer. The importance of nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities in human leukemia\\u000a and lymphoma was recognized over

Matthew Breen; Jaime F. Modiano

2008-01-01

263

Cross-talk between Paracrine-Acting Cytokine and Chemokine Pathways Promotes Malignancy in Benign Human Prostatic Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the mechanisms by which human prostatic carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) induce tu- morigenesis in initiated but nonmalignant human prostatic epithelial cells (BPH-1). CAF express elevated levels of both transforming growth factor-B1(TGF- B1) and stromal cell- derived factor-1 (SDF-1\\/CXCL12). TGF-B inhibits the growth of BPH-1cells in vitro, but was found to be necessary for the tumorigenic response to

Mingfang Ao; Omar E. Franco; Dayanidhi Raman; Karin Williams; Simon W. Hayward

264

P38/NF-?B/Snail Pathway Is Involved in Caffeic Acid-Induced Inhibition of Cancer Stem Cells-Like Properties and Migratory Capacity in Malignant Human Keratinocyte  

PubMed Central

Background Skin cancer is the most common cancer throughout the world. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the acquisition of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like properties emerge as critical steps in the metastasis of human skin cancers. Caffeic acid (CaA) exerts anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effects of CaA on the migratory capability and on the CSCs-like properties of skin cancer cells, and the molecular mechanisms underlying it are not fully understood. Methods Malignant HaCaT cells were treated by CaA. Transwell assay was performed to determine that CaA attenuated the migratory capability; Spheroid formation assay was performed to confirm that CaA decreased the CSCs-like phenotype; Treated malignant HaCaT cells were molecularly characterized by RT-PCR, Western blots, Southwestern blot, and immunoprecipitation. Results In CaA-treated malignant human keratinocyte (malignant HaCaT cells), inhibition of the migratory capability and CSCs-like phenotype were observed. CaA up-regulated the phosphorylation of p38, and down-regulated the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)/snail signal pathway. Indeed, p38 decreased the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B to the promoter of snail gene, which resulted in the transcriptional inactivation of snail. Blockage of p38 attenuated the CaA-induced inhibition of migratory capability and CSCs-like phenotype in malignant HaCaT cells. Conclusions CaA attenuates the migratory capability and CSCs-like Properties of malignant human keratinocyte, in which, p38-mediated down-regulation of NF-?B/snail signal pathway is involved. PMID:23516577

Wang, Kebo; Wang, Yu; Yin, Wenqin; Li, Lei

2013-01-01

265

A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM. These findings suggest that LAT1 could be a new therapeutic target for MM.

Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Iwano, Hidetomo [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Uchide, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: uchide@rakuno.ac.jp [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)

2013-09-13

266

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes for Adoptive Immunotherapy of HPV-Associated Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Vaccines prevent HPV-associated cancer but, although these tumors express foreign, viral antigens (E6 and E7 proteins), they have little benefit in established malignancies, likely due to negative environmental cues that block tumor recognition and induce T cell anergy in vivo. We postulated that we could identify mechanisms by which ex vivo stimulation of T cells could reactivate and expand tumor-directed T-cell lines from HPV-positive cancer patients for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy. A total of 68 patients with HPV-associated cancers were studied. Peripheral blood T cells were stimulated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with pepmixes (peptide libraries of 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino-acids) spanning E6/E7, in the presence or absence of specific accessory cytokines. The resulting T-cell lines were further expanded with pepmix-loaded activated B-cell blasts. IFN? release and cytotoxic responses to E6/E7 were assessed. We successfully reactivated and expanded (>1200-fold) E6/E7-specific T cells from 8/16 cervical and 33/52 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The presence of the cytokines IL-6, -7, -12 and -15 is critical for this process. These T cell lines possess the desirable characteristics of polyclonality, multiple T-cell subset representation (including the memory compartment) and a TH1 bias, and may eliminate E6/E7-positive targets. In conclusion, we have shown it is possible to robustly generate HPV16 E6/E7-directed T-cell lines from patients with HPV16-associated cancers. Because our technique is scalable and good-manufacturing-procedures compliant, these lines could be used for adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with HPV16-positive cancers. PMID:23211628

Ramos, Carlos A.; Narala, Neeharika; Vyas, Gayatri M.; Leen, Ann M.; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Sturgis, Erich M.; Anderson, Matthew L.; Savoldo, Barbara; Heslop, Helen E.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Rooney, Cliona M.

2012-01-01

267

Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

Zeng Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Yuan Zhu [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhu Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Li Lei; Shi Huashan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Xiao Jianghong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Li Zhiping, E-mail: lizhiping620312@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)

2012-11-15

268

Wnt activation affects proliferation, invasiveness and radiosensitivity in medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Medulloblastomas (MBs) associated with the Wnt activation represent a subgroup with a favorable prognosis, but it remains unclear whether Wnt activation confers a less aggressive phenotype and/or enhances radiosensitivity. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the biological behavior of an MB cell line, UW228-1, stably transfected with human ?-catenin cDNA encoding a nondegradable form of ?-catenin (UW-B) in standard culture conditions and after radiation treatment. We evaluated the expression, transcriptional activity, and localization of ?-catenin in the stably transfected cells using immunofluorescence and WB. We performed morphological analysis using light and electron microscopy. We then analyzed changes in the invasiveness, growth, and mortality in standard culture conditions and after radiation. We demonstrated that (A) Wnt activation inhibited 97 % of the invasion capability of the cells, (B) the growth of the UW-B cells was statistically significantly lower than that of all the other control cells (p < 0.01), (C) the mortality of irradiated UW-B cells was statistically significantly higher than that of the controls and their nonirradiated counterparts (p < 0.05), and (D) morphological features of neuronal differentiation were observed in the Wnt-activated cells. In tissue samples, the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was lower in ?-catenin-positive samples compared to non-?-catenin positive ones. The Ki-67 LI median (LI = 40) of the nuclear ?-catenin-positive tumor samples was lower than that of non-nuclear ?-catenin-positive samples (LI = 50), but the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, our data suggest that activation of the Wnt pathway reduces the proliferation and invasion of MBs and increases the tumor's radiosensitivity. PMID:25261924

Salaroli, Roberta; Ronchi, Alice; Buttarelli, Francesca Romana; Cortesi, Filippo; Marchese, Valeria; Della Bella, Elena; Renna, Cristiano; Baldi, Caterina; Giangaspero, Felice; Cenacchi, Giovanna

2015-01-01

269

High levels of MDM2 are not correlated with the presence of wild-type p53 in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Prior analysis of 20 human mesothelioma cell lines for p53 status revealed only two mutations and one p53 null cell line, although p53 expression was detected in most cell lines. In addition, mRNA and protein expression of the retinoblastoma gene product in human mesothelioma cell lines is similar to normal controls. We have tested for p53 induction after exposure to ionising radiation and demonstrate this induction and, to a lesser extent, p21(WAF1) induction, in both normal mesothelial cells and p53-positive mesothelioma cell lines. We postulated that high levels of MDM2 might alter p53 and retinoblastoma tumour-suppressor function in mesothelioma. However, Southern blot analysis for mdm2 indicated that no amplification had occurred in 18 mesothelioma cell lines tested. Steady-state mRNA and protein levels also did not indicate overexpression. These results indicate that high levels of MDM2 are not responsible for inactivating the functions of wild-type p53 or the retinoblastoma gene product during the pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8932331

Ungar, S.; Van de Meeren, A.; Tammilehto, L.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Gerwin, B. I.

1996-01-01

270

The meaning of the anti-cancer antibody CLN-IgG (Pritumumab) generated by human × human hybridoma technology against the cyto-skeletal protein, vimentin, in the course of the treatment of malignancy.  

PubMed

Cancer stem cells in a tumor mass form a very small subpopulation ranging from below 0.1% in a brain tumor but they have the crucial ability to become malignant. The goal of cancer therapy has been the total killing of tumor cells. However we should clarify that most of all tumor cells are differentiated cancer cells. Thus the elimination of 99.9% of tumor cells under histological criteria cannot ensure the cancer will be cured. Rather cancer cell biologists should turn their attention to reprogramming cancer stem cells to normal stem cells by which malignancy recuperates normal organogenesis from the aspect of the dichotomy of cancer stem cell. The cue points underlying the reverse cancer stem cell at blastogenesis in inflammation site is depending upon cell-to-cell recognition of the tumor-niche cells. Normalization of tumor-niche promises to lead cancer stem cell into normal stem cell owing to autonomous healing mechanisms that reside in the self-defense mechanisms in immunity and the cell competition mechanisms in the wound healing of the tissue cells. Among the cyto-skeletal proteins, vimentin becomes a target of self-restoration of cancer stem cell by means of immune surveillance. A human monoclonal antibody, CLN-IgG recognizes vimentin expressing on the cell surface of the malignant tumor. Since vimentin network resides in the cytoplasm connecting the plasma membrane with chromatin assembly in the nucleus, it is highly likely vimentin plays an important role in up-regulation and down-regulation through signal transduction between certain membrane receptors and gene expression with respect to the transformation of the cell. Aberrant arrangement of vimentin undergoes malignancy accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal-transition relating to the aberrant apoptotic cellular behavior in the tumor-niche. Restraint of the aberrant expression of vimentin on the plasma membrane of the malignant cell evokes a pertinent signal transduction pathway for healing that is an indication there must be a reverse path that reprograms cancer stem cells to normal organogenesis. PMID:23856243

Hugwil, Albert V

2013-09-01

271

In vitro inhibition of human malignant brain tumour cell line proliferation by anti-urokinase-type plasminogen activator monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

A brain tumour-associated marker, urokinase (UK), was investigated using rabbit anti-UK polyclonal and murine anti-UK monoclonal antibodies, which were prepared by immunization with low molecular weight UK (LMW-UK) and high molecular weight urokinase (HMW-UK) synthetic peptide respectively. The polyclonal antibody cross-reacted with both LMW-UK and HMW-UK, whereas the murine MAbs were specific for HMW-UK. These immunological probes were used to study urokinase in glioma extracts, tissues, sera and cell lines that had been prepared from primary cultures of freshly dissected gliomas. Radioimmunoassays showed that glioma extracts had much higher level (5- to 44-fold) of UK than normal human brain extracts. This result was confirmed by immunoblotting of electrophoresis gels of glioma and human brain extracts. Immunohistochemical study using anti-UK MAb demonstrated much higher levels of UK in glioma tissue than normal brain tissue. Immunohistochemical study using anti-UK MAbs localized UK on the cell surface of glioma cells. Anti-UK MAbs inhibited the proliferation of AA cell lines and GB cell lines (50% to > 90%) and exerted minor effects (< or = 20%) on normal human liver, intestine and lymphocyte cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that anti-UK MAbs may have therapeutic potential for human gliomas and cancer metastasis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9862567

Abaza, M. S.; Shaban, F. A.; Narayan, R. K.; Atassi, M. Z.

1998-01-01

272

Temozolomide- and fotemustine-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells: response related to MGMT, MMR, DSBs, and p53  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy. First-line chemotherapeutics used in melanoma therapy are the methylating agents dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ) and the chloroethylating agents BCNU and fotemustine. Here, we determined the mode of cell death in 11 melanoma cell lines upon exposure to TMZ and fotemustine. We show for the first time that TMZ induces apoptosis in melanoma cells, using therapeutic doses. For both TMZ and fotemustine apoptosis is the dominant mode of cell death. The contribution of necrosis to total cell death varied between 10 and 40%. The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity in the cell lines was between 0 and 1100?fmol?mg?1 protein, and there was a correlation between MGMT activity and the level of resistance to TMZ and fotemustine. MGMT inactivation by O6-benzylguanine sensitized all melanoma cell lines expressing MGMT to TMZ and fotemustine-induced apoptosis, and MGMT transfection attenuated the apoptotic response. This supports that O6-alkylguanines are critical lesions involved in the initiation of programmed melanoma cell death. One of the cell lines (MZ7), derived from a patient subjected to DTIC therapy, exhibited a high level of resistance to TMZ without expressing MGMT. This was related to an impaired expression of MSH2 and MSH6. The cells were not cross-resistant to fotemustine. Although these data indicate that methylating drug resistance of melanoma cells can be acquired by down-regulation of mismatch repair, a correlation between MSH2 and MSH6 expression in the different lines and TMZ sensitivity was not found. Apoptosis in melanoma cells induced by TMZ and fotemustine was accompanied by double-strand break (DSB) formation (as determined by H2AX phosphorylation) and caspase-3 and -7 activation as well as PARP cleavage. For TMZ, DSBs correlated significantly with the apoptotic response, whereas for fotemustine a correlation was not found. Melanoma lines expressing p53 wild-type were more resistant to TMZ and fotemustine than p53 mutant melanoma lines, which is in marked contrast to previous data reported for glioma cells treated with TMZ. Overall, the findings are in line with the model that in melanoma cells TMZ-induced O6-methylguanine triggers the apoptotic (and necrotic) pathway through DSBs, whereas for chloroethylating agents apoptosis is triggered in a more complex manner. PMID:19127257

Naumann, S C; Roos, W P; Jöst, E; Belohlavek, C; Lennerz, V; Schmidt, C W; Christmann, M; Kaina, B

2009-01-01

273

Targeting BRG1 Chromatin Remodeler via Its Bromodomain for Enhanced Tumor Cell Radiosensitivity In Vitro and In Vivo.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy treats cancer by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in tumor cells using ionizing radiation. However, DNA repair in tumor cells often leads to radioresistance and unsuccessful outcome. Inhibition of DNA repair by targeting repair proteins can increase radiosensitivity of tumor cells. The BRG1 chromatin remodeling enzyme assists DSB repair by stimulating ?-H2AX formation and BRG1 binding to acetylated histones at DSBs via bromodomain (BRD) is critical for this activity. Here, we show that ectopic expression of BRG1-BRD inhibited ?-H2AX and DSB repair after irradiation and increased the radiosensitivity in various human cancer cells, including HT29 colon cancer. Dimerization of BRG1-BRD, increasing its chromatin binding affinity, aggravated the defects in ?-H2AX and DSB repair and further enhanced the radiosensitivity. While little affecting the upstream ATM activation, BRG1-BRD in irradiated HT29 cells inhibited the recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged chromatin, the downstream event of ?-H2AX, and compromised the G2-M checkpoint and increased apoptosis. Importantly, in a xenograft mouse model, BRG1-BRD increased the radiosensitivity of HT29 tumors, which was further enhanced by dimerization. These data suggest that BRG1-BRD radiosensitizes tumor cells by a dominant negative activity against BRG1, which disrupts ?-H2AX and its downstream 53BP1 pathways, leading to inefficient DNA repair, G2-M checkpoint defect, and increased apoptosis. This work therefore identifies BRG1-BRD as a novel tumor radiosensitizer and its action mechanism, providing the first example of chromatin remodeler as a target for improving cancer radiotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(2); 597-607. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25504753

Kwon, Su-Jung; Lee, Seul-Ki; Na, Juri; Lee, Shin-Ai; Lee, Han-Sae; Park, Ji-Hye; Chung, June-Key; Youn, Hyewon; Kwon, Jongbum

2015-02-01

274

Differential Radiosensitizing Potential of Temozolomide in MGMT Promoter Methylated Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitizing potential of temozolomide (TMZ) for human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines using single-dose and fractionated {gamma}-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Three genetically characterized human GBM cell lines (AMC-3046, VU-109, and VU-122) were exposed to various single (0-6 Gy) and daily fractionated doses (2 Gy per fraction) of {gamma}-irradiation. Repeated TMZ doses were given before and concurrent with irradiation treatment. Immediately plated clonogenic cell-survival curves were determined for both the single-dose and the fractionated irradiation experiments. To establish the net effect of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation, growth curves were determined, expressed as the number of surviving cells. Results: All three cell lines showed MGMT promoter methylation, lacked MGMT protein expression, and were sensitive to TMZ. The isotoxic TMZ concentrations used were in a clinically feasible range of 10 {mu}mol/L (AMC-3046), 3 {mu}mol/L (VU-109), and 2.5 {mu}mol/L (VU-122). Temozolomide was able to radiosensitize two cell lines (AMC 3046 and VU-122) using single-dose irradiation. A reduction in the number of surviving cells after treatment with the combination of TMZ and fractionated irradiation was seen in all three cell lines, but only AMC 3046 showed a radiosensitizing effect. Conclusions: This study on TMZ-sensitive GBM cell lines shows that TMZ can act as a radiosensitizer and is at least additive to {gamma}-irradiation. Enhancement of the radiation response by TMZ seems to be independent of the epigenetically silenced MGMT gen000.

Nifterik, Krista A. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurogenetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, Jaap van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lafleur, M. Vincent M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leenstra, Sieger [Department of Neurosurgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulsebos, Theo J.M. [Department of Neurogenetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sminia, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.sminia@vumc.nl

2007-11-15

275

Elevated osteopontin and thrombospondin expression identifies malignant human breast carcinoma but is not indicative of metastatic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Our previous characterization of a human breast tumor metastasis model identified several candidate metastasis genes. The\\u000a expression of osteopontin (OPN) correlated with the metastatic phenotype, whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and tyrosinase-related\\u000a protein-1 (TYRP-1) correlated with the nonmetastatic phenotype of independent MDA-MB-435 cell lines implanted orthotopically\\u000a into athymic mice. The aim of the present study was to examine the cellular distribution of

Jessica Wang-Rodriguez; Virginia Urquidi; Amber Rivard; Steve Goodison

2003-01-01

276

The human anti-CD30 antibody 5F11 shows in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD30 is a promising target for antibody- based immunotherapy of Hodgkin lym- phoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lym- phoma. To overcome the limitations from currently available murine anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a new fully human anti-CD30 antibody was gener- ated. Binding properties were evaluated by recombinant CD30 capture enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) flow cytometry.

Peter Borchmann; John F. Treml; Hinrich Hansen; Claudia Gottstein; Roland Schnell; Oliver Staak; Hui-fen Zhang; Thomas Davis; Tibor Keler; Volker Diehl; Robert F. Graziano; Andreas Engert

2003-01-01

277

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in human malignant gliomas contributes to immune escape and tumour progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibits apoptosis and promotes angiogenesis, is expressed in cancers\\u000a suppressing immune surveillance. Its biological role in human glioblastoma is, however, only poorly understood. We examined\\u000a in-vivo expression of MIF in 166 gliomas and 23 normal control brains by immunohistochemistry. MIF immunoreactivity was enhanced\\u000a in neoplastic astrocytes in WHO grade II glioma and increased significantly

Michel Mittelbronn; Michael Platten; Pia Zeiner; Yvonne Dombrowski; Brigitte Frank; Cornelia Zachskorn; Patrick N. Harter; Michael Weller; Jörg Wischhusen

278

Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor in human oral mucosa and its malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The immunohistochemical localizations of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and EGF receptor (EGFr) in oral tissues, including normal mucosa, leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were examined by the use of monoclonal antibodies to hEGF and EGFr. In normal mucosa and leukoplakia, immunostaining of hEGF was limited to an underlying layer of connective tissue near the epithelium. The intensity of

Kanemitsu Shirasuna; Yasutaka Hayashido; Masaru Sugiyama; Hideo Yoshioka; Tokuzou Matsuya

1991-01-01

279

Glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters direct adenovirus early 1A gene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoters direct sodium iodide symporter expression for malignant glioma radioiodine therapy.  

PubMed

Malignant glioma can be treated with radioiodine following transfection with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS is engineered with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoters to express early region 1A (E1A) and hNIS genes, which may be useful in targeted gene therapy. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was constructed and purified using the E1A and hNIS genes regulated by the hTERT and GFAP promoters, respectively. Glioma cells were infected by Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS. Selective replication ability of Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was then evaluated by plaque forming assay, transgene expression by Western blot, (125)I-iodide uptake and efflux, clonogenicity following (131)I-iodide treatment in the tumor cells, and radioiodine therapy using nude mouse model. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS could selectively replicate; the hNIS gene was successfully expressed under the GFAP promoter. Western blot analyses using E1A- and hNIS-specific antibodies revealed two bands of approximately 40 and 70 kDa. In addition, the cells showed about 93.4 and 107.1 times higher (125)I uptake in U251 and U87 cells than in the control cells, respectively. Clonogenic assay indicated that >90 % of cells transfected with Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS were killed. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS-transfected and 2 mCi (131)I-injected U87 xenograft nude mice survived the longest among the three groups. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS has a good ability of selective replication and strong antitumor selectivity. An effective therapy of (131)I was achieved activity in malignant glioma cells after induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by GFAP promoter-directed hNIS gene expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25410753

Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Wang, Peng; Li, Ning; Li, Chengxia

2015-01-01

280

Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms` responses to radiation.

Harrison, F.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, S.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-11-01

281

The transmembrane adaptor Cbp/PAG1 controls the malignant potential of human non-small cell lung cancers that have c-src upregulation.  

PubMed

The tyrosine kinase c-Src is upregulated in various human cancers, although the precise regulatory mechanism underlying this upregulation is unclear. We previously reported that a transmembrane adaptor Csk-binding protein (Cbp; PAG1) plays an important role in controlling the cell transformation that is induced by the activation of c-Src. To elucidate the in vivo role of Cbp, we examined the function of Cbp in lung cancer cell lines and tissues. In this study, we found that Cbp was markedly downregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The ectopic expression of Cbp suppressed the anchorage-independent growth of the NSCLC cell lines (A549 and Lu99) that had upregulated c-Src, whereas the Cbp expression had little effect on other NSCLC cell lines (PC9 and Lu65) that express normal levels of c-Src. The expression of Cbp suppressed the kinase activity of c-Src in A549 cells by recruiting c-Src and its negative regulator, C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), to lipid rafts. The treatment with Src inhibitors, such as PP2, dasatinib, and saracatinib, also suppressed the growth of A549 cells. Furthermore, Cbp expression attenuated the ability of A549 cells to form tumors in nude mice, invade in vitro, and metastasize in vivo. In addition, we found a significant inverse correlation between the level of Cbp expression and the extent of lymph node metastasis in human lung cancers. These results indicate that Cbp is required for the Csk-mediated inactivation of c-Src and may control the promotion of malignancy in NSCLC tumors that are characterized by c-Src upregulation. PMID:21156787

Kanou, Takashi; Oneyama, Chitose; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Okimura, Akira; Ohta, Mitsunori; Ikeda, Naoki; Shintani, Yasushi; Okumura, Meinoshin; Okada, Masato

2011-01-01

282

Chemical radiosensitizers for use in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Radiosensitizers are intended to enhance tumour cell killing while having much less effect on normal tissues. Some drugs target different physiological characteristics of the tumour, particularly hypoxia associated with radioresistance. Oxygen is the definitive hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, the large differential radiosensitivity of oxic vs hypoxic cells being an attractive factor. The combination of nicotinamide to reduce acute hypoxia with normobaric carbogen breathing is showing clinical promise. 'Electron-affinic' chemicals that react with DNA free radicals have the potential for universal activity to combat hypoxia-associated radioresistance; a nitroimidazole, nimorazole, is clinically effective at tolerable doses. Hypoxia-specific cytotoxins, such as tirapazamine, are valuable adjuncts to radiotherapy. Nitric oxide is a potent hypoxic cell radiosensitizer; variations in endogenous levels might have prognostic significance, and routes to deliver nitric oxide specifically to tumours are being developed. In principle, many drugs can be delivered selectively to hypoxic tumours using either reductase enzymes or radiation-produced free radicals to activate drug release from electron-affinic prodrugs. A redox-active agent based on a gadolinium chelate is being evaluated clinically. Pyrimidines substituted with bromine or iodine are incorporated into DNA and enhance free radical damage; fluoropyrimidines act by different mechanisms. A wide variety of drugs that influence the nature or repair of DNA damage are being evaluated in conjunction with radiation; it is often difficult to define the mechanisms underlying chemoradiation regimens. Drugs being evaluated include topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N; alkylating agents include temozolomide. Drugs involved in DNA repair pathways being investigated include the potent poly(ADP ribose)polymerase inhibitor, AG14,361. Proteins involved in cell signalling, such as the Ras family, are attractive targets linked to radioresistance, as are epidermal growth factor receptors and linked kinases (drugs including vandetanib [ZD6,474], cetuximab and gefitinib), and cyclooxygenase-2 (celecoxib). The suppression of radioprotective thiols seems to offer more potential with alkylating agents than with radiotherapy, although it remains a strategy worthy of exploration. PMID:17478086

Wardman, P

2007-08-01

283

Increased expression of annexin A1 predicts poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma and enhances cell malignant phenotype.  

PubMed

Annexin A1 (ANXA1) belongs to the annexin superfamily of proteins, which contribute to the pathological consequence and sequelae of most serious human diseases. Recent studies have reported diverse roles of ANXA1 in various human cancers; however, its involvement in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains controversial. To investigate the expression pattern of ANXA1 in HCC tissues and evaluate its associations with tumor progression and patients' prognosis, immunohistochemistry was performed using 160 pairs of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from patients with HCC. Then, the associations between ANXA1 expression, clinicopathological characteristics, and prognosis of HCC patients were statistically evaluated. In vitro migration and invasion assays of siRNA-targeted ANXA1-transfected cells were further performed. As a result, the expression levels of ANXA1 protein in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.001). High ANXA1 expression was closely correlated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001) and high Edmondson grade (P = 0.02). Then, univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the status of ANXA1 expression was an independent predictor for overall survival of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of ANXA1 by transfection of siRNA-ANXA1 could suppress the migration and invasion abilities of HCC cells in vitro. Collectively, these findings offer the convincing evidence that ANXA1 may play an important role in HCC progression and can be used as a molecular marker to predict prognosis and a potential target for therapeutic intervention of HCC. PMID:25412936

Lin, Ya; Lin, Guoqing; Fang, Wenzheng; Zhu, Hongwei; Chu, Kedan

2014-12-01

284

Orthotopic xenografting of human luciferase-tagged malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells for in vivo testing of candidate therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Although in vitro screens are essential for the initial identification of candidate therapeutic agents, a rigorous assessment of the drug's ability to inhibit tumor growth must be performed in a suitable animal model. The type of animal model that is best for this purpose is a topic of intense discussion. Some evidence indicates that preclinical trials examining drug effects on tumors arising in transgenic mice are more predictive of clinical outcome(1)and so candidate therapeutic agents are often tested in these models. Unfortunately, transgenic models are not available for many tumor types. Further, transgenic models often have other limitations such as concerns as to how well the mouse tumor models its human counterpart, incomplete penetrance of the tumor phenotype and an inability to predict when tumors will develop. Consequently, many investigators use xenograft models (human tumor cells grafted into immunodeficient mice) for preclinical trials if appropriate transgenic tumor models are not available. Even if transgenic models are available, they are often partnered with xenograft models as the latter facilitate rapid determination of therapeutic ranges. Further, this partnership allows a comparison of the effectiveness of the agent in transgenic tumors and genuine human tumor cells. Historically, xenografting has often been performed by injecting tumor cells subcutaneously (ectopic xenografts). This technique is rapid and reproducible, relatively inexpensive and allows continuous quantitation of tumor growth during the therapeutic period(2). However, the subcutaneous space is not the normal microenvironment for most neoplasms and so results obtained with ectopic xenografting can be misleading due to factors such as an absence of organ-specific expression of host tissue and tumor genes. It has thus been strongly recommended that ectopic grafting studies be replaced or complemented by studies in which human tumor cells are grafted into their tissue of origin (orthotopic xenografting)(2). Unfortunately, implementation of this recommendation is often thwarted by the fact that orthotopic xenografting methodologies have not yet been developed for many tumor types. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive sarcomas that occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 1(3) and most commonly arise in the sciatic nerve(4). Here we describe a technically straightforward method in which firefly luciferase-tagged human MPNST cells are orthopically xenografted into the sciatic nerve of immunodeficient mice. Our approach to assessing the success of the grafting procedure in individual animals and subsequent non-biased randomization into study groups is also discussed. PMID:21460792

Turk, Amy N; Byer, Stephanie J; Zinn, Kurt R; Carroll, Steven L

2011-01-01

285

Evaluation of the potential in vitro antiproliferative effects of millimeter waves at some therapeutic frequencies on RPMI 7932 human skin malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

The potential antiproliferative effects of low power millimeter waves (MMWs) at 42.20 and 53.57 GHz on RPMI 7932 human skin melanoma cells were evaluated in vitro in order to ascertain if these two frequencies, comprised in the range of frequency used in millimeter wave therapy, would have a similar effect when applied in vivo to malignant melanoma tumours. Cells were exposed for 1 h exposure/day and to repeated exposure up to a total of four treatments. Plane wave incident power densities <1 mW/cm(2) were used in the MMWs-exposure experiments so that the radiations did not cause significant thermal effects. Numerical simulations of Petri dish reflectivity were made using the equations for the reflection coefficient of a multilayered system. Such analysis showed that the power densities transmitted into the aqueous samples were < or = 0.3 mW/cm(2). Two very important and general biological endpoints were evaluated in order to study the response of melanoma cells to these radiations, i.e. cell proliferation and cell cycle. Herein, we show that neither cell doubling time nor the cell cycle of RPMI 7932 cells was affected by the frequency of the GHz radiation and duration of the exposure, in the conditions above reported. PMID:19536459

Beneduci, Amerigo

2009-01-01

286

Blockade of p53 by HIF-2?, but not HIF-1?, is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which consist of ? and ? subunits, are transcription factors involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. By blocking the function of the tumor suppressor p53, over-expressions of HIFs are linked to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Although there are several hypotheses regarding arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, the mechanism of action remains obscure. We have shown that long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to a low level of arsenite increases their proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth. When introduced into nude mice, the transformed cells are tumorigenic. The present report demonstrates that, with increased time of exposure to arsenite, there is more increased expression of HIF-2?, but not HIF-1?. These factors are known to have different functions, and, in some cases, opposite effects. Arsenite induces accumulation of HIF-2? by inhibiting its degradation through the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. HIF-2? knockdown, but not HIF-1? knockdown, increases the activation of p53. Finally, inhibition of HIF-2? blocks arsenite-induced proliferation and malignant transformation. Thus, our studies show that blockade of p53 function by inhibiting the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of HIF-2?, but not that of HIF-1?, is involved in arsenite-induced proliferation and neoplastic transformation of HBE cells. PMID:22447124

Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Ling, Min; Shen, Lu; Jiang, Rongrong; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

2012-06-01

287

Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin.  

PubMed

Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway. PMID:23869465

Ismail, Samhani; Haris, Khalilah; Abdul Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

2013-09-01

288

Genetic Alteration of a bispecific ligand directed toxin targeting human CD19 and CD22 receptors resulting in improved efficacy against systemic B cell malignancy  

PubMed Central

A bispecific ligand-directed toxin (BLT) called DT2219ARL consisting of two sFv ligands recognizing CD19 and CD22 and catalytic DT390 was genetically enhanced for superior in vivo anti-leukemia activity. Genetic alterations included reverse orienting VH-VL domains and adding aggregation reducing/stabilizing linkers. In vivo, these improvements resulted in previously unseen long-term tumor-free survivors measured in a bioluminescent xenograft imaging model in which the progression of human Raji Burkitt’s lymphoma could be tracked in real time and in a Daudi model as well. Studies showed DT2219ARL was potent (IC50s 0.06–0.2 nM range) and selectively blockable. Imaging studies indicated the highly invasive nature of this B cell malignancy model and showed it likely induced preterminal hind limb paralysis because of metastasis to spinal regions prevented by DT2219ARL. DT2219ARL represents a new class of bispecific biological that can be continually improved by genetic mutation. PMID:19327829

Vallera, Daniel A.; Chen, Hua; Sicheneder, Andrew R.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taras, Elizabeth P.

2009-01-01

289

Molecularly Targeted Agents as Radiosensitizers in Cancer Therapy—Focus on Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

As our understanding of the molecular pathways driving tumorigenesis improves and more druggable targets are identified, we have witnessed a concomitant increase in the development and production of novel molecularly targeted agents. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various malignancies with a prominent role in the care of prostate cancer patients, and efforts to improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation by technologic and pharmacologic means have led to important advances in cancer care. One promising approach is to combine molecularly targeted systemic agents with radiotherapy to improve tumor response rates and likelihood of durable control. This review first explores the limitations of preclinical studies as well as barriers to successful implementation of clinical trials with radiosensitizers. Special considerations related to and recommendations for the design of preclinical studies and clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents combined with radiotherapy are provided. We then apply these concepts by reviewing a representative set of targeted therapies that show promise as radiosensitizers in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23863691

Alcorn, Sara; Walker, Amanda J.; Gandhi, Nishant; Narang, Amol; Wild, Aaron T.; Hales, Russell K.; Herman, Joseph M.; Song, Danny Y.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Tran, Phuoc T.

2013-01-01

290

Melittin enhances radiosensitivity of hypoxic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing HIF-1?.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a widespread phenomenon present in many human solid tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis and therapy resistance. Here, we tested the feasibility of melittin, a major component of bee venom, on radiosensitization of hypoxic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). CNE-2 and KB cells were treated with melittin and radiation response was determined. Cell viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction were examined by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins were assessed using western blotting. Additionally, we also examined the effect of melittin on tumor growth and radiosensitivity in vivo using a xenograft model of HNSCC. Treatment with melittin resulted in cell growth inhibition, induction of cell apoptosis, and reduction of HIF-1? and VEGF expression, which has been linked to hypoxia cell radioresistance. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of melittin significantly reduced the growth of HNSCC tumors in CNE-2 tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that melittin enhances radiosensitivity of HNSCC under hypoxia condition, and this is associated with the suppression of HIF-1? expression. Melittin appears to be a potential radiotherapy sensitization agent due to its significant antihypoxia activity. PMID:25053591

Yang, Xi; Zhu, Hongcheng; Ge, Yangyang; Liu, Jia; Cai, Jing; Qin, Qin; Zhan, Liangliang; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liping; Liu, Zheming; Yang, Yan; Yang, Yuehua; Ma, Jianxin; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

2014-10-01

291

Radiosensitization by Inhibiting STAT1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically regarded as a radioresistant malignancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is not understood. This study investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a transcription factor downstream of the interferon-signaling pathway, in radioresistant RCC. Methods and Materials: The expressions of STAT1 and STAT3 in 164 human

Zhouguang Hui; Maria Tretiakova; Zhongfa Zhang; Yan Li; Xiaozhen Wang; Julie Xiaohong Zhu; Yuanhong Gao; Weiyuan Mai; Kyle Furge; Chao-Nan Qian; Robert Amato; E. Brian Butler; Bin Tean Teh; Bin S. Teh

2009-01-01

292

Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Undergo Malignant Transformation during Long-Term Culturing in Serum-Free Medium  

PubMed Central

Background Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are in the foreground as a preferable application for treating diseases. However, the safety of hUC-MSCs after long-term culturing in vitro in serum-free medium remains unclear. Methods hUC-MSCs were separated by adherent tissue culture. hUC-MSCs were cultured in serum-free MesenCult-XF medium and FBS-bases DMEM complete medium. At the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th, and 15th passage, the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells was detected, and MTT, surface antigens were measured. Tumorigenicity was analyzed at the 15th passage. Conventional karyotyping was performed at passage 0, 8, and 15. The telomerase activity of hUC-MSCs at passage 1–15 was analyzed. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that very high expression was detected for CD105, CD73, and CD90 and very low expression for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD79a, and HLA-DR. MSCs could differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro. There was no obvious chromosome elimination, displacement, or chromosomal imbalance as determined from the guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Telomerase activity was down-regulated significantly when the culture time was prolonged. Further, no tumors formed in rats injected with hUC-MSCs (P15) cultured in serum-free and in serum-containing conditions. Conclusion Our data showed that hUC-MSCs met the International Society for Cellular Therapy standards for conditions of long-term in vitro culturing at P15. Since hUC-MSCs can be safely expanded in vitro and are not susceptible to malignant transformation in serum-free medium, these cells are suitable for cell therapy. PMID:24887492

Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, RuZhu; Ren, Yin; Zhu, Li

2014-01-01

293

Effects of temozolomide (TMZ) on the expression and interaction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and DNA repair proteins in human malignant glioma cells.  

PubMed

We previously reported the association of HSPA1A and HSPB1 with high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in disease outcome and response to treatment. With the aim to better understand the resistance/susceptibility processes associated to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, the current study was performed in three human malignant glioma cell lines by focusing on several levels: (a) apoptotic index and senescence, (b) DNA damage, and (c) interaction of HSPB1 with players of the DNA damage response. Three human glioma cell lines, Gli36, U87, and DBTRG, were treated with TMZ evaluating cell viability and survival, apoptosis, senescence, and comets (comet assay). The expression of HSPA (HSPA1A and HSPA8), HSPB1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), MLH1, and MSH2 was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Immunoprecipitation was used to analyze protein interaction. The cell lines exhibited differences in viability, apoptosis, and senescence after TMZ administration. We then focused on Gli36 cells (relatively unstudied) which showed very low recovery capacity following TMZ treatment, and this was related to high DNA damage levels; however, the cells maintained their viability. In these cells, MGMT, MSH2, HSPA, and HSPB1 levels increased significantly after TMZ administration. In addition, MSH2 and HSPB1 proteins appeared co-localized by confocal microscopy. This co-localization increased after TMZ treatment, and in immunoprecipitation analysis, MSH2 and HSPB1 appeared interacting. In contrast, HSPB1 did not interact with MGMT. We show in glioma cells the biological effects of TMZ and how this drug affects the expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs), MGMT, MSH2, and MLH1. In Gli36 cells, the results suggest that interactions between HSPB1 and MSH2, including co-nuclear localization, may be important in determining cell sensitivity to TMZ. PMID:25155585

Castro, Gisela Natalia; Cayado-Gutiérrez, Niubys; Zoppino, Felipe Carlos Martín; Fanelli, Mariel Andrea; Cuello-Carrión, Fernando Darío; Sottile, Mayra; Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Ciocca, Daniel Ramón

2014-08-26

294

Protein ubiquitination in lymphoid malignancies.  

PubMed

Human lymphoid malignancies inherit gene expression networks from their normal B-cell counterpart and co-opt them for their own oncogenic purpose, which is usually governed by transcription factors and signaling pathways. These transcription factors and signaling pathways are precisely regulated at multiple steps, including ubiquitin modification. Protein ubiqutination plays a role in almost all cellular events and in many human diseases. In the past few years, multiple studies have expanded the role of ubiquitination in the genesis of diverse lymphoid malignancies. Here, we discuss our current understanding of both proteolytic and non-proteolytic functions of the protein ubiquitination system and describe how it is involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphoid cancers. Lymphoid-restricted ubiquitination mechanisms, including ubiquitin E3 ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes, provide great opportunities for the development of targeted therapies for lymphoid cancers. PMID:25510281

Yang, Yibin; Staudt, Louis M

2015-01-01

295

Comparison of microwave and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia radiosensitization in murine breast tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperthermia has been shown to be an effective radiosensitizer. Its utility as a clinical modality has been limited by a minimally selective tumor sensitivity and the inability to be delivered in a tumor-specific manner. Recent in vivo studies (rodent and human) have shown that cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity can be effectively and safely delivered via iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNP) and an appropriately matched noninvasive alternating magnetic field (AMF). To explore the tumor radiosensitization potential of mNP hyperthermia we used a syngeneic mouse breast cancer model, dextran-coated 110 nm hydrodynamic diameter mNP and a 169 kHz / 450 Oe (35.8 kA/m) AMF. Intradermally implanted (flank) tumors (150 +/- 40 mm3) were treated by injection of 0.04 ml mNP (7.5 mg Fe) / cm3 into the tumor and an AMF (35.8 kA/m and 169 kHz) exposure necessary to achieve a CEM (cumulative equivalent minute) thermal dose of 60 (CEM 60). Tumors were treated with mNP hyperthermia (CEM 60), radiation alone (15 Gy, single dose) and in combination. Compared to the radiation and heat alone treatments, the combined treatment resulted in a greater than two-fold increase in tumor regrowth tripling time (tumor treatment efficacy). None of the treatments resulted in significant normal tissue toxicity or morbidity. Studies were also conducted to compare the radiosensitization effect of mNP hyperthermia with that of microwave-induced hyperthermia. The effects of incubation of nanoparticles within tumors (to allow nanoparticles to be endocytosed) before application of AMF and radiation were determined. This preliminary information suggests cancer cell specific hyperthermia (i.e. antibody-directed or anatomically-directed mNP) is capable of providing significantly greater radiosensitization / therapeutic ratio enhancement than other forms of hyperthermia delivery.

Giustini, Andrew J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Hoopes, Paul J.

2011-03-01

296

Inhibition of Hsp27 Radiosensitizes Head-and-Neck Cancer by Modulating Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and ?H2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Results: Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cell lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. Conclusions: These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.

Guttmann, David M.; Hart, Lori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Du, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Seletsky, Andrew [Department of Biology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Koumenis, Constantinos, E-mail: koumenis@xrt.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-09-01

297

PX-478, an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, enhances radiosensitivity of prostate carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) in human tumors is associated with poor prognosis and poor outcome to radiation therapy. Inhibition of HIF-1? is considered as a promising approach in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a novel HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478 as a radiosensitizer under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in vitro. PC3 and DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells were treated with PX-478 for 20 hr, and HIF-1? protein level and clonogenic cell survival were determined under normoxia and hypoxia. Effects of PX-478 on cell cycle distribution and phosphorylation of H2AX histone were evaluated. PX-478 decreased HIF-1? protein in PC3 and DU 145 cells. PX-478 produced cytotoxicity in both cell lines with enhanced toxicity under hypoxia for DU-145. PX-478 (20 ?mol/L) enhanced the radiosensitivity of PC3 cells irradiated under normoxic and hypoxic condition with enhancement factor (EF) 1.4 and 1.56, respectively. The drug was less effective in inhibiting HIF-1? and enhancing radiosensitivity of DU 145 cells compared to PC3 cells with EF 1.13 (normoxia) and 1.25 (hypoxia) at 50 ?mol/L concentration. PX-478 induced S/G2M arrest in PC3 but not in DU 145 cells. Treatment of PC3 and DU 145 cells with the drug resulted in phosphorylation of H2AX histone and prolongation of ?H2AX expression in the irradiated cells. PX-478 is now undergoing Phase I clinical trials as an oral agent. Although the precise mechanism of enhancement of radiosensitivity remains to be identified, this study suggests a potential role for PX-478 as a clinical radiation enhancer. PMID:18729192

Palayoor, Sanjeewani T.; Mitchell, James B.; Cerna, David; DeGraff, William; John-Aryankalayil, Molykutty; Coleman, C. Norman

2014-01-01

298

Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.  

PubMed Central

Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers). The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening (plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and calcification), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers). Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics (length and diameter), other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of the adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects (disease frequency, latency, and cohort size). Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air. PMID:2272325

Merchant, J A

1990-01-01

299

Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Aftab, Blake T. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Rudin, Charles M. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K., E-mail: rhales1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

2013-05-01

300

Antineoplastic activity of the combination of interferon and cytotoxic agents against experimental and human malignancies: a review.  

PubMed

The combination of interferon (IFN) and conventional chemotherapeutic agents offers a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. However, there is as yet no consensus on optimal strategies for combining this family of compounds with other cancer therapies. While in vitro studies have demonstrated both direct cytotoxic and cytokinetic effects for IFN, a more interesting role derives from its ability to synergistically potentiate the activity of a wide variety of cytotoxic agents against multiple human and rodent tumors, both in vitro and in animal models. The interaction between IFN and cytotoxic agents in vitro is complex and depends not only on the choice of cytotoxic agent but also on the concentrations, ratios, duration, and sequence of exposure to the two drugs. Preliminary data suggest that some combinations are not merely additive but rather that IFN may biochemically modulate the cellular uptake or metabolism of the cytotoxic agent resulting in synergistic antineoplastic activity. In vivo interactions between IFN and cytotoxic agents involve an additional layer of complexity because of the potential effects of the biological agent on the host immune system and drug-metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, IFN may have a protective effect on normal host tissues which theoretically could allow for the delivery of higher doses of cytotoxic agents. The results of early clinical trials using combinations of IFN with chemotherapeutic agents have generally been disappointing. This may be due to the inability of preclinical models to accurately predict the clinical situation or alternatively from a failure to incorporate information on dose, scheduling, and sequence of drug administration into clinical trials. Preliminary clinical studies with IFN-alpha and the fluorinated pyrimidine, 5-fluorouracil, in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma suggest that IFN may enhance the effects of the antimetabolite. Confirmatory trials are in progress. Further trials designed to exploit the preclinical experience with combinations of IFN and cytotoxic agents are warranted. PMID:1692761

Wadler, S; Schwartz, E L

1990-06-15

301

Silencing Fibronectin Extra Domain A Enhances Radiosensitivity in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas Involving an FAK/Akt/JNK Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fibronectin extra domain A (EDA) is known to play important roles in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis in malignant tumors. The present study examined the effect of EDA on the radioresistance potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: EDA expression levels in blood samples and tumor tissues of NPC patients were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Radiosensitivity was tested by colony survival assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The expressions of EDA, cleaved caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, and the levels of phosphorylated FAK, Akt, and JNK were measured by Western blot. Xenografts were used to confirm the effect of EDA on radiosensitivity in vivo. Results: EDA levels in blood samples of advanced NPC patients were much higher than those in early-stage patients. In tumor tissues, the positive expressions of EDA in NPC tumor tissues were shown to be correlated with the differentiation degrees of cancer cells and lymph node metastases. Additionally, the expression of EDA is positively correlated with the expression of antiapoptotic gene (Bcl2), but negatively correlated with the expressions of apoptotic genes (cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP). In vitro, EDA-silenced NPC cells CNE-2 shows substantially enhanced radiosensitivity with lower colony survival and more apoptosis in response to radiation. In vivo, EDA-silenced xenografts were more sensitive to radiation. At the molecular level, FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was demonstrated to be inactivated in EDA-silenced CNE-2 cells. Conclusions: EDA strongly affected the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was found to be a potential signaling mediating EDA function.

Ou Juanjuan; Pan Feng; Geng Peiliang; Wei Xing; Xie Ganfeng; Deng Jia; Pang Xueli [Department of Oncology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liang Houjie, E-mail: lianghoujie@sina.com [Department of Oncology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

2012-03-15

302

Can Drugs Enhance Hypofractionated Radiotherapy? A Novel Method of Modeling Radiosensitization Using In Vitro Data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy (hRT) is being explored for a number of malignancies. The potential benefit of giving concurrent chemotherapy with hRT is not known. We sought to predict the effects of combined modality treatments by using mathematical models derived from laboratory data. Methods and Materials: Data from 26 published clonogenic survival assays for cancer cell lines with and without the use of radiosensitizing chemotherapy were collected. The first three data points of the RT arm of each assay were used to derive parameters for the linear quadratic (LQ) model, the multitarget (MT) model, and the generalized linear quadratic (gLQ) model. For each assay and model, the difference between the predicted and observed surviving fractions at the highest tested RT dose was calculated. The gLQ model was fitted to all the data from each RT cell survival assay, and the biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2s) of clinically relevant hRT regimens were calculated. The increase in cell kill conferred by the addition of chemotherapy was used to estimate the EQD2 of hRT along with a radiosensitizing agent. For comparison, this was repeated using conventionally fractionated RT regimens. Results: At a mean RT dose of 8.0 Gy, the average errors for the LQ, MT, and gLQ models were 1.63, 0.83, and 0.56 log units, respectively, favoring the gLQ model (p < 0.05). Radiosensitizing chemotherapy increased the EQD2 of hRT schedules by an average of 28% to 82%, depending on disease site. This increase was similar to the gains predicted for the addition of chemotherapy to conventionally fractionated RT. Conclusions: Based on published in vitro assays, the gLQ equation is superior to the LQ and MT models in predicting cell kill at high doses of RT. Modeling exercises demonstrate that significant increases in biologically equivalent dose may be achieved with the addition of radiosensitizing agents to hRT. Clinical study of this approach is warranted.

Ohri, Nitin; Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: yaacovla@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

2012-05-01

303

Malignant teratoma (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, ...

304

Malignant penile horn.  

PubMed

The fifth case of carcinoma within a penile horn is reported in a patient who also had erythroplasia of Queyrat of the glans penis. Penile horns should be considered as pre-malignant lesions, since a third of them undergo malignant change and they may be associated with a pre-malignant condition of the glans penis. PMID:926252

Raghavaiah, N V; Soloway, M S; Murphy, W M

1977-12-01

305

Radiation Therapy and Hydroxyurea Followed by the Combination of 6Thioguanine and BCNU for the Treatment of Primary Malignant Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate a combined modality treatment for malignant gliomas using radiation therapy with a radiosensitizer and an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen designed to modify resistance to BNCU.Methods and Materials: Patients were eligible if they were 15 years of age or older, and had newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or anaplastic glioma (AG). Treatment consisted of external

Michael D Prados; David A Larson; Kathleen Lamborn; Michael W McDermott; Penny K Sneed; William M Wara; Susan M Chang; Ellen E Mack; Hendrikus G. J Krouwer; Kym L Chandler; Ronald E Warnick; Richard L Davis; Jane E Rabbitt; Mary Malec; Victor A Levin; Phillip H Gutin; Theodore L Phillips; Charles B Wilson

1998-01-01

306

Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera  

SciTech Connect

The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

Koval, T.M.

1983-10-01

307

Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.  

PubMed Central

The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

1991-01-01

308

CD147 Interacts with NDUFS6 in Regulating Mitochondrial Complex I Activity and the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors and is characterized by high invasiveness, frequent metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. The risk of metastatic MM is accompanied by disordered energy metabolism involving the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process, which is largely carried out in mitochondrial complexes. Complex I is the first and largest mitochondrial enzyme complex associated with this process. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the cell surface, and also appears in the cytoplasm in some tumors. We found that CD147 is often translocated to the cytoplasm in metastatic MM specimens as compared to primary MM. We also demonstrated high expression of CD147 in isolated mitochondrial fractions of A375 cells. The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay identified NDUFS6 (which encodes a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I) as a candidate that interacts with CD147 and depletion of CD147 in A375 cells significantly decreased complex I enzyme activity. We also showed that CD147 increased the viability of A375 cells exposed to berberine-induced mitochondrial damage, and protected them from apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. This finding was confirmed by adding exogenous Bcl-2 to A375 cell cultures. In summary, our results identify the existence of CD147 in human melanoma cell mitochondria. They indicate that CD147 appears to regulate complex I activity and apoptosis in MM by interacting with mitochondrial NDUFS6. Our findings provide new insight into the function of CD147 and identify it as a promising therapeutic target in melanoma through disruption of the energy metabolism. PMID:25470292

Luo, Z; Zeng, W; Tang, W; Long, T; Zhang, J; Xie, X; Kuang, Y; Chen, M; Su, J; Chen, X

2014-01-01

309

Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis by Activating Caspases in Human Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids, and its activation is associated with carcinogenesis as well as inflammation. The antitumor effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors has been noted in various malignancies. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare and aggressive soft tissue sarcoma for which effective treatments have not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential therapeutic role of COX-2 in MPNST. Methods We evaluated the expression of COX-2 in 44 cases of high-grade MPNST using immunohistochemical staining and compared the staining results with the characteristics and outcome of the patients. We also investigated the antitumor effect of etodolac, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on MPNST cells in vitro using the MPNST cell line, FMS-1. Results Overexpression of COX-2 (?50% positive cells) was observed in 29 cases (65.9%), was significantly associated with a poor overall survival (P?=?0.0495), and was considered an independent risk factor for a poor outcome by the results of both univariate and multivariate analysis. Etodolac induced apoptosis of FMS-1 cells through the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. Moreover, several caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited etodolac-induced apoptosis. Conclusions Selective COX-2 inhibitors including etodolac had an antitumor effect on MPNST cells, and their use holds promise as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with MPNST to improve their prognoses. PMID:24516579

Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Tajino, Takahiro; Konno, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yanagisawa, Michiro; Nishida, Jun; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Ogose, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Hojo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

310

Deletion in Open Reading Frame 49 of Varicella-Zoster Virus Reduces Virus Growth in Human Malignant Melanoma Cells but Not in Human Embryonic Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORF49 gene product (ORF49p) of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is likely a myristylated tegument protein, and its homologs are conserved across the herpesvirus subfamilies. The UL11 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 and of pseudorabies virus and the UL99 gene of human cytomegalovirus are the homologs of ORF49 and have been well characterized by using mutant viruses; however,

Tomohiko Sadaoka; Hironori Yoshii; Takayoshi Imazawa; Koichi Yamanishi; Yasuko Mori

2007-01-01

311

Phase I Study of GC1008 (Fresolimumab): A Human Anti-Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF?) Monoclonal Antibody in Patients with Advanced Malignant Melanoma or Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGF? monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGF?. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Methods In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed. Results Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients) and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4–44.4 weeks). Conclusions GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00356460 PMID:24618589

Morris, John C.; Tan, Antoinette R.; Olencki, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Reiss, Michael; Hsu, Frank J.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Lawrence, Donald P.

2014-01-01

312

Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A radiosensitizes pancreatic cancers by modulating CDC25C/CDK1 and homologous recombination repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify targets whose inhibition may enhance the efficacy of chemoradiation in pancreatic cancer and thus improve survival, we performed an siRNA library screen in pancreatic cancer cells. We investigated PPP2R1A, a scaffolding subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a lead radiosensitizing target. Experimental Design We determined the effect of PP2A inhibition by genetic (PPP2R1A siRNA) and pharmacological (LB100, a small molecule entering Phase I clinical trials) approaches on radiosensitization of Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results PPP2R1A depletion by siRNA radiosensitized Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, with radiation enhancement ratios of 1.4 (P<0.05). Likewise, LB100 produced similar radiosensitization in pancreatic cancer cells, but minimal radiosensitization in normal small intestinal cells. Mechanistically, PPP2R1A siRNA or LB100 caused aberrant CDK1 activation, likely resulting from accumulation of the active forms of PLK1 (pPLK1 T210) and CDC25C (pCDC25C T130). Furthermore, LB100 inhibited radiation-induced Rad51 focus formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), ultimately leading to persistent radiation-induced DNA damage, as reflected by ?H2AX expression. Finally, we identified CDC25C as a key PP2A substrate involved in LB100-mediated radiosensitization as depletion of CDC25C partially reversed LB100-mediated radiosensitization. In a mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer, LB100 produced significant radiosensitization with minimal weight loss. Conclusions Collectively, our data demonstrate that PP2A inhibition radiosensitizes pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo via activation of CDC25C/CDK1 and inhibition of HRR, and provide proof-of-concept evidence that PP2A is a promising target for the improvement of local therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23780887

Wei, Dongping; Parsels, Leslie A.; Karnak, David; Davis, Mary A.; Parsels, Joshua D.; Zhao, Lili; Maybaum, Jonathan; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Sun, Yi; Morgan, Meredith A.

2013-01-01

313

Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions  

PubMed Central

Evidence from human studies suggests that angiogenesis commences during the pre-malignant stages of cancer. Inhibiting angiogenesis may, therefore, be of potential value in preventing progression to invasive cancer. Understanding the mechanisms inducing angiogenesis in these lesions and identification of those important in human tumourigenesis are necessary to develop translational strategies that will help realise the goal of angioprevention. PMID:18941463

Menakuru, S R; Brown, N J; Staton, C A; Reed, M W R

2008-01-01

314

Mannose Phosphate Isomerase Regulates Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Family Signaling and Glioma Radiosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Asparagine-linked glycosylation is an endoplasmic reticulum co- and post- translational modification that enables the transit and function of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) glycoproteins. To gain insight into the regulatory role of glycosylation enzymes on RTK function, we investigated shRNA and siRNA knockdown of mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI), an enzyme required for mature glycan precursor biosynthesis. Loss of MPI activity reduced phosphorylation of FGFR family receptors in U-251 and SKMG-3 malignant glioma cell lines and also resulted in significant decreases in FRS2, Akt, and MAPK signaling. However, MPI knockdown did not affect ligand-induced activation or signaling of EGFR or MET RTKs, suggesting that FGFRs are more susceptible to MPI inhibition. The reductions in FGFR signaling were not caused by loss of FGF ligands or receptors, but instead were caused by interference with receptor dimerization. Investigations into the cellular consequences of MPI knockdown showed that cellular programs driven by FGFR signaling, and integral to the clinical progression of malignant glioma, were impaired. In addition to a blockade of cellular migration, MPI knockdown also significantly reduced glioma cell clonogenic survival following ionizing radiation. Therefore our results suggest that targeted inhibition of enzymes required for cell surface receptor glycosylation can be manipulated to produce discrete and limited consequences for critical client glycoproteins expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, this work identifies MPI as a potential enzymatic target for disrupting cell surface receptor-dependent survival signaling and as a novel approach for therapeutic radiosensitization. PMID:25314669

Cazet, Aurélie; Charest, Jonathan; Bennett, Daniel C.; Sambrooks, Cecilia Lopez; Contessa, Joseph N.

2014-01-01

315

Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: I. Lepidoptera  

SciTech Connect

The radiosensitivity of five lepidopteran insect cell lines representing five different genera has been investigated. These lines are: (1) TN-368, Trichoplusia ni; (2) IPLB-SF-1254, Spodoptera frugiperda; (3) IPLB-1075, Heliothis zea; (4) MRRL-CHl, clone GVl, Manduca sexta; and (5) IAL-PID2, Plodia interpunctella. The cell lines grew at different rates and had population doubling times that ranged from 19 to 52 hr. All of the lines are highly heteroploid and have approximate chromosome numbers near or above 100. The chromosomes are very small. All of the lines are extremely radioresistant; cell populations are able to recover from 260 kVp X-ray exposures up to and including 400 Gy, the highest dose examined. Cell survival curves were obtainable for only the TN-368 and IPLB-SF-1254 lines. The TN-368 cells displayed a biphasic survival response with D/sub 0/, d/sub q/, and n values of 65.7 and 130.2 Gy, 9.0 and -36.1 Gy, and 1.2 and 0.8, respectively, for the steep and shallow portions of the curve. The IPLB-SF-1254 cells had a D/sub 0/ of 63.9 Gy. D/sub q/ of 19.0 Gy, and n value of 1.4. These studies provide definitive evidence of the radioresistance of lepidopteran cells, and suggest that this radioresistance is a characteristic of lepidopteran insects.

Koval, T.M.

1983-10-01

316

Clonal cell populations unresponsive to radiosensitization induced by telomerase inhibition  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} In our present manuscript, we have clearly showed an interesting but problematic obstacle of a radiosensitization strategy based on telomerase inhibition by showing that: Clonal population unresponsive to this radiosensitization occasionally arise. {yields} The telomere length of unsensitized clones was reduced, as was that of most sensitized clones. {yields} The unsensitized clones did not show chromosome end fusion which was noted in all sensitized clones. {yields} P53 status is not associated with the occurrence of unsensitized clone. {yields} Telomere end capping in unsensitized clone is operative even under telomerase deficiency. -- Abstract: A combination of a radiotherapeutic regimen with telomerase inhibition is valuable when tumor cells are to be sensitized to radiation. Here, we describe cell clones unresponsive to radiosensitization after telomere shortening. After extensive division of individual transformed clones of mTERC{sup -/-} cells, about 22% of clones were unresponsive to radiosensitization even though telomerase action was inhibited. The telomere lengths of unsensitized mTERC{sup -/-} clones were reduced, as were those of most sensitized clones. However, the unsensitized clones did not exhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion to the extent noted in all sensitized clones. Thus, a defense mechanism preventing telomere erosion is operative even when telomeres become shorter under conditions of telomerase deficiency, and results in unresponsiveness to the radiosensitization generally mediated by telomere shortening.

Ju, Yeun-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Woo, Seon Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Han, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kang, Chang-Mo [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Do [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won-Bong [Division of Natural Science, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Natural Science, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong, E-mail: ghpark@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-12

317

Homologous recombination as a potential target for caffeine radiosensitization in mammalian cells: reduced caffeine radiosensitization in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine has been associated with the disruption of multiple DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoints, but several lines of evidence also implicate inhibition of DNA repair. The role of DNA repair inhibition in caffeine radiosensitization remains uncharacterized, and it is unknown which repair process, or lesion, is affected. We show that a radiosensitive cell line, mutant for the RAD51 homolog XRCC2 and defective in homologous recombination repair (HRR), displays significantly diminished caffeine radiosensitization that can be restored by expression of XRCC2. Despite the reduced radiosensitization, caffeine effectively abrogates checkpoints in S and G2 phases in XRCC2 mutant cells indicating that checkpoint abrogation is not sufficient for radiosensitization. Another radiosensitive line, mutant for XRCC3 and defective in HRR, similarly shows reduced caffeine radiosensitization. On the other hand, a radiosensitive mutant (irs-20) of DNA-PKcs with a defect in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is radiosensitized by caffeine to an extent comparable to wild-type cells. In addition, rejoining of radiation-induced DNA DSBs, that mainly reflects NHEJ, remains unaffected by caffeine in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants, or their wild-type counterparts. These observations suggest that caffeine targets steps in HRR but not in NHEJ and that abrogation of checkpoint response is not sufficient to explain radiosensitization. Indeed, immortalized fibroblasts from AT patients show caffeine radiosensitization despite the checkpoint defects associated with ATM mutation. We propose that caffeine radiosensitization is mediated by inhibition of stages in DNA DSB repair requiring HRR and that checkpoint disruption contributes by allowing these DSBs to transit into irreparable states. Thus, checkpoints may contribute to genomic stability by promoting error-free HRR.

Asaad, N. A.; Zeng, Z. C.; Guan, J.; Thacker, J.; Iliakis, G.

2000-01-01

318

Inhibition of autophagy enhances the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by reducing Rad51 expression.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy has long been considered as the mainstay of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis may occur in some patients due to the radiation resistance of cancer cells. Autophagy plays a vital role in protecting cells against radiation. However, the mechanism of autophagy in radiation therapy remains obscure. In the present study, we demonstrated that suppression of autophagy related 5 (Atg5) aggravated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human NPC cells without accelerating the cell cycle, whereas regulation of the cell cycle has been widely regarded as the most important determinant of IR sensitivity. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy suppressed the mRNA expression of Rad51, a key protein of homologous recombination that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation. Moreover, suppression of Atg5 had no impact on the radiosensitivity when cells were pre-treated by the Rad51 inhibitor, and the enhanced radiosensitivity by Atg5 suppression was reversed by overexpression of Rad51 in human NPC cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of autophagy enhances the susceptibility of NPC cells to radiation by reducing Rad51 expression. Therefore, Rad51 targeted therapy may be investigated as a potential novel agent for the adjuvant treatment of traditional radiation of NPC. PMID:25175062

Mo, Ning; Lu, Yong-Kui; Xie, Wei-Min; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wen-Xian; Wang, Hong-Xue; Nong, Li; Jia, Yu-Xian; Tan, Ai-Hua; Chen, Ying; Li, Shan-Shan; Luo, Bao-Hua

2014-11-01

319

Low-dose radiation hyper-radiosensitivity in multicellular tumour spheroids  

PubMed Central

Objective We propose and study a new model aimed at describing the low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity phenomenon appearing in the survival curves of different cell lines. Methods The model uses the induced repair assumption, considering that the critical dose at which this mechanism begins to act varies from cell to cell in a given population. The model proposed is compared with the linear-quadratic model and the modified linear-quadratic model, which is commonly used in literature and in which the induced repair is taken into account in a heuristic way. The survival curve for the MCF-7 line of human breast cancer is measured at low absorbed doses and the uncertainties in these doses are estimated using thermoluminiscent dosemeters. Results It is shown that these multicellular spheroids present low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity. The new model permits an accurate description of the data of two human cell lines (previously published) and of the multicellular spheroids of the MCF-7 line here measured. Conclusion The model shows enough flexibility to account for data with very different characteristics and considers in a faithful way the hypothesis of the repair induction. PMID:22972973

Guirado, D; Aranda, M; Ortiz, M; Mesa, J A; Zamora, L I; Amaya, E; Villalobos, M; Lallena, A M

2012-01-01

320

Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. •HAS2 is elevated (up to ?10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. •HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. •HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. •Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-17

321

Isolation and characterization of the major form of human MUC18 cDNA gene and correlation of MUC18 over-expression in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues with malignant progression.  

PubMed

Ectopical expression of huMUC18, a cell adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, causes a non-metastatic human melanoma cell line to become metastatic in a nude mouse system. To determine if MUC18 expression correlates with the development and malignant progression of prostate cancer, we investigated differential expression of human MUC18 (huMUC18) in normal prostate epithelial cells, prostate cancer cell lines, and prostatic normal and cancer tissues. We cloned and characterized the human MUC18 (huMUC18) cDNA gene from three human prostate cancer cell lines and three human melanoma cell lines. The cDNA sequences from the six human cancer cell lines were identical except differences in one to five nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of the longest ORF were 646 amino acids that were identical in these cDNAs except for one to three amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of all our huMUC18 cDNA genes are similar to that cloned by other group (GenBank access #M28882) except differences in the same seven amino acids. We conclude that huMUC18 cDNA gene reported here represents the gene product from a major allele. The MUC18 mRNA and protein was expressed in three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines (TSU-PR1, DU145, and PC-3), but not in one non-metastatic prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP.FGC). The expression of huMUC18 in these four cell lines is positively related to their extent of in vitro motility and invasiveness and in vivo metastasis in nude mice. HuMUC18 protein was also expressed at high levels in extracts prepared from tissue sample sections containing high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), but weakly expressed in extracts prepared from cultured primary normal prostatic epithelial cells and the normal prostate gland. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that huMUC18 was expressed at higher levels in the epithelial cells of high-grade PIN and prostatic carcinomas, and in cells of a perineural invasion, a lymph node, and a lung metastases compared to that in normal or benign hyperplastic epithelium (BPH). We therefore conclude that MUC18 expression is increased during prostate cancer initiation (high grade PIN) and progression to carcinoma, and in metastatic cell lines and metastatic carcinoma. Increased expression of MUC18 is implicated to play an important role in developing and malignant progression of human prostate cancer. Furthermore, the lacking of predominant cytoplasmic membrane expression of MUC18 appeared to correlate with malignant progression of prostate cancer. PMID:11722842

Wu, G J; Wu, M W; Wang, S W; Liu, Z; Qu, P; Peng, Q; Yang, H; Varma, V A; Sun, Q C; Petros, J A; Lim, S D; Amin, M B

2001-11-14

322

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence Hypercalcemia is one of the most common metabolic complications of malignancy, developing in 3?30% of patients with cancer at some time during the course of their disease. Indeed malignancy is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia in a general hospital patient population, whereas primary hyperparathyroidism is a more common cause of elevated blood calcium in the community at large.

Vivian Grill; T. John Martin

2000-01-01

323

The HSP90 Inhibitor NVP-AUY922 Radiosensitizes by Abrogation of Homologous Recombination Resulting in Mitotic Entry with Unresolved DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone responsible for the conformational maintenance of a number of client proteins that play key roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair and apoptosis following radiation. HSP90 inhibitors exhibit antitumor activity by modulating the stabilisation and activation of HSP90 client proteins. We sought to evaluate NVP-AUY922, the most potent HSP90 inhibitor yet reported, in preclinical radiosensitization studies. Principal Findings NVP-AUY922 potently radiosensitized cells in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations with a concurrent depletion of radioresistance-linked client proteins. Radiosensitization by NVP-AUY922 was verified for the first time in vivo in a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model in athymic mice, as measured by delayed tumor growth and increased surrogate end-point survival (p?=?<0.0001). NVP-AUY922 was shown to ubiquitously inhibit resolution of dsDNA damage repair correlating to delayed Rad51 foci formation in all cell lines tested. Additionally, NVP-AUY922 induced a stalled mitotic phenotype, in a cell line-dependent manner, in HeLa and HN5 cell lines irrespective of radiation exposure. Cell cycle analysis indicated that NVP-AUY922 induced aberrant mitotic entry in all cell lines tested in the presence of radiation-induced DNA damage due to ubiquitous CHK1 depletion, but resultant downstream cell cycle effects were cell line dependent. Conclusions These results identify NVP-AUY922 as the most potent HSP90-mediated radiosensitizer yet reported in vitro, and for the first time validate it in a clinically relevant in vivo model. Mechanistic analysis at clinically achievable concentrations demonstrated that radiosensitization is mediated by the combinatorial inhibition of cell growth and survival pathways, ubiquitous delay in Rad51-mediated homologous recombination and CHK1-mediated G2/M arrest, but that the contribution of cell cycle perturbation to radiosensitization may be cell line specific. PMID:22523597

Bhide, Shreerang A.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Nutting, Christopher M.; Huddart, Robert A.; Harrington, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

324

Relationship of SR2508 sensitizer enhancement ratio to cellular glutathione levels in human tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently demonstrated that intracellular elevation of glutathione (GSH) by oxothiazolidine 4-carboxylate lessens SR-2508 hypoxic cell radiosensitization in Chinese hamster cells. This observation, coupled with the fact that GSH depletion potentiates SR-2508 hypoxic radiosensitization, prompted a study of human tumor cell lines whose inherent GSH levels are high compared to normal human cell lines or rodent cell lines. Sensitizer

James B. Mitchell; Theodore L. Phillips; William Degraff; James Carmichael; Rajesh K. Rajpal; Angelo Russo

1986-01-01

325

Hypoxia-induced autophagy reduces radiosensitivity by the HIF-1?/miR-210/Bcl-2 pathway in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular response to conditions of stress such as hypoxia, which induce radioresistance in cancer cells. We studied the mechanism of action of hypoxia on autophagy and radiosensitivity in colon cancer cells. In the human colon cancer cell lines SW480 and SW620, autophagosomes were analyzed to evaluate autophagy by flow cytometry. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), Bcl-2, and miR-210 was detected by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HIF-1? and miR-210 inhibition was induced by siRNA transfections. Apoptosis detection and colony assays were performed to determine radiosensitivity. HIF-1? and miR-210 showed a significant increase under hypoxic condition. The inhibition of HIF-1? decreased miR-210 expression and autophagy. Silencing of miR-210 upregulated Bcl-2 expression and reduced the survival fraction of colon cancer cells after radiation treatment. Under hypoxia, HIF-1? induces miRNA-210 which in turn enhances autophagy and reduces radiosensitivity by downregulating Bcl-2 expression in colon cancer cells. Our results imply that autophagy contributes to the reduction of radiosensitivity in hypoxic environment, and the process is mediated through the HIF-1?/miR-210/Bcl-2 pathway in human colon cancer cells. PMID:25385144

Sun, Yong; Xing, Xing; Liu, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Chaosu; Liu, Yong

2015-02-01

326

A CD147-targeting siRNA inhibits the proliferation, invasiveness, and VEGF production of human malignant melanoma cells by down-regulating glycolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer cells require glycolysis for energy; this results in excessive lactate production and secretion. Lactate, the end product of glycolysis, reduces the extracellular pH and contributes to the proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Our previous results revealed that the over-expressed CD147\\/basigin plays a critical role in malignant melanoma (MM) invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis; CD147 has also been

Juan Su; Xiang Chen; Takuro Kanekura

2009-01-01

327

Malignant cancer and invasive placentation  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

2014-01-01

328

Platinum complexes with one radiosensitizing ligand (PtCl2(NH3) (sensitizer)): radiosensitization and toxicity studies in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Complexes of general formula (PtCl2(NH3)L) with one radiosensitizing ligand per platinum are compared with ligand L alone, complexes with two radiosensitizers per platinum (PtCl2L2), and their analogs with NH3 ligands, with respect to radiosensitizing properties and toxicity in CHO cells. Radiosensitizing ligands, L, were misonidazole, metronidazole, 4(5)-nitroimidazole, and 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole, and the ammine analogs were cis- and trans-DDP (diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and the monoammine, K(PtCl3(NH3)). Results are related to a previous study on plasmid DNA binding by these series. The toxicity of the mono series (PtCl2(NH3)L), attributable to DNA binding, is much higher than the corresponding bis complexes, (PtCl2L2). For L = misonidazole, toxicity is similar to the monoammine, but higher in hypoxic than in aerobic cells. trans-(PtCl2(NH3)-(misonidazole)) is more toxic than the cis isomer. Except for L = 4(5)-nitroimidazole, the complexes (PtCl2(NH3)L) are more toxic than L in air and hypoxia. Hypoxic radiosensitization by the mono complexes is comparable to the monoammine and is not better than free sensitizers, again except for L = 4(5)-nitroimidazole. Significantly lower sensitization is observed in oxic cells. The bis complexes (PtCl2L2), which do not bind to DNA as well as the mono complexes, are less effective radiosensitizers and less toxic than the (PtCl2(NH3)L) series.

Skov, K.A.; Farrell, N.P.; Adomat, H.

1987-11-01

329

Artemisinin derivative artesunate induces radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Objective Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. Methods The effect of ART on radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa was assessed using the clonogenic assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis alterations were analyzed by flow cytometry. For in vivo study, HeLa or SiHa cells were inoculated into nude mice to establish tumors. Tissues from xenografts were obtained to detect the changes of microvessel density, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Microarray was used to analyze differentially expressed genes. Results ART increased the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells (SER =?1.43, P radiosensitivity of HeLa cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24666614

2014-01-01

330

Modification of radiosensitivity by the so-called tissue recovery stimulator. I. Radiosensitizing effects of solcoseryl.  

PubMed

The effect of solcoseryl on the growth, radiosensitization and ability of V79 cells to recover from X-ray-induced damage has been observed. Solcoseryl at 0.8 mg/ml was the optimal concentration for the stimulation of cell growth. Increased sensitivity to X-irradiation was found in the shoulder region of V79 cells treated before and after irradiation with solcoseryl (0.8 mg/ml). The Dq and extrapolation number (n) decreased. Solcoseryl treatment apparently does not reduce split dose recovery or inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage. Flow cytofluorometry studies of the cell cycle distribution and mitotic index show that solcoseryl inhibits the expression of radiation-induced cell arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Although this action increases radiation sensitization, additional mechanisms probably exist. PMID:1293298

Kumar, A; Kimura, H; Aoyama, T; Sugahara, T

1992-12-01

331

Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is a benign tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Malignant transformation in case of PTT is very rare and unusual finding. It is usually confused with squamous cell carcinoma both sharing many common features. So the identification of malignant PTT is very essential. Only 39 well-documented cases of malignant proliferating trichilemmal cyst have been published to date in the English language literature. We hereby present a case of a 75-year-old female patient with a rapidly growing swelling on the scalp. PMID:22470211

Goyal, Snigdha; Jain, Bhawna Bhutoria; Jana, Sritanu; Bhattacharya, Subodh K

2012-01-01

332

Gold-Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Computed Tomography-Guided Radiation Therapy Treatment and Radiosensitization  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have generated interest as both imaging and therapeutic agents. AuNPs are attractive for imaging applications since they are nontoxic and provide nearly three times greater X-ray attenuation per unit weight than iodine. As therapeutic agents, AuNPs can sensitize tumor cells to ionizing radiation. To create a nanoplatform that could simultaneously exhibit long circulation times, achieve appreciable tumor accumulation, generate computed tomography (CT) image contrast, and serve as a radiosensitizer, gold-loaded polymeric micelles (GPMs) were prepared. Specifically, 1.9 nm AuNPs were encapsulated within the hydrophobic core of micelles formed with the amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-capralactone). GPMs were produced with low polydispersity and mean hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 25 to 150 nm. Following intravenous injection, GPMs provided blood pool contrast for up to 24 h and improved the delineation of tumor margins via CT. Thus, GPM-enhanced CT imaging was used to guide radiation therapy delivered via a small animal radiation research platform. In combination with the radiosensitizing capabilities of gold, tumor-bearing mice exhibited a 1.7-fold improvement in the median survival time, compared with mice receiving radiation alone. It is envisioned that translation of these capabilities to human cancer patients could guide and enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. PMID:24377302

2013-01-01

333

In vivo assessment of basic 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizers.  

PubMed Central

The radiosensitizing efficiencies of 4 structural analogues of misonidazole (MISO) have been compared with that of the parent compound. Three of these were charged basic compounds, previously shown in vitro to be 10 times more efficient. Enhancement ratios were measured from pairs of tumour growth-delay curves for the mouse fibrosarcoma SA Fab. Two routes of administration and ranges of drug dose and intervals between injection and irradiation were tested. Drug concentrations in blood, brain and tumor were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The peak concentration in tumours coincided with the peak in radiosensitization: 20 min after i.v. injection and 40 min after i.p. injection. The concentration in tumours was similar for either route. Comparison of radiosensitizing efficiency on the basic of equal administered dose showed no difference between the 5 compounds, but after equimolar doses the charged compounds achieved lower tumour concentrations. Comparison of sensitizing efficiency on the basis of tumour concentration showed that they were 3 times more potent than MISO, as predicted from their higher electron-affinity. The resultant improvement in radiosensitization at low, clinically relevant, concentrations is so slight that any therapeutic benefit would depend on reduced drug toxicity in man. PMID:7104192

Williams, M. V.; Denekamp, J.; Minchinton, A. I.; Stratford, M. R.

1982-01-01

334

In vivo radiosensitizing effect of nitroimidazole derivative KIN-804  

SciTech Connect

In vivo characteristics of 2-nitroimidazole-1-methylacetohydroxamate (KIN-804), which is a newly developed hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, are presented. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and radiosensitizing effect of KIN-804 were studied by in vivo experiments using C3H/He mice bearing the SCCVII tumor. Results were compared with misonidazole (MISO). LD[sub 50]7 of KIN-804 and MISO were 3200 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, respectively. The peak concentration of KIN-804 in the tumor occurred 20 min after intraperitoneal injection and reached about 62% of the maximum concentration in the blood. The concentrations in brain and sciatic nerve were very low and clearance from sciatic nerve was rapid. Enhancement ratios of KIN-804 calculated using the growth delay method were 1.22, 1.50, and 1.71 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively, compared with 1.36 for MISO at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In the TCD[sub 50] assay, enhancement ratios at a dose of 200 mg/kg were 1.69 for KIN-804 and 1.52 for MISO, respectively. KIN-804 is a promising radiosensitizer since it shows less toxicity and higher radiosensitizing activity than MISO. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Tada, Takuhito (Osaka-Prefectural Habikino Hospital, Habikino-City (Japan) Osaka City Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto (Osaka City Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Murayama, Chieko; Mori, Yomoyuki (Tokai Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Nagasawa, Hideko (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Hori, Hitoshi (Tokushima Univ. (Japan)); Inayama, Seiichi (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan) Tokushima Univ. (Japan))

1994-06-15

335

Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

Ji, Yong Il

2013-01-01

336

Localized malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Localized malignant mesotheliomas are uncommon sharply circumscribed tumors of the serosal membranes with the microscopic appearance of diffuse malignant mesothelioma but without any evidence of diffuse spread. Little is known about their behavior. We report 23 new cases. The mean age at presentation was 63 years, and the sex ratio was approximately 2:1 (male/female). Twenty-one tumors were pleural and 2 were peritoneal. Sixteen tumors reproduced microscopic patterns of diffuse epithelial mesotheliomas, 6 had mixed epithelial and sarcomatous patterns, and 1 was purely sarcomatous. After surgical excision of the tumor, 10 of 21 patients with follow-up data were alive without evidence of disease from 18 months to 11 years after diagnosis. Patients who died had developed local recurrences and metastases, but none had diffuse pleural spread. Localized malignant mesotheliomas should be separated from diffuse malignant mesotheliomas because of their localized presentation, quite different biologic behavior, and far better prognosis. PMID:15958850

Allen, Timothy Craig; Cagle, Philip T; Churg, Andrew M; Colby, Thomas V; Gibbs, Allen R; Hammar, Samuel P; Corson, Joseph M; Grimes, Margaret M; Ordonez, Nelson G; Roggli, Victor; Travis, William D; Wick, Mark R

2005-07-01

337

Gynecologic malignancies in adolescents.  

PubMed

Gynecologic malignancies are rare in the pediatric and adolescent populations. Given the potential consequence of infertility and the negative impact on body image that can result from the treatment of these cancers, clinicians must be aware of the most current recommendations for medical and surgical therapy of gynecologic malignancies in these patients. This article focuses on the most common gynecologic cancers in pediatric and adolescent girls, with a special emphasis on treatment that maintain fertility and positive body image. PMID:15625993

Stepanian, Marshall; Cohn, David E

2004-10-01

338

Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The TMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research of lung and other thoracic malignancies by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies in chest malignancies. In addition to focusing on lung cancer, the TMSC addresses oncology trials in other thoracic sites, such as mesothelioma. Esophageal cancer trials are reviewed by the Gastrointestinal Cancer Steering Committee.

339

[Malignancy-associated myositis].  

PubMed

Inflammatory myopathies, also referred to as myositis, are a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory muscle diseases characterized by various clinical features and histological changes; in addition, patient with these disease exhibit positivity for autoantibodies as well as progressive inflammatory muscle damage and experienced weakness. Although it has been well known for a century that myositis, particularly dermatomyositis, can be associated with malignancy, it was not until recently that the result of robust epidemiological studies confirmed this association. Malignancy-associated myositis differs from primary myositis in many aspects. Prognosis and life expectancy for patients are determined on the basis of the underlying malignancy. Therefore, patient-specific examinations to detect an underlying cancer are important for the management of these patients. Recently, a novel myositis-specific autoantibody (anti-p155 or p155/p140 antibody) was identified in malignancy-associated myositis. The discovery of this autoantibody is important not only for an early diagnosis of adult-onset myositis patients with a higher risk of malignancy but also for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic myositis. In addition, it has also been recently found that both regenerating cells in myositis muscles and several cancers known to be associated with myositis express high levels of myositis-specific autoantigens. Therefore, a model of paraneoplasia focusing on the expression of common autoantigens expression and immuno-targeting between cancer and muscle tissues in myositis has been proposed. In this review, we aim to describe epidemiological evidence for an association between myositis and malignancy, and to describe the clinical features of malignancy-associated myositis. We also aim to focus on a recently proposed model to understand the development of malignancy-associated myositis. PMID:20420184

Shimizu, Jun

2010-04-01

340

Idiotypic vaccine for treatment of human B-cell lymphoma. Construction of IgG variable regions from single malignant B cells.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin idiotypes (Id) of malignant B cells represent highly specific markers which can be used for vaccination. PCR-amplification of immunoglobulin genes enables the rapid production of large amounts of Id vaccines. However, the separate amplification and subsequent recombination of heavy and light chains can lead to a loss of the relevant Id. To preserve the original chain pairs, we used single malignant B cells derived from an immunocytoma patient. Cytoplasm was extracted and the mRNA transcribed into cDNA. The VH and VL genes were then amplified by PCR and cloned into a vector for expression in E. coli. Id production was checked using an anti-Id mouse monoclonal Ab raised against the patient's tumor-specific IgG. One out of 3 constructs expressed the relevant Id. Analysis of the first 31 light chain residues revealed an identical sequence for the malignant B cells' IgG and the recombinant Id construct. Exchange of either the heavy or light chain with an unrelated chain resulted in loss of the Id. An unrelated sequence derived from the c-myc protein is coupled to the Id vaccine. The lymphoma patient was shown to have Abs to the c-myc sequence. This sequence therefore, increases the Id+ Ab's antigenicity. CD spectroscopy showed an alpha-helical structure for the c-myc epitope. In conclusion, a B-cell lymphoma autovaccine was produced containing immunogenic sequences that do not alter the steric conformation of the tumor-specific Id. PMID:9455490

Terness, P; Welschof, M; Moldenhauer, G; Jung, M; Moroder, L; Kirchhoff, F; Kipriyanov, S; Little, M; Opelz, G

1997-01-01

341

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

342

The origin of malignant malaria Stephen M. Richa,1  

E-print Network

, inactivation of the CMAH gene in the human lineage rendered human ancestors unable to generate the sialic acid Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697; and iProgram in Human Biology, Stanford University) Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malignant malaria, is among the most severe human infectious

Arnold, Jonathan

343

Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to

D Parker; C P Holford; R H Begent; E S Newlands; G J Rustin; A R Makey; K D Bagshawe

1983-01-01

344

CD133, CD15/SSEA-1, CD34 or side populations do not resume tumor-initiating properties of long-term cultured cancer stem cells from human malignant glio-neuronal tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor initiating cells (TICs) provide a new paradigm for developing original therapeutic strategies. Methods We screened for TICs in 47 human adult brain malignant tumors. Cells forming floating spheres in culture, and endowed with all of the features expected from tumor cells with stem-like properties were obtained from glioblastomas, medulloblastoma but not oligodendrogliomas. Results A long-term self-renewal capacity was particularly observed for cells of malignant glio-neuronal tumors (MGNTs). Cell sorting, karyotyping and proteomic analysis demonstrated cell stability throughout prolonged passages. Xenografts of fewer than 500 cells in Nude mouse brains induced a progressively growing tumor. CD133, CD15/LeX/Ssea-1, CD34 expressions, or exclusion of Hoechst dye occurred in subsets of cells forming spheres, but was not predictive of their capacity to form secondary spheres or tumors, or to resist high doses of temozolomide. Conclusions Our results further highlight the specificity of a subset of high-grade gliomas, MGNT. TICs derived from these tumors represent a new tool to screen for innovative therapies. PMID:20181261

2010-01-01

345

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors are very rare. They may arise from the epithelial components of the odontogenic apparatus. The rests of Malassez, the reduced enamel epithelium surrounding the crown of an impacted tooth, the rests of Serres in the gingiva, and the linings of odontogenic cysts represent the precursor cells for malignant transformation. Because metastatic carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the jaws, the diagnosis of a primary intraosseous carcinoma must always be made to the exclusion of metastatic disease. Odontogenic carcinomas include malignant (metastasizing) ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, and malignant epithelial ghost cell tumor. There are specific histopathologic features that support the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma of odontogenic epithelium which are presented in this article. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is important for distinguishing clear cell odontogenic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell tumors, yet IHC stains are not particularly helpful for other lesions in this group-all of which exhibit low molecular weight cytokeratin positivity. Aggressive growth and nodal and distant metastases occur with all of these entities. PMID:10587275

Eversole, L R

1999-11-01

346

The HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib has chemosensitizer and radiosensitizer activity in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

The integration of targeted agents to standard cytotoxic regimens has improved outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) over recent years; however this malignancy remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality in industrialized countries. Small molecule inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are one of the most actively pursued classes of compounds for the development of new cancer therapies. Here we evaluated the activity of ganetespib, a second-generation HSP90 inhibitor, in models of CRC. Ganetespib reduced cell viability in a panel of CRC cell lines in vitro with low nanomolar potency. Mechanistically, drug treatment exerted concomitant effects on multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage repair capacity to promote apoptosis. Combinations of ganetespib and low-dose ionizing radiation enhanced the radiosensitivity of HCT 116 cells and resulted in superior cytotoxic activity over either treatment alone. In vivo, the single-agent activity of ganetespib was relatively modest, suppressing HCT 116 xenograft tumor growth by approximately half. However, ganetespib significantly potentiated the antitumor efficacy of the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug capecitabine in HCT 116 xenografts, causing tumor regressions in a model that is intrinsically resistant to fluoropyrimidine therapy. This demonstration of combinatorial benefit afforded by an HSP90 inhibitor to a standard CRC adjuvant regimen provides an attractive new framework for the potential application of ganetespib as an investigational agent in this disease. PMID:24682747

He, Suqin; Smith, Donald L; Sequeira, Manuel; Sang, Jim; Bates, Richard C; Proia, David A

2014-08-01

347

Radiosensitivity of vascular tissue. I. Differential radiosensitivity of capillaries: a quantitative in vivo study  

SciTech Connect

The effects of single doses of X radiation ranging from 200 to 2000 rad were studied by direct morphometry in vivo of the mature, stable microvasculature in rabbit ear chambers. Reproducible observations in vivo of the mature microvasculature were obtained by photomicrography of identical 0.033-mm/sup 2/ sites in each ear chamber prior to and 1 and 5 days following single doses of X radiation. Measurements were made directly on color photomicrographs at a total magnification of 2000X. The microvessels were divided into two groups according to size: vessels > 10 ..mu..m in diameter (arterioles and venules), and vessels less than or equal to 10 ..mu..m in diameter (capillaries). Vascular length and outer and inner surface areas were measured directly on the projected photomicrographs, and vascular volumes and diameters were calculated from these measured parameters. Measurements of capillary length per unit surface area disclosed a decrease in capillary density with increasing dose. With this method, radiosensitivity of the capillaries was found to be significantly greater than that of larger vessels. The total microvascular volume profile dominated by the volume of larger vessels did not change much 5 days after irradiation, although capillary volume was markedly reduced. Qualitative morphologic observations revealed considerable extravasation from the microvessels and formation of micropetechiae at the site of disrupted capillaries with subsequent inflammatory changes.

Dimitrievich, G.S.; Fischer-Dzoga, K.; Griem, M.L.

1984-09-01

348

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794

Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D

2009-01-01

349

Non-Malignant Thyroid Diseases Following a Wide Range of Radiation Exposures  

PubMed Central

Background The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high and low dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. Methods We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate to high dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Results Following a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades following exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak and significant radiation effects were most often observed following high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant radiation dose-response relation was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

2013-01-01

350

Targeting oncogenic Ras signaling in hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Ras proteins are critical nodes in cellular signaling that integrate inputs from activated cell surface receptors and other stimuli to modulate cell fate through a complex network of effector pathways. Oncogenic RAS mutations are found in ? 25% of human cancers and are highly prevalent in hematopoietic malignancies. Because of their structural and biochemical properties, oncogenic Ras proteins are exceedingly difficult targets for rational drug discovery, and no mechanism-based therapies exist for cancers with RAS mutations. This article reviews the properties of normal and oncogenic Ras proteins, the prevalence and likely pathogenic role of NRAS, KRAS, and NF1 mutations in hematopoietic malignancies, relevant animal models of these cancers, and implications for drug discovery. Because hematologic malignancies are experimentally tractable, they are especially valuable platforms for addressing the fundamental question of how to reverse the adverse biochemical output of oncogenic Ras in cancer. PMID:22898602

Ward, Ashley F.; Braun, Benjamin S.

2012-01-01

351

Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

2012-01-01

352

Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 and genistein together adeptly down regulated survival factors and activated cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric extracranial tumor and a major cause of death in children under age 2. Conventional therapy shows inefficacy in most cases and thus development of new therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. We explored the efficacy of combination of the small molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 (HA) and the isoflavonoid genistein (GST) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells. Combination of 10 ?M HA and 250 ?M GST was optimal for SK-N-BE2 cells and combination of 5 ?M HA and 100 ?M GST was optimal for SH-SY5Y cells for induction of apoptosis. Phase-contrast microscopy and Wright staining showed morphological features of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay showed that combination of HA and GST was more effective in inducing apoptosis in both cell lines than either HA or GST alone. Western blotting showed that combination of HA and GST caused upregulation of Bax and down regulation of Bcl-2 resulting in increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, Smac, and AIF. Down regulation of survival factors such as NF-?B, N-Myc, and survivin promoted apoptosis. Activation of caspase-8, calpain, and caspase-3 occurred in course of apoptosis. Increased calpain and caspase-3 activities were confirmed in the degradation of ?-spectrin to 145 kD spectrin break down product (SBDP) and 120 kD SBDP, respectively. Thus, combination of HA and GST could serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing apoptosis in different human malignant neuroblastoma cells. PMID:19505441

Mohan, Nishant; Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

2009-01-01

353

AZD5438, an Inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary modalities for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the intrinsic radiation resistance of these tumors, many patients experience RT failure, which leads to considerable tumor progression including regional lymph node and distant metastasis. This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of a new-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, AZD5438, as a radiosensitizer in several NSCLC models that are specifically resistant to conventional fractionated RT. Methods and Materials: The combined effect of ionizing radiation and AZD5438, a highly specific inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, was determined in vitro by surviving fraction, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and homologous recombination (HR) assays in 3 NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, and H460). For in vivo studies, human xenograft animal models in athymic nude mice were used. Results: Treatment of NSCLC cells with AZD5438 significantly augmented cellular radiosensitivity (dose enhancement ratio rangeing from 1.4 to 1.75). The degree of radiosensitization by AZD5438 was greater in radioresistant cell lines (A549 and H1299). Radiosensitivity was enhanced specifically through inhibition of Cdk1, prolonged G{sub 2}-M arrest, inhibition of HR, delayed DNA DSB repair, and increased apoptosis. Combined treatment with AZD5438 and irradiation also enhanced tumor growth delay, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2-1.7. Conclusions: This study supports the evaluation of newer generation Cdk inhibitors, such as AZD5438, as potent radiosensitizers in NSCLC models, especially in tumors that demonstrate variable intrinsic radiation responses.

Raghavan, Pavithra; Tumati, Vasu; Yu Lan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Chan, Norman [Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tomimatsu, Nozomi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Burma, Sandeep [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Saha, Debabrata, E-mail: debabrata.saha@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

2012-11-15

354

Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

2014-01-01

355

Malignant myoepithelioma of palate  

PubMed Central

Malignant myoepithelioma is a rare salivary gland neoplasm, which accounts for less than 2% of all the salivary gland carcinomas. Majority of cases have been reported in parotid, and only 8 cases of involvement of the hard palate have been reported in the literature so far. Hereby, a case of painless, ulcerated palatal mass of 2 years of duration reported. A diagnosis of malignant plasmacytoid myoepithelioma was made with the aid of immunohistochemical analysis, and wide surgical excision was considered keeping in mind the biological behavior of the tumor. PMID:23293504

Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Mohanty, Sweta Pattanayak; Vibha

2012-01-01

356

MOLECULAR EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC-INDUCED MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN PROSTATIC EPITHELIAL CELLS: ABERRANT GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND K-RAS ONCOGENE ACTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous studies link arsenic exposure to human cancers in a variety of tissues, including the prostate. Our prior work showed that chronic arsenic exposure of the non-tumorigenic, human prostate epithelial cell line, RWPE-1, to low levels of (5 microM) sodium arsenite for 29 weeks resulted in malig...

357

Comparison of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Brain Tumors in a Scid Mouse Model of Human Malignant Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered viruses and viral genes inserted into retroviral vectors are increasingly being considered for experimental therapy of brain tumors. A primary target of these viruses and vectors is human gliomas, the most frequently occurring primary human brain tumor. To investigate the potential of genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) in the therapy of these tumors, we compared the attributes

Renee Chambers; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; Samita Andreansky; Subhendra Chatterjee; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1995-01-01

358

Pre-irradiation exposure of peripheral blood lymphocytes to glutaraldehyde induces radiosensitization by increasing the initial yield of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

tions in the range of 1026 to 1022 mM were applied. However, a 24-h pre-irradiation exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to non-genotoxic doses of GA showed a statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity. The observed increase may be an effect of GA-induced alterations in the cell-cycle and feedback control mechanisms during the cell-cycle transition points

Vasiliki I. Hatzi; Georgia I. Terzoudi; Vasilios Makropoulos; Constantinos Maravelias; Gabriel E. Pantelias

2008-01-01

359

Is Radiosensitivity Associated to Different Types of Blood Groups? (A cytogenetic study)  

PubMed Central

Many biological factors affect radiosensitivity. In this study, radiosensitivity among the different blood groups was investigated. Peripheral blood sample of 95 healthy people were divided into two parts. One part was irradiated with 2 Gy Co-60 gamma rays and the second one was considered as control. Then all the samples were studied by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). Our study showed that the radiosensitivity index of A+ and O+ groups was significantly higher and lower than other blood groups, respectively. It seems that blood type can be used as a radiosensitivity index for determining the given dose to radiotherapy, although extensive studies are necessary. PMID:24551803

Elahimanesh, Farideh; Shabestani Monfared, Ali; Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh; Abedian, Zeinab; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Borzouisileh, Sajad; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Amiri, Mehrangiz

2013-01-01

360

Radiosensitization of EMT6 cells by four platinum complexes  

SciTech Connect

The compounds described here are dichloro complexes of bivalent platinum with one or two potentially radiosensitizing ligands. The radiosensitization of oxygenated and hypoxic exponentially growing EMT6 cells in vitro was measured. The dose modifying factors obtained with 200 ..mu..M and 400 ..mu..M trans-bis(2-nitroimidazole)dichloroplatinum II (NIPt) in hypoxic cells were 1.5 and 2.1, respectively. For trans-bis(2-amino-5-nitrothiazole)dichloroplatinum II (Plant) under the same conditions, the dose modifying factor was 1.5 at 200 ..mu..M and 1.8 at 400 ..mu..M. Neither compound sensitized oxygenated cells when tested similar protocols. Unlike the trans complexes (1,2-diamino-4-nitrobenzene)dichloroplatinum II (Plato) was cytotoxic toward the hypoxic cells in the absence of X rays. The time course of