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1

Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

2012-01-01

2

Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

Lamont, Alexandra

2012-01-01

3

Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2012-01-01

4

Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

Lue, B.-H. [Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-S. [Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-J. [Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsiujung@ntnu.edu.tw

2008-01-01

5

Social and Emotional Learning as a Universal Level of Student Support: Evaluating the Follow-Up Effect of Strong Kids on Social and Emotional Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the initial and follow-up effect of Strong Kids, a social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, among a sample of 106 third- and fourth-grade students. Students were assigned to either the treatment or the wait-list condition and completed questionnaires on SEL knowledge and perceived use of SEL skills across 3 assessment…

Harlacher, Jason E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2010-01-01

6

Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

2013-01-01

7

Strong Start--Grades K-2: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

Merrell, Kenneth W.; Parisi, Danielle M.; Whitcomb, Sara A.

2007-01-01

8

Strong expression of survivin is associated with positive response to radiotherapy and improved overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a malignancy that is associated with severe mortality despite advances in therapy. Today's standard treatment most commonly includes radiotherapy, often combined with chemotherapy or surgery. There are so far no established biomarkers to predict response to radiation, and thus the aim of this study was to investigate a series of markers that could potentially identify HNSCC patients who would benefit from radiotherapy. The selected markers, both proteins (epidermal growth factor receptor, survivin and p53), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of XRCC3, XRCC1, XPC, XPD, MDM2, p53 and FGFR4 were correlated to the response to radiotherapy and overall survival. Investigations were performed on pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients classified as responders or nonresponders to radiotherapy. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and the genotyping of specific SNPs was analyzed using PCR-RFLP or pyrosequencing. We found that survivin expression was significantly stronger in the responder group (p = 0.003) and that patients with a strong survivin expression had a significantly better overall survival (p < 0.001). Moreover, downregulation of survivin by siRNA in two HNSCC cell lines significantly decreased their sensitivity to radiation. Among the SNPs analyzed, patients with the XPD Lys751Gln SNP had a significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.048), and patients with the FGFR4 Gly388Arg SNP had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.010). In conclusion, our results suggest that survivin plays an important role in the response to radiotherapy and may be a useful marker for predicting radiotherapy response in patients with HNSCC. PMID:23564498

Farnebo, Lovisa; Tiefenböck, Katharina; Ansell, Anna; Thunell, Lena K; Garvin, Stina; Roberg, Karin

2013-10-15

9

[Emotional intelligence: from alexithymia to emotional control].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to gain additional information about the relationship between emotional control and alexithymia, on one hand, and emotional intelligence on the other. The subjects were 251 university students who completed the Emotional Expression and Control Scale (EEC), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). The results show that both constructs explored are significantly related with emotional intelligence: emotional control positively and alexithymia negatively in all its dimensions. These findings revealed that both emotional control and alexithymia are significantly related to emotional intelligence. Thus confirming that emotional intelligence and alexithymia are inverse but strongly overlapping constructs; albeit also consistent with previous reports that alexithymic individuals lack the regulation by cognitively processing inherent to emotional control, and necessarily also to emotional intelligence while recognizable as one of its characteristics. PMID:15631852

Veríssimo, Ramiro

2003-01-01

10

Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and\\/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline.MethodsRegression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level

Matthew C Farrelly; Kevin C Davis; James M Nonnemaker; Kian Kamyab; Christine Jackson

2011-01-01

11

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz Jäncke

2008-01-01

12

Emotional regulation and emotional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current neofunctionalist views of emotion underscore the biologically adaptive and psychologically constructive contributions of emotion to organized behavior, but little is known of the development of the emotional regulatory processes by which this is fostered. Emotional regulation refers to the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions. This review provides a developmental outline of emotional

Ross A. Thompson

1991-01-01

13

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

14

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, emotional eating can be a real problem, causing serious ...

15

Emotional maltreatment.  

PubMed

Child abuse is a problem that affects the lives of many American children. The public is often bombarded with information regarding horrific cases of physical and sexual abuse. Emotional maltreatment, however, has been slow to achieve recognition as a serious social problem for a variety of reasons. Compared with physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment is more difficult to identify and define, and good epidemiological data are not available. An erroneous perception also exists that the sequelae of emotional maltreatment are less severe than that of physical and/or sexual abuse. Prompt identification of emotional maltreatment, appropriate intervention and referral, and reporting of concerns to child protective services are essential to the health and well-being of the child. This article will define emotional maltreatment, discuss consequences of emotional maltreatment, and provide implications for pediatric nurse practitioner practice. PMID:23099310

Hornor, Gail

2012-01-01

16

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

17

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

Cox, Edward P.

2009-01-01

18

Expressed emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed emotion (EE) refers to the quality of the emotional climate between a relative and a family member with a serious psychiatric disorder. Well-established, it has proven to be a reliable predictor of the relapse rate of psychiatric patients. In this article, the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), the standard instrument, and 11 alternative EE measures will be presented and discussed

G Van Humbeeck; Ch Van Audenhove; M De Hert; G Pieters; G Storms

2002-01-01

19

Top Ten Pressing Questions About the Development of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this special issue highlight the diversity of methods used to study the development of emotion regulation, and the substantial progress that has been made in understanding how children learn to manage strong emotions. This commentary poses 10 questions that focus on how developmental psychologists conceptualize emotions and regulation, measure emotions in research, and understand the interplay of

Marion K. Underwood

1997-01-01

20

Emotional intelligence in panic disorder.  

PubMed

Panic attacks are psychopathological phenomena with a strong emotional activation that often induces subsequent anticipatory anxiety and phobic avoidance. Impairment in emotional processing in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) has been hypothesized. Emotional Intelligence (EI) involves the individual abilities to perceive, understand and manage emotions in order to cope with changes in internal and external environment. We examined EI in 42 patients with PD with Agoraphobia compared to 49 healthy controls and investigated if clinical severity of Agoraphobia is related to EI performance. We assessed EI by Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and Agoraphobia by Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia. Patients with PD and Agoraphobia showed lower Strategic EI ability than healthy controls, in both Understanding and Managing emotion abilities, and a general propensity to attribute negative emotional valence to different stimuli. These preliminary results suggest that impaired mechanisms of understanding and integrating emotions may be involved in the phenomenology of PD. These features might be the target of psychological interventions in PD. On the contrary, Emotional Intelligence did not appear to affect the clinical severity of Agoraphobia. PMID:21265440

Perna, Giampaolo; Menotti, Roberta; Borriello, Giulia; Cavedini, Paolo; Bellodi, Laura; Caldirola, Daniela

2010-01-01

21

[Conformal radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Conformal radiotherapy is a new irradiation technique made possible by technological improvements, especially progress in imaging and 3D dosimetry. By conforming the volume irradiated as closely as possible to the clinical anatomical target volume, conformal radiotherapy is designed to deliver a higher dose to the tumour volume, while more effectively sparing the adjacent tissues from the adverse effects of irradiation. Conformal radiotherapy may therefore constitute a progress comparable to the contribution of high-energy radiotherapy in the 1960s or the impact of computer-assisted dosimetry in the 1970s. Evaluation of the results, definition of its indications, standardisation of practices, and study of the impact of dose escalation require further studies in the field of prostate cancer, as the superiority of this new technique over conventional radiotherapy has not been formally established due to the limited follow-up. PMID:10434334

Hubert, J; Rossi, D; Beckendorf, V

1999-06-01

22

Experiencing Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests activities for elementary school students that focus on their emotions. Provides a list of picture books that deal with the following: general feelings, anger, embarrassment, fear/anxiety, happiness, hate, jealousy, loneliness, love, pride, and sadness. (AEF)

Brodie, Carolyn S.

1996-01-01

23

Strong Libraries, Strong Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled Strong Libraries, Strong Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…

Gray, Carlyn

2006-01-01

24

Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

2011-01-01

25

Emotional stress and reversible myocardial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of clinical and experimental literature supports a strong association between emotional stress and adverse\\u000a outcomes from CVD. Effects of emotional stress on coronary blood flow and cardiac arrhythmias provide only a partial explanation.\\u000a A direct impact of emotional stress on myocardial function has recently received attention as a result of reports of patients\\u000a presenting with new onset

Deepak Khanna; Hong Kan; Conard Failinger; Abnash C. Jain; Mitchell S. Finkel

2006-01-01

26

EBDI: an architecture for emotional agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research on multiagent systems has focused on the develop- ment of rational utility-maximizing agents. However, research shows that emotions have a strong eect on peoples' physical states, motivations, be- liefs, and desires. In artificial intelligence research, emotions have begun to receive more attention, more prominently in human-robot\\/computer interaction with a focus on expressing or sensing emotions. A

Hong Jiang; José M. Vidal; Michael N. Huhns

2007-01-01

27

Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the relationship between emo- tional intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were ex- pected to be two distinct sets of abilities. Intercorrelations and confirma-

Zorana Ivcevic; Marc A. Brackett; John D. Mayer

2007-01-01

28

Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood  

PubMed Central

This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation and the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect. Emotion regulation was assessed in terms of individuals’ likelihood of maintaining adaptive emotion states. There were no age differences in adults’ co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions. In contrast to theories suggesting age would be associated with greater emotion complexity, the findings revealed that older adults had lower differentiation scores than younger adults. Age was also associated with more adaptive patterns of emotion regulation. Specifically, older adults persisted in low negative states and moved out of high negative states more readily than younger adults. Finally, neuroticism, self-concept incoherence, mean daily stress, and emotion complexity were associated with emotion regulation. Notably, adults who reported a greater mix of positive and negative affect moved out of high negative affect states more rapidly than adults with lower co-occurrence scores. This finding is in keeping with a growing body of work suggesting that positive affect promotes recovery from negative affect. Overall, the findings suggest that although emotion complexity is associated with emotion regulation, it does not appear to be a key factor underlying age differences in emotion regulation.

Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

2011-01-01

29

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

Parrish, Dominique

2011-01-01

30

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

31

Emotion is for influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional approaches to emotion are rapidly gaining in popularity. Thus far the functions of emotions have been conceptualised and studied mainly at the intrapersonal level of analysis, the key question being how individuals are influenced by the emotions they experience. Relatively little is known about the interpersonal effects of emotions; that is, how one person's emotions influence other people's cognitions,

Gerben A. Van Kleef; Evert A. Van Doorn; Marc W. Heerdink; Lukas F. Koning

2012-01-01

32

[Update on "expressed emotions"].  

PubMed

The present article is meant to sum up the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to the concept of "Emotional Expression" and its very implementation in the clinical and therapeutical field which are well-known in anglo-saxon countries but very little applied and known in France. "Emotional Expression" (EE), which came out of research and studies undertaken by Brown (1959) and later on, Vaughn and Leff (1976), defines interaction between a schizophrenic patient and his close environment according to 3 criterium: judgmental comments and criticism, hostility, emotional over-involvement. Family surroundings are characterized by strong EE or weak EE according to the frequency and the quantity of the measures during a typical standard family-interview: the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). A strong EE is considered as being a non-specific factor. "Emotional Expression" proves to be a predictable indication for relapse in terms of psychiatric affluence (positive symptoms), hospitalization rate and psycho-social adjustment process. The possibilities of forecasting do not concern specifically schizophrenia as the relation between family climate and relapse can be observed in other mental pathology as well. The psycho-educational approach which is induced by this research trend is based on a concept of a partnership between the patients's family and the patient. The purpose in fact is to bring about changes within the relationship of the patient and his environment so as to reduce judgmental criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement (information programs concerning etiology, therapeutical strategies in view of improving understanding of the illness and to reorganize proper family relationship). The advantage of such a concept which is well-known lies in the fact that it helps to find out those family surroundings with strong EE who represent factors of relapse for psychiatric patients and to suggest therefore therapeutical treatment, the purpose of which should be defined together with all those concerned namely, the patient, the family, the therapeutist so as to intervene during the evolution of the illness. The literary bibliographical review which we have made lead us to find the existence of a wide field of research with results showing clearly the predictable aspects of EE in the illness process. In this way, new approaches in the "intake" of schizophrenic patients and their families are clearly defined. PMID:10951910

Abaoub, A; Vidon, G

2000-01-01

33

Set for Success: Building a Strong Foundation for School Readiness Based on the Social-Emotional Development of Young Children. The Kauffman Early Education Exchange (1st, Kansas City, Missouri, November 12, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compiles 6 of the 12 papers commissioned for the first Kauffman Early Education Exchange Conference in November 2001 that present the latest findings on the importance of social and emotional aspects of school readiness. The papers also provide evidence of programs that help to prepare young children for early school success. An…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

34

The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…

Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

2012-01-01

35

Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Classification and Classification Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the problem of human facial emotion and emo- tion intensity levels recognition and resulting classification accuracy evalua- tion. Final testing set classification accuracy value is usually taken as a quan- tifier of method quality. However, this value is often strongly affected by the testing set parameters such as number, age and gender of subjects or

Marian Beszédes; Phil F. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

36

Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.  

PubMed

In the two decades since contemporary psychologists produced strong evidence confirming Darwin's century-old hypothesis of the innateness and universality of certain facial expressions of emotions, research on expressive behavior has become well established in developmental, social, and personality psychology and in psychophysiology. There are also signs of increased interest in emotions in clinical psychology and the neurosciences. Despite the success of the work on emotion expression and the upward trend of interest in emotions in general, the fundamental issue of the relation between emotion expression and emotion experience or feeling state remains controversial. A new developmental model of expression-feeling relations provides a framework for reevaluating previous research and for understanding the conditions under which expressions are effective in activating and regulating feeling states. The model has implications for research, socialization practices, and psychotherapy. PMID:2182826

Izard, C E

1990-03-01

37

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

38

Zen, Emotion, and Social Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some common conceptions of Buddhist meditative practice emphasize the elimi- nation of emotion and desire in the interest of attaining tranquility and spiritual per- fection. But to place too strong an emphasis on this is to miss an important social element emphasized by major figures in the Mahayana and Chan-Zen Buddhist tra- ditions who are sharply critical of these quietistic

Robert Feleppa

2009-01-01

39

The emotionally intelligent decision maker: emotion-understanding ability reduces the effect of incidental anxiety on risk taking.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we examined how a core dimension of emotional intelligence, emotion-understanding ability, facilitates decision making. Individuals with higher levels of emotion-understanding ability can correctly identify which events caused their emotions and, in particular, whether their emotions stem from events that are unrelated to current decisions. We predicted that incidental feelings of anxiety, which are unrelated to current decisions, would reduce risk taking more strongly among individuals with lower rather than higher levels of emotion-understanding ability. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this prediction. In Experiment 2, the effect of incidental anxiety on risk taking among participants with lower emotion-understanding ability, relative to participants with higher emotion-understanding ability, was eliminated when we informed participants about the source of their anxiety. This finding reveals that emotion-understanding ability guards against the biasing effects of incidental anxiety by helping individuals determine that such anxiety is irrelevant to current decisions. PMID:23221020

Yip, Jeremy A; Côté, Stéphane

2013-01-01

40

Emotional eating: eating when emotional or emotional about eating?  

PubMed

This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to habit strength in snack consumption, employing 7-day snack diaries. Both studies demonstrated that snack consumption was not predicted by emotional eating but depended on the habit of unhealthy snacking and on restraint eating. As emotional eating was not a significant predictor of snack intake, Study 3 addressed the alternative hypothesis of emotional eating being an expression of concerns about eating behaviour. Results from this cross-sectional survey (N = 134) showed that emotional eating was significantly associated with several concerns. Together, these studies show that snack intake is better predicted by habit strength and restraint eating than by emotional eating. Additionally, the results suggest that in normal-weight women the concept of emotional eating may not capture the tendency to eat under emotional conditions, but rather reflects beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating. PMID:20204980

Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine

2011-01-01

41

Emotions and Emotional Communication in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews important advances in the study of emotions in infants and the nature of emotional communication between infants and adults. Discusses the relationship of this communication system to children's development. (Author/BJV)

Tronick, Edward Z.

1989-01-01

42

Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent [Department of Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Gary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doherty, Gerard [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-08-01

43

Workgroup emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3

Peter J. Jordan; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Charmine E. J. Härtel; Gregory S. Hooper

2002-01-01

44

Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accu- rate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find

John D. Mayer; Richard D. Roberts; Sigal G. Barsade

2008-01-01

45

How Emotions Affect Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

Sylwester, Robert

1994-01-01

46

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

47

Emotional control in adulthood.  

PubMed

Although it is widely believed that emotions vary with age, there is a dearth of information on emotional experiences in later adulthood. Several researchers think that older adults experience less emotional intensity than younger people while others have suggested that aging is accompanied by a decrease in positive affect and an increase in negative emotions. Sex similarities and differences in emotionality have also been documented. This study focuses on age and sex similarities and differences in emotional control. Three hundred and twenty seven men and women aged 19 to 92 years were administered two emotion measures. The results support previous research which suggests that the control of emotions increases with age. In evaluating sex differences in emotional control, women scored as more emotionally expressive than men, a finding which is consistent with previous research. Results are discussed in relation to socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:9129369

McConatha, J T; Leone, F M; Armstrong, J M

1997-04-01

48

Bodily maps of emotions  

PubMed Central

Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

2014-01-01

49

Does vivid emotional imagery depend on body signals?  

PubMed

The recall and re-experiencing of a personal emotional event (emotional imagery) are thought to evoke neural activity in the central nervous system that can affect the physiology of bodily states. It has been proposed that the more active the neural systems previously engaged in the emotional experience, and the more active the bodily state associated with that experience, the more vivid the emotional imagery is. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the gastrointestinal system (GI) are engaged in emotional reactions. On this basis, we hypothesized that vivid emotional imagery would be accompanied by strong increases in gastrointestinal and sympathetic nervous system activity. To test this hypothesis, 17 healthy participants performed emotional imagery of strong autobiographical memories involving various emotional states (happy, fear, disgust, sadness, anger). SNS and GI changes, measured by skin conductance and electrogastrogram, respectively, correlated positively with subjective ratings of arousal during the imagery. However, the SNS changes did not correlate with ratings of emotional imagery vividness, and even more intriguingly, the GI changes correlated strongly and negatively with vividness ratings. To account for these findings, we propose that in highly vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is simulating the whole emotional experience strongly, and bodily information plays a lesser role. In low vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is not simulating very strongly the emotional experience, and information coming from the body (including the GI system) plays a greater role. This interpretation is set forth in the context of Damasio's [Damasio, A., (1999) The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness, Orlando, Fl, Harcourt.] theoretical framework, which predicts such a dissociation between a "body loop" and an "as if body loop" for the experiencing and re-experiencing of emotions and feelings. PMID:18824045

Vianna, Eduardo Paulo Morawski; Naqvi, Nasir; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

2009-04-01

50

Emotion regulation mediates age differences in emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study aimed at testing the proposition of socioemotional selectivity theory whether older people would use more antecedent-focused emotion regulatory strategies like cognitive reappraisal but fewer response-focused strategies like suppression. It also aimed at investigating the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between age and emotions.Method: The sample consisted of 654 younger and older adults aged between

Dannii Y. Yeung; Carmen K. M. Wong; David P. P. Lok

2011-01-01

51

Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing.  

PubMed

How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed. PMID:16118974

Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C

2002-08-01

52

Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion

Jennifer M. George

2000-01-01

53

Association between trait emotional awareness and dorsal anterior cingulate activity during emotion is arousal-dependent  

PubMed Central

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is commonly thought to subserve primarily cognitive functions, but has been strongly implicated in the allocation of attention to emotional information. In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study, we observed that women with higher emotional awareness as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) showed greater changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dACC induced by emotional films and recall. In the current study, we tested whether these effects were due to the processing of any non-neutral stimulus, or were specific to conditions of high emotional arousal. Our results extend the previous finding by demonstrating a positive correlation between emotional awareness and dACC activity only in the context of viewing highly arousing pictures. No such relationship was observed when comparing pleasant or unpleasant pictures to neutral or to each other. We also observed that the relationship between LEAS and dACC activity was present in both sexes but stronger in women than men. These results reinforce the concept that greater trait awareness of one's own emotional experiences is associated with greater engagement of the dACC during emotional arousal, which we suggest may reflect greater attentional processing of emotional information.

McRae, Kateri; Reiman, Eric M.; Fort, Carolyn L.; Chen, Kewei; Lane, Richard D.

2010-01-01

54

COPD Emotional Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Dept. of Medicine View full profile COPD: Emotional Management In most cases, COPD completely changes a person's ... Depression Sleep Intimacy NEXT: Common Feelings More Emotional Management Information Anxiety Common Feelings Depression Intimacy Sleep Back ...

55

Emotion, Learning and Organizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.

2002-01-01

56

Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with individual differences in the ability to connect thoughts to emotions. People who are good at connecting thoughts to feelings may better “hear” the emotional implications of their own thoughts, as well as understand the feelings of others from what they say. We had 321 participants read the writings of a target group of people and

John D. Mayer; Glenn Geher

1996-01-01

57

Does vivid emotional imagery depend on body signals?  

PubMed Central

The recall and re-experiencing of a personal emotional event (emotional imagery) are thought to evoke neural activity in the central nervous system that can affect the physiology of bodily states. It has been proposed that the more active the neural systems previously engaged in the emotional experience, and the more active the bodily state associated with that experience, the more vivid the emotional imagery is. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the gastrointestinal system (GI) are engaged in emotional reactions. On this basis, we hypothesized that vivid emotional imagery would be accompanied by strong increases in gastrointestinal and sympathetic nervous system activity. To test this hypothesis, 17 healthy participants performed emotional imagery of strong autobiographical memories involving various emotional states (happy, fear, disgust, sadness, anger). SNS and GI changes, measured by skin conductance and electrogastrogram, respectively, correlated positively with subjective ratings of arousal during the imagery. However, the SNS changes did not correlate with ratings of emotional imagery vividness, and even more intriguingly, the GI changes correlated strongly and negatively with vividness ratings. To account for these findings, we propose that in highly vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is simulating the whole emotional experience strongly, and bodily information plays a lesser role. In low vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is not simulating very strongly the emotional experience, and information coming from the body (including the GI system) plays a greater role. This interpretation is set forth in the context of Damasio's (1999) theoretical framework, which predicts such a dissociation between a “body loop” and an “as if body loop” for the experiencing and re-experiencing of emotions and feelings.

Vianna, E.P.M.; Naqvi, N.; Bechara, A.; Tranel, D.

2009-01-01

58

Emotion Regulation and Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the similarities and differences between emotion regulation and stress coping and reviews research that\\u000a suggests that the association between emotion regulation and stress may be explained by the common neural structures. Developmental\\u000a changes related to emotion regulation and stress are also discussed. Overall, the research suggests that individuals vary\\u000a in their ability to regulate emotions and cope

Manjie Wang; Kimberly J. Saudino

2011-01-01

59

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

60

Emotion-regulation choice.  

PubMed

Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesized that in low-intensity negative situations, people would show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by engagement reappraisal, which allows emotional processing. However, we expected people in high-intensity negative situations to show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by disengagement distraction, which blocks emotional processing at an early stage before it gathers force. In three experiments, we created emotional contexts that varied in intensity, using either emotional pictures (Experiments 1 and 2) or unpredictable electric stimulation (Experiment 3). In response to these emotional contexts, participants chose between using either reappraisal or distraction as an emotion-regulation strategy. Results in all experiments supported our hypothesis. This pattern in the choice of emotion-regulation strategies has important implications for the understanding of healthy adaptation. PMID:21960251

Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

2011-11-01

61

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

62

The laws of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

Nico H. Frijda

1988-01-01

63

Three dimensions of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author contends that the activation theory of emotions is the most adequate to date for conceptualizing the intensitive dimension of emotion, and that electrical skin conductance is a good measure of the extent of activation present. For other dimensions of emotion, however, he feels that other measurement approaches are necessary and discusses facial expressions as one of these. Evidence

Harold Schlosberg

1954-01-01

64

Teaching Emotional Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

Bump, Jerome

65

Up with Emotional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

Pool, Carolyn R.

1997-01-01

66

Notes on emotional components of musical creativity and performance.  

PubMed

We explored emotional accompaniments to stages of a musician's cycle of creativity through interviews with musicians. Creativity was defined in terms of performance or composition. These musicians described strong emotional vacillations that occur across the creative cycle and discussed ways of dealing with emotional issues involved in moving from one work to the next. Parallels were drawn between emotional aspects of completing a performance or composition to emotional aspects of termination in psychotherapy. Suggestions were offered to musicians for means of dealing with naturally occurring but powerful emotional components of creativity. In addition, some of the musicians suggested that music educators consider teaching students about potential emotional issues that may accompany creative effort. An integration of these issues into music education programs might better prepare students for careers as professional musicians. PMID:7815377

Lund, N L; Kranz, P L

1994-11-01

67

Radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy has been controversial and no consensus has developed on the most appropriate use of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. In the last decade the results of three randomized controlled trials examining the effects of early radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with high-risk features (positive surgical margins, extracapsular extension and seminal vesical involvement) have been published. The results of these trials indicate that early radiotherapy changes the natural history of high-risk prostate cancer. Specifically, early radiotherapy reduces the risk of biochemical recurrence, improves clinical disease-free survival, decreases the utilization of salvage androgen suppression and, in the study with longest follow-up, early radiotherapy improves overall survival. This article will review the evidence, provide a commentary on the existing evidence, and describe key issues going forward (timing of radiotherapy, androgen suppression and radiotherapy techniques). PMID:22845412

Patel, Pretesh; Lee, W Robert

2012-07-01

68

Self-conscious emotions, general emotional distress, and expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of self-conscious emotions (shame and guilt) with general emotional distress (GED) and expressed emotion (EE) in family members of patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-seven relatives were given the test of self-conscious affect Tangney et al., 1989, The Test of Self-Conscious Affect. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University) to evaluate their proneness to shame and guilt and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995. Behav Res Ther. 33:335-343) to assess GED. Participants were also interviewed using the Camberwell Family Interview to measure EE. Consistent with Tangney's theory of self-conscious emotions and with study hypotheses, simultaneous regression analyses indicated that increasing shame proneness was strongly and positively associated with caregivers' reported GED whereas increasing guilt proneness was negatively associated with GED. Expressed emotion was not found to relate to self-conscious emotions nor to GED when rated as a dichotomous variable (high vs. low). However, greater shame proneness was associated with lower ratings of emotional overinvolvement, one component of EE. Study implications are discussed. PMID:20386261

de Mamani, Amy G Weisman

2010-04-01

69

Radiotherapy and hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

72 patients with either unresectable or pelvic recurrence of colorectal cancer were treated with combined radiotherapy and locoregional hyperthermia. Radiation doses were 50 Gy or more in patients not previously treated with radiotherapy, and 32 Gy(8 × 4 Gy) in patients who had previously received radiotherapy. Hyperthermia was administered within 30 min of irradiation, and the aim was to give

D. Gonzalez Gonzalez; J. D. P van Dijk; L. E. C. M Blank

1995-01-01

70

Strong Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

2009-09-29

71

Emotional control in Chinese female cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Chinese persons are not known as strong in expressing emotions, especially negative ones. However, being diagnosed with cancer and going through treatment can be an emotionally traumatic experience and cancer patients are supposed to have a stronger need to express these negative feelings. The control of expression of negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression in Chinese female cancer survivors (n=139) was examined in the present study using the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). The reliability, internal consistency and validity of the Chinese CECS were comparable to the original English scale. Correlation analyses suggested that cancer survivors with higher emotional control tended to have higher stress, anxiety and depression levels and to adopt negative coping with cancer. Regression analysis showed that emotional control would positively predict stress level even after the effect of depressed mood was under control. Further investigations are suggested in order to elucidate the causal relationships and specific cultural factors affecting emotional control in Chinese cancer survivors and, most importantly, its effect on health outcomes. PMID:15386636

Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Samuel M Y

2004-11-01

72

Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

2014-01-01

73

Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective  

PubMed Central

Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan.

Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

2014-01-01

74

The emotionally competent leader.  

PubMed

Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

Goleman, D

1998-01-01

75

How Emotions Change Time  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention, or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share.

Schirmer, Annett

2011-01-01

76

[Neuroarchitecture of musical emotions].  

PubMed

The emotional response to music, or musical emotion, is a universal response that draws on diverse psychological processes implemented in a large array of neural structures and mechanisms. Studies using electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance, lesions and individuals with extent musical training have begun to elucidate some of these mechanisms. The objective of this article is reviewing the most relevant studies that have tried to identify the neural correlates of musical emotion from the more automatic to the more complex processes, and to understand how these correlates interact in the brain. The article describes how the presentation of music perceived as emotional is associated with a rapid autonomic response in thalamic and subthalamic structures, accompanied by changes in the electrodermal and endocrine responses. It also explains how musical emotion processing activates auditory cortex, as well as a series of limbic and paralimbic structures, such as the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex or the hippocampus, demonstrating the relevant contribution of the limbic system to musical emotion. Further, it is detailed how musical emotion depends to a great extent on semantic and syntactic process carried out in temporal and parietofrontal areas, respectively. Some of the recent works demonstrating that musical emotion highly relies on emotional simulation are also mentioned. Finally, a summary of these studies, their limitations, and suggestions for further research on the neuroarchitecture of musical emotion are given. PMID:23440757

Sel, Alejandra; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

2013-03-01

77

Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

2009-01-01

78

Emotions: from brain to robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to improve human-computer interaction. In this article we analyze what it would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields a deepening understanding of inter- acting brain structures and

Michael A. Arbib; Jean-Marc Fellous

2004-01-01

79

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

80

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

81

Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia.

Herbener, Ellen S.

2008-01-01

82

Emotional intelligence is…?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four tertiary students completed questionnaires measuring emotional intelligence (EI), personality, affiliation, abstract reasoning ability, emotional knowledge, and task orientation. Among personality variables, extraversion and agreeableness correlated moderately with total Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) (p<0.01), and weakly (p<0.05) with openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. TMMS was also correlated with emotional knowledge (p<0.01) but not with abstract reasoning or interest in affiliation. Results

Janette Warwick; Ted Nettelbeck

2004-01-01

83

Music emotion ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based retrieval has emerged as a promising approach to information access. In this paper, we propose an approach to music emotion ranking. Specifically, we rank music in terms of arousal and valence and represent each song as a point in the 2D emotion space. Novel ranking-based methods for annotation, learning, and evaluation of music emotion recognition are developed and tested

Yi-Hsuan Yang; Homer H. Chen

2009-01-01

84

Positive emotion regulation in emotional disorders: a theoretical review.  

PubMed

Conceptualizations of emotion regulation have led to the identification of cognitive and behavioral regulatory abnormalities that contribute to the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. However, existing research on emotion regulation in anxiety and mood disorders has primarily focused on the regulation of negative emotions rather than positive emotions. Recent findings indicate that disturbances in positive emotion regulation occur across emotional disorders, and may be a generative target for treatment research. The aims of this paper are to: 1. Present a transdiagnostic model of positive emotion disturbances in emotional disorders; 2. Review evidence for disturbances in positive emotion regulation in emotional disorders across categories of emotion regulation; and 3. Propose treatment strategies that may address these disturbances. PMID:23399829

Carl, Jenna R; Soskin, David P; Kerns, Caroline; Barlow, David H

2013-04-01

85

Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of "disgust" in traumatic stress and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors.

Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

2014-01-01

86

Joining the conspiracy? negotiating ethics and emotions in researching (around) AIDS in southern africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is an emotive subject, particularly in southern Africa. Among those who have been directly affected by the disease, or who perceive themselves to be personally at risk, talking about AIDS inevitably arouses strong emotions—amongst them fear, distress, loss and anger. Conventionally, human geography research has avoided engagement with such emotions. Although the ideal of the

Nicola Ansell; Lorraine Van Blerk

2005-01-01

87

Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our sense of self is strongly colored by emotions although at the same time we are well able to distinguish affect and self. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we here tested for the differen- tial effects of self-relatedness and emotion dimensions (valence, intensity) on parametric modulation of neural activity during perception of emotional stimuli. We observed opposite parametric modulation of

Georg Northoff; Felix Schneider; Michael Rotte; Christian Matthiae; Claus Tempelmann; Christina Wiebking; Felix Bermpohl; Alexander Heinzel; Peter Danos; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Bernhard Bogerts; Martin Walter; Jaak Panksepp

2009-01-01

88

Expression of Emotion: When It Causes Trauma and When It Helps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that clients should be encouraged to express strong emotion regarding the traumas they have suffered is widely assumed. This article asks whether the empirical literature supports the underlying assumption that emotional expression leads to positive outcomes (better health and dissipation of distress). Studies in which individuals who have been given an opportunity to express emotions about past traumas

Jill Littrell

2009-01-01

89

The Experience and Expression of Emotion within Stepsibling Relationships: Politeness of Expression and Stepfamily Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

While scholars agree there are emotional challenges associated with the divorce and remarriage process, little is known about how stepsiblings interact and manage the experience and expression of emotion within their stepfamily. The current investigation examined the frequency of experience, intensity, and expression of positive, strong negative, and weak negative emotion within stepsibling relationships over time. Using Politeness Theory as

Emily Lamb Normand

2010-01-01

90

Emotional support providers and psychological distress among Anglo and Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence from studies investigating the role naturally-occurring emotional support networks play in remediating psychological distress strongly suggests that such networks buffer personal distress and lessen the need for formal mental health care. Research findings also suggest that reliance on emotional support networks varies across ethnic groups. The present study compared emotional support network characteristics of Anglo-Americans to those of

James Griffith

1984-01-01

91

Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the nun study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion

Deborah D. Danner; David A. Snowdon; Wallace V. Friesen

2001-01-01

92

Quantitative and visual analysis of the impact of music on perceived emotion of film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents quantitative and visual methods for the analysis of the effect of music on emotion perceived in film. We discover strong, visible, and quantifiable trends in the effect of music on perceived emotion of film. We perform studies using both selected classical and composed music segments annotated with diverse emotions, paired with ambiguous film clips. We collect and

Rob Parke; Elaine Chew; Chris Kyriakakis

2007-01-01

93

A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

94

Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion

Christine Lætitia Lisetti; Fatma Nasoz

2004-01-01

95

Rethinking the Development of "Nonbasic" Emotions: A Critical Review of Existing Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores current theories of emotional development in order to identify the assumptions that could explain the strong antagonism toward early nonbasic emotions. Draws on the contrasting and polarity of viewpoints to examine the logical implications of these viewpoints for the very possibility of early nonbasic emotions and their reciprocal…

Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Reddy, Vasudevi; Costall, Alan

2001-01-01

96

Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.  

PubMed

Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724

Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

2014-08-01

97

Gastric myoelectrical activity as an index of emotional arousal.  

PubMed

Autonomic nervous system parameters such as electrodermal activity, heart rate, and facial EMG have been utilized extensively as measures of emotional arousal. One measure that has rarely been employed in this setting is gastric myoelectrical activity, despite the fact that "gut feelings" have an obvious and even profound role in everyday emotional life. It has been shown that the gastrointestinal system changes wall tonus and contraction rate during stressful tasks. However, the effects of emotionally salient stimuli on gastrointestinal motility have scarcely been studied. In the current study, emotional film clips designed to elicit happiness, disgust, fear, sadness, or no emotion (neutral) were presented to 16 normal participants. Electrogastrogram (EGG), skin conductance, and heart rate were measured while the participants viewed the film clips, and participants rated subjective arousal intensity and pleasantness of the film clips. We found that emotional film clips reliably induced the intended subjective feeling states. Also, EGG peak amplitudes in fear, disgust, sadness and happiness were higher than in the no emotion condition. There was a strong positive correlation (r=0.64) between EGG peak amplitude and subjective ratings of arousal. This is the first evidence that gastric myoelectrical activity is strongly correlated with arousal ratings to emotionally salient stimuli, and it suggests that EGG may add useful information about how the body contributes to the phenomenology of emotion and feeling. PMID:16403424

Vianna, E P M; Tranel, D

2006-07-01

98

Emotions Beyond Regulation: Backgrounded Emotions in Science and Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are understood sociologically as experiences of involvement. Emotion regulation influences the type, incidence, and expression of emotions. Regulation occurs through physical processes prior to an emotions episode, through social interaction in which a person’s emotions are modified due to the reactions of others to them, and by a person’s self-modification or management of emotions which they are consciously aware

Jack Barbalet

2011-01-01

99

Music-color associations are mediated by emotion  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations.

Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.; Xu, Zoe; Prado-Leon, Lilia R.

2013-01-01

100

Emotions in uniform: How nurses regulate emotion at work via emotional boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of emotions at work has been conceptualized in terms of its association with emotional inauthenticity and dissonance. In contrast, we integrate the idea of emotion regulation at work with basic strategic and adaptive functions of emotion, offering a new way of understanding how emotions can be harnessed for task achievement and personal development. Through a content analysis of

Renae Maree Hayward; Michelle Rae Tuckey

2011-01-01

101

Emotion dysregulation in schizophrenia: Reduced amplification of emotional expression is associated with emotional blunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent emotional disturbance in schizophrenia is clinically evident in blunted affect, often observed as reduced emotional expressivity alongside the individual's report of normal or heightened emotional experience. It has been suggested that this disjunction between the experience and expression of emotion may reflect problems with the regulation of emotional expression. The present study thus set out to examine the

Julie D. Henry; Melissa J. Green; Amber de Lucia; Corinne Restuccia; Skye McDonald; Maryanne O'Donnell

2007-01-01

102

The uncharted waters of emotion: Ethnicity, trait emotion and emotion expression in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are central to contemporary theories of health, and a growingbody of psychological research has shown emotion and emotion regulatorystyles to be predictive of health outcomes. Yet despite these clear links andthe fact that patterns of emotion and expression are partially a product ofculture, there is a meager literature on the emotional characteristics ofdifferent ethnic groups. Even where ethnicity has

Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2002-01-01

103

Disentangling attention from action in the emotional spatial cueing task.  

PubMed

In the emotional spatial cueing task, a peripheral cue-either emotional or non-emotional-is presented before target onset. A stronger cue validity effect with an emotional relative to a non-emotional cue (i.e., more efficient responding to validly cued targets relative to invalidly cued targets) is taken as an indication of emotional modulation of attentional processes. However, results from previous emotional spatial cueing studies are not consistent. Some studies find an effect at the validly cued location (shorter reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue), whereas other studies find an effect at the invalidly cued location (longer reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue). In the current paper, we explore which parameters affect emotional modulation of the cue validity effect in the spatial cueing task. Results from five experiments in healthy volunteers led to the conclusion that a threatening spatial cue did not affect attention processes but rather indicate that motor processes are affected. A possible mechanism might be that a strong aversive cue stimulus decreases reaction times by means of stronger action preparation. Consequently, in case of a spatially congruent response with the peripheral cue, a stronger cue validity effect could be obtained due to stronger response priming. The implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24467679

Mulckhuyse, Manon; Crombez, Geert

2014-11-01

104

Perceived gesture dynamics in nonverbal expression of emotion.  

PubMed

Recent judgment studies have shown that people are able to fairly correctly attribute emotional states to others' bodily expressions. It is, however, not clear which movement qualities are salient, and how this applies to emotional gesture during speech-based interaction. In this study we investigated how the expression of emotions that vary on three major emotion dimensions-that is, arousal, valence, and potency-affects the perception of dynamic arm gestures. Ten professional actors enacted 12 emotions in a scenario-based social interaction setting. Participants (N = 43) rated all emotional expressions with muted sound and blurred faces on six spatiotemporal characteristics of gestural arm movement that were found to be related to emotion in previous research (amount of movement, movement speed, force, fluency, size, and height/vertical position). Arousal and potency were found to be strong determinants of the perception of gestural dynamics, whereas the differences between positive or negative emotions were less pronounced. These results confirm the importance of arm movement in communicating major emotion dimensions and show that gesture forms an integrated part of multimodal nonverbal emotion communication. PMID:24422246

Dael, Nele; Goudbeek, Martijn; Scherer, K R

2013-01-01

105

Emotional Autonomy and Adolescent Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations among maternal depression, family dysfunction, emotional autonomy, and early adolescent adjustment. Found that among offspring of depressed mothers, higher emotional autonomy predicted increased internalizing and externalizing problems; among offspring of nondepressed mothers, higher emotional autonomy predicted decreases in…

Garber, Judy; Little, Stephanie A.

2001-01-01

106

Heavy-ion radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

Kanai, Tatsuaki

2000-11-01

107

Recent advances in radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy has come a long way from treatment planning based on orthogonal radiographs with large margins around tumours. Advances in imaging and radiation planning software have led to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and, further, to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). IMRT permits sparing of normal tissues and hence dose-escalation to tumours. IMRT is the current standard in treatment of head and prostate cancer and is being investigated in other tumour sites. Exquisitely sculpted dose distributions (increased geographical miss) with IMRT, plus tumour motion and anatomical changes during radiotherapy make image guided radiotherapy an essential part of modern radiation delivery. Various hardware and software tools are under investigation for optimal IGRT.

2010-01-01

108

Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common feature of the Radiotherapy Centres where there have been major accidents involving incorrect radiotherapy treatment is that they did not operate good Quality Assurance systems. A Quality Assurance system is sometimes called a Quality Management system, and it is designed to give assurance that quality standards are being met. One of the "spin offs" from operating a Quality Management system is that it reduces the likelihood of a radiotherapy accident. A detailed account of how to set up a quality system in radiotherapy has been given in an ESTRO booklet.2

Mckenzie, Alan

109

[Image processing and radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Medical images are of great importance in radiotherapy, which became a privileged application field for image processing techniques. Moreover, because of the progression of the computers' performances, these techniques are also in full expansion. Today, the recent developments of the radiotherapy (3DCR, IMRT) offer a huge place to them. Effectively, they can potentially answer to the precision requirements of the modern radiotherapy, and may then contribute to improve the delivered treatments. The purpose of this article is to present the different image processing techniques that are currently used in radiotherapy (including image matching and segmentation) as they are described in the literature. PMID:15132145

Bondiau, P Y; Malandain, G; Chanalet, S; Marcy, P Y; Foa, C; Ayache, N

2004-04-01

110

Increasing Organizational Productivity Through Heightened Emotional Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, a strong IQ can set the baseline for success but does not guarantee prosperity. Goleman believes that factors contributing to "emotional intelligence" (for example, self-control, zeal and persistence, and ability to motivate oneself) are key to success in the corporate world. Howard Gardner has identified…

Maulding, Wanda S.

111

A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of 44 effect sizes based on the responses of 7898 participants found that higher emotional intelligence was associated with better health. Emotional intelligence had a weighted average association of r=.29 with mental health, r=.31 with psychosomatic health, and r=.22 with physical health. Emotional intelligence measured as a trait was more strongly associated with mental health than emotional intelligence

Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Einar B. Thorsteinsson; Navjot Bhullar; Sally E. Rooke

2007-01-01

112

Understanding emotional abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits

C A Rees

2010-01-01

113

Conflict management and emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The five studies included in this special issue focus on emotions and conflict management. These studies highlight how conflict management research can help managers, employees, and organizations more effectively manage the emotional aspects of conflict. This paper aims to summarize these studies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five studies were selected and combined in this single issue so that researchers could

Richard A. Posthuma

2012-01-01

114

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

115

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

116

Emotions and Golf Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

2006-01-01

117

Emotional Response Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theories of categorization in which categories are assumed to be grounded in perceptual similarity or theories ignore an important basis of conceptual structure: the emotion that a stimulus elicits in a perceiver. This article discusses the nature of, constraints on, and conditions of use of emotional response categories. Experiments in which participants sorted triads of concepts that shared both

Paula M. Niedenthal; Jamin B. Halberstadt; Åse H. Innes-Ker

1999-01-01

118

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

119

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872\\/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This

Ursula Hess; Pascal Thibault

2009-01-01

120

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

121

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

122

Emotion and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The more neuroscientists explore how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information, the more evident is the connection between emotion and reason. Scientists have discovered that the same areas of the brain that are involved in processing emotion are involved in processing memory. (Author/JOW)

Weiss, Palumbo Ruth

2000-01-01

123

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

124

Emotionally Harmful Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

2007-01-01

125

An Emotional Control Card for Inappropriate and Appropriate Emotions in Using Rational-Emotive Imagery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the emotional control card techniques developed by Sklare, Taylor, and Hyland (1985) to help clients more effectively use the rational-emotive imagery technique of Ellis (1974). Suggests a revision of the emotional control card technique. (NB)

Ellis, Albert

1986-01-01

126

Emotional mimicry as social regulation.  

PubMed

Emotional mimicry is the imitation of the emotional expressions of others. According to the classic view on emotional mimicry (the Matched Motor Hypothesis), people mimic the specific facial movements that comprise a discrete emotional expression. However, little evidence exists for the mimicry of discrete emotions; rather, the extant evidence supports only valence-based mimicry. We propose an alternative Emotion Mimicry in Context view according to which emotional mimicry is not based on mere perception but rather on the interpretation of signals as emotional intentions in a specific context. We present evidence for the idea that people mimic contextualized emotions rather than simply expressive muscle movements. Our model postulates that (implicit or explicit) contextual information is needed for emotional mimicry to take place. It takes into account the relationship between observer and expresser, and suggests that emotional mimicry depends on this relationship and functions as a social regulator. PMID:23348982

Hess, Ursula; Fischer, Agneta

2013-05-01

127

Defibrillator reset by radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The number of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is rapidly increasing due to their expanding indications. Amongst the various types of electromagnetic interferences, little is reported about the effects of radiotherapy. We report a case of electrical reset of a single chamber ICD by scattered irradiation from radiotherapy. PMID:17900717

Lau, Dennis H; Wilson, Lauren; Stiles, Martin K; John, Bobby; Shashidhar; Dimitri, Hany; Brooks, Anthony G; Young, Glenn D; Sanders, Prashanthan

2008-10-30

128

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

129

Emotional labour and emotional exhaustion: Interpersonal and intrapersonal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some occupations, particularly in the service sector, dealing with patients or clients may require an employee to pretend to have emotions that they do not really have, or to actually experience required emotions. The regulation of emotion can be either automatic or controlled. This study extends research on the consequences and processes of emotional labour in two ways. First,

David Martínez-Iñigo; Peter Totterdell; Carlos M. Alcover; David Holman

2007-01-01

130

Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional

Bierema, Laura L.

2008-01-01

131

Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict.

Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

2013-01-01

132

Thyroid dysfunction as a late effect in childhood medulloblastoma: a comparison of hyperfractionated versus conventionally fractionated craniospinal radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Primary hypothyroidism is a common sequela of craniospinal radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma. Due to the strong radiobiologic rationale, hyperfractionation can reduce the delayed effects of radiation injury.Methods and Materials: The authors compared the incidence of thyroid dysfunction after conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (Group A, n = 20 patients) vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Group B, n = 12 patients)

Umberto Ricardi; Andrea Corrias; Silvia Einaudi; Lorenzo Genitori; Alessandro Sandri; Luca Cordero Di Montezemolo; Luigi Besenzon; Enrico Madon; Alessandro Urgesi

2001-01-01

133

Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?  

PubMed Central

Considerable excitement and interest have arisen recently concerning the role that acute emotional triggers may play in precipitating a myocardial infarction (MI). Observational studies have found repeatedly that patients report excessive anger, anxiety, sadness, grief, or acute stress immediately prior to onset of MI, and recent meta-analyses summarizing these findings reported strong associations between MI occurrence and many of these acute emotions. However, it is unclear whether and through what mechanisms acute emotional triggers might influence MI, and whether there is any clinical utility in knowing if or how emotions trigger MI. We debate whether emotional triggers matter by reviewing the recent evidence for the association between acute emotional triggers and MI and by describing the potential pathophysiological characteristics and mechanisms underlying this association and the preventive strategies that could be used to mitigate the risk of acute MI. We also examine whether the study of emotional triggers could influence clinical risk management or changes in clinical practice/management. We offer suggestions for research that might shed light on whether emotional triggers could initiate a paradigm shift in preventive cardiology, or whether acute emotional triggers are either intractable catalysts for, or merely an epiphenomenon of, some MIs.

Edmondson, Donald; Newman, Jonathan D.; Whang, William; Davidson, Karina W.

2013-01-01

134

The Experience of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

2007-01-01

135

Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

2001-01-01

136

Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory. Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a brain structure that directly mediates aspects of emotional learning and facilitates memory operations in other regions, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Emotion–memory interactions occur at various stages

Roberto Cabeza; Kevin S LaBar

2006-01-01

137

An argument for basic emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish

Paul Ekman

1992-01-01

138

Emotion in Mentally Retarded People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of emotion in mentally retarded people is considered. Recent research and theory suggest that two approaches are applicable to the study of mental retardation: the behavioral tradition, particularly conditioned emotional responding as well as emotional expression and recognition; and recent investigations of emotional development in…

Strongman, K. T.

1985-01-01

139

Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

140

Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.  

PubMed

Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy, and it supports the argument for optimal behaviour and social functioning in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PMID:23228163

Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-04-01

141

Passionate men, emotional women: psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century.  

PubMed

The author examines British and American scientific psychology's portrayal of natural and ideal masculinity and femininity in the late 19th century to show how purported differences in emotion and reason were critical to explaining the evolutionary foundation of existing social hierarchies. Strong emotion was identified with heterosexual manliness and men's purportedly better capacity to harness the power of emotion in the service of reason. "Feminine" emotion was portrayed as a comparatively ineffectual emotionality, a by-product of female reproductive physiology and evolutionary need to be attractive to men. The author argues that constructions of emotion by psychology served an important power maintenance function. A concluding section addresses the relevance of this history to the politics of emotion in everyday life, especially assertions of emotional legitimacy. PMID:17645126

Shields, Stephanie A

2007-05-01

142

Emotional scripts of sex panics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the emotional dynamics of local sex panics over sex education. It argues that local sex panics are not\\u000a spontaneous eruptions of community outrage; they are political events with a strikingly scripted quality. Sex panics are fueled\\u000a by emotional scripts—rhetoric strategically crafted to produce volatile emotional responses. In turn, these emotional scripts\\u000a produce heated emotions—anger and disgust—displayed in

Janice M. Irvine

2006-01-01

143

Changing time and emotions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework.

Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stephane

2010-01-01

144

Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

145

Postpartum Period: Emotions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

146

RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN  

PubMed Central

I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life.

LeDoux, Joseph

2013-01-01

147

Emotional signals in nonverbal interaction: dyadic facilitation and convergence in expressions, appraisals, and feelings.  

PubMed

We examined social facilitation and emotional convergence in amusement, sadness, and fear in dynamic interactions. Dyads of friends or strangers jointly watched emotion-eliciting films while they either could or could not communicate nonverbally. We assessed three components of each emotion (expressions, appraisals, and feelings), as well as attention to and social motives toward the co-participant. In Study 1, participants interacted through a mute videoconference. In Study 2, they sat next to each other and either were or were not separated by a partition. Results revealed that facilitation and convergence are not uniform across different emotions and emotion components. Particularly strong supporting patterns emerged for the facilitation of and convergence in smiling. When direct interaction was possible (Study 2), friends showed a general tendency for strong convergence, with the exception of fear-related appraisals. This suggests that underlying processes of emotional contagion and social appraisal are differentially relevant for different emotions. PMID:22471853

Bruder, Martin; Dosmukhambetova, Dina; Nerb, Josef; Manstead, Antony S R

2012-01-01

148

[Respiratory gated radiotherapy: the 4D radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart...) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath hold techniques can be achieved with active, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily breath-hold. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices (CCD camera for the GEMS/Varian system tested at Curie Institute) to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. A new strategy is currently developed: the 4D Respiration correlated CT. It consists of retrospectively reconstruct CT slices at different phases of the breathing cycle allowing to measure residual movements and to choose the optimal patient's breathing phase where tumor movements are lower. These techniques presently investigated in several medical centers worldwide. The first results are very promising. PMID:15811847

Giraud, Philippe; Simon, Luc; Saliou, Marie; Reboul, François; Garcia, Robin; Carrie, Christian; Lerolle, Ulrike; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Cosset, Jean-Marc

2005-01-01

149

Teaching Emotion Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of this research was to assess whether it is possible to help children develop their general understanding of emotions. Thirty-six nine-year-old children divided in two groups were examined using a pre-test/train/post-test design. The emotion understanding of the two groups was measured in the pre- and post-test phases using the Test…

Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Doudin, Pierre-Andre

2002-01-01

150

Emotional Responses to Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object contains software, a sample music file, and supporting documents to conduct experiments on self-reported emotional responses to music. It includes LabVIEW-based software for Windows 2000 or later or MacOS 10.3 or later, notes for professors, a laboratory assignment, instructions for participants, an evaluation instrument for the assignment, and a post-experiment questionnaire. The package is intended as an exercise for courses concerned with emotion.

Dwight Krehbiel (Bethel College;); Jeff Janzen (Bethel College;)

2007-03-08

151

Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.  

PubMed

Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12?years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. PMID:24780349

Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

2014-09-01

152

Successful contextual integration of loose mental associations as evidenced by emotional conflict-processing.  

PubMed

Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting). Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm). For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting "negative" emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures. PMID:24618674

Zimmer, Ulrike; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz; Ischebeck, Anja

2014-01-01

153

Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information  

PubMed Central

Visual perception and emotion are traditionally considered separate domains of study. In this article, however, we review research showing them to be less separable that usually assumed. In fact, emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. In addition, the layout of the physical environment, including the apparent steepness of a hill and the distance to the ground from a balcony can both be affected by emotional states. We propose that emotions provide embodied information about the costs and benefits of anticipated action, information that can be used automatically and immediately, circumventing the need for cogitating on the possible consequences of potential actions. Emotions thus provide a strong motivating influence on how the environment is perceived.

Zadra, Jonathan R.; Clore, Gerald L.

2011-01-01

154

"It's Been a Bit of a Rollercoaster": Special Educational Needs, Emotional Labour and Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an analysis of data collected--by semi-structured interviews and focus groups--from staff working with children with special educational needs (SEN) in England. The analysis highlighted the role of strong emotions, and how participants (unsurprisingly) experienced these differently, largely according to their position in…

Mackenzie, Suzanne

2012-01-01

155

Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy. PMID:24635684

de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2014-08-01

156

DeCon: a tool to detect emotional concordance in multivariate time series data of emotional responding.  

PubMed

The occurrence of concordance among different response components during an emotional episode is a key feature of several contemporary accounts and definitions of emotion. Yet, capturing such response concordance in empirical data has proven to be elusive, in large part because of a lack of appropriate statistical tools that are tailored to measure the intricacies of response concordance in the context of data on emotional responding. In this article, we present a tool we developed to detect two different forms of response concordance-response patterning and synchronization-in multivariate time series data of emotional responding, and apply this tool to data concerning physiological responding to emotional stimuli. While the findings provide partial evidence for both response patterning and synchronization, they also show that the presence and nature of such patterning and synchronization is strongly person-dependent. PMID:24220647

Bulteel, Kirsten; Ceulemans, Eva; Thompson, Renee J; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter

2014-04-01

157

Recruitment in Radiotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

Deeley, T. J.; And Others

1976-01-01

158

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation.

Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

2013-01-01

159

Emotion regulation and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

Cisler, Josh M; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2012-06-01

160

Effects of Emotions on Learning in Adult, Career and Career-Technical Education. Trends and Issues Alert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research conducted by neurologists and educators shows a strong link between emotion and reason. The role of emotion has been addressed in various ways in the fields of adult education and training, career education and development, and career and technical education (CTE). The term "emotional intelligence" (EI) is generally used to…

Imel, Susan

161

Emotional processing and its relationship to chronic low back pain: results from a case-control study.  

PubMed

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common, yet challenging condition for both patients and clinicians. Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between CLBP and psychological factors such as anxiety, fear-avoidance, self-efficacy, catastrophizing and depression. These factors are closely linked with emotional states; however, it is unknown whether CLBP patients process their emotions differently from asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between CLBP and emotional processing. A sample of 110 participants comprising of 55 patients with chronic back pain and 55 individuals without a history of CLBP were assessed using the Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25). The EPS-25 generates an overall score, and also scores pertaining to five individual emotional processing factors--avoidance, suppression, unregulated emotion, impoverished emotional experience and signs of unprocessed emotion. Chronic back pain patients scored significantly higher in the overall EPS-25 score (p < 0.001) with an effect size of 0.33. In addition, there were significant differences in four factors--impoverished emotional experience, unregulated emotion, unprocessed emotion, and suppression, with effect sizes ranging from 0.20 to 0.44. The results suggest that dysfunctional emotional processing, particularly with regard to the suppression of emotions, is associated with CLBP. Clinicians should critically consider the role of emotional processing in their patients' evaluation and management. Future research using a prospective cohort should assess the role of emotional processing as a predictor in the development of chronic back pain. PMID:23756033

Esteves, Jorge E; Wheatley, Laura; Mayall, Clare; Abbey, Hilary

2013-12-01

162

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements  

PubMed Central

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions.

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-01-01

163

Socialization of emotion: Pathway to preschoolers' emotional and social competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of 47 preschoolers'emotional competence—their patterns of emotional expressiveness and reactions to others' emotion displays—were observed in two settings, with mother and with peers, and their general social competence was rated by their preschool teachers. Intrapersonal and interpersonal (i.e., socialization correlates of children's emotional competence were identified, and a causal model incorporating direct and indirect influences on social competence was

Susanne A. Denham; Leslie Grout

1993-01-01

164

The Affective Side: Emotional Issues of Twice Exceptional Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the need for gifted students who have disabilities to have a strong support group to assist them with several key emotional issues that may impede their academic achievement, including: anger, fear of failure, a strong need to control, low self-esteem, an sometimes, even fear of success. (CR)

Strop, Jean; Goldman, David

2002-01-01

165

Religious Ecstatics “Deep Listeners ” and Musical Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to begin to provide an explanation for the worldwide linkage of music and ecstatic religious ceremonies.The basic hypothesis is that the physiological ability to respond to musical stimuli with strong emotional responses is one of the pre-conditions for the propulsion into ecstasy. A second,hypothesis is that a sub-set of the music-loving community, the

Joshua Penman; Judith Becker

166

Resilience and Positive Emotions: Examining the Role of Emotional Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emo- tions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psy- chological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present re-

Frederick L. Philippe; Serge Lecours; Geneviève Beaulieu-Pelletier

2009-01-01

167

When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

2012-08-01

168

Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

2012-01-01

169

Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion  

PubMed Central

Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

2013-01-01

170

Emotion recognition from physiological signals.  

PubMed

Emotion recognition is one of the great challenges in human-human and human-computer interaction. Accurate emotion recognition would allow computers to recognize human emotions and therefore react accordingly. In this paper, an approach for emotion recognition based on physiological signals is proposed. Six basic emotions: joy, sadness, fear, disgust, neutrality and amusement are analysed using physiological signals. These emotions are induced through the presentation of International Affecting Picture System (IAPS) pictures to the subjects. The physiological signals of interest in this analysis are: electromyogram signal (EMG), respiratory volume (RV), skin temperature (SKT), skin conductance (SKC), blood volume pulse (BVP) and heart rate (HR). These are selected to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the emotions. The SVM (support vector machine) technique is used for classifying these parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology provides in general a recognition rate of 85% for different emotional states. PMID:21936746

Gouizi, K; Bereksi Reguig, F; Maaoui, C

2011-01-01

171

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

172

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

173

Early Interactive Emotional Development  

PubMed Central

Early infant emotional development concerns the interactive emergence of emotional states that motivate approach and withdrawal. These are indexed by different patterns of infant facial expressions, vocalization, and gazing that emerge within parent-infant interactions in the first 10 months of life. Specifically, the interface of a limited number of interactive parameters creates complex real-time patterns which change over developmental time. These phenomena are described below using techniques from our laboratory such as statistical simulations, continuous ratings, and computer vision modeling.

Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Cadavid, Steven; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

2010-01-01

174

Précis of The brain and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics treated in The Brain and Emotion include the definition, nature and functions of emotion (Chapter 3), the neural bases of emotion (Chapter 4), reward, punishment and emotion in brain design (Chapter 10), a theory of consciousness and its application to under- standing emotion and pleasure (Chapter 9), and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that

Edmund T. Rolls

2000-01-01

175

A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

Liu, Zhen

2008-11-01

176

Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of…

Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

2003-01-01

177

Music emotion annotation by machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music emotion annotation is a task of attaching emotional terms to musical works. As volume of online musical contents expands rapidly in recent years, demands for retrieval by emotion are emerging. Currently, literature on music retrieval using emotional terms is rare. Emotion annotated data are scarce in existing music databases because annotation is still a manual task. Automating music emotion

Wai Ling Cheung; Guojun Lu

2008-01-01

178

Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7 studies, the authors examined the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. In Studies 1 and 2, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for empathic perspective taking and self-monitoring in social situations. In Study 3, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for social skills. In Study 4, the

Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Chad Bobik; Tracie D. Coston; Cyndy Greeson; Christina Jedlicka; Emily Rhodes; Greta Wendorf

2001-01-01

179

Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta

2001-01-01

180

Fuzzy logic based emotion classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions affect many aspects of our daily lives including decision making, reasoning and physical wellbeing. Researchers have therefore addressed the detection of emotion from individuals' heart rate, skin conductance, pupil dilation, tone of voice, facial expression and electroencephalogram (EEG). This paper presents an algorithm for classifying positive and negative emotions from EEG. Unlike other algorithms that extract fuzzy rules from

Joseph W. Matiko; Stephen P. Beeby; John Tudor

2014-01-01

181

When Emotion Intensifies Memory Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of our most vivid memories are of emotional events; in research studies, emotional events or items are often more likely to be remembered than neutral events or items. However, as pointed out in this chapter, the same character- istics that make emotional information memorable can also make it more subject to interference effects in memory. Thus: (1) being reminded

Mara Mather

182

Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

2012-01-01

183

Impacts of facial identity and type of emotion on responses of amygdala neurons.  

PubMed

The amygdala has been implicated in the processing of emotional expressions. Who makes the emotion and the type of emotion are important in producing appropriate responses. How amygdala neurons are affected by facial identity and type of emotion, however, has not yet been systematically examined. We examined the activity of amygdala neurons using nine monkey stimuli: 3 monkeys x 3 types of emotion. Of the 227 neurons tested, 77 responded to the monkey stimuli. The effects of facial identity and type of emotion on the response magnitude were significant in 48 and 57 neurons, respectively. Both effects were significant in 38 neurons. These results indicate that both facial identity and type of emotion have strong impacts on amygdala functions. PMID:16361941

Kuraoka, Koji; Nakamura, Katsuki

2006-01-23

184

Basic principles of paediatric radiotherapy.  

PubMed

This article gives an introduction to the fundamentals of paediatric radiotherapy, describing the historical development of the speciality and its organisation in the UK, the clinical pathway (including issues around immobilisation) and an overview of indications for radiotherapy in the paediatric population. Late effects of radiotherapy, their mitigation and the role of the late effects clinic are summarised. PMID:23063320

Thorp, N

2013-01-01

185

Emotional Face Processing and Emotion Regulation in Children: An ERP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion regulation is a critical component of healthy development, yet few studies examine neural correlates of emotion regulation in childhood. In the present study, we assessed whether children's neurophysiological responses to salient and socially significant emotional distracters—emotional faces—were related to broader emotion regulation capacities. Emotion regulation was measured as attention performance following emotional distracters and as maternal report of child

Tracy A. Dennis; Melville M. Malone; Chao-Cheng Chen

2009-01-01

186

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and Adaptation Among 5- to 8YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated relations between emotionality, emotion regulation, and children's behavioral adaptation in a longitudinal design. Mothers rated emotionality and emotion regulation related to anger, fear, and positive emotions–exuberance for 151 children at age 5 and later at age 6 years 6 months. Emotionality and emotion regulation measures were modestly related. Preschool ratings at age 6 (n = 125), maternal

Ann-Margret Rydell; Lisa Berlin; Gunilla Bohlin

2003-01-01

187

Emotion in mystical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a critique of three assumptions that have significantly shaped the neuropsychological study of mystical experience: (a) intense positive emotion, especially ecstasy, is the defining feature of mystical experience; (b) abnormal temporolimbic activity, particularly epileptiform activity, is the central mediating factor or cause of mystical experience; and (c) mystical experience resembles and is possibly the same as the

David T. Bradford

2012-01-01

188

Interaction on Emotions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the addition of an emotion dialogue to the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) system. The goal of the MRE system is to provide an immersive learning environment for army officer recruits. The user can engage in conversation with severa...

A. Hartholt T. J. Muller

2004-01-01

189

Immunity, Emotions and Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a variety of sources supports the notion that stress and emotional distress may relate to dysfunction and hypofunction of the immunologic system. We have experimental evidence that some forms of stress reduce primary and secondary antibody response to low dose antigen stimulation in rats and that adult immunologic responsivity may be altered by early infantile experience. Mixed-sex group

George F. Solomon; Alfred A. Amkraut; Phyllis Kasper

1974-01-01

190

Expressed emotion across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 40 years ago, Brown and his colleagues believed that ordinary aspects of family life were crucial to an understanding of how families interact with patients in their midst (Brown, 1985). The concept and measurement of the 'expressed emotion' within families were developed in the 1960s, initially for use in schizophrenia. They were subsequently used for a number of physical

Dinesh Bhugra; Kwame McKenzie

2003-01-01

191

Emotionality and perceptual defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition thresholds and galvanic skin responses during the prerecognition period were measured for sixteen observers presented tachistoscopically with eleven neutral and seven emotionally-toned words, randomly ordered. The observers reacted with GSR's of significantly greater magnitude during the pre-recognition presentation of the critical words than they did before recognizing the neutral words. In addition, the observers displayed significantly higher thresholds of

Elliott McGinnies

1949-01-01

192

Personalized music emotion recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a dramatic proliferation of research on information retrieval based on highly subjective concepts such as emotion, preference and aesthetic. Such retrieval methods are fascinating but challenging since it is difficult to built a general retrieval model that performs equally well to everyone. In this paper, we propose two novel methods, bag-of-users model and residual

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Homer H. Chen

2009-01-01

193

Emotional Subjects for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

Micciche, Laura R.

194

Emotions and calls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Birds use different calls to understand each other. Birds can give distress calls and other calls to let other birds know how they feel. Similarly, humans can detect how other humans feel by the tone of voice they use. They can use their hearing abilities to assess the emotions and moods of others.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-10-08

195

[Bladder cancer radiotherapy margins].  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma, but conservative treatment is a serious option for selected patients. It comprises a transurethral resection, as complete as possible, before a radiation therapy of the whole bladder and pelvis, with a concomitant chemotherapy. Bladder wall movements during the treatment course lead to the use of wide margins to cover the clinical target volume. Planning target volume margins must be anisotropic to correspond to the mobility of each bladder zone: 10mm in the inferior portion, 15 mm in lateral directions, and 20 to 25 mm in anterior and superior directions. The development of image-guided radiotherapy and adaptative radiotherapy should lead to a reduction of these margins. Besides, partial bladder radiotherapy is showing encouraging results, by reducing the clinical target volume in well-selected patients. PMID:23969246

Régnier, É; Nguyen, T D; Beckendorf, V; Lagrange, J-L

2013-10-01

196

Sad music induces pleasant emotion  

PubMed Central

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

197

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.  

PubMed

ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

198

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control.

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

199

Situating emotional experience  

PubMed Central

Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

200

Radiobiology in radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This book is designed to provide a synthesis of current radiobiological knowledge as it related to modern radiotherapy practice. A radiobiologist working in a specific area provides the biological background and a clinician then reviews the up-to-date practical implications of this scientific basis. All topical aspects of radiobiology as applied to radiotherapy are covered, including the effects of radiation on cells, normal tissue and tumor, the important features of fractionation, and dose rate. Alternative treatment modalities, such as particle therapy hyperthermia radiation sensitizers and other oxygen modifiers and the interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, are discussed from both the clinical and radiobiological points of view.

Bleehen, N.M.

1988-01-01

201

Radiotherapy for lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The role of radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer was reviewed at a workshop held in Cambridge, England, in June 1984. It was concluded that there was a continuing role for radiation therapy in the primary management of small cell lung cancer, including the loco-regional treatment for patients with limited disease. Radical radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell carcinoma could be curative for a proportion of patients with limited disease. Careful planning and quality control was essential. Palliative radiotherapy provided useful treatment for many other patients. Other related aspects of treatment are also presented.

Bleehen, N.M.; Cox, J.D.

1985-05-01

202

Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

Mitrovi?, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadi?, Bosiljka

2011-02-01

203

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

204

Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.  

PubMed

For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. PMID:23910779

Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

2013-08-01

205

Beyond arousal and valence: The importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli  

PubMed Central

The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention; memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that: a) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than socially emotional images, b) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but c) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images’ subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between amygdala and MPFC than biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity.

Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

2012-01-01

206

Emotion metaphors and emotional labor in science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the importance of metaphors and beliefs in the development of teachers' practical knowledge has already been explored in science education research. However, the significance of emotion metaphors and the consequences of emotional labor as part of being a science teacher have been little addressed. This study describes the findings from a 3-year ethnographic case study of an elementary-school teacher who participated in a research project investigating the role of teacher emotion in science teaching and student learning. This research demonstrates how the performance of emotional labor is an important aspect of reality in science teaching. The teacher in this study is willing to do the emotional labor that involves some suffering because the emotional rewards are gratifying. A perspective on emotion in science education may focus, at least in part, on the functions of emotion in creating inspiring emotional cultures in science teaching and learning. Recognizing that teachers and students are agents in constructing such cultures, educators, teachers, and administrators are more likely to grasp the complexities and possibilities of emotional labor in the context of science education.

Zembylas, Michalinos

2004-05-01

207

Breast Reconstruction After Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

It was once common practice in the treatment of breast cancer for total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection to be conventionally performed. However, breast-conserving surgery is increasingly being performed with marked improvement in a multidisciplinary treatment approach, including surgery, chemotherapy, irradiation, and antihormonal therapy. We must choose the optimal reconstructive methods with the reduction of the excision range. Furthermore, we also consider the local chronic radiation injury after adjuvant radiotherapy on breast reconstruction. As for breast reconstruction, the use of autologous tissues or artificial prostheses is common. However, after radiotherapy or if radiotherapy is planned, the complications such as infection, skin necrosis, or exposure of the implant are increased in breast reconstruction with implants. Therefore, the breast is reconstructed with autologous tissue mainly with radiotherapy using an autologous flap transfer. Meanwhile, the autologous fat transfer with adipose-derived regenerative cells for repair and regeneration has recently been investigated in reconstructive surgery. We discuss the autologous flap and fat transfer for breast reconstruction.

Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Hamuy, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

208

Risk Factors for Emotional and Relationship Problems in Peyronie's Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Peyronie’s disease (PD) occurs in 3–9% of all men. Little is known regarding the specific psychological or emotional disruptions to sexuality associated with PD. Aim Our primary aim was to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial difficulties in men with PD. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. Detailed medical histories, physical examinations, and a PD-specific questionnaire were used to define clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were used as a measure of association. Main Outcome Measures Emotional and relationship problems were determined by “yes” or “no” answers to two specific questions. Results The mean age of all PD patients (N = 245) was 54.4 years (range 19.4–75.6); 62% were married, and 59% presented within 2 years of disease onset. The overall prevalence of emotional and relationship problems attributable to PD was 81% and 54%, respectively. Among men who had relationship problems, the prevalence of emotional problems was 93%. In men with emotional problems due to PD, relationship issues were observed in 62%. Multivariable analysis revealed that emotional difficulties (OR 6.9, P < 0.001) and ability to have intercourse (OR 0.4, P = 0.004) were independently associated with relationship problems. Relationship problems (OR 8.0, P < 0.001) and loss of penile length (OR 2.7, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of emotional problems after adjustment for the ability to maintain erections, low libido, and penile pain. Conclusions Among men with PD, there is a very high prevalence of emotional and relationship problems. Loss of penile length and inability to have intercourse are strong predictors of these problems and as such make ideal targets for intervention. Medical and surgical therapies may enhance quality of life through their ability to improve sexual function. Further research will characterize the ways in which individual symptoms affect emotional and psychological well-being.

Smith, James F.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Conti, Simon L.; Turek, Paul; Lue, Tom

2010-01-01

209

Perceived emotional intelligence, alexithymia, coping and emotional regulation.  

PubMed

This study examined the different facets of perceived emotional intelligence (EI), alexithymia and how these facets were related to coping and affect regulation, using as indexes social support, perceived stress, depression and affect balance. Participants were 593 introductory psychology students. The results clarified and confirmed that emotional intelligence and alexithymia scales (TMMS-48 and TAS-20) converged in a clarity and regulation of emotion factor, that showed criterion validity with self-reports of mental health, affect balance and social adjustment and simultaneously to an adaptative profile of coping with stress, that mediated and explained how emotional clarity, capacity to identify feelings, ability to express and repair mood and feelings, help to emotional regulation. Attention to emotion and low external oriented thinking did not show criterion validity with mental health or with adaptive coping. PMID:17295963

Velasco, Carmen; Fernández, Itziar; Páez, Darío; Campos, Miryam

2006-01-01

210

Personality and Expressed Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed emotion (EE) is an established psychosocial predictor of relapse in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders; however, nothing is currently known about the personality characteristics of high- and low-EE relatives. A total of 45 relatives of schizophrenia patients completed the California Psychological Inventory, a widely used measure of common personality traits. Compared with low-EE relatives, high-EE relatives were more

Jill M. Hooley; Jordan B. Hiller

2000-01-01

211

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

212

Emotional gestures in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible\\u000a differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures\\u000a a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal,\\u000a and type.

Giorgio Merola

2007-01-01

213

Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

Alegre, Albert

2012-01-01

214

Passion Work: The Joint Production of Emotional Labor in Professional Wrestling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case of jointly produced passion work. Passion work is emotional labor designed to elicit a strong response from subjects through an impression of extreme states such as pain, agony, or suffering. Based on an ethnographic investigation of professional wrestling participants, this study analyzes the backstage emotion teamwork…

Smith, R. Tyson

2008-01-01

215

Evidence for Universality and Cultural Variation of Differential Emotion Response Patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the

Klaus R. Scherer; Harald G. Wallbott

1994-01-01

216

Neurobiological Bases of Individual Differences in Emotional and Stress Responsiveness: High Responders-Low Responders Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

motion, as defined by psychologists, is a strong and complex feeling state that is con- sciously perceived, like anger, fear, happiness, or love. Although we do not have direct animal models of emotions, we have the tools to study in animals some of the variables that represent components of these human traits, including emotional responsiveness and stress reactivity. Our understanding

Mohamed Kabbaj

2004-01-01

217

Parental Attachment and Romantic Relationships: Associations with Emotional Disturbance during Late Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between late adolescents' parental attachment and emotional disturbance. Specifically, they investigated whether associations between parental attachment and emotional disturbance were less strong for adolescents with romantic partners. Links cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally, between…

Overbeek, Geertjan; Vollebergh, Wilma; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim

2003-01-01

218

Interpersonal emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain. PMID:24098929

Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

2013-10-01

219

[Radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy].  

PubMed

Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid, whereas the precise pathogenesis still remains unclear. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis the occurrence of proptosis is an extremely rare event. The therapy for middle and severe courses of GO shows in partly disappointing results, although several therapy modalities are possible (glucocorticoid therapy, radiotherapy, antithyroid drug treatment, surgery). All these therapies lead in only 40 - 70 % to an improvement of the pathogenic symptoms. An intensive interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to satisfy the requirements for the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. As a consequence of the very different results of the few of clinical studies that were accomplished with reference to this topic, treatment by radiotherapy in the management of the disease is presently controversially discussed. In the German-speaking countries the radiotherapy is, however, firmly established as a therapy option in the treatment of the moderate disease classes (class 2-5 according to NO SPECS), especially if diplopia is present. This article describes the sequences, dosages and fractionation schemes as well as the risks and side effects of the radiotherapy. Altogether, radiotherapy is assessed as an effective and sure method. The administration of glucocorticoids can take place before the beginning of or during the radiotherapy. For the success of treatment the correct selection of patients who may possibly profit from a radiotherapy is absolutely essential. By realising that GO proceeds normally over a period of 2-5 years, which is followed by a period of fibrotic alteration, the application of the radiotherapy in the early, active phase is indispensable. A precise explanation for the effects of radiotherapy in treatment of the GO does not exist at present. The determination of the most effective irradiation doses was made from retrospectively evaluated collectives. Recently the results of a national survey of all German RT departments were published, initiated by the working group of the DEGRO (German Society of Radiooncology). In the most of the German radiooncology departments irradiation with 8 to 10 x 1.8-2.0 Gy 5 x weekly to 16 or 20 Gy is standard. Two recently published prospective German studies pointed out the equivalence of the effectiveness of a short therapy in low dose ranges up to 2.4 Gy as well as of a low proportioned irradiation during a longer period in relation to a standard therapy with 20 Gy. That is why at the moment it is not possible to give a definite recommendation with reference to dosages or the fractionation schemes. In 2003 the first European group (European Group on Graves ' Orbitopathy Experience -- EUGOGO) was founded for pursuing investigations of GO in multi-centric studies, mainly to improve therapy results. PMID:15562354

Kuhnt, T; Müller, A C; Janich, M; Gerlach, R; Hädecke, J; Duncker, G I W; Dunst, J

2004-11-01

220

Incongruence effects in crossmodal emotional integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are often encountered in a multimodal fashion. Consequently, contextual framing by other modalities can alter the way that an emotional facial expression is perceived and lead to emotional conflict. Whole brain fMRI data was collected when 35 healthy subjects judged emotional expressions in faces while concurrently being exposed to emotional (scream, laughter) or neutral (yawning) sounds. The behavioral results

Veronika I. Müller; Ute Habel; Birgit Derntl; Frank Schneider; Karl Zilles; Bruce I. Turetsky; Simon B. Eickhoff

2011-01-01

221

Emotions in Dream and Waking Event Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty participants hand-wrote reports of their dreams and reports of waking life events, and used an extensive lexicon of emotion words and types to rate the emotions experienced in each scene of each report. From these ratings, the incidence and intensity of 22 different emotion categories specified by a cognitive model of emotions was assessed. Emotions were found to be

Tore A. Nielsen; Daniel Deslauriers; George W. Baylor

1991-01-01

222

TEAM EMOTION RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady

223

Psychological associations with emotionalism after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological associations with emotionalism were examined, 1 month after stroke, in 448 stroke survivors who met inclusion criteria for a randomised trial of psychological treatment. One hundred and one (21.5%) patients had emotionalism. Thirty eight (38%) of those with emotionalism had a clinically significant mood disorder, compared with 64 of 347 (18%) of those without emotionalism. Emotionalism was associated

Tig Calvert; Peter Knapp; Allan House

1998-01-01

224

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

225

Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation.  

PubMed

Research on the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness training applied in psychotherapy is still in its infancy (Erisman & Roemer, 2010). For instance, little is known about the extent and processes through which mindfulness practice improves emotion regulation. This experience sampling study assessed the relationship between mindfulness, emotion differentiation, emotion lability, and emotional difficulties. Young adult participants reported their current emotional experiences 6 times per day during 1 week on a PalmPilot device. Based on these reports of emotions, indices of emotional differentiation and emotion lability were composed for negative and positive emotions. Mindfulness was associated with greater emotion differentiation and less emotional difficulties (i.e., emotion lability and self-reported emotion dysregulation). Mediational models indicated that the relationship between mindfulness and emotion lability was mediated by emotion differentiation. Furthermore, emotion regulation mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both negative emotion lability and positive emotion differentiation. This experience sampling study indicates that self-reported levels of mindfulness are related to higher levels of differentiation of one's discrete emotional experiences in a manner reflective of effective emotion regulation. PMID:22148996

Hill, Christina L M; Updegraff, John A

2012-02-01

226

Processing orientation and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

There is evidence that some emotional expressions are characterized by diagnostic cues from individual face features. For example, an upturned mouth is indicative of happiness, whereas a furrowed brow is associated with anger. The current investigation explored whether motivating people to perceive stimuli in a local (i.e., feature-based) rather than global (i.e., holistic) processing orientation was advantageous for recognizing emotional facial expressions. Participants classified emotional faces while primed with local and global processing orientations, via a Navon letter task. Contrary to previous findings for identity recognition, the current findings are indicative of a modest advantage for face emotion recognition under conditions of local processing orientation. When primed with a local processing orientation, participants performed both significantly faster and more accurately on an emotion recognition task than when they were primed with a global processing orientation. The impacts of this finding for theories of emotion recognition and face processing are considered. PMID:21842989

Martin, Douglas; Slessor, Gillian; Allen, Roy; Phillips, Louise H; Darling, Stephen

2012-02-01

227

Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can emotional intelligence (EI) be reliably and validly measured in adolescents? One-hundred and thirty-one students (aged 13 to 15) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence (SEI) [Schutte, N., Malouff, J., Hall, L., Haggerty, D., Cooper, J., Golden, C., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.] and a

Joseph Ciarrochi; Amy Y. C. Chan; Jane Bajgar

2001-01-01

228

Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities\\u000a for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused\\u000a emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced sadness. At the end of each film,

Osnat Argaman

2010-01-01

229

Radiotherapy in China today.  

PubMed

The treatment of cancer by radiation in China began in the early 1930's. However, up to 1949, its development was very slow. Following Liberation, the growth of this specialty has been extremely rapid, as shown by the kind of modern radiotherapeutic equipment that is available today in many centers of our country. Currently almost every province has a cancer center with a good radiotherapy department and consequently, treatment results have improved over the past years. Due to the large number of patients seen in every radiotherapy department, many types of cancers are treated each day; thus clinical trials can be concluded in a shorter time. The author will show the kind of work that is being achieved in China in general, and Shanghai in particular. PMID:2921128

Fu, L T

1989-02-01

230

[Radiotherapy of brain tumors].  

PubMed

When radiotherapy is employed for central nervous system tumours, several clinical considerations relating to the special normal tissue environment in which they are located deserve recognition. First of all the radiosensitivity of normal brain is nearly equivalent to that of the majority of the primary tumours requiring irradiation. Secondly destroyed normal neural tissue never regenates, but partial recovery is possible following limited injury. Thirdly definition of the target volume is determined mostly by indirect means from a synthesis of neuroradiological findings (C.T. scans, M.R.I.). Finally the rigidity of the intact cranium confers greater clinical significance on mass effects including postradiotherapeutic edema. Most brain tumours respond to external irradiation which may be applied either postoperatively or definitively, e.g. gliomas, lymphomas, medulloblastomas, and metastases. New stereotactic techniques, including radiosurgery, interstitial brachytherapy, and proton beam radiotherapy allow the delivery of larger dose in a limited volume. PMID:8729350

Mazeron, J J; Boisserie, G

1996-02-15

231

Child negative emotionality and parenting from infancy to preschool: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

This meta-analytic review (k = 62 studies; N = 7,613 mother-child dyads) shows that effect sizes for the association between child negative emotionality and parenting were generally small and were moderated by sample and measurement characteristics. The association between more child negative emotionality and less supportive parenting was relatively strong in lower socioeconomic status families, reversed in higher socioeconomic status families, and limited to studies with relatively high percentages of participants from ethnic minorities and studies using parent report to assess negative emotionality. Higher levels of child negative emotionality were associated with more restrictive control in samples with less than 75% 1st-born children, as well as in infants and preschoolers, and in studies using parent report or composite measures to assess both negative emotionality and restrictive parenting. Finally, more child negative emotionality was associated with less inductive control. PMID:17352551

Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hermanns, Jo M A; Peetsma, Thea T D

2007-03-01

232

Recognition of emotions from faces and voices in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) can be impaired in different tasks that evaluate emotional or social abilities. In particular, the recognition of facial emotions can be affected (Meletti S, Benuzzi F, Rubboli G, et al. Neurology 2003;60:426-31. Meletti S, Benuzzi F, Cantalupo G, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Nichelli P. Epilepsia 2009;50:1547-59). To better understand the nature of emotion recognition deficits in MTLE we investigated the decoding of basic emotions in the visual (facial expression) and auditory (emotional prosody) domains in 41 patients. Results showed deficits in the recognition of both facial and vocal expression of emotions, with a strong correlation between performances across the two tasks. No correlation between emotion recognition and measures of IQ, quality of life (QOLIE-31), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) was significant, except for a weak correlation between prosody recognition and IQ. These data suggest that emotion recognition impairment in MTLE is not dependent on the sensory channel through which the emotional stimulus is transmitted. Moreover, these findings support the notion that emotional processing is at least partly independent of measures of cognitive intelligence. PMID:21459049

Bonora, Annalisa; Benuzzi, Francesca; Monti, Giulia; Mirandola, Laura; Pugnaghi, Matteo; Nichelli, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

2011-04-01

233

A neuroanatomical dissociation for emotion induced by music.  

PubMed

Does feeling an emotion require changes in autonomic responses, as William James proposed? Can feelings and autonomic responses be dissociated? Findings from cognitive neuroscience have identified brain structures that subserve feelings and autonomic response, including those induced by emotional music. In the study reported here, we explored whether feelings and autonomic responses can be dissociated by using music, a stimulus that has a strong capacity to induce emotional experiences. We tested two brain regions predicted to be differentially involved in autonomic responsivity (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and feeling (the right somatosensory cortex). Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were impaired in their ability to generate skin-conductance responses to music, but generated normal judgments of their subjective feelings in response to music. Conversely, patients with damage to the right somatosensory cortex were impaired in their self-rated feelings in response to music, but generated normal skin-conductance responses to music. Control tasks suggested that neither impairment was due to basic defects in hearing the music or in cognitively recognizing the intended emotion of the music. The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli. PMID:18824047

Johnsen, Erica L; Tranel, Daniel; Lutgendorf, Susan; Adolphs, Ralph

2009-04-01

234

[Radical prostatectomy after radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Radical prostatectomy is an excellent salvage method for patients with prostatic cancer when radical radiotherapy or brachytherapy fail. To define local failure is not always reliable; nevertheless, performing a prostatic biopsy two years after treatment could reach an early diagnosis. Another accepted attitude is to perform the biopsy after biochemical recurrence, but sometimes the pathological stage is already locally advanced tumor. It is also difficult to determine which patients are suitable for this rescue treatment, probably those with locally confined tumors and with favorable PSA kinetics, PSA velocity below 2.0 or a PSA doubling time over 12 months, and in whom detectable PSA is reached 2 years after treatment. These patients are suitable for radical prostatectomy if they have a live expectancy of more than 10 years. Although rescue radical prostatectomy has a higher rate of complications and worse functional results, cancer-specific survival rates are high, and remain high after 15 years of follow-up. Currently, new surgical improvements and new radiotherapy technology are diminishing surgical complications and improving functional results. In summary radical prostatectomy is a feasible rescue procedure after radiotherapy failure although the complications rate remains higher than prostatectomy as initial therapy. PMID:22318180

Solsona, Eduardo

2012-01-01

235

Radiotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Between 1954 and 1976, 60 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were treated in the Department of Radiotherapy of the Lahey Clinic Foundation at the High Voltage Research Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Only 2 patients were free of clinical disease in the lower extremities at the time of initial presentation, and 40 patients (69%) had cutaneous lesions involving areas extending above the knees. Eight patients (13%) also presented with mucous membrane involvement in addition to skin disease. Twenty-one patients were treated only with megavoltage electrons during the initial course of radiotherapy, and 12 patients were treated with supervoltage photons alone. The remaining 27 patients were treated with a combination of electrons and photons; in 17 patients, the same tumor sites were irradiated with both modalities. Eleven patients received whole-body surface electron irradiation. The choice of treatment modalities was based on the extent and distribution of cutaneous disease and depth of the lesions. The overall response rate was 93% after a single fractionated course of radiotherapy. Twenty-five patients achieved complete regression and 18 were in remission for 2 to 13 years. Response rates were also analyzed with respect to the three subgroups in terms of treatment modalities. A single dose of 800 to 1200 rads or its equivalent was required to control local cutaneous lesions. Widespread visceral metastasis was the most common cause of failure and death; the incidence of second malignancies was increased. Trial of systemic chemotherapy and immunotherapy would seem to be a reasonable therapeutic adjunct.

Lo, T.C.; Salzman, F.A.; Smedal, M.I.; Wright, K.A.

1980-02-15

236

Regional brain function, emotion and disorders of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the neural substrates of emotion and its disorders. Neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize the circuitry underlying disorders of emotion. Particular emphasis has been placed on the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and the amygdala as critical components of the circuitry that may be dysfunctional in both depression and

Richard J Davidson; Heather Abercrombie; Jack B Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

1999-01-01

237

Emotion: Moving Toward the Utilization of Artificial Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During human-human interaction, emotion plays a vital role in structuring dialogue. Emotional content drives features such as topic shift, lexicalisation change and timing; it affects the delicate balance between goals related to the task at hand and those of social interaction; and it represents one type of feedback on the effect that utterances are having. These various facets are so

Michael A. Gilbert; Chris Reed

238

Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

Kramer, Laurie

2014-01-01

239

Prospective Effects of Emotion-Regulation Skills on Emotional Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in emotion-regulation skills have widely been shown to be associated with poor emotional adjustment. However, it is still unclear whether these deficits are a cause or a consequence of poor adjustment. The purpose of the present research was to clarify the reciprocal effects between these 2 concepts. In 2 studies (Ns = 446 and 635),…

Berking, Matthias; Orth, Ulrich; Wupperman, Peggilee; Meier, Laurenz L.; Caspar, Franz

2008-01-01

240

[Stereotactical radiotherapy in pediatrics indications].  

PubMed

Stereotactical radiotherapy is a very high precision procedure, limited to radiosurgery since a long time. Technologic progress permitted to develop radiotherapy in stereotactical conditions, leading to a lot of innovations. Previously indicated for cerebral pathologies, this procedure is now developed for extracerebral locations. In pediatrics, stereotactical radiotherapy is still limited, delivered precociously, due to the possibility of long-term late effects that needs to be to addressed. This review reports the different useful conditions, technical evolutions, and the current validated pediatric indications, with differences from adults, and future directions. Current state of pediatric stereotactical radiotherapy used in France is presented. PMID:19762263

Bernier-Chastagner, V

2009-10-01

241

Emotional influences on singing  

Microsoft Academic Search

national grants in 9 years. She is the author of over 50 research papers, abstracts, chapters and edited books, and has presented research results at 43 conferences and been,keynote,or invited speaker,at 13 international,conferences.,Her research,interests include the neural control of voice and breathing, respiratory and laryngeal control during speech,and,singing,and,emotional,influences,on voice. She has,supervised,several,PhD and Masters,research,students,and,is currently supervising,a number,of postgraduate,students at the National,Voice

Pamela Davis

242

Voyages of Discovery: Experiencing the Emotion of History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guiding students through a dramatic exploration of an historical event can elicit strong emotional reactions that can deepen student understanding and interest in the subject matter. This article describes an integrated third grade lesson plan that focuses on Henry Hudson's voyages in the early 1600s. The students take on the roles of Hudson's…

Kelin, Daniel A., II

2005-01-01

243

Cross-Cultural Patterns in Dynamic Ratings of Positive and Negative Natural Emotional Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both ‘in-group advantage’ and ‘display rules’ approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion.

Sneddon, Ian; McKeown, Gary; McRorie, Margaret; Vukicevic, Tijana

2011-01-01

244

Grounding emotion in situated conceptualization.  

PubMed

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2011-04-01

245

The Sociology of Emotional Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers are expected to manage their feelings in accordance with organizationally defined rules and guidelines. Hochschild's (1983) The Managed Heart introduced this concept and inspired an outpouring of research on this topic. This article reviews theory and research on emotional labor with a particular focus on its contributions to sociological understandings of

Amy S. Wharton

2009-01-01

246

Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

2002-01-01

247

Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.  

PubMed

Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

Pixley, Jocelyn

2002-03-01

248

Emotive Qualities in Robot Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the expression of emotion in synthesized speech for an anthropomorphic robot. We have adapted several key emotional correlates of human speech to the robot's speech synthesizer to allow the robot to speak in either an angry, calm, disg...

C. Breazeal

2000-01-01

249

Emotional facial expressions capture attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the emotional significance of stimuli can influence spatial attention. BACKGROUND: Motivational and emotional factors may affect attention toward stimuli. However, this has never been examined in brain-damaged patients who present with unilateral inattention due to left spatial neglect. METHODS: The authors studied three patients with chronic left neglect and visual extinction after right parietal stroke. Shapes

Patrik Vuilleumier; Sophie Schwartz

2001-01-01

250

Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

Pickover, Sheri

2010-01-01

251

Musical Emotions: Functions, Origins, Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origi...

L. Perlovsky

2010-01-01

252

Emotion and sociable humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

Cynthia Breazeal

2003-01-01

253

Measures of emotion: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

2009-01-01

254

Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

Steinberg, Carola

2008-01-01

255

On the Nature of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

Kagan, Jerome

1994-01-01

256

Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

2002-01-01

257

Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization  

PubMed Central

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically.

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2011-01-01

258

WHY ROBOTS WILL HAVE EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions involve complex processes produced by interactions between motives, beliefs, percepts, etc. E.g. real or imagined fulfilment or violation of a motive, or triggering of a 'motive- generator ', can disturb processes produced by other motives. T ou nderstand emotions, therefore, we need to understand motives and the types of processes they can produce. This leads to a study of

Aaron Sloman; Monica Croucher

1987-01-01

259

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has

Leonid Perlovsky

2010-01-01

260

Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very large online music databases have recently been created by vendors, but they generally lack content-based retrieval methods. One exception is Allmusic.com which offers browsing by musical emotion, using human experts to classify several thousand songs into 183 moods. In this paper, machine learning techniques are used instead of human experts to extract emotions in Music. The classification is based

Dan Yang; Won-Sook Lee

2009-01-01

261

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

262

Contradictions of emotion in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers contradictory features of emotional or affective experience and expression in schizophrenia in light of the “Kretschmerian paradox”—the fact that schizophrenia-spectrum patients can simultaneously experience both exaggerated and diminished levels of affective response. An attempt is made to explain the paradox and explore its implications. Recent research on emotion in schizophrenia is reviewed, including subjective reports, psychophysiological measures

Louis Sass

2007-01-01

263

Stereotype associations and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Study 2) expression displays. Stereotype consistent expressions were more quickly decoded than stereotype inconsistent expression on Moroccan and White male faces. Importantly, we found consistent and novel evidence that participants' associations between ethnicities and emotions, as measured with a newly developed emotion Implicit Association Test (eIAT), predicted the strength of their ethnicity-based stereotype biases in expression recognition. In both studies, as perceivers' level of Moroccan-anger and Dutch-sadness associations (compared with the opposite) increased, so did perceivers' tendency to decode anger more readily on Moroccan faces and sadness on White faces. The observed stereotype effect seemed to be independent of implicit prejudice (Study 2), suggesting dissociable effects of prejudices and stereotypes in expression perception. PMID:24523297

Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

2014-05-01

264

Emotional distraction unbalances visual processing.  

PubMed

Brain mechanisms used to control nonemotional aspects of cognition may be distinct from those regulating responses to emotional stimuli, with activity of the latter being detrimental to the former. Previous studies have shown that suppression of irrelevant emotional stimuli produces a largely right-lateralized pattern of frontal brain activation, thus predicting that emotional stimuli may invoke temporary, lateralized costs to performance on nonemotional cognitive tasks. To test this, we briefly (85 ms) presented a central, irrelevant, expressive (angry, happy, sad, or fearful) or neutral face 100 ms prior to a letter search task. The presentation of emotional versus neutral faces slowed subsequent search for targets appearing in the left, but not the right, hemifield, supporting the notion of a right-lateralized, emotional response mechanism that competes for control with nonemotional cognitive processes. Presentation of neutral, scrambled, or inverted neutral faces produced no such laterality effects on visual search response times. PMID:22227946

Gupta, Rashmi; Raymond, Jane E

2012-04-01

265

The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.  

PubMed

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-05-01

266

Showing and telling about emotions: Interrelations between facets of emotional competence and associations with classroom adjustment in Head Start preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of low income preschoolers (N?=? 60), we examined relations between three facets of emotional competence: emotion knowledge, level of negative emotion expression, and emotion regulation; and their associations with indicators of classroom adjustment. Emotion knowledge was positively related to positive emotion regulation but was not related to negative emotion expression or negative dysregulation. Negative emotion expression related

Alison L. Miller; Sarah E. Fine; Kathleen Kiely Gouley; Ronald Seifer; Susan Dickstein; Ann Shields

2006-01-01

267

Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

2009-01-01

268

Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?  

PubMed

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

2013-08-01

269

Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior  

PubMed Central

Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy.

Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.

2011-01-01

270

Moral emotions and moral behavior.  

PubMed

Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

2007-01-01

271

Preschool Emotional Competence: Pathway to Social Competence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed preschoolers' patterns of emotional expressiveness, emotion regulation, and emotion knowledge. Used latent variable modeling to identify their contributions to social competence, evidenced by sociometric liability and teacher ratings. Found that emotional competence assessed at 3 to 4 years of age contributed to both concurrent and…

Denham, Susanne A.; Blair, Kimberly A.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Levitas, Jennifer; Sawyer, Katherine; Auerbach-Major, Sharon

2003-01-01

272

Emotional Coherence in Primary School Headship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on emotion and leadership. It views emotions as the language of relationships, because it is through the language and experience of emotion that we contextualize not only our individuality but also our sense of belonging in a group. The article argues that emotion is inherent to the practice of leadership rather than separate…

Crawford, Megan

2007-01-01

273

Collective indexing of emotions in videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions consistently? Are the users' votes usable for emotional video retrieval? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors worked with a controlled vocabulary for nine basic emotions (love, happiness, fun, surprise, desire, sadness,

Kathrin Knautz; Wolfgang G. Stock

2011-01-01

274

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

275

Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

2013-01-01

276

Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

2012-01-01

277

Music Emotion Classification: A Regression Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical music emotion classification (MEC) approaches categorize emotions and apply pattern recognition methods to train a classifier. However, categorized emotions are too ambiguous for efficient music retrieval. In this paper, we model emotions as continuous variables composed of arousal and valence values (AV values), and formulate MEC as a regression problem. The multiple linear regression, support vector regression, and AdaBoost.RT

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Ya-fan Su; Homer H. Chen

2007-01-01

278

User-adaptive music emotion recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music can arouse profound and deep emotional reactions and the automatic emotion recognition of music is useful for music information retrieval, human-computer interaction and affective computing Picard R.W. (1997). However, the nature of music is very complex and users' emotion responses vary from individual to individual. In this paper, we present an adaptive scheme to recognize the emotional meaning of

Wang Muyuan; Zhang Naiyao; Zhu Hancheng

2004-01-01

279

Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

Oplatka, Izhar

2007-01-01

280

Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.  

PubMed

Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness. PMID:22931014

Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

2012-01-01

281

Bias and discriminability during emotional signal detection in melancholic depression  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive disturbances in depression are pernicious and so contribute strongly to the burden of the disorder. Cognitive function has been traditionally studied by challenging subjects with modality-specific psychometric tasks and analysing performance using standard analysis of variance. Whilst informative, such an approach may miss deeper perceptual and inferential mechanisms that potentially unify apparently divergent emotional and cognitive deficits. Here, we sought to elucidate basic psychophysical processes underlying the detection of emotionally salient signals across individuals with melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Methods Sixty participants completed an Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) task across negative, positive and neutral target stimuli blocks. We employed hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory (SDT) to model psychometric performance across three equal groups of those with melancholic depression, those with a non-melancholic depression and healthy controls. This approach estimated likely response profiles (bias) and perceptual sensitivity (discriminability). Differences in the means of these measures speak to differences in the emotional signal detection between individuals across the groups, while differences in the variance reflect the heterogeneity of the groups themselves. Results Melancholic participants showed significantly decreased sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli compared to those in the non-melancholic group, and also had a significantly lower discriminability than healthy controls during the detection of neutral signals. The melancholic group also showed significantly higher variability in bias to both positive and negative emotionally salient material. Conclusions Disturbances of emotional signal detection in melancholic depression appear dependent on emotional context, being biased during the detection of positive stimuli, consistent with a noisier representation of neutral stimuli. The greater heterogeneity of the bias across the melancholic group is consistent with a more labile disorder (i.e. variable across the day). Future work will aim to understand how these findings reflect specific individual differences (e.g. prior cognitive biases) and clarify whether such biases change dynamically during cognitive tasks as internal models of the sensorium are refined and updated in response to experience.

2014-01-01

282

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-09-01

283

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

284

Emotional outcomes after stroke: factors associated with poor outcome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The impact of stroke on the emotional outcome of patients is large. The aim was to describe the emotional outcomes among a cohort of patients which was of sufficient size to provide a precise estimate of their frequency and help identify those factors which are associated with poor outcomes after an acute stroke.?METHODS—372 surviving patients, who had been referred to a hospital and entered into a randomised trial to evaluate a stroke family care worker, were asked to complete questionnaires at a 6 month follow up. These included measures of emotional distress (general health questionnaire 30 item, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and physical functioning (modified Rankin, Barthel index). A regression analysis was used to identify factors which were independently associated with poor outcomes.?RESULTS—184 (60%) surviving patients scored more than 4 on the GHQ-30, 55 (22%) more than 8 on the HAD anxiety subscale, and 49 (20%) more than 8 on the HAD depression subscale. Patients with severe strokes resulting in physical disability were more likely to be depressed whereas there was a less strong relation between disability and anxiety. Patients with posterior circulation strokes had consistently better emotional outcomes than those with anterior circulation strokes.?CONCLUSIONS—These data may help identify those patients at greatest risk of poor emotional outcomes and thus help in planning trials and delivering appropriate interventions. ??

Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Lewis, S.; Sharpe, M.; Warlow, C.

2000-01-01

285

Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students  

PubMed Central

Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.

Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

2014-01-01

286

Clinical judgement and the emotions.  

PubMed

The basic emotions are more important in decision making than we think. So we need to be aware of them and look not just for rationality in our clinical judgements but rational judgements that 'feel' right. PMID:25041774

Boyd, G

2014-07-01

287

Emotionality and Reactions to Disaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Men exposed to the death and dismemberment occasioned by the crash of a commerical airplane were questioned about their behavior after the experience. Men independently designated as emotionally nonresponsive increased communicative behaviors as a functio...

B. Latane L. Wheeler

1966-01-01

288

Emotional Issues and Bathroom Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

289

[Stereotactic radiotherapy in pediatric indications].  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiotherapy is a very high precision procedure, which has been limited to radiosurgery for a long time. Technological improvements allowed the development of radiotherapy in stereotactic conditions, leading to a lot of innovations. Previously indicated for cerebral pathologies, this procedure is now developed for extracerebral locations. In paediatrics, stereotactic radiotherapy is still limited, delivered precociously, due to the possibility of long-term late effects that needs to be addressed. This review reports the different useful conditions, technical evolutions, and the current validated paediatric indications, with differences from adults, and future directions. PMID:22658965

Bernier-Chastagner, V; Supiot, S; Carrie, C; Helfre, S

2012-06-01

290

Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective…

Pellitteri, John; Dealy, Michael; Fasano, Charles; Kugler, John

2006-01-01

291

Patient's perception of care quality during radiotherapy sessions using respiratory gating techniques: validation of a specific questionnaire.  

PubMed

This prospective study was designed to validate a questionnaire on patients' perception of care quality during respiratory-gated radiotherapy for breast or lung cancer. Psychometric tests were performed on selected patients. Confirmatory factorial analyses and capacity to discriminate the responses were achieved to validate the best model on 297 patients. Factorial analyses identified the following three scales: (a) perception of quality, (b) global satisfaction, and (c) physical or emotional experience. The scales were able to differentiate patients' responses according to radiotherapy modalities. The questionnaire presented adequate psychometric properties. This tool could be used for the assessment from the patient's point of view. PMID:21261474

Brédart, A; Morvan, E; Savignoni, A; Giraud, P

2011-02-01

292

Sociological Theories of Human Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Over the past three decades, five general theoretical approaches to un- derstanding,the dynamics,of human,emotions,have emerged,in sociology: dramatur- gical theories, symbolic interactionist theories, interaction ritual theories, power and status theories, and exchange theories. We review each of these approaches. Despite the progress made by these theories, several issues remain unresolved: the nature of emotions, feeling, and affect; the degree

Jonathan H. Turner; Jan E. Stets

2006-01-01

293

Finding emotion in image descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we approach the problem of classifying emotion in image descriptions. A method is proposed to perform 6-way emotion classification and is tested against two labeled datasets: a corpus of blog posts mined from LiveJournal and a corpus of descriptive texts of computer generated scenes. We perform feature selection using the mRMR technique and then use a multi-class

Morgan Ulinski; Victor Soto; Julia Hirschberg

2012-01-01

294

Cognition and Motivation in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cognition—and to some extent motivation—in emotion, the ways meaning is generated, unconscious appraising, and the implications of this way of thinking for life-span development are addressed. It is argued that appraisal is a necessary as well as sufficient cause of emotion and that knowledge is necessary but not sufficient. This position is examined in light of what

Richard S. Lazarus

1991-01-01

295

Temperament, emotion, and childhood stuttering.  

PubMed

Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The traitlike nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more statelike and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter. Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

2014-05-01

296

Selective visual attention to emotion.  

PubMed

Visual attention can be voluntarily directed toward stimuli and is attracted by stimuli that are emotionally significant. The present study explored the case when both processes coincide and attention is directed to emotional stimuli. Participants viewed a rapid and continuous stream of high-arousing erotica and mutilation stimuli as well as low-arousing control images. Each of the three stimulus categories served in separate runs as target or nontarget category. Event-related brain potential measures revealed that the interaction of attention and emotion varied for specific processing stages. The effects of attention and emotional significance operated additively during perceptual encoding indexed by negative-going potentials over posterior regions (approximately 200-350 ms after stimulus onset). In contrast, thought to reflect the process of stimulus evaluation, P3 target effects (approximately 400-600 ms after stimulus onset) were markedly augmented when erotica and mutilation compared with control stimuli were the focus of attention. Thus, emotion potentiated attention effects specifically during later stages of processing. These findings suggest to specify the interaction of attention and emotion in distinct processing stages. PMID:17267562

Schupp, Harald T; Stockburger, Jessica; Codispoti, Maurizio; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

2007-01-31

297

Emotion and the motivational brain  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain’s motivational circuits that determine human emotion.

Lang, Peter J.; Bradley, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

298

Emotional regulation and bodily sensation: interoceptive awareness is intact in borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Emotional dysregulation is a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Theoretical models suggest that deficits in labeling physiological sensations of emotion contribute to affective instability in BPD. Interoceptive awareness refers to the ability to perceive changes in internal bodily states, and is linked to the subjective experience and control of emotions. The authors tested whether differences in interoceptive awareness accounted for emotional instability in BPD. Patients diagnosed with BPD (n = 24) were compared to healthy controls (n = 30) on two established measures of interoceptive awareness, a heartbeat perception task and a heartbeat monitoring task. Contrary to their hypothesis, the authors observed no significant differences in objective measures of interoceptive awareness. Their findings provide strong evidence against the notion that difficulties in emotional regulation in BPD are connected to differences in interoceptive awareness. PMID:22928847

Hart, Nova; McGowan, John; Minati, Ludovico; Critchley, Hugo D

2013-08-01

299

The fusiform response to faces: explicit versus implicit processing of emotion.  

PubMed

Regions of the fusiform gyrus (FG) respond preferentially to faces over other classes of visual stimuli. It remains unclear whether emotional face information modulates FG activity. In the present study, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was obtained from fifteen healthy adults who viewed emotionally expressive faces and made button responses based upon emotion (explicit condition) or age (implicit condition). Dipole source modeling produced source waveforms for left and right primary visual and left and right fusiform areas. Stronger left FG activity (M170) to fearful than happy or neutral faces was observed only in the explicit task, suggesting that directed attention to the emotional content of faces facilitates observation of M170 valence modulation. A strong association between M170 FG activity and reaction times in the explicit task provided additional evidence for a role of the fusiform gyrus in processing emotional information. PMID:21932258

Monroe, Justin F; Griffin, Mark; Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Roberts, Timothy P L; Christopher Edgar, J

2013-01-01

300

The need to nurse the nurse: emotional labor in neonatal intensive care.  

PubMed

In this 14-month ethnographic study, I examined the emotional labor and coping strategies of 114, level-4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses. Emotional labor was an underrecognized component in the care of vulnerable infants and families. The nature of this labor was contextualized within complex personal, professional, and organizational layers of demand on the emotions of NICU nurses. Coping strategies included talking with the sisterhood of nurses, being a super nurse, using social talk and humor, taking breaks, offering flexible aid, withdrawing from emotional pain, transferring out of the NICU, attending memorial services, and reframing loss to find meaning in work. The organization had strong staffing, but emotional labor was not recognized, supported, or rewarded. The findings can contribute to the development of interventions to nurse the nurse, and to ultimately facilitate NICU nurses' nurturance of stressed families. These have implications for staff retention, job satisfaction, and delivery of care. PMID:24675967

Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

2014-05-01

301

Psychosocial working conditions: An analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.  

PubMed

This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

2014-06-01

302

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-01-01

303

The interplay between the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli as measured by pupillary dilatation: the role of cognitive reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Emotions can occur during an emotion-eliciting event, but they can also arise when anticipating the event. We used pupillary responses, as a measure of effortful cognitive processing, to test whether the anticipation of an emotional stimulus (positive and negative) influences the subsequent online processing of that emotional stimulus. Moreover, we tested whether individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies are associated with pupillary responses during the anticipation and/or online processing of this emotional stimulus. Our results show that, both for positive and negative stimuli, pupillary diameter during the anticipation of emotion-eliciting events is inversely and strongly correlated to pupillary responses during the emotional image presentation. The variance in this temporal interplay between anticipation and online processing was related to individual differences in emotion regulation. Specifically, the results show that high reappraisal scores are related to larger pupil diameter during the anticipation which is related to smaller pupillary responses during the online processing of emotion-eliciting events. The habitual use of expressive suppression was not associated to pupillary responses in the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli. Taken together, the current data suggest (most strongly for individuals scoring high on the habitual use of reappraisal) that larger pupillary responses during the anticipation of an emotional stimulus are indicative of a sustained attentional set activation to prepare for an upcoming emotional stimulus, which subsequently directs a reduced need to cognitively process that emotional event. Hence, because the habitual use of reappraisal is known to have a positive influence on emotional well-being, the interplay between anticipation and online processing of emotional stimuli might be a significant marker of this well-being.

Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Remue, Jonathan; Ng, Kwun Kei; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-01-01

304

Pion radiotherapy at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

Clinical investigations of pi meson radiotherapy were conducted by the Cancer Research and Treatment Center of the University of New Mexico and the Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1974 until 1982. Two hundred and thirty patients have been treated for a variety of locally advanced primary and metastatic neoplasms. One hundred and ninety-six patients have been followed for a minimum of 18 months. Crude survival data range from 11% for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma to 82% for Stages C and D1 adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Acute tolerance of normal tissues is approximately 4500 pion rad in 36 fractions over 7 weeks. Severe chronic reactions have appeared with increasing frequency after doses in excess of 4000 pion rad.

Bush, S.E.; Smith, A.R.; Zink, S.

1982-12-01

305

[Stereotactic radiotherapy for intracranial meningioma].  

PubMed

Meningiomas are the most common non-malignant tumours of the brain. Gross-total resection remains the preferred treatment, if achievable without morbidity. Radiation therapy is advocated for inoperable, incompletely resected, or recurrent grade 1 tumours, if there is a progressive, symptomatic lesion, or in case of functional impairment. Postoperative radiation therapy is recommended for grade 2 or 3 lesions. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are high precision techniques, allowing good sparing of surrounding tissues. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery give comparable results, with excellent 5-year tumour control rates of more than 90% for benign meningiomas. Toxicity is low and seems equivalent, despite a biased use of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for larger meningiomas, close to critical structures. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy seems to be of special interest in the treatment of cavernous sinus or optic pathways meningiomas. The different therapeutic modalities should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:22652300

Delannes, M; Maire, J-P; Sabatier, J; Thillays, F

2012-06-01

306

Systemic effects of local radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Radiotherapy is generally used to treat a localized target that includes cancer. Mounting evidence indicates that radiotherapy also recruits biological effectors outside the treatment field, and has systemic effects. The implications of this aspect are discussed in this review, in the context of understanding the role of the host’s immune system in cooperating with standard cytotoxic treatments. Since effects from both chemotherapy and radiotherapy are sensed by the immune system, their combination with immunotherapy presents a new therapeutic opportunity. Radiotherapy carries the advantage of directly interfering with the primary tumor site, and potentially reverting some of the established immuno-supressive barriers present within the tumor microenvironment, ideally recovering the role of the primary tumor as an effective immunogenic hub. Local radiation also triggers systemic effects that can be harnessed in combination with immunotherapy to induce responses outside the radiation field. This review will cover some of the preclinical and clinical evidence in this regard.

Formenti, Silvia C.; Demaria, Sandra

2009-01-01

307

Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566

Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

2011-04-01

308

An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed.

Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

2014-01-01

309

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Fear of Emotions: The Role of Attentional Control  

PubMed Central

Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience elevated concerns about their capacity to control, and the consequences of, strong emotions that occur in response to trauma reminders. Anxiety is theorized to compromise attentional control (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). In turn, diminished attentional control may increase vulnerability to threat cues and emotional reactivity (Ehlers & Clark, 2001). Consequently, attentional control may play a role in the fear of emotions frequently experienced by individuals with PTSD. Study participants included 64 men and 64 women with a mean age of 37 years, 86% of whom were White, non-Hispanic. Participants experienced an average of 7.68 types of traumatic events, most commonly including motor vehicle accidents and intimate partner violence. PTSD symptoms positively correlated with fear of emotions (r = .53) and negatively correlated with attentional control (r = ?.38). Attentional control was negatively correlated with fear emotions (r = ?.77) and partially mediated the link between PTSD and fear of emotions (R2 = .22). Given the findings regarding top-down attentional control, these results have implications for cognitive and emotional processing theories of PTSD and emphasize the importance of clinical consideration of fear of emotions and attentional control in the treatment of PTSD.

Sippel, Lauren M.; Marshall, Amy D.

2014-01-01

310

Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer. The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches, based on recent technological advances, is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning), reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy), and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning target volume (intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy). Reduction of radiotherapy-related toxicity is fundamental to the improvement of clinical results in esophageal cancer, although the dose escalation concept is controversial.

Vosmik, Milan; Petera, Jiri; Sirak, Igor; Hodek, Miroslav; Paluska, Petr; Dolezal, Jiri; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

311

Forgetting of emotional information is hard: an fMRI study of directed forgetting.  

PubMed

Strong evidence suggests that memory for emotional information is much better than for neutral one. Thus, one may expect that forgetting of emotional information is difficult and requires considerable effort. The aim of this item-method directed forgetting functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate this hypothesis both at behavioral and neural levels. Directed forgetting effects were observed for both neutral and emotionally negative International Affective Picture System images. Moreover, recognition rate of negative to-be-forgotten images was higher than in case of neutral ones. In the study phase, intention to forget and successful forgetting of emotionally negative images were associated with widespread activations extending from the anterior to posterior regions mainly in the right hemisphere, whereas in the case of neutral images, they were associated with just one cluster of activation in the right lingual gyrus. Therefore, forgetting of emotional information seems to be a demanding process that strongly activates a distributed neural network in the right hemisphere. In the test phase, in turn, successfully forgotten images--either neutral or emotionally negative--were associated with virtually no activation, even at the lowered P value threshold. These results suggest that intentional inhibition during encoding may be an efficient strategy to cope with emotionally negative memories. PMID:20584747

Nowicka, Anna; Marchewka, Artur; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Tacikowski, Pawel; Brechmann, André

2011-03-01

312

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

313

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures.  

PubMed

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

Gerdes, Antje B M; Wieser, Matthias J; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M; Alpers, Georg W

2013-01-01

314

Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact  

PubMed Central

Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition.

Kruger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

2013-01-01

315

Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2009-01-01

316

Adaptive management of cervical cancer radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Since the breakthrough 10 years ago with concomitant radio-chemotherapy, substantial progress in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has been lacking. Radiotherapy continues to be the cornerstone in the treatment of this disease and now shows much potential for progress, as image guidance of both external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy, linked with strong tools for treatment planning and dose delivery, is becoming available. With these new techniques, it again seems possible to improve the therapeutic ratio as we begin to understand how the treatment for each patient can be individualized, not only in terms of volume (3-dimensional), but also during treatment (4-dimensional), as the tumor regresses and the topography of the target and organs at risk change significantly. New promising data with increased loco-regional control and decreased morbidity compared with the past are appearing. At the dawn of this new era, it is the aim of the present article to give an overview of the use of image-guided adaptive radiotherapy in the multimodal management of locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:20219550

Tanderup, Kari; Georg, Dietmar; Pötter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian; Grau, Cai; Lindegaard, Jacob C

2010-04-01

317

How Bodies and Voices Interact in Early Emotion Perception  

PubMed Central

Successful social communication draws strongly on the correct interpretation of others' body and vocal expressions. Both can provide emotional information and often occur simultaneously. Yet their interplay has hardly been studied. Using electroencephalography, we investigated the temporal development underlying their neural interaction in auditory and visual perception. In particular, we tested whether this interaction qualifies as true integration following multisensory integration principles such as inverse effectiveness. Emotional vocalizations were embedded in either low or high levels of noise and presented with or without video clips of matching emotional body expressions. In both, high and low noise conditions, a reduction in auditory N100 amplitude was observed for audiovisual stimuli. However, only under high noise, the N100 peaked earlier in the audiovisual than the auditory condition, suggesting facilitatory effects as predicted by the inverse effectiveness principle. Similarly, we observed earlier N100 peaks in response to emotional compared to neutral audiovisual stimuli. This was not the case in the unimodal auditory condition. Furthermore, suppression of beta–band oscillations (15–25 Hz) primarily reflecting biological motion perception was modulated 200–400 ms after the vocalization. While larger differences in suppression between audiovisual and audio stimuli in high compared to low noise levels were found for emotional stimuli, no such difference was observed for neutral stimuli. This observation is in accordance with the inverse effectiveness principle and suggests a modulation of integration by emotional content. Overall, results show that ecologically valid, complex stimuli such as joined body and vocal expressions are effectively integrated very early in processing.

Jessen, Sarah; Obleser, Jonas; Kotz, Sonja A.

2012-01-01

318

Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition.  

PubMed

Background: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Methods: Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the "old" or the "new" button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very fast. PMID:24634661

Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F

2014-01-01

319

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value.

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

320

Principles of Emotional Development and Children's Pretend Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the links between emotional development and pretend play in young children using basic foundations of psychoanalytic and learning theories. Explains emotional development and pretend play through interactive levels of expression, control and modeling of emotion, and emotional intelligence. (JPB)

Kwon, Jeong Yoon; Yawkey, Thomas D.

2000-01-01

321

Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

Saldern, Matthias V.

322

The Strength of Weak Identities: Social Structural Sources of Self, Situation and Emotional Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern societies are highly differentiated, with relatively uncorrelated socially salient dimensions and a preponderance of weak, unidimensional (as opposed to strong, multiplex) ties. What are the implications of a society with fewer strong ties and more weak ties for the self? What do these changes mean for our emotional experience in everyday…

Smith-Lovin, Lynn

2007-01-01

323

The relationship of case managers’ expressed emotion to clients’ outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Expressed emotion (EE) has been studied in families of a relative with schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders;\\u000a and high EE (hostile, critical, and overinvolved) families have been found to be strongly related to relapse among their relatives.\\u000a EE has been assessed on a limited basis among non-familial care providers and determined that providers can also have high\\u000a EE

Phyllis Solomon; Leslie Alexander; Stacey Uhl

2010-01-01

324

Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

325

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

326

The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

2012-01-01

327

Musical emotions: functions, origins, evolution.  

PubMed

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed. PMID:20374916

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

328

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

329

Image guidance for precise conformal radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo review the state of the art in image-guided precision conformal radiotherapy and to describe how helical tomotherapy compares with the image-guided practices being developed for conventional radiotherapy.

Thomas Rockwell Mackie; Jeff Kapatoes; Ken Ruchala; Weiguo Lu; Chuan Wu; Gustavo Olivera; Lisa Forrest; Wolfgang Tome; Jim Welsh; Robert Jeraj; Paul Harari; Paul Reckwerdt; Bhudatt Paliwal; Mark Ritter; Harry Keller; Jack Fowler; Minesh Mehta

2003-01-01

330

Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

Pachkoria, Ketevan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Zhang Hong [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Jarlsfelt, Ingvar [Department of Pathology and Cytology, Joenkoeping Hospital, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

2005-11-01

331

Identification of Youngsters with Emotional Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clarification of the identification process for emotionally disturbed children is presented. Traditional definitions of emotional disturbance (ED) are explored and four behavioral clusters within traditional definitions are presented. The four are withdrawal from social interaction (autism), unsatisfactory interpersonal relationships,…

Smith, Carl R.

332

Sleep and the processing of emotions.  

PubMed

How emotions interact with cognitive processes has been a topic of growing interest in the last decades, as well as studies investigating the role of sleep in cognition. We review here evidence showing that sleep and emotions entertain privileged relationships. The literature indicates that exposure to stressful and emotional experiences can induce changes in the post-exposure sleep architecture, whereas emotional disturbances are likely to develop following sleep alterations. In addition, post-training sleep appears particularly beneficial for the consolidation of intrinsically emotional memories, suggesting that emotions modulate the off-line brain activity patterns subtending memory consolidation processes. Conversely, sleep contributes unbinding core memories from their affective blanket and removing the latter, eventually participating to habituation processes and reducing aversive reactions to stressful stimuli. Taken together, these data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the regulation and processing of emotions, which highlight its crucial influence on human's abilities to manage and respond to emotional information. PMID:24449011

Deliens, Gaétane; Gilson, Médhi; Peigneux, Philippe

2014-05-01

333

Are emotional intelligent workers also more empathic?  

PubMed

This paper analyzes whether emotional intelligence and self-monitoring are related to empathy among a sample of workers in both the public and private employment sectors. Two hundred and forty-two employees (42.5% men and 57.5% women) with a mean age of 35.21 years (SD = 10.07, range 18-61) completed a questionnaire that measured the variables of interest. The results showed that emotion regulation, a dimension of emotional intelligence, accounts for most of the variance of empathy, followed by the ability to understand emotions and the management of others' emotions. Furthermore, gender did not yield any moderator effect on the relations among emotional intelligence, self-monitoring and empathy. We conclude that the intrapersonal aspects of emotional intelligence, in particular, emotion regulation, help explain the empathy of workers. The implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:23786638

Martos, Maria Pilar Berrios; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Augusto, José María

2013-10-01

334

Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

Horner, Michelle S.

2009-01-01

335

Modeling and Evaluating Emotions Impact on Cognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to make advances in modeling the relationship between emotion and cognition. The researchers proposed to use computational models to concretize psychological theories concerning the relationship between emotion, cognition...

J. Gratch S. Marsella

2000-01-01

336

Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

Gabrielsson, Alf

1999-01-01

337

Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Methods Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). Results Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p<.001), whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=?.39, p<.001). Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=?.20, p<.01). Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. Conclusions The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector.

2012-01-01

338

Emotion Regulation in Customer Service Roles: Testing a Model of Emotional Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used a time-sampling method to test aspects of A. Grandey's (2000) emotion regulation model of emotional labor. Eighteen customer service employees from a call center recorded data on pocket computers every 2 hr at work for 2 weeks. Participants completed ratings of emotion regulation, events, expressed and felt emotions, well-being, and performance on 537 occasions and completed questionnaires

Peter Totterdell; David Holman

2003-01-01

339

Regulating emotion expression and regulating emotion experience: divergent associations with dimensions of attachment among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult attachment research does not systematically distinguish between experiential and expressive forms of regulation. Drawing insights from developmental-functionalism – a lifespan theory of emotion and emotion regulation – the current report examined the relations among attachment, trait emotion, and expressive emotion regulation in a large (N = 1204) sample of older women. Although both preoccupation and fearful-avoidance predicted more anxiety and anger,

Nathan S. Consedine; Katherine L. Fiori; Carol Magai

2012-01-01

340

Comparison of Human and Automatic Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the problem of human facial emotions and emotion intensity levels recognition using active appearance models (AAM) and support vector machines (SVM). AAM are used for appropriate feature extraction and SVM for convenient facial emotion and emotion level classification. Problems related to proper selection of data retrieved from AAM and SVM learning parameters settings are discussed

M. Beszedes; P. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

341

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the 'bottom-up' (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or 'top-down' (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

McRae, Kateri; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K; Pereira, Sean C; Gross, James J

2012-03-01

342

Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

343

Developing Emotionally Competent Teachers: Emotional Intelligence and Pre-Service Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classrooms are emotional places, filled at different times with enjoyment, excitement, anger, hurt and boredom. The teacher's skill in working with emotional information and in regulating their own and their pupils' emotion impacts upon what and how pupils learn. But what emotional competence do teachers need? Can they learn this in pre-service…

Corcoran, Roisin P.; Tormey, Roland

2012-01-01

344

Emotion as a Thermostat: Representing Emotion Regulation Using a Damped Oscillator Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present in this study a damped oscillator model that provides a direct mathematical basis for testing the notion of emotion as a self-regulatory thermostat. Parameters from this model reflect individual differences in emotional lability and the ability to regulate emotion. The authors discuss concepts such as intensity, rate of change, and acceleration in the context of emotion, and

Sy-Miin Chow; Nilam Ram; Steven M. Boker; Frank Fujita; Gerald Clore

2005-01-01

345

Emotional Dilution of the Stroop Effect: A New Tool for Assessing Attention Under Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gauge in a precise fashion the capture of attention by emotional stimuli, we developed a new tool that imports the classic Stroop effect into the realm of emotion. Strooping the typical emotion tasks enabled the derivation of a pure intraitem measure of attention under emotion. The results of two experiments showed that the classic Stroop effects were

Eran Chajut; Asi Schupak; Daniel Algom

2010-01-01

346

Emotional Episodes at Work: An Experiential Exercise in Feeling and Expressing Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise explores how organizations affect individuals' feelings and expressions of emotion. Although recent attention by management theorists suggests that emotions are an important aspect of organizational life, people's actual experience of emotions at work often do not reflect this emphasis: Work-place emotions remain, in large part,…

Gibson, Donald E.

2006-01-01

347

Family Expressiveness and Parental Emotion Coaching: Their Role in Children's Emotion Regulation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored the relations between positive and negative family expressiveness, parental emotion coaching, child emotion regulation, and child aggression. The sample included 120 fourth-grade children and their mothers. Mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist, the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, and a portion of the meta-emotion interview to assess their awareness and acceptance of, and instruction in managing their

Sally R. Ramsden; Julie A. Hubbard

2002-01-01

348

The Development of Emotional Competence. The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of emotional competence entails resilience, self-efficacy, and acting in accord with one's sense of moral character. This suggests argues that emotional competence is demonstrated by the self-efficacy in emotion-eliciting encounters and identifies eight key emotional skills that support its acquisition in interpersonal contexts. The…

Saarni, Carolyn

349

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

350

The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

Fisher, R. Michael

2009-01-01

351

Small animal radiotherapy research platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

2011-06-01

352

Temporal dynamics of emotional responding: amygdala recovery predicts emotional traits.  

PubMed

An individual's affective style is influenced by many things, including the manner in which an individual responds to an emotional challenge. Emotional response is composed of a number of factors, two of which are the initial reactivity to an emotional stimulus and the subsequent recovery once the stimulus terminates or ceases to be relevant. However, most neuroimaging studies examining emotional processing in humans focus on the magnitude of initial reactivity to a stimulus rather than the prolonged response. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the time course of amygdala activity in healthy adults in response to presentation of negative images. We split the amygdala time course into an initial reactivity period and a recovery period beginning after the offset of the stimulus. We find that initial reactivity in the amygdala does not predict trait measures of affective style. Conversely, amygdala recovery shows predictive power such that slower amygdala recovery from negative images predicts greater trait neuroticism, in addition to lower levels of likability of a set of social stimuli (neutral faces). These data underscore the importance of taking into account temporal dynamics when studying affective processing using neuroimaging. PMID:23160815

Schuyler, Brianna S; Kral, Tammi R A; Jacquart, Jolene; Burghy, Cory A; Weng, Helen Y; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Maccoon, Donal G; van Reekum, Carien M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J

2014-02-01

353

Theory of emotional awareness and brain processing of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative affect that is not experienced or expressed may be the most pathogenic response to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to provide a way of understanding this phenomenon from a psychological and physiological perspective. A cognitive–developmental model of emotional awareness is presented that holds that the ability to become consciously aware of one's own feelings is a

2006-01-01

354

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

355

Building a Personalized Music Emotion Prediction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of multimedia technology, research on music is getting more and more popular. Nowadays researchers focus\\u000a on studying the relationship between music and listeners’ emotions but they didn’t consider users’ differences. Therefore,\\u000a we propose a Personalized Music Emotion Prediction (P-MEP) System to assist predicting listeners’ music emotion concerning\\u000a with users’ differences. To analyze listeners’ emotional response to music,

Chan-chang Yeh; Shian-shyong Tseng; Pei-chin Tsai; Jui-feng Weng

2006-01-01

356

Parental Contributions to Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Direct and Indirect Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the contributions of (1) parental socialization of emotion and preschoolers' emotional interaction with parents to their emotional competence, and (2) parental socialization and child emotional competence to their general social competence. Both observational and self-report techniques were used to measure emotion socialization, emotional competence, and social competence of preschoolers (average age = 49.8 months) from 60

Susanne A. Denham; Jennifer Mitchell-Copeland; Katherine Strandberg; Sharon Auerbach; Kimberly Blair

1997-01-01

357

Mixed emotions: teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the conceptual framework, methodology, and some results from a project on the Emotions of Teaching and Educational Change. It introduces the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional understanding and emotional geographies. Drawing on interviews with 53 teachers in 15 schools, the paper then describes key differences in the emotional geographies of elementary and secondary teaching. Elementary

Andy Hargreaves

2000-01-01

358

Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Links to Pretend and Physical Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations between preschoolers' play and emotional competence with peers. Found that emotion regulation and emotion understanding made unique contributions to teacher ratings of children's emotional competence with peers. High pretend play levels related to high emotion understanding for both boys and girls, and high emotion regulation…

Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

2003-01-01

359

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Work: Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

This contribution links psychological models of emotion regulation to sociological accounts of emotion work to demonstrate the extent to which emotion regulation is systematically shaped by culture and society. I first discuss a well-established two-factor process model of emotion regulation and argue that a substantial proportion of emotion regulatory goals are derived from emotion norms. In contrast to universal emotion values and hedonic preferences, emotion norms are highly specific to social situations and institutional contexts. This specificity is determined by social cognitive processes of categorization and guided by framing rules. Second, I argue that the possibilities for antecedent-focused regulation, in particular situation selection and modification, are not arbitrarily available to individuals. Instead, they depend on economic, cultural, and social resources. I suggest that the systematic and unequal distribution of these resources in society leads to discernible patterns of emotion and emotion regulation across groups of individuals.

von Scheve, Christian

2012-01-01

360

The Mysterious Noh Mask: Contribution of Multiple Facial Parts to the Recognition of Emotional Expressions  

PubMed Central

Background A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally formulated performing styles when evaluating the emotions of the Noh masks.

Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

2012-01-01

361

Emotional Development in the First Two Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerning the issues of emotional development, general agreement can only be reached on the definition of "emotional" behavior. Behavior is emotional when it varies from an individual's behavioral baseline by the addition of three components: (1) an action component, (2) an arousal component, and (3) a subjective "feeling" component. In all areas…

Ricciuti, Henry N.

362

Emotional context modulates subsequent memory effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions have been shown to modulate memory processes. However, the neuronal substrate underlying these modulatory effects is largely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the context of emotional encoding modulates brain activation predictive for subsequent recall of emotionally neutral material. While inferior frontal activation predicted recall in general, our data show that in a positive

Susanne Erk; Markus Kiefer; J. o Grothe; Arthur P Wunderlich; Manfred Spitzer; Henrik Walter

2003-01-01

363

Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Legitimacy and Charismatic Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, the subject of emotional intelligence has received ample attention in management and leadership literature. The literature contains a plethora of information about emotional intelligence and its effect on transformational leadership. Much less is written on the relationship between charismatic leadership and emotional intelligence. This paper examines the relationship between the two concepts and their effects

David B. Carmichael; Maxim Sytch

364

Emotional regulation goals and strategies of teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses two questions: what goals do teachers have for their own emotional regulation, and what strategies do teachers report they use to regulate their own emotions. Data were collected from middle school teachers in North East Ohio, USA through a semi-structured interview. All but one of the teachers reported regulating their emotions and there were no gender or

Rosemary E. Sutton

2004-01-01

365

Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI

John D. Mayer; Peter Salovey; David R. Caruso

2008-01-01

366

PETEEI: a PET with evolving emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of what is now called 'emotional inte lligence' has revealed yet another aspect of human intelligence. Emotions have been shown to have a major impact on many of our everyday functions, including decision-making, planning, communication, and behavior. AI researchers have recently acknowle dged this major role that emotions play, and thus have began to incorporate models for simulating

Magy Seif El-Nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen

1999-01-01

367

Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become a fashionable topic in the popular press, and has been heralded as an effective predictor of successful performance. However, little empirical evidence has borne out these claims. The present study was conducted in order to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and personality with academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the EQ-i (total

Shaun Newsome; Arla L. Day; Victor M. Catano

2000-01-01

368

Color Based Bags-of-Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

369

Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

370

Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

2011-01-01

371

Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

372

Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

Arnold, Cath

2010-01-01

373

Bullying Reconsidered: Educating for Emotional Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional literacy has an important place in the English curriculum because emotions cannot be separated from reading, writing, and thinking critically with language. Teachers can use the study of literature, writing, and language to reframe emotion from being something that creates victims and victimizers into feelings that can be critically…

Mack, Nancy, Ed.

2012-01-01

374

Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Where We Are Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence has been defined as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (P. Salovey and J. Mayer, 1990). As a subset of social intelligence and of personal intelligences (H. Gardner, 1983), emotional intelligence…

Finegan, Jane E.

375

Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

2008-01-01

376

How Emotional Development Unfolds Starting at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ross Thompson, PhD, responds to questions about the capacity of infants and toddlers to experience complex emotions and about how parents and caregivers can support early social and emotional development. He underscores the importance of allowing children to experience a wide range of emotions--including frustration and anger--as vital to their…

Thompson, Ross

2012-01-01

377

Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

2005-01-01

378

"Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

Wang, Hongyu

2008-01-01

379

Emotional Intelligence and Education: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years there has been an increased interest in the role of emotional intelligence in both the academic success of students and their emotional adjustment in school. However, promotion of emotional intelligence in schools has proven a controversial pursuit, challenging as it does traditional "rationalist" views of education. Furthermore,…

Humphrey, Neil; Curran, Andrew; Morris, Elisabeth; Farrell, Peter; Woods, Kevin

2007-01-01

380

Emotional Development, Intellectual Ability, and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K. Dabrowski's Theory of Emotional Development was used to compare 41 gifted adults (mean age 37) and 42 graduate students (mean age 29). Greater overexcitability scores by the gifted adults suggested substantially greater potential for emotional development, but no significant differences between groups were found for actual level of emotional

Miller, Nancy B.; And Others

1994-01-01

381

Facial expression recognition using emotion avatar image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing facial expression recognition techniques analyze the spatial and temporal information for every single frame in a human emotion video. On the contrary, we create the Emotion Avatar Image (EAI) as a single good representation for each video or image sequence for emotion recognition. In this paper, we adopt the recently introduced SIFT flow algorithm to register every frame with

Songfan Yang; Bir Bhanu

2011-01-01

382

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

2008-01-01

383

Higher Education Emotions: A Scale Development Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion experienced in the classroom has been shown to influence subject-level satisfaction and loyalty to the institution. To date, a valid and reliable scale to measure higher-education satisfaction emotions does not exist and this study aims to rectify this shortfall. After a qualitative and quantitative investigation, 14 emotions that formed…

White, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

384

Research on Virtual Emotional Human System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual emotional human system (VEHS) can be widely applied in game role and computer interface performance enhancement. Artificial emotion, as a branch of AI, is aimed at endowing robot with various emotions such as sorrow and happiness. So it becomes a more and more attractive research field than before and will be an advanced stage for AI. The research frame

Li Peng; Xuewei Wang; Sasa Zhu; Xuejing Gu

2007-01-01

385

Stereotypical Portrayals of Emotionality in News Photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research content analyzed the news photographs of a major U.S. daily newspaper to examine the emotional portrayals of individuals in different gender, age, and ethnic subgroups. A multidimensional measure of emotion (pleasure, arousal, dominance) was used. A total of 1,595 individuals were coded. The results demonstrate that emotionality was stereotyped to some degree, particularly in relation to women, ethnic

Shelly Rodgers; Linda Jean Kenix; Esther Thorson

2007-01-01

386

Emotion, spiritual experience and education: a reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, informed especially by the work of the philosopher John Macmurray, focuses on two personal anecdotes in order to explore the relationship and distinctions between emotional and spiritual experience. Despite being unique to the individual, emotional experience requires relationship, and thus appreciation of the feelings of others is possible through empathy. Emotional development may be a pre-requisite for spiritual

Ron Best

2011-01-01

387

Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion

Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

388

INFERENCE MODEL OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND EMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions an inference model of facial expressions and emotion from the viewpoint that non-verbal information as well as verbal information is useful in human computer interaction, and that especially, facial expressions are useful since they reflect human emotion well. First this paper considers the inference model of human emotion from only facial expressions. Next this paper considers the

Sachiko KITAZAKI; Takehisa ONISAWA

389

Music: A Link Between Cognition and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition and emotion are closely linked in music. The interplay between expectations and the sounded events is hypothesized to play a central role in creating musical tension and relaxation. The research summarized here is part of an ongoing program investigating how this dynamic aspect of musical emotion relates to the cognition of musical structure. Musical emotions change over time in

Carol L. Krumhansl

2002-01-01

390

Toward Multi-modal Music Emotion Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of categorical music emotion classification that divides emotion into classes and uses audio features alone for emo- tion classification has reached a limit due to the presence of a semantic gap between the object feature level and the human cognitive level of emotion perception. Motivated by the fact that lyrics carry rich seman- tic information of a song,

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Heng-Tze Cheng; I-bin Liao; Yeh-chin Ho; Homer H. Chen

2008-01-01

391

Music emotion classification: a fuzzy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the subjective nature of human perception, classification of the emotion of music is a challenging problem. Simply assigning an emotion class to a song segment in a deterministic way does not work well because not all people share the same feeling for a song. In this paper, we consider a different approach to music emotion classification. For each

Yi-hsuan Yang; Chia-Chu Liu; Homer H. Chen

2006-01-01

392

Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

2008-01-01

393

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

394

Affective Medicine: Technology with Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time people have kept emotions out of the deliberate tools of medicine and science; scientists, physicians, and patients have often felt and sometimes expressed emotion, but no tools could sense, measure, and respond to their affective information. A series of recent studies indicates that emotions, particul arly stress, anger, and depression, are important factors with serious and

Rosalind W. Picard

2002-01-01

395

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

396

Pedagogical Possibilities: Engaging Cultural Rules of Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Teaching, leading, and learning are inextricably connected to emotions. Yet, the significance of emotions is rarely addressed in educational settings, and when it is, the relationship between emotions and curricula is most often framed by of an overly individualistic behavior model that focuses on the management and regulation…

Knight-Diop, Michelle; Oesterreich, Heather A.

2009-01-01

397

Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

398

EMOTION RECOGNITION IN SPEECH USING FUZZY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses LPC analysis to extract emotion features from speech. From this analysis, 18 features namely pitch, jitter, energy, duration and 14 LPC coefficients are extracted from each voice sample to represent the emotion features of six basic emotions; happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. These 18 features extracted from different samples give rise to 18 fuzzy sets.

Mohd Hafizuddin Mohd Yusof; Ryoichi Komiya

399

The Emotional Life of the Toddler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parenting a toddler can be both exhilarating and frustrating, this book draws on lifelong research into children's emotional development to provide parents with a better understanding of toddlers' emotional range and how it affects toddler behavior. The 10 chapters and the conclusion cover the following areas: (1) the emotional

Lieberman, Alicia F.

400

Radiotherapy supports protective tumor-specific immunity  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Growing evidence indicates that, besides inducing an irreversible DNA damage, radiotherapy promotes tumor-specific immune response, which significantly contribute to therapeutic efficacy. We postulate that radiotherapy activates tumor-associated dendritic cells, thus changing the tolerogenic tumor environment into an immunogenic one.

Gupta, Anurag; Sharma, Anu; von Boehmer, Lotta; Surace, Laura; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

2012-01-01

401

Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior  

PubMed Central

Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain’s endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior.

Zanettini, Claudio; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Aliczki, Mano; Goldberg, Steven R.; Haller, Jozsef; Yasar, Sevil

2011-01-01

402

Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior.  

PubMed

Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior. PMID:21949506

Zanettini, Claudio; Panlilio, Leigh V; Alicki, Mano; Goldberg, Steven R; Haller, József; Yasar, Sevil

2011-01-01

403

Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Background During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM. Method Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N=83). Results We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress. Conclusions The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.

van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Spinhoven, Philip

2011-01-01

404

Introduction to suspension levels: radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In 2007, the European Commission (EC) commissioned a group of experts to undertake the revision of Report Radiation Protection (RP 91) 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations' written in 1997. The revised draft report was submitted to the EC in 2010, who issued it for public consultation. The EC has commissioned the same group of experts to consider the comments of the public consultation for further improvement of the revised report. The EC intends to publish the final report under its Radiation Report Series as RP 162. This paper describes the background to the selection of the key performance parameters for radiotherapy equipment and sets out the sources of their criteria of acceptability including suspension levels for a wide range of radiotherapy equipment. PMID:23175641

Horton, P; Lillicrap, S; Lamm, I-L; Lehmann, W

2013-02-01

405

Radiotherapy for ocular tumours  

PubMed Central

Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2?Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour.

Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

2013-01-01

406

Strong Navajo Marriages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

2008-01-01

407

What Is Strong Correlation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

Kozak, Marcin

2009-01-01

408

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

409

Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards.

2012-01-01

410

Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

411

The INTERSPEECH 2009 emotion challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a substantial body of literature on the recognition of emotion from speech. However, in comparison to related speech processing tasks such as Automatic Speech and Speaker Recognition, practically no standardised corpora and test-conditions exist to compare performances under exactly the same conditions. Instead a multiplicity of evaluation strategies employed - such as cross-validation or percentage

Björn Schuller; Stefan Steidl; Anton Batliner

2009-01-01

412

The Importance of Emotional Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver…

Shih, Yi-Hsuen; Liu, Min

2008-01-01

413

Emotion Circuits in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

Joseph E. LeDoux

2000-01-01

414

Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

415

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

416

Alcohol, Emotions, Stress and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey is given of the history of alcohol consumption and of the effects of alcohol on stress, the emotions, and performance. It is concluded, based on the experience accumulated from Canadian and American pilots, that treatment and rehabilitation of al...

L. G. Polevoy L. L. Stazhadze

1987-01-01

417

Attentional bias in emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

1986-01-01

418

Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

Maulding, Wanda S.

419

[Radiotherapy in malignant lung tumors].  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is performed in many different lung cancer situations, often in combination with chemotherapy and surgery. The indications for radiotherapy are limited disease in small cell lung cancer, postoperatively in not completely operated non-small cell lung cancer, medically inoperable lung cancer and not resectable locally advanced disease. Combined-modality approaches using various permutations of three treatment modalities, namely surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are currently under investigation. Palliative radiation therapy is able to reduce life-threatening symptoms from intrathoracic tumor as well as from distant metastases. PMID:7514813

Thöni, A F

1994-04-01

420

Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy.

Kumar, Sanath

2012-01-01

421

Superficial radiotherapy for multiple keratoacanthomas.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 76-year-old Caucasian woman who attended our clinic with multiple keratoacanthomas. Radiotherapy was considered a viable and effective option in such an old patient, who could not be a good surgical candidate for number and distribution of the lesions, and for the age. After a 12-month follow-up, we observed the complete and global disappearance of the lesions; the patient was therefore very satisfied especially in view of the clinical outcome. According to our point of view, radiotherapy allows the physician to obtain a good oncological radicality and excellent cosmetic results too. PMID:25032245

Bruscino, N; Corradini, D; Campolmi, P; Massi, D; Palleschi, G M

2014-01-01

422

It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.  

PubMed

Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

2009-11-01

423

Recognition of facial expressions of emotions by 3-year-olds.  

PubMed

Very few large-scale studies have focused on emotional facial expression recognition (FER) in 3-year-olds, an age of rapid social and language development. We studied FER in 808 healthy 3-year-olds using verbal and nonverbal computerized tasks for four basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, and fear). Three-year-olds showed differential performance on the verbal and nonverbal FER tasks, especially with respect to fear. That is to say, fear was one of the most accurately recognized facial expressions as matched nonverbally and the least accurately recognized facial expression as labeled verbally. Sex did not influence emotion-matching nor emotion-labeling performance after adjusting for basic matching or labeling ability. Three-year-olds made systematic errors in emotion-labeling. Namely, happy expressions were often confused with fearful expressions, whereas negative expressions were often confused with other negative expressions. Together, these findings suggest that 3-year-olds' FER skills strongly depend on task specifications. Importantly, fear was the most sensitive facial expression in this regard. Finally, in line with previous studies, we found that recognized emotion categories are initially broad, including emotions of the same valence, as reflected in the nonrandom errors of 3-year-olds. PMID:21500910

Székely, Eszter; Tiemeier, Henning; Arends, Lidia R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Herba, Catherine M

2011-04-01

424

Autism, Emotion Recognition and the Mirror Neuron System: The Case of Music  

PubMed Central

Understanding emotions is fundamental to our ability to navigate and thrive in a complex world of human social interaction. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are known to experience difficulties with the communication and understanding of emotion, such as the nonverbal expression of emotion and the interpretation of emotions of others from facial expressions and body language. These deficits often lead to loneliness and isolation from peers, and social withdrawal from the environment in general. In the case of music however, there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD do not have difficulties recognizing simple emotions. In addition, individuals with ASD have been found to show normal and even superior abilities with specific aspects of music processing, and often show strong preferences towards music. It is possible these varying abilities with different types of expressive communication may be related to a neural system referred to as the mirror neuron system (MNS), which has been proposed as deficient in individuals with autism. Music’s power to stimulate emotions and intensify our social experiences might activate the MNS in individuals with ASD, and thus provide a neural foundation for music as an effective therapeutic tool. In this review, we present literature on the ontogeny of emotion processing in typical development and in individuals with ASD, with a focus on the case of music.

Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Wang, Martha J.; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Overy, Katie; Wu, Wai-Ling; Piggot, Judith

2009-01-01

425

Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

PubMed Central

Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) in children with ADHD (n=32) and typically developing controls (n=34), using a novel emotion task with four conditions: negative induction, negative suppression, positive induction, and positive suppression of affect. Both groups showed strong task-response effects in RSA. However, typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction). In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed. It is concluded ADHD in childhood is associated with abnormal parasympathetic mechanisms involved in emotion regulation.

Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

2011-01-01

426

Adjuvant radiotherapy and health-related quality of life of patients at intermediate risk of recurrence following primary surgery for oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Controversy surrounds who should receive adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with intermediate risk of recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma following primary surgery. The aim of this study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes of those who received adjuvant radiotherapy to those who did not in patients at intermediate-risk of recurrence. A total of 765 oral cancer patients were treated at the Regional Maxillofacial Unit, Liverpool from 1995 to 2007. After excluding 124 patients (87 primary radiotherapy, 23 died within 90 days, 14 had insufficient information for determining risk group status), 169 were low-risk, 271 intermediate-risk and 201 were high-risk. In the intermediate-risk group, 33% had adjuvant radiotherapy. Allowing for attrition, more than 70% had University of Washington quality of life data (UW-QOL). Cumulative survival was similar in those with and without adjuvant radiotherapy in a subset of patients at intermediate risk. There was little difference in overall HRQOL scores and in the socio-emotional subscale scores of the UW-QOL. However, there was a significant difference in physical subscale scores and the issue most affected was saliva. These findings support better stratification of risk in the intermediate group, and the plausibility of withholding radiotherapy without compromising survival. This can have dramatic positive benefits on patient physical outcomes, in particular saliva. Where adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary, it is appropriate to minimise adverse effects through measures such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. PMID:21827968

Bekiroglu, F; Ghazali, N; Laycock, R; Katre, C; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

2011-10-01

427

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed Central

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience.

Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2013-01-01

428

Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

429

A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces  

PubMed Central

This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect.

Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

2014-01-01

430

Hypopituitarism following radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Deficiencies in anterior pituitary hormones secretion ranging from subtle to complete occur following radiation damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary (h-p) axis, the severity and frequency of which correlate with the total radiation dose delivered to the h-p axis and the length of follow up. Selective radiosensitivity of the neuroendocrine axes, with the GH axis being the most vulnerable, accounts for the high frequency of GH deficiency, which usually occurs in isolation following irradiation of the h-p axis with doses less than 30 Gy. With higher radiation doses (30-50 Gy), however, the frequency of GH insufficiency substantially increases and can be as high as 50-100%. Compensatory hyperstimulation of a partially damaged h-p axis may restore normality of spontaneous GH secretion in the context of reduced but normal stimulated responses; at its extreme, endogenous hyperstimulation may limit further stimulation by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia resulting in subnormal GH responses despite normality of spontaneous GH secretion in adults. In children, failure of the hyperstimulated partially damaged h-p axis to meet the increased demands for GH during growth and puberty may explain what has previously been described as radiation-induced GH neurosecretory dysfunction and, unlike in adults, the ITT remains the gold standard for assessing h-p functional reserve. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ACTH deficiency occur after intensive irradiation only (>50 Gy) with a long-term cumulative frequency of 3-6%. Abnormalities in gonadotrophin secretion are dose-dependent; precocious puberty can occur after radiation dose less than 30 Gy in girls only, and in both sexes equally with a radiation dose of 30-50 Gy. Gonadotrophin deficiency occurs infrequently and is usually a long-term complication following a minimum radiation dose of 30 Gy. Hyperprolactinemia, due to hypothalamic damage leading to reduced dopamine release, has been described in both sexes and all ages but is mostly seen in young women after intensive irradiation and is usually subclinical. A much higher incidence of gonadotrophin, ACTH and TSH deficiencies (30-60% after 10 years) occur after more intensive irradiation (>60 Gy) used for nasopharyngeal carcinomas and tumors of the skull base, and following conventional irradiation (30-50 Gy) for pituitary tumors. The frequency of hypopituitarism following stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary tumors is mostly seen after long-term follow up and is similar to that following conventional irradiation. Radiation-induced anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies are irreversible and progressive. Regular testing is mandatory to ensure timely diagnosis and early hormone replacement therapy. PMID:18270844

Darzy, Ken H; Shalet, Stephen M

2009-01-01

431

Faints, fits, and fatalities from emotion in Shakespeare's characters: survey of the canon  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine how often Shakespeare's characters faint, fit, or die from extreme emotion; to assess Shakespeare's uniqueness in this regard; and to examine the plausibility of these dramatised events. Design Line by line search through modern editions of these late 16th and early 17th century works for accounts of characters fainting, fitting, or dying while under strong emotion and for no other apparent reason. Data sources All 39 canonical plays by Shakespeare and his three long narrative poems; 18 similar works by seven of Shakespeare's best known contemporaries. Results 10 deaths from strong emotion are recorded by Shakespeare (three occur on stage); all are due to grief, typically at the loss of a loved one. All but two of the deaths are in the playwright's late works. Some deaths are sudden. Another 29 emotion induced deaths are mentioned as possible, but the likelihood of some can be challenged. Transient loss of consciousness is staged or reported in 18 cases (sounding like epilepsy in two) and near fainting in a further 13. Extreme joy is sometimes depicted as a factor in these events. Emotional death and fainting also occur occasionally in works by Shakespeare's contemporaries. Conclusions These dramatic phenomena are part of the early modern belief system but are also plausible by modern understanding of physiology and disease. They teach us not to underestimate the power of the emotions to disturb bodily functions.

2006-01-01

432

The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal.

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

433

Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12

Andrew R. Harwood; J. Ivan Krajbich; Victor L. Fornasier

1980-01-01

434

Quality assurance for radiotherapy equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality assurance of the radiotherapy equipment comprises all organized procedures which are needed to ensure the reliable operation of the equipment on point of view of radiation safety as well as of the required accuracy of dose to the patient. Qual...

1993-01-01

435

External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers  

SciTech Connect

Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally, in those patients, the neoplastic tissue involves the larynx, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels or mediastinum. Of 539 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Villejuif, France, until 1976, 97 were treated by external radiotherapy after an incomplete surgical excision. Fifteen years after irradiation, the survival rate is 57% and is approximately 40% at 25 years. The relapse-free survival is lower (39% at 15 years). In patients irradiated with an adequate dose (greater than or equal to 50 Gy) to residual neoplastic tissue after incomplete surgery, the incidence of local recurrence is low (actuarial probability of local recurrence 11% at 15 years versus 23% for patients treated by surgery alone, although the irradiated patients had larger and more extensive tumors). This demonstrates the efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy on a residual tumor can be monitored by a serum thyroglobulin assay. With regard to local control of tumors, the effectiveness of radioiodine administration is clearly lower. However, since radioiodine facilitates early detection of distant metastases, a combination of external RT and radioiodine is indicated and is well-tolerated.

Tubiana, M.; Haddad, E.; Schlumberger, M.; Hill, C.; Rougier, P.; Sarrazin, D.

1985-05-01

436

Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12 have been alive and well without tumor for periods ranging from three and a half to 16 years and 3 of these are alive and well for 15 years or more following radiotherapy. The other 6 patients responded or desease stabilized following radiotherapy for periods ranging from 16 months to eight years. One poorly differentiated tumor was radically irradiated and did not respond. Eleven patients were irradiated palliatively, generally with low doses of irradiation, and only 4 responded transiently for periods ranging from three to 12 months. Seven patients with mesenchymal and dedifferentiated tumors were radically irradiated. Four responded or disease stabilized, and 1 of these patients was alive and well at 3 years; 3 did not respond. Six died with distant metastasis. It is concluded that chondrosarcoma of bone is a radioresponsive tumor and the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease and the reason for its being labelled a radioresistant tumor are discussed. The problems of assessing response of chondrosarcoma to therapy are also discussed. It is suggested that chemotherapy may have a role in the management of mesenchymal and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.

Harwood, A.R.; Krajbich, J.I.; Fornasier, V.L.

1980-06-01

437

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices, and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

PubMed Central

Research Findings Utilizing a three-part model of emotion socialization that includes Modeling, Contingent Responding, and Teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers’ self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers’ emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multi-level analyses revealed that the majority of the variance in the children’s emotion knowledge scores and observed emotional behavior was predicted by factors within, rather than between, classrooms. Teachers’ use of all three emotion socialization techniques did contribute to the prediction of the children’s scores; however, the nature of these associations differed by children’s age and gender. Practice or Policy The development of children’s emotional competence is a complex, multi-faceted process in which many interaction partners play a role; early childhood teachers act as emotion socialization agents for the children in their care by modeling emotions, responding either supportively or punitively to children’s expressions of emotions, and engaging in direct instruction regarding emotional experience. This research may provide a basis for potential future interventions designed to assist teachers in developing their own emotion socialization skills so that they can be more effective emotion socialization agents for the children in their care.

Morris, Carol A.S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

438

Second language as an exemptor from sociocultural norms. Emotion-Related Language Choice revisited.  

PubMed

Bilinguals often switch languages depending on what they are saying. According to the Emotion-Related Language Choice theory, they find their second language an easier medium of conveying content which evokes strong emotions. The first language carries too much emotional power, which can be threatening for the speaker. In a covert experiment, bilingual Polish students translated texts brimming with expletives from Polish into English and vice versa. In the Polish translations, the swear word equivalents used were weaker than in the source text; in the English translations, they were stronger than in the original. These results corroborate the ERLC theory. However, the effect was only observed for ethnophaulisms, i.e. expletives directed at social groups. It turns out that the main factor triggering the language choice in bilinguals is not necessarily the different emotional power of both languages, but social and cultural norms. PMID:24349044

Gawinkowska, Marta; Paradowski, Micha? B; Bilewicz, Micha?

2013-01-01

439

Medical Patients' Attitudes Toward Emotional Problems and Their Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding medical patients' attitudes toward emotional problems and their management is crucial to overcoming obstacles to efficient depression treatment. Objective To investigate attitudes toward emotional problems, psychotherapy, antidepressants, alternative treatment approaches, and self-management techniques in depressed and nondepressed medical outpatients. Design Cross-sectional interview study, including quantitative and qualitative methods. Patients Eighty-seven depressed subjects (mean age, 41.0 years; 66% female) and 91 nondepressed subjects (mean age, 41.4 years; 67% female) from 7 internal medicine outpatient clinics and 12 family practices (participation rate, 91%). Measurements Depression diagnoses were established using a structured diagnostic interview, and patient attitudes were investigated with open-ended interview questions regarding treatment preferences, factors improving and impairing emotional well-being, and patients' self-management to improve well-being. Results Among the depressed patients, psychotherapy was the most frequently preferred treatment (29%) and the most common factor reported to improve emotional well-being (36%). Twenty-two percent of the depressed patients desired depression treatment within their current medical system, but requested substantially more time to communicate with their physician. Antidepressants were rarely mentioned as a preferred treatment (6%) or factor improving well-being (11%). Thirty-eight percent of the depressed patients attributed their impaired mood to health problems. Compared with the depressed patients, the nondepressed controls preferred significantly less frequent depression-specific therapies. Conclusions The vast majority of medical outpatients prefer treatment approaches for emotional problems that go beyond antidepressant medication therapy. Health care providers should consider providing sufficient time to communicate with their patients, the strong preference for psychotherapy, and an appropriate treatment of comorbid physical conditions.

Lowe, Bernd; Schulz, Ute; Grafe, Kerstin; Wilke, Stefanie

2006-01-01

440

The effects of emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour on emergency staff nurses' workplace empowerment and organizational commitment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test a model exploring the relationships among emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour, workplace empowerment and commitment. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 300 emergency staff nurses working in Ontario. A path analysis supported the fully mediated hypothesized model (chi(2)=2.3, df=1, p > .05; CFI=.99, IFI=.99, RMSEA=.08). Perceived emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour had a strong direct effect on structural empowerment (beta=.54), which in turn had a strong direct effect on organizational commitment (beta=.61). PMID:19289914

Young-Ritchie, Carol; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol

2009-01-01

441

The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB) signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning, and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall, and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviors and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLA???mPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLA???mPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing, learning, and memory abnormalities related to various neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia-related psychoses.

Tan, Huibing; Ahmad, Tasha; Loureiro, Michael; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R.

2014-01-01

442

Strategic automation of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed. PMID:19210061

Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M

2009-01-01

443

Early Environmental Correlates of Maternal Emotion Talk  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The primary goal of this study was to examine contextual, child, and maternal factors that are associated with mothers’ early emotion talk in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample. Design Emotion talk (positive and negative labels) was coded for 1111 mothers while engaged with their 7-month-olds in viewing an emotion-faces picture book. Infant attention during the interaction was also coded. Mothers’ parenting style (positive engagement and negative intrusiveness) was coded during a dyadic free-play interaction. Demographic information was obtained, as well as maternal ratings of child temperament and mother’s knowledge of infant development. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that social context and maternal qualities are significant predictors of mothers’ early positive and negative emotion talk. In particular, mothers who were African American, had higher income, and who showed more positive engagement when interacting with their infants demonstrated increased rates of positive and negative emotion talk with their infants. For negative emotion talk, social context variables moderated other predictors. Specifically, infant attention was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for African American mothers, and knowledge of infant development was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for non-African American mothers. The positive association between maternal positive engagement and negative emotion talk was greater for lower-income families than for higher-income families. Conclusions Mothers’ emotion language with infants is not sensitive to child factors but is associated with social contextual factors and characteristics of the mothers themselves.

Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Adkins, Daniel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

2009-01-01

444

Asymmetric effects of emotion on mnemonic interference.  

PubMed

Emotional experiences can strengthen memories so that they can be used to guide future behavior. Emotional arousal, mediated by the amygdala, is thought to modulate storage by the hippocampus, which may encode unique episodic memories via pattern separation - the process by which similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations. While prior work has examined mnemonic interference due to similarity and emotional modulation of memory independently, examining the mechanisms by which emotion influences mnemonic interference has not been previously accomplished in humans. To this end, we developed an emotional memory task where emotional content and stimulus similarity were varied to examine the effect of emotion on fine mnemonic discrimination (a putative behavioral correlate of hippocampal pattern separation). When tested immediately after encoding, discrimination was reduced for similar emotional items compared to similar neutral items, consistent with a reduced bias towards pattern separation. After 24h, recognition of emotional target items was preserved compared to neutral items, whereas similar emotional item discrimination was further diminished. This suggests a potential mechanism for the emotional modulation of memory with a selective remembering of gist, as well as a selective forgetting of detail, indicating an emotion-induced reduction in pattern separation. This can potentially increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio in any given situation to promote survival. Furthermore, we found that individuals with depressive symptoms hyper-discriminate negative items, which correlated with their symptom severity. This suggests that utilizing mnemonic discrimination paradigms allows us to tease apart the nuances of disorders with aberrant emotional mnemonic processing. PMID:24607286

Leal, Stephanie L; Tighe, Sarah K; Yassa, Michael A

2014-05-01

445

Strategic Automation of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively,

Inge Schweiger Gallo; Andreas Keil; Kathleen C. McCulloch; Brigitte Rockstroh; Peter M. Gollwitzer

2009-01-01

446

Expressed emotion and social function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether expressed emotion (EE) influenced the social functioning of schizophrenia. Twenty-nine subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of ICD-9 or DSM-III-R participated in the study. The Camberwell Family Interview was conducted to evaluate EE, and subjects were divided into high EE and low EE groups. The subjects had been followed up for 9 months and their social functioning was

Shimpei Inoue; Shuichi Tanaka; Shinji Shimodera; Yoshio Mino

1997-01-01

447

Value Maps, Drives, and Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses value maps, drives, and emotions through the modeling of decision making, judgment, and choice. Ever\\u000a the since the seminal work of Amos Tversky and Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman (Tversky and Kahneman 1974, 1981), it has been\\u000a known that decision models based on rational maximization of expected utility do not capture the typical choices that people\\u000a or nonhuman

Daniel S. Levine

448

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the effect of training some aspects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and productivity of employees. The results can help organizations to realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by paying more attention to psychological issues. We used a quasi-experimental method using a pre-test and a post-test designed with control group and

Simin Hosseinian; Seyedeh-Monavar Yazdi; Shaghayegh Zahraie; Ali Fathi-Ashtiani

2008-01-01

449

3D Emotional Agent Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents architecture to design emotional agents evolving in an artificial 3D environment. The agent behavior\\u000a and environment emulator are independent of implementation. To achieve this, a Language of Interface for Animations in 3D\\u000a called LIA-3D, is presented. The agent and environment simulator uses LIA to establish communication with each other.

Félix F. Ramos; Luis Razo; Alma V. Martinez; Fabiel Zúñiga; H. Ivan Piza

2005-01-01

450

Children's Emotional Associations with Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1\\/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, “How does (the color) make you feel?” All

Chris J. Boyatzis; Reenu Varghese

1994-01-01

451

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-04-01

452

Comparison of Repeated and Two Non-Repeated Readings Conditions on Reading Abilities of Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) present considerable academic challenges along with emotional and/or behavioral problems. In terms of reading, these students typically perform one-to-two years below grade level (Kauffman, 2001). Given the strong correlation between reading failure and school failure and overall success…

Escarpio, Raul

2011-01-01

453

"I Am Really Good at It" or "I Am Just Feeling Lucky": The Effects of Emotions on Information Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to search, process, extract, evaluate and integrate information for learning purposes has clearly become the basic skills of the twenty first century. Although this process is often taken as a cognitive process, research has shown a strong connection between emotion and cognition. Recent research has suggested that positive emotions

Zhou, Mingming

2013-01-01

454

Attachment and the emotional unit.  

PubMed

Until recently, the mother-child relationship was assumed to be the primary relationship affecting the outcome of an individual. This resulted in the mother-child dyad being seen and studied as separate from the family system in which it is embedded. This article asserts that, in order to understand this dyad adequately, one must understand "how" the family functions as an emotional unit that is guided by processes found in evolution and in relationships between living things. It goes beyond describing the family as a system of influence and seeks to account for the universal processes that occur in natural systems. It posits that the triangle is the basic building block of the emotional unit, and proposes a new theoretical dimension for understanding how attachment extends beyond dyads (such as parent-child) to include the emotional unit as a whole. Through triangles, the parent-child relationship is continually influenced by relationship forces operating within the system as a whole. PMID:8319797

Donley, M G

1993-03-01

455

Motor Action and Emotional Memory  

PubMed Central

Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction of movement was congruent with the valence of the memory (upward for positive, downward for negative memories). Given neutral-valence prompts in Experiment 2, participants retrieved more positive memories when instructed to move marbles up, and more negative memories when instructed to move them down, demonstrating a causal link from motion to emotion. Results suggest that positive and negative life experiences are implicitly associated with schematic representations of upward and downward motion, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Beyond influencing the efficiency of memory retrieval, the direction of irrelevant, repetitive motor actions can also partly determine the emotional content of the memories people retrieve: moving marbles upward (an ostensibly meaningless action) can cause people to think more positive thoughts.

Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

2009-01-01

456

Strong acoustic wave action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

Gokhberg, M. B.

1983-07-01

457

Strong coupling Kondo superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong coupling formulation of the two approximations for Kondo superconductors - the Müller-Hartmann and Zittartz (MHZ) and the Matsuura, Ichinose and Nagaoka (MIN) approach - reveals that the effect of Kondo impurities is overestimated by a factor of at least 1/(1 + ?) because both are based on the BCS theory. A comparison of the results of a strong coupling calculation with experimental data of the system ( La, Ce) and (La 1- x-y, Ce x)Y y proves that the ratio TK/ Tc0 is to be increased significantly in order to achieve agreement between theory and experiment.

Schachinger, E.; Wunder, R.

1985-12-01

458

Angiosarcoma after radiotherapy: a cohort study of 332,163 Finnish cancer patients.  

PubMed

We evaluated the risk of angiosarcoma after radiotherapy among all patients with cancers of breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, lung, ovary, prostate, or rectum, and lymphoma diagnosed in Finland during 1953-2003, identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Only angiosarcomas of the trunk were considered, this being the target of radiotherapy for the first cancer. In the follow-up of 1.8 million person-years at risk, 19 angiosarcomas developed, all after breast and gynaecological cancer. Excess of angiosarcomas over national incidence rates were observed after radiotherapy without chemotherapy (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-11), after both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (SIR 100, 95% CI 12-360), and after other treatments (SIR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.1). In the regression analysis however, the adjusted rate ratio for radiotherapy was 1.0 (95% CI 0.23-4.4). Although an increased risk of angiosarcoma among cancer patients is evident, especially with breast and gynaecological cancer, the excess does not appear to be strongly related to radiotherapy. PMID:17519906

Virtanen, A; Pukkala, E; Auvinen, A

2007-07-01

459

Angiosarcoma after radiotherapy: a cohort study of 332 163 Finnish cancer patients  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the risk of angiosarcoma after radiotherapy among all patients with cancers of breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, lung, ovary, prostate, or rectum, and lymphoma diagnosed in Finland during 1953–2003, identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Only angiosarcomas of the trunk were considered, this being the target of radiotherapy for the first cancer. In the follow-up of 1.8 million person-years at risk, 19 angiosarcomas developed, all after breast and gynaecological cancer. Excess of angiosarcomas over national incidence rates were observed after radiotherapy without chemotherapy (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–11), after both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (SIR 100, 95% CI 12–360), and after other treatments (SIR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.1). In the regression analysis however, the adjusted rate ratio for radiotherapy was 1.0 (95% CI 0.23–4.4). Although an increased risk of angiosarcoma among cancer patients is evident, especially with breast and gynaecological cancer, the excess does not appear to be strongly related to radiotherapy.

Virtanen, A; Pukkala, E; Auvinen, A

2007-01-01

460

Strong Little Magnets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

Moloney, Michael J.

2007-01-01

461

Mining Strongly Associated Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main tasks of KDTCM (knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine) is discovering novel paired or grouped drugs from Chinese medical formula database. Paired or grouped drugs, which are special combinations of two or more drugs, have strong efficacy. Association rule mining is used by reason of the large number of association relationships among various kinds of drugs.

Zhongmei Zhou

2009-01-01

462

Nanoengineering Strong Silica Aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In the quest for strong lightweight materials, silica aerogels would be very attractive, if they were not fragile. The strength of silica aerogel monoliths has been improved by a factor of over 100 through cross-linking the nanoparticle building blocks of preformed silica hydrogels with poly(hexamethylene diisocyanate). Composite monoliths are much less hygroscopic than native silica, and they do not

Nicholas Leventis; Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis; Guohui Zhang; Abdel-Monem M. Rawashdeh

2002-01-01

463

Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology. PMID:24304773

Westermann, Stefan; Paulus, Frieder M; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

2013-12-01

464

Affective Understanding in Young Preschoolers and Reactions to Peers' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age, specific emotion, and linguistic modality (verbal vs. non-verbal) were predicted to affect knowledge of emotion in young preschoolers (N = 45, mean age = 40.7 mos). Prosocial response to emotion and knowledge of emotion were also predicted to be related, given naturalistic observation and the use of contextually valid emotion knowledge…

Denham, Susanne A.

465

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

466

Emotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard

Patrik N. Juslin; Daniel Västfjäll

2008-01-01

467

Reflections on Investigating Emotion in Educational Activity Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents our current reflections on our approach to inquiry on emotions in education. Our views reflect an eclectic blend of, educational, psychological, and social historical approaches to inquiry on emotion and emotional regulation. In an effort to explicate our approach, we address our working definitions of emotion and emotional

Schutz, Paul A.; Hong, Ji Y.; Cross, Dionne I.; Osbon, Jennifer N.

2006-01-01

468

Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

Klaus R. Scherer

1993-01-01

469

Identification of the optimal emotion recognition algorithm using physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human-computer interaction researches, emotion recognition systems based on physiological signals have introduced. This study was to identify the optimal emotion recognition algorithm for classification of seven emotional states (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and stress) using physiological signals. 12 college students participated in this experiment over 10 times. To induce each emotion, 10 emotional stimuli sets which had

E.-H. Jang; B.-J. Park; S.-H. Kim; Y. Eum; J.-H. Sohn

2011-01-01

470

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interp