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1

Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy: Strong Emotions Decide But Rational Studies Are Needed  

SciTech Connect

Brain metastases are common in cancer patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. For patients with limited disease and good performance status, treatment typically involves a combination of focal measures (e.g., surgical resection or radiosurgery) for the radiographically apparent disease, followed by adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to treat subclinical disease. Because of concerns regarding the toxicity of WBRT, especially neurocognitive deterioration, many have advocated withholding adjuvant WBRT. Recently published studies have shed more light on the efficacy of adjuvant WBRT and the neurocognitive effects of WBRT. However, the inclusion of neurocognitive and quality-of-life data in clinical trials are still required to better define the role of adjuvant WBRT. Currently, two Phase III trials are underway, one in Europe and one in North America, that will determine the effect of adjuvant WBRT on patients' quality of life, neurocognitive function, and survival.

Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Asher, Anthony L. [Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Programs, Carolinas Medical Center and Presbyterian Hospital, Charlotte, NC (United States); Farace, Elana [Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States)

2008-04-01

2

Social and Emotional Learning in the Kindergarten Classroom: Evaluation of the Strong Start Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in the promotion of social and emotional learning in schools, and research has shown positive\\u000a outcomes. However, relatively few studies have been conducted in kindergarten classrooms or considered the feasibility of\\u000a kindergarten implementation. This study examined the effects of Strong Start on the social and emotional competence of 67 kindergarten students, using a time-series design.

Thomas J. Kramer; Paul Caldarella; Lynnette Christensen; Ryan H. Shatzer

2010-01-01

3

Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

Lue, B.-H. [Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-S. [Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-J. [Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsiujung@ntnu.edu.tw

2008-01-01

4

Social and Emotional Learning in the Kindergarten Classroom: Evaluation of the "Strong Start" Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been increasing interest in the promotion of social and emotional learning in schools, and research has shown positive outcomes. However, relatively few studies have been conducted in kindergarten classrooms or considered the feasibility of kindergarten implementation. This study examined the effects of "Strong Start" on the social and…

Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette; Shatzer, Ryan H.

2010-01-01

5

A profile approach to impulsivity in bipolar disorder: the key role of strong emotions  

PubMed Central

Objective Bipolar disorder has been associated with elevated impulsivity – a complex construct subsuming multiple facets. We aimed to compare specific facets of impulsivity in bipolar disorder, including those related to key psychological correlates of the illness: reward sensitivity and strong emotion. Method Ninety-one individuals diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (inter-episode period) and 80 controls completed several well-validated impulsivity measures, including those relevant to reward (Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale) and emotion (Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency scales). Results Bipolar participants reported higher impulsivity scores than did controls on all of the impulsivity measures, except the Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale. Positive Urgency – a measure assessing the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotion – yielded the largest group differences: F(1,170) = 78.69, P < 0.001, partial ?2 = 0.316. Positive Urgency was also associated with poorer psychosocial functioning in the bipolar group: ?R2 = 0.24, b = ?0.45, P < 0.001. Conclusion Individuals with bipolar I disorder appear to be at particular risk of behaving impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotions. Findings provide an important first step toward developing a more refined understanding of impulsivity in bipolar disorder with the potential to inform targeted interventions. PMID:23600731

Muhtadie, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Carver, C. S.; Gotlib, I. H.; Ketter, T. A.

2015-01-01

6

Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

2014-01-01

7

Social and Emotional Learning as a Universal Level of Student Support: Evaluating the Follow-Up Effect of Strong Kids on Social and Emotional Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the initial and follow-up effect of Strong Kids, a social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, among a sample of 106 third- and fourth-grade students. Students were assigned to either the treatment or the wait-list condition and completed questionnaires on SEL knowledge and perceived use of SEL skills across 3 assessment…

Harlacher, Jason E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2010-01-01

8

Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings. PMID:24708282

Castro-Olivo, Sara M

2014-12-01

9

Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

2013-01-01

10

Social and Emotional Learning as a Universal Level of Student Support: Evaluating the Follow-up Effect of Strong Kids on Social and Emotional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the initial and follow-up effect of Strong Kids, a social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, among a sample of 106 third- and fourth-grade students. Students were assigned to either the treatment or the wait-list condition and completed questionnaires on SEL knowledge and perceived use of SEL skills across 3 assessment periods (pretest, posttest, and follow-up). The classroom

Jason E. Harlacher; Kenneth W. Merrell

2010-01-01

11

Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,  

E-print Network

Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President,Russia,located within the airshed of Lake Baikal; one protester was killed and several were seriously injured by young

Dever, Jennifer A.

12

Strong Start--Grades K-2: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

Merrell, Kenneth W.; Parisi, Danielle M.; Whitcomb, Sara A.

2007-01-01

13

Strong Kids--Grades 6-8: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

Merrell, Kenneth W.; Carrizales, Dianna; Feuerborn, Laura; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Tran, Oanh K.

2007-01-01

14

Strong Teens--Grades 9-12: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

Merrell, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

15

When we go through stressful events, we often have strong emotional and physical reactions. Although not everyone has a strong or noticeable reaction, it is very common and quite normal for people to have emotional  

E-print Network

Alertness Survivor Guilt / Self Blame Change in Communication Rapid Breathing Poor Concentration Emotional Suicidal Ideas Apathy / Boredom Appetite Disturbance Weakness Change in Values Helplessness Prolonged

Weston, Ken

16

Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and\\/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline.MethodsRegression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level

Matthew C Farrelly; Kevin C Davis; James M Nonnemaker; Kian Kamyab; Christine Jackson

2011-01-01

17

Emotional Intelligence: Giving Computers Effective Emotional Skills to Aid Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do computers need emotional intelligence? Science fiction often portrays emotional computers as dangerous and frightening,\\u000a and as a serious threat to human life. One of the most famous examples is HAL, the supercomputer onboard the spaceship Discovery,\\u000a in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could express, recognize and respond to human emotion, and generally had strong emotional skills

Chris Creed; Russell Beale

2008-01-01

18

Parents’ Beliefs about Emotions and Children’s Recognition of Parents’ Emotions  

PubMed Central

This study investigated parents’ emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children’s recognition of their parents’ emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children’s emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers’ emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children’s general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child’s emotion socialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents’ emotions. PMID:20160992

Dunsmore, Julie C.; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Perez-Rivera, Marie B.

2009-01-01

19

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

20

Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.  

PubMed

This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

Tong, Eddie M W

2015-04-01

21

A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression  

PubMed Central

Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N = 185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n = 24; DS) and non-depressive (n = 31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. PMID:21432655

Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L.

2012-01-01

22

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... on Valentine's Day or the celebration of a holiday feast. Sometimes emotional eating is tied to major ... feel better afterwards (honestly!). 2. Write down the emotions that trigger your eating. One of the best ...

23

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

24

Rational emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain “mental state” is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the

Meir Meshulam; Eyal Winter; Gershon Ben-Shakhar; Itzhak Aharon

2011-01-01

25

Rational emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain “mental state” is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the

Meir Meshulam; Eyal Winter; Gershon Ben-Shakhar; Itzhak Aharon

2012-01-01

26

Emotion Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

27

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

28

Emotions in robot psychology.  

PubMed

In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology. PMID:24677038

Nitsch, V; Popp, M

2014-10-01

29

Emotional Disturbance  

MedlinePLUS

... terms such as emotional disturbance, behavioral disorders, or mental illness. Beneath these umbrella terms, there is actually a ... may also be affected. The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) puts this very well: Mental illnesses are ...

30

Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent [Department of Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Gary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doherty, Gerard [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-08-01

31

Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice  

PubMed Central

In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

2014-01-01

32

Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

2011-01-01

33

Impact of Intended Emotion Intensity on Cue Utilization and Decoding Accuracy in Vocal Expression of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actors vocally portrayed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust with weak and strong emotion intensity while reading brief verbal phrases aloud. The portrayals were recorded and analyzed according to 20 acoustic cues. Listeners decoded each portrayal by using forced-choice or quantitative ratings. The results showed that (a) portrayals with strong emotion intensity yielded higher decoding accuracy than portrayals with weak

Patrik N. Juslin; Petri Laukka

2001-01-01

34

Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron  

E-print Network

Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron Boston College and Northeastern University/Harvard Medical School People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

35

Positive emotions Some positive emotions  

E-print Network

Friendship Fulfillment Generosity Happiness Hope Joy Love Loyalty Passion Playfulness Pride Relief content, recording instances of happiness, interest, love and hope. They found that nuns who expressed hypothesis of positive emotions Fredrikson, 2003, Amer Sci, 91, 330-335. #12;Animal models of positive

Cooper, Brenton G.

36

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

37

Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

2010-01-01

38

Emotion is for influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional approaches to emotion are rapidly gaining in popularity. Thus far the functions of emotions have been conceptualised and studied mainly at the intrapersonal level of analysis, the key question being how individuals are influenced by the emotions they experience. Relatively little is known about the interpersonal effects of emotions; that is, how one person's emotions influence other people's cognitions,

Gerben A. Van Kleef; Evert A. Van Doorn; Marc W. Heerdink; Lukas F. Koning

2012-01-01

39

Emotional eating: Eating when emotional or emotional about eating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to

Marieke A. Adriaanse; Denise T. D. de Ridder; Catharine Evers

2011-01-01

40

Managing Your Emotional Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... type? Don't worry. Everyone can develop the skill of responding well when emotions run high. It ... might do next time. Continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react ...

41

Strong Libraries, Strong Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled Strong Libraries, Strong Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…

Gray, Carlyn

2006-01-01

42

How Emotions Affect Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

Sylwester, Robert

1994-01-01

43

Emotional state and efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

Ovchinnikova, O. V.

1973-01-01

44

7?Emotion in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion has become one of the most popular—and popularized—areas within organizational scholarship. This chapter attempts to review and bring together within a single framework the wide and often disjointed literature on emotion in organizations. The integrated framework includes processes detailed by previous theorists who have defined emotion as a sequence that unfolds chronologically. The emotion process begins with a focal

Hillary Anger Elfenbein

2007-01-01

45

Normalizing emotion in organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations use various means of regulating socially undesirable emotions, including normalizing. We define normalizing as institutionalized processes by which extraordinary situations are rendered seemingly ordinary. Four means of normalizing are discussed: (1) diffusing, where undesired emotions are dissipated or their impact is reduced; (2) reframing, where emotions or the situation are recast such that the emotions are forestalled, redefined, or

Blake E Ashforth; Glen E Kreiner

2002-01-01

46

Emotion and decision making.  

PubMed

A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models. PMID:25251484

Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

2015-01-01

47

The Power of Positive Emotions  

MedlinePLUS

... to Be More Aware of Your Emotions Understanding Your Emotions Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions Emotional Intelligence Gratitude About Stressful Feelings Contact Us Print Additional ...

48

Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy  

E-print Network

Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence Elizabeth A. Kensinger Boston College ABSTRACT--There have been extensive discussions about whether emotional memories that they have remembered emotional ex- periences more accurately. I review evidence that negative emotion

Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

49

Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion

Jennifer M. George

2000-01-01

50

Defibrillator reset by radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The number of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is rapidly increasing due to their expanding indications. Amongst the various types of electromagnetic interferences, little is reported about the effects of radiotherapy. We report a case of electrical reset of a single chamber ICD by scattered irradiation from radiotherapy. PMID:17900717

Lau, Dennis H; Wilson, Lauren; Stiles, Martin K; John, Bobby; Shashidhar; Dimitri, Hany; Brooks, Anthony G; Young, Glenn D; Sanders, Prashanthan

2008-10-30

51

Planning National Radiotherapy Services  

PubMed Central

Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

Rosenblatt, Eduardo

2014-01-01

52

Studying the dynamics of autonomic activity during emotional experience.  

PubMed

Recent theories emphasize the dynamic aspects of emotions. However, the physiological measures and the methodological approaches that can capture the dynamics of emotions are underdeveloped. In the current study, we investigated whether moment-to-moment changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are reliably associated with the unfolding of emotional experience. We obtained cardiovascular and electrodermal signals from participants while they viewed emotional movies. We found that the ANS signals were temporally aligned across individuals, indicating a reliable stimulus-driven response. The degree of response reliability was associated with the emotional time line of the movie. Finally, individual differences in ANS response reliability were strongly correlated with the subjective emotional responses. The current research offers a methodological approach for studying physiological responses during dynamic emotional situations. PMID:25039415

Golland, Yulia; Keissar, Kobi; Levit-Binnun, Nava

2014-11-01

53

Emotions and Sapient Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we review some issues related to emotions and their role in reasoning and behavior. We propose complex systems\\u000a methods to design control architectures for sapient robots with an embedded emotion model.

V. Angélica García-Vega; Carlos Rubén de la Mora-Basáñez

54

How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?  

PubMed Central

Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N?=?2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative sample of the general population may become more pronounced in clinical samples. PMID:24637792

Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

2014-01-01

55

Emotion Detection from Text  

E-print Network

Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

2012-01-01

56

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

Dolan, R. J.

2002-11-01

57

Three dimensions of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author contends that the activation theory of emotions is the most adequate to date for conceptualizing the intensitive dimension of emotion, and that electrical skin conductance is a good measure of the extent of activation present. For other dimensions of emotion, however, he feels that other measurement approaches are necessary and discusses facial expressions as one of these. Evidence

Harold Schlosberg

1954-01-01

58

Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 1 Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS JAMES J. GROSS ROSS A. THOMPSON Standing, paper or plastic are made. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important- changes that require us to regulate how emotions are experienced and expressed. But what do people do

Gross, James J.

59

The laws of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

Nico H. Frijda

1988-01-01

60

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

61

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

62

Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional

Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

2009-01-01

63

Evaluation of Emotional Distress in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer has been known as a class of dangerous diseases which cause tremendous physical and emotional problems to both patients and their families. In spite of medical advances, cancer is still considered to be equal with death and pain. This study aims to analyze the emotional distress and the causes in breast cancer patients. Methods This study was a quantitative study which tries to analyze the emotional distress in 82 breast cancer patients referred to the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of Razi Hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. In this study, the emotional distress is analyzed based on a standard questionnaire which contains demographic information, distress thermometer, and a section devoted to the probable causes. Results Among the 82 patients that participated in this study, 32 patients (39%) suffered from severe emotional distress which had a statistically significant relationship (p<0.009) with the functional status of the patients. Taking care of children, fear, anxiety, difficulties of taking bath and wearing clothes, family problems, fever and nasal dryness are the most common issued related to emotional distress. Conclusion Emotional distress can affect the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Therefore, oncology specialists should utilize mental health services to improve their patients’ mental health as well as to control the consequences of the disease.

Saeedi-Saedi, Hamid; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Koochak-Pour, Mona; Sabahi, Emad; Moridi, Irene

2015-01-01

64

A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

65

Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective  

PubMed Central

Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

2014-01-01

66

Corticolimbic gating of emotion-driven punishment.  

PubMed

Determining the appropriate punishment for a norm violation requires consideration of both the perpetrator's state of mind (for example, purposeful or blameless) and the strong emotions elicited by the harm caused by their actions. It has been hypothesized that such affective responses serve as a heuristic that determines appropriate punishment. However, an actor's mental state often trumps the effect of emotions, as unintended harms may go unpunished, regardless of their magnitude. Using fMRI, we found that emotionally graphic descriptions of harmful acts amplify punishment severity, boost amygdala activity and strengthen amygdala connectivity with lateral prefrontal regions involved in punishment decision-making. However, this was only observed when the actor's harm was intentional; when harm was unintended, a temporoparietal-medial-prefrontal circuit suppressed amygdala activity and the effect of graphic descriptions on punishment was abolished. These results reveal the brain mechanisms by which evaluation of a transgressor's mental state gates our emotional urges to punish. PMID:25086609

Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Jan, Katharine; Asplund, Christopher L; Ginther, Matthew R; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

2014-09-01

67

How Emotions Change Time  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention, or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share. PMID:22065952

Schirmer, Annett

2011-01-01

68

Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

2006-12-01

69

Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

2009-01-01

70

Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

71

Recruitment in Radiotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

Deeley, T. J.; And Others

1976-01-01

72

Imaging in radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The text contains details of recording media, image quality, sensitometry, processing and equipment used in radiotherapy for imaging. It reflects part of the syllabus for the College of Radiographers.

Taylor, J.

1987-01-01

73

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

74

Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children’s externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade\\u000a children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported\\u000a adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that negative emotion, especially anger, was important\\u000a in externalizing problems. Less positive emotion was associated with more

Geunyoung Kim; Tedra Walden; Vicki Harris; Jan Karrass; Thomas Catron

2007-01-01

75

The Role of Positive and Negative Emotions in Life Satisfaction Judgment Across Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how the frequency of positive and negative emotions is related to life satisfaction across nations. Participants were 8,557 people from 46 counties who reported on their life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotions. Multilevel analyses showed that across nations, the experience of positive emotions was more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of

Peter Kuppens; Anu Realo; Ed Diener

2008-01-01

76

Expression of Emotion: When It Causes Trauma and When It Helps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that clients should be encouraged to express strong emotion regarding the traumas they have suffered is widely assumed. This article asks whether the empirical literature supports the underlying assumption that emotional expression leads to positive outcomes (better health and dissipation of distress). Studies in which individuals who have been given an opportunity to express emotions about past traumas

Jill Littrell

2009-01-01

77

A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

78

Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion

Christine Lætitia Lisetti; Fatma Nasoz

2004-01-01

79

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

80

Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors. PMID:24936284

Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

2014-01-01

81

Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.  

PubMed

Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724

Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

2014-08-01

82

Relationship between language competence and emotional competence in middle childhood.  

PubMed

Research on children's emotional competence has received considerable attention in the last decade, including the role of language. Language competence (LC) and emotional competence (EC) comprise multiple components. These components and their specific interrelations have not been studied sufficiently. In our study, we examined relations between multiple components of LC and EC in a sample of 210 school-age children. Five measures represented LC: receptive vocabulary, verbal fluency, literacy, narrative structure, and the narrative use of evaluative devices. Four measures represented EC: expressive emotion vocabulary, declarative emotion knowledge, awareness of mixed emotions, and facial emotion recognition. Results showed strong positive correlations between LC and EC ranging between r = .12 and r = .45. In particular, receptive vocabulary and literacy were closely related to emotion knowledge and awareness of mixed emotions. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that there is a common general ability factor for LC and EC. We discuss why receptive vocabulary and literacy might be so strongly related to emotion knowledge in school-age children. Our findings have implications for developmental psychologists, educational research, and speech-language pathologists. PMID:22148995

Beck, Luna; Kumschick, Irina R; Eid, Michael; Klann-Delius, Gisela

2012-06-01

83

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

84

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

85

Emotion laterality and social behaviour Accepted Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition. 15 May 2014  

E-print Network

strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for the processing of anger, happiness and sadness; and and social behaviour - 3 - Introduction According to the right hemisphere hypothesis, emotional stimuli

Royal Holloway, University of London

86

Music–color associations are mediated by emotion  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations. PMID:23671106

Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R.

2013-01-01

87

Emotion-Related Visual Mismatch Responses in Schizophrenia: Impairments and Correlations with Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. Experimental Design The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Principal Observations Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250–360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Conclusions Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition. PMID:24116046

Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

2013-01-01

88

Different brain activity in response to emotional faces alone and augmented by contextual information.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent to which emotional face stimuli differ from the neural reactivity associated with more ecological contextually augmented stimuli. Participants were scanned when they viewed contextually rich pictures depicting both emotional faces and context, and pictures of emotional faces presented alone. Emotional faces alone were more strongly associated with brain activity in paralimbic and social information processing regions, whereas emotional faces augmented by context were associated with increased and sustained activity in regions potentially representing increased complexity and subjective emotional experience. Furthermore, context effects were modulated by emotional intensity and valence. These findings suggest that cortical elaboration that is apparent in contextually augmented stimuli may be missed in studies of emotional faces alone, whereas emotional faces may more selectively recruit limbic reactivity. PMID:24964216

Lee, Kyung Hwa; Siegle, Greg J

2014-11-01

89

Evolutionary explanations of emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions can be explained as specialized states, shaped by natural selection, that increase fitness in specific situations.\\u000a The physiological, psychological, and behavioral characteristics of a specific emotion can be analyzed as possible design\\u000a features that increase the ability to cope with the threats and opportunities present in the corresponding situation. This\\u000a approach to understanding the evolutionary functions of emotions is

Randolph M. Nesse

1990-01-01

90

COPD Emotional Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Are Contact Us More Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Associated Conditions Treatment Lifestyle Management Emotional Management Common Feelings Anxiety Depression ...

91

Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

2007-01-01

92

Replicable Facets of Positive Emotionality and Their Relations to Psychopathology.  

PubMed

General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942

Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

2014-09-26

93

[Particle beam radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Recently, particle beam radiotherapy with protons or carbon ions has been used in cancer treatment. Energy deposition with particle beams increases as depth increases. Furthermore, carbon ion beams have stronger biological effects than X-rays or proton beams, because carbon beams generate denser ionization along the pathway of the particles. In Japan, clinical study with carbon ions for cancer therapy was initiated in 1994 at the National Institute of Radiological Science(NIRS). Four treatment facilities are now in operation, including Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center. The experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at NIRS has demonstrated advantages for the following types of cancer. In terms of histological type, adenocarcinomas, sarcomas, and melanomas that are relatively radioresistant to conventional X-ray radiotherapy may be sensitive to carbon ion radiotherapy. Primary sites that may be sensitive include the head and neck region, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissue, and pelvis(for recurrence of rectal cancer). Combined with surgery, cytotoxic drugs, molecular targeted drugs, and immunotherapy, carbon ion radiotherapy promises to be an important modality in the future. PMID:25596047

Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

2014-12-01

94

Creating an Emotionally Adaptive Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

To optimize a player’s experience, an emotionally adaptive game continuously adapts its mechanics to the player’s emotional\\u000a state, measured in terms of emotion-data. This paper presents the first of two studies that aim to realize an emotionally\\u000a adaptive game. It investigates the relations between game mechanics, a player’s emotional state and his\\/her emotion-data.\\u000a In an experiment, one game mechanic (speed)

Tim J. W. Tijs; Dirk Brokken; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

2008-01-01

95

EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

96

Crossmodal and incremental perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech.  

PubMed

In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: 1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests with video clips of emotional utterances collected via a variant of the well-known Velten method. More specifically, we recorded speakers who displayed positive or negative emotions, which were congruent or incongruent with the (emotional) lexical content of the uttered sentence. In order to test this, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment is a perception experiment in which Czech participants, who do not speak Dutch, rate the perceived emotional state of Dutch speakers in a bimodal (audiovisual) or a unimodal (audio- or vision-only) condition. It was found that incongruent emotional speech leads to significantly more extreme perceived emotion scores than congruent emotional speech, where the difference between congruent and incongruent emotional speech is larger for the negative than for the positive conditions. Interestingly, the largest overall differences between congruent and incongruent emotions were found for the audio-only condition, which suggests that posing an incongruent emotion has a particularly strong effect on the spoken realization of emotions. The second experiment uses a gating paradigm to test the recognition speed for various emotional expressions from a speaker's face. In this experiment participants were presented with the same clips as experiment I, but this time presented vision-only. The clips were shown in successive segments (gates) of increasing duration. Results show that participants are surprisingly accurate in their recognition of the various emotions, as they already reach high recognition scores in the first gate (after only 160 ms). Interestingly, the recognition scores raise faster for positive than negative conditions. Finally, the gating results suggest that incongruent emotions are perceived as more intense than congruent emotions, as the former get more extreme recognition scores than the latter, already after a short period of exposure. PMID:20415000

Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

2010-01-01

97

Radiotherapy and hepatocellular carcinoma: update and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Historically radiotherapy has always played a limited role for the treatment of HCC due to the low tolerance of the liver and the subsequent risk of radiation induced liver disease (RILD). Technologist advancements in radiation planning and treatment delivery such as Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) combined with Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has allowed us to further increase tumor dose while maximally sparing the surrounding not involved liver. Furthermore, together with the growing knowledge of radiobiological models in liver disease, several mono-institutional retrospective and prospective series are reporting very encouraging results. Therefore, radiotherapy might play a significant role for the treatment of unresectable HCC, alone or combined with other locoregional treatment such as transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). The rationale for studying this technique is really strong and it should be tested in well designed prospective randomized clinical trials. PMID:23111978

Ursino, S; Greco, C; Cartei, F; Colosimo, C; Stefanelli, A; Cacopardo, B; Berretta, M; Fiorica, F

2012-10-01

98

Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion  

PubMed Central

According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

99

Emotions and Golf Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

2006-01-01

100

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

101

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

102

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

103

Towards Emotionally Adapted Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

2004-01-01

104

Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion  

E-print Network

Emotion Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras). Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion. Emotion. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028105 #12;Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

105

Computers in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy is one of the earliest fields in Medicine in which computers have made an inroad. The main uses of computers, which include treatment planning, dose calculations, localisation of tumours, verification of patient setups and radiation beam data acquisition, are highlighted in this paper. It is believed that a modern Radiotherapy department cannot function optimally without some form of computing facilities. With advances made in dose calculation algorithms, and in high performance computers, it is expected that the target of 3% accuracy dose calculations can be achieved in treatment planning. PMID:2260829

Wong, T J; Chua, E T

1990-09-01

106

Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion  

E-print Network

Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion Lisa Feldman Barrett Department of Psychology Boston College In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe that they know an emo- tion when they see it, and as a consequence assume that emotions are discrete events

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

107

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

108

Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.  

PubMed

Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy, and it supports the argument for optimal behaviour and social functioning in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PMID:23228163

Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-04-01

109

Phases of Social–Emotional Development from Birth to School Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stages of social–emotional development are the subject of this chapter. Infants and toddlers live in a maelstrom of strong\\u000a emotions, most of which involve interactions with other people. But the social situations that induce strong emotions, and\\u000a the cognitive capacities children have for coping with them, change dramatically from one stage to the next. The timetable\\u000a of cognitive development helps

Marc D. Lewis; Isabela Granic

2010-01-01

110

What good are positive emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the

Barbara L. Fredrickson

1998-01-01

111

Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

112

An argument for basic emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish

Paul Ekman

1992-01-01

113

Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1  

E-print Network

Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1 and Kent C. Berridge2 1 University of California, San Diego and necessary ingredient of emotion. Here we argue that emotion also can be genuinely unconscious. We describe affective reactions origi- nated prior to systems for conscious awareness. The idea of unconscious emotion

Berridge, Kent

114

Piecing Together the Emotion Jigsaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are emotional, and machines are not. That constrains their communication, and defines a key challenge for the information sciences. Dif- ferent groups have addressed it from different angles, trying to develop meth- ods of detecting emotion, agents that convey emotion, systems that predict behaviour in emotional circumstances, and so on. Progress has been limited. The new network of excellence

Roddy Cowie; Marc Schröder

2004-01-01

115

Intergroup Emotions and Intergroup Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergroup emotions theory seeks to understand and improve intergroup relations by focusing on the emotions engendered by belonging to, and by deriving identity from, a social group (processes called self-categorization and identification). Intergroup emotions are shaped by the very different ways in which members of different groups see group-relevant objects and events. These emotions come, with time and repetition, to

Diane M. Mackie; Eliot R. Smith; Devin G. Ray

2008-01-01

116

Strong Decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which -- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time -- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee what we call ``permanence of the past'' -- in particular the continued decoherence of past alternatives as the chains of projections are extended into the future. Strong decoherence is an idealization capturing in a general way this and other aspects of realistic physical mechanisms that destroy interference, as we illustrate in a simple model. We discuss the connection between the reduced density matrices that have often been used to characterize mechanisms of decoherence and the more general notion of strong decoherence. The relation between strong decoherence and a measure of classicality is briefly described.

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-11-23

117

Strong Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-01-01

118

Strong decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

1997-01-01

119

Successful Contextual Integration of Loose Mental Associations As Evidenced by Emotional Conflict-Processing  

PubMed Central

Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting). Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm). For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting “negative” emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures. PMID:24618674

Zimmer, Ulrike; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz; Ischebeck, Anja

2014-01-01

120

From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System

Thomas Baumgartner; Michaela Esslen; Lutz Jäncke

2006-01-01

121

Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information  

PubMed Central

Visual perception and emotion are traditionally considered separate domains of study. In this article, however, we review research showing them to be less separable that usually assumed. In fact, emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. In addition, the layout of the physical environment, including the apparent steepness of a hill and the distance to the ground from a balcony can both be affected by emotional states. We propose that emotions provide embodied information about the costs and benefits of anticipated action, information that can be used automatically and immediately, circumventing the need for cogitating on the possible consequences of potential actions. Emotions thus provide a strong motivating influence on how the environment is perceived. PMID:22039565

Zadra, Jonathan R.; Clore, Gerald L.

2011-01-01

122

The relationship between basic need satisfaction and emotional eating.  

PubMed

Eating in response to emotions may lead to the consumption of excessive calories which typically leads to weight gain. This study examined the relationship between basic need satisfaction as identified by Maslow's hierarchy and emotional eating. According to Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, when lack of basic need satisfaction functions as a stressor, individuals may be more likely to engage in emotional eating as a substitute for fulfilling their needs in order to maintain homeostasis. The Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory (BNSI) had a strong, negative correlation (r = -.49; p < .001) to the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) indicating that the lower the level of basic need satisfaction, the more likely one engaged in emotional eating. In predicting EES score, 27.7% of the variance was explained by the self-esteem subscale of BNSI. This study supports looking at underlying issues contributing to weight gain in order to develop effective interventions for weight management. PMID:11881182

Timmerman, G M; Acton, G J

2001-01-01

123

Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo  

MedlinePLUS

... American Cancer Society Previous Topic Sex, fertility, and chemotherapy Next Topic Paying for chemo treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can impact the thinking ...

124

RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN  

PubMed Central

I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

LeDoux, Joseph

2013-01-01

125

Context, culture and face emotion perception 1 How does context affect assessments of facial emotion?  

E-print Network

from Western cultures. In this study, we examined how these cultural differences in context processing to attend to the relationship between an object #12;Context, culture and face emotion perception 4 and its differences are due to differing intellectual histories, with Western culture strongly influenced

Mather, Mara

126

Paying attention to emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigated the degree to which brain systems involved in ignoring emotionally salient information differ\\u000a from those involved in ignoring nonemotional information. The design allowed examination of regional brain activity, using\\u000a fMRI during color-word and emotional Stroop tasks. Twelve participants indicated the color of words while ignoring word meaning\\u000a in conditions in which neutral words were contrasted

Rebecca J. Compton; Marie T. Banich; Aprajita Mohanty; Michael P. Milham; John Herrington; Gregory A. Miller; Paige E. Scalf; Andrew Webb; Wendy Heller

2003-01-01

127

The Strong Has Strong Biases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised and renamed Strong Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) is examined to determine if the occupational and sex biases present in the older Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) were eliminated. It is concluded that an occupational bias (favoring professional rather than blue-collar occupations) still exists in the SCII, although there is…

Pezzoli, Jean A.

128

Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2?×?2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively. PMID:23675363

Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

2013-01-01

129

DeCon: A tool to detect emotional concordance in multivariate time series data of emotional responding  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of concordance among different response components during an emotional episode is a key feature of several contemporary accounts and definitions of emotion. Yet, capturing such response concordance in empirical data has proven to be elusive, in large part because of a lack of appropriate statistical tools that are tailored to measure the intricacies of response concordance in the context of data on emotional responding. In this article, we present a tool we developed to detect two different forms of response concordance—response patterning and synchronization—in multivariate time series data of emotional responding, and apply this tool to data concerning physiological responding to emotional stimuli. While the findings provide partial evidence for both response patterning and synchronization, they also show that the presence and nature of such patterning and synchronization is strongly person-dependent. PMID:24220647

Bulteel, Kirsten; Ceulemans, Eva; Thompson, Renee J.; Waugh, Christian E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter

2013-01-01

130

Effects of Emotions on Learning in Adult, Career and Career-Technical Education. Trends and Issues Alert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research conducted by neurologists and educators shows a strong link between emotion and reason. The role of emotion has been addressed in various ways in the fields of adult education and training, career education and development, and career and technical education (CTE). The term "emotional intelligence" (EI) is generally used to…

Imel, Susan

131

Redox proteins and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Although conventional radiotherapy can directly damage DNA and other organic molecules within cells, most of the damage and the cytotoxicity of such ionising radiation, comes from the production of ions and free radicals produced via interactions with water. This 'indirect effect', a form of oxidative stress, can be modulated by a variety of systems within cells that are in place to, in normal situations, maintain homeostasis and redox balance. If cancer cells express high levels of antioxidant redox proteins, they may be more resistant to radiation and so targeting such systems may be a profitable strategy to increase therapeutic efficacy of conventional radiotherapy. An overview, with exemplars, of the main systems regulating redox homeostasis is supplied and discussed in relation to their use as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and how targeting such proteins and systems may increase radiosensitivity and, potentially, improve the radiotherapeutic response. PMID:24581945

Zhang, Y; Martin, S G

2014-05-01

132

Explicit semantic stimulus categorization interferes with implicit emotion processing.  

PubMed

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related brain potential studies revealed that performing a cognitive task may suppress the preferential processing of emotional stimuli. However, these studies utilized simple and artificial tasks (i.e. letter, shape or orientation discrimination tasks), unfamiliar to the participants. The present event-related potential study examined the emotion-attention interaction in the context of a comparably more natural scene categorization task. Deciding whether a natural scene contains an animal or not is a familiar and meaningful task to the participants and presumed to require little attentional resources. The task images were presented centrally and were overlaid upon emotional or neutral background pictures. Thus, implicit emotion and explicit semantic categorization may compete for processing resources in neural regions implicated in object recognition. Additionally, participants passively viewed the same stimulus materials without the demand to categorize task images. Significant interactions between task condition and emotional picture valence were observed for the occipital negativity and late positive potential. In the passive viewing condition, emotional background images elicited an increased occipital negativity followed by an increased late positive potential. In contrast, during the animal-/non-animal-categorization task, emotional modulation effects were replaced by strong target categorization effects. These results suggest that explicit semantic categorization interferes with implicit emotion processing when both processes compete for shared resources. PMID:24194577

Schupp, Harald T; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias

2014-11-01

133

Sex Differences in the Rapid Detection of Emotional Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which 44 females and 46 males detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness or their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions expressed neutral emotions with visual changes quantitatively comparable to normal expressions. We also obtained subjective emotional ratings in response to the facial expression stimuli. RT results showed that both females and males detected normal expressions more rapidly than anti-expressions and normal-angry expressions more rapidly than normal-happy expressions. However, females and males showed different patterns in their subjective ratings in response to the facial expressions. Furthermore, sex differences were found in the relationships between subjective ratings and RTs. High arousal was more strongly associated with rapid detection of facial expressions in females, whereas negatively valenced feelings were more clearly associated with the rapid detection of facial expressions in males. Conclusion Our data suggest that females and males differ in their subjective emotional reactions to facial expressions and in the emotional processes that modulate the detection of facial expressions. PMID:24728084

Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

134

Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech  

E-print Network

Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech emotional gestures + articulation movements Focus Multispeaker emotional database Extraction IEMOCAP Database Dyadic acted emotional database Multimodal (audio, video, MOCAP, text

Busso, Carlos

135

Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions  

PubMed Central

The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

Braniecka, Anna; Trzebi?ska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

2014-01-01

136

What Good Are Positive Emotions?  

PubMed Central

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

Fredrickson, Barbara L.

2011-01-01

137

Developments in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

A systematic assessment of radiotherapy for cancer was conducted by The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) in 2001. The assessment included a review of future developments in radiotherapy and an estimate of the potential benefits of improved radiotherapy in Sweden. The conclusions reached from this review can be summarized as: Successively better knowledge is available on dose-response relationships for tumours and normal tissues at different fractionation schedules and treated volumes. Optimization of dose levels and fractionation schedules should improve the treatment outcome. Improved treatment results may be expected with even more optimized fractionation schedules. The radiosensitivity of the tumour is dependent on the availability of free oxygen in the cells. The oxygen effect has been studied for a long time and new knowledge has emerged, but there is still no consensus on the best way to minimize its negative effect in the treatment of hypoxic tumours. Development in imaging techniques is rapid, improving accuracy in outlining targets and organs at risk. This is a prerequisite for advanced treatment planning. More accurate treatment can be obtained using all the computer techniques that are successively made available for calculating dose distributions, controlling the accelerator and multileaf collimator (MLC) and checking patient set-up. Optimized treatment plans can be achieved using inverse dose planning and intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT). Optimization algorithms based on biological data from clinical trials could be a part of future dose planning. New genetic markers might be developed that give a measure of the radiation responsiveness of tumours and normal tissue. This could lead to more individualized treatments. New types of radiation sources may be expected: protons, light ions, and improved beams (and compounds) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proton accelerators with scanned-beam systems and energy modulation give good dose distribution. The results reported with carbon ions from Japan and Germany are promising. An interesting development is to verify the dose and position for the irradiated volume with PET on line. Safer margins are obtained and the treatment volume can thus be limited. Very large accelerators are needed to accelerate the carbon ions. Still, it should be possible to keep the costs per patient at the same level as those for other types of advanced radiotherapy, since far fewer treatments per patient are needed. It might also be possible to treat new groups of patients. Increased resources are needed to introduce all the currently available techniques. New types of particle accelerators require large investments and a new structure of radiotherapy in Sweden. PMID:14596505

Svensson, Hans; Möller, Torgil R

2003-01-01

138

Emotional memory and perception in temporal lobectomy patients with amygdala damage  

PubMed Central

Background: The human amygdala is implicated in the formation of emotional memories and the perception of emotional stimuli—particularly fear—across various modalities. Objectives: To discern the extent to which these functions are related. Methods: 28 patients who had anterior temporal lobectomy (13 left and 15 right) for intractable epilepsy were recruited. Structural magnetic resonance imaging showed that three of them had atrophy of their remaining amygdala. All participants were given tests of affect perception from facial and vocal expressions and of emotional memory, using a standard narrative test and a novel test of word recognition. The results were standardised against matched healthy controls. Results: Performance on all emotion tasks in patients with unilateral lobectomy ranged from unimpaired to moderately impaired. Perception of emotions in faces and voices was (with exceptions) significantly positively correlated, indicating multimodal emotional processing. However, there was no correlation between the subjects' performance on tests of emotional memory and perception. Several subjects showed strong emotional memory enhancement but poor fear perception. Patients with bilateral amygdala damage had greater impairment, particularly on the narrative test of emotional memory, one showing superior fear recognition but absent memory enhancement. Conclusions: Bilateral amygdala damage is particularly disruptive of emotional memory processes in comparison with unilateral temporal lobectomy. On a cognitive level, the pattern of results implies that perception of emotional expressions and emotional memory are supported by separate processing systems or streams. PMID:15026504

Brierley, B; Medford, N; Shaw, P; David, A

2004-01-01

139

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements.  

PubMed

According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F; Atkinson, Anthony P; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2013-07-01

140

Maternal emotional responsiveness and toddlers' social-emotional competence.  

PubMed

This study investigated, via extended naturalistic observation: (a) how mothers and children responded emotionally to each other's emotional displays; and (b) whether ratings of the child's social-emotional competence (made when the mother was absent) could be predicted by specific maternal responses to the child's emotions. Subjects were 28 mother-toddler pairs. Sequential analyses suggested that emotional dialogue does exist between mothers and children: certain emotional responses of mothers and children occurred more often than expected by their base rate during interaction. Maternal responsiveness to child sadness, anger, fear and neutrality predicted dimensions of children's social-emotional competence. Implications regarding the mother-child affective environment, socialization of emotion and social competency, and developmental methodology are discussed. PMID:8340440

Denham, S A

1993-07-01

141

Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

2013-01-01

142

Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation   

E-print Network

An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN ...

Mulholland, Paula Claire

2010-11-26

143

Vicarious emotional experience and emotional expression in group psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Emotional arousal is a key concept in most theories of change. To be able to understand the role of emotional expression better, two treatments, cognitive therapy (CT) and focused expressive psychotherapy (FEP; a manualized form of Gestalt therapy), with opposite process assumptions about the expression of emotions were compared. Additionally vicarious emotional experience in the sense of an underlying emotional contagion was examined. Clients suffering from major depression were rated for the expression of emotion in three randomly selected sessions of a 20-session treatment course. While the types of emotions generally experienced by CT clients and FEP clients did not differ significantly, differences in the subgroups of active and observing-group members were found. This indicated that the process assumptions made by the respective treatments were only valid for the actively participating clients and not for the observing group members. Emotional contagion as a process was not supported. PMID:10661364

Rosner, R; Beutler, L E; Daldrup, R J

2000-01-01

144

When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

2012-08-01

145

Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2007-01-01

146

Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

2012-01-01

147

Language and emotions: Emotional Sapir-Whorf hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emotional version of Sapir–Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and

Leonid I. Perlovsky

2009-01-01

148

Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion  

PubMed Central

Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

2013-01-01

149

158 Emotion Elicitation Emotion Elicitation With Neurological Patients  

E-print Network

158 Emotion Elicitation 10 Emotion Elicitation With Neurological Patients Robert W. Levenson 158 This chapter presents a set of issues and methods related to studying emotional functioning in neurological to inform research using the other abound. Patient Studies Studies of neurological patients have been

Levenson, Robert W.

150

Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma.  

PubMed

Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors of the Schwann cells of the eighth (VIII) cranial nerve. Precision radiotherapy techniques used to manage these tumors include stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), which can be delivered with either a conventional or hypofractionated regimen. The radio-biologic rationale and reported clinical outcomes of patients treated with SRT are reviewed. PMID:19751870

Sweeney, Patrick; Yajnik, Santosh; Hartsell, William; Bovis, George; Venkatesan, Jagannath

2009-08-01

151

[Stereotactic radiotherapy in brain metastases].  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases is increasingly proposed after polydisciplinary debates among experts. Its definition and modalities of prescription, indications and clinical interest regarding the balance between efficacy versus toxicity need to be discussed. Stereotactic radiotherapy is a 'high precision' irradiation technique (within 1mm), using different machines (with invasive contention or frameless, photons X or gamma) delivering high doses (4 to 25Gy) in a limited number of fractions (usually 1 to 5, ten maximum) with a high dose gradient. Dose prescription will depend on materials, dose constraints to organs at risk varying with fractionation. Stereotactic radiotherapy may be proposed: (1) in combination with whole brain radiotherapy with the goal of increasing (modestly) overall survival of patients with a good performance status, 1 to 3 brain metastases and a controlled extracranial disease; (2) for recurrence of 1-3 brain metastases after whole brain radiotherapy; (3) after complete resection of a large and/or symptomatic brain metastases; (4) after diagnosis of 3-5 asymptomatic new or progressing brain metastases during systemic therapy, with the aim of delaying whole brain radiotherapy (avoiding its potential neurotoxicity) and maintaining a high focal control rate. Only a strict follow-up with clinical and MRI every 3 months will permit to deliver iterative stereotactic radiotherapies without jeopardizing survival. Simultaneous delivering of stereotactic radiotherapy with targeted medicines should be carefully discussed. PMID:25640215

Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Colin, P; Métellus, P; Mornex, F; Noël, G

2015-02-01

152

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

153

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

154

Social and Emotional Aging  

PubMed Central

The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

2014-01-01

155

Emotional processing in personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of personality disorders, borderline and antisocial types are associated with emotional dysfunctioning. In borderline\\u000a personality disorder (BPD), the hypothesis of emotional hyperresponsiveness can be supported by several experimental studies\\u000a that suggest highly intensive and slowly subsiding emotions to primed and non-primed stimuli, as well as by data showing biased\\u000a information, which processes in the context of emotions.

Sabine C. Herpertz

2003-01-01

156

Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the human brain have brought into focus the importance of the emotional brain. The development of the emotional brain is closely associated with the proper attachment between parent and child. It is believed that social experiences of the human child shape the genetic expression of that individual. While genes are pivotal in establishing some aspects of emotionality,

Keyvan Geula

157

Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

Argaman, Osnat

2010-01-01

158

Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

2012-01-01

159

Emotion Education without Ontological Commitment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion education is enjoying new-found popularity. This paper explores the "cosy consensus" that seems to have developed in education circles, according to which approaches to emotion education are immune from metaethical considerations such as contrasting rationalist and sentimentalist views about the moral ontology of emotions. I spell out five…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2010-01-01

160

Repositioning Emotions in Composition Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that emotions should be regarded as important components of learning. Focuses on recent trends in composition relating to how the emotions have or have not been included in discussions emphasizing writing instruction. Suggests opportunities for further research that give attention to emotion. (PM)

Richmond, Kia Jane

2002-01-01

161

How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.  

PubMed

Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

2014-10-01

162

Sad music induces pleasant emotion  

PubMed Central

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

163

Emotion dysregulation and schizotypy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In schizophrenia, blunted affect has been argued to reflect difficulties with the amplification of emotion expressive behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ostensibly healthy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia present with similar difficulties. In the first component of the study, 843 non-clinical participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, of which 27 scoring in the upper 15%

Julie D. Henry; Melissa J. Green; Corinne Restuccia; Amber de Lucia; Peter G. Rendell; Skye McDonald; Jessica R. Grisham

2009-01-01

164

Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing  

E-print Network

such as stuffed animals often play important roles in children's games. Children treat nonliving toysMotivation & Emotion Affective Computing A Note of Paper Survey Edward Shen Student ID: R91922007 skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver

Ouhyoung, Ming

165

The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

166

Tears: Emotional or somatic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 15 years of his life Dr Alexis Brook directed his interest in psychosomatic medicine towards the study of the relationship between emotions and eye problems. This paper describes the history of this work, and concentrates on Alexis's exploration of the feelings behind two eye problems that are prevalent in general practice: Blepharitis and watering eyes.

Sotiris Zalidis

2009-01-01

167

Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

168

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

169

Situating emotional experience  

PubMed Central

Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

170

Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.  

PubMed

In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. PMID:25160677

Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

2014-10-01

171

Neural network modeling of emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

Levine, Daniel S.

2007-03-01

172

"Picturesque incisiveness": explaining the celebrity of James's Theory of Emotion.  

PubMed

William James is the name that comes to mind when asked about scientific explanations of emotion in the nineteenth century. However, strictly speaking James's theory of emotion does not explain emotions and never did. Indeed, James contemporaries pointed this out already more than a hundred years ago. Why could "James' theory" nevertheless become a landmark that psychologists, neuroscientists, and historians alike refer to today? The strong focus on James and Anglo-American sources in historiography has overshadowed all other answers given to the question of emotion at the time of James. For that reason, the article returns to the primary sources and places James's work back into the context of nineteenth century brain research in which it developed. PMID:24615670

Wassmann, Claudia

2014-01-01

173

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

174

Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei

2012-01-01

175

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

176

Passion Work: The Joint Production of Emotional Labor in Professional Wrestling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case of jointly produced passion work. Passion work is emotional labor designed to elicit a strong response from subjects through an impression of extreme states such as pain, agony, or suffering. Based on an ethnographic investigation of professional wrestling participants, this study analyzes the backstage emotion teamwork…

Smith, R. Tyson

2008-01-01

177

How Reward and Emotional Stimuli Induce Different Reactions Across the Menstrual Cycle  

E-print Network

. In contrast, reactions to emotionally arousing stimuli (particularly negative stimuli) appear to be decreased sometimes induce strong physiological arousal (i.e., emotional arousal) that modulates subsequent cognitive stimuli may induce different arousal reactions and neural responses in brain regions modulating arousal

Mather, Mara

178

Do Personality Traits Modulate the Effect of Emotional Visual Stimuli on Auditory Information Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence attest robust relationships between personality dimensions and emotions, including cognitive aspect of emotion. More particularly, many studies reported strong relationships between extraversion, the behavioral activation system (BAS), and the cognitive processing of positive information, on the one hand, and between neuroticism, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and the processing of negative information, on the other hand.

Solange Mardaga; Michel Hansenne

2009-01-01

179

Pedagogies of Strategic Empathy: Navigating through the Emotional Complexities of Anti-Racism in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

180

Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

Alegre, Albert

2012-01-01

181

The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation

Sander L. Koole

2009-01-01

182

Language, Emotions, and Cultures: Emotional Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis  

E-print Network

An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. Conceptual and emotional mechanisms of languages are considered here along with their functions in the mind and cultural evolution. A fundamental contradiction in human mind is considered: language evolution requires reduced emotionality, but "too low" emotionality makes language "irrelevant to life," disconnected from sensory-motor experience. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the language instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, dynamic logic, neur...

Perlovsky, Leonid

2011-01-01

183

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

184

Range of emotion.  

PubMed

Physical therapists speak of the range of motion given to patients with physical handicaps. There is for families, a "range of emotion" that is part of having a handicapped child. My daughter fills me with both joy and pain, yet she is completely passive. She speaks only with her eyes, and I am learning to listen with mine. In this article I show a rare glimpse inside the heart of a mother with a severely retarded child. It is an honest account of the range of emotion felt, the values that have been affected and the intense love I feel. Our bonding that is normally developed between mother and infant grows only stronger and lasts forever. PMID:2963558

Weisz, C L

1987-01-01

185

Small animal radiotherapy research platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy

Frank Verhaegen; Patrick Granton; Erik Tryggestad

2011-01-01

186

Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES  

E-print Network

Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES INCREASE EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY; AGING IMPAIRS EMOTION REGULATION VIA REAPPRAISAL Running Head: Double Dissociation between

187

Emotional gestures in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible\\u000a differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures\\u000a a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal,\\u000a and type.

Giorgio Merola

2007-01-01

188

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

189

Speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence (EI). To evaluate individual differences in the speed of emotional information processing, a recognition memory task consisted of two subtests similar in design but differing in the emotionality of the stimuli. The first subtest required judgment about whether an emotional facial expression in the test face was identical to one of the four emotional expressions of the same individual previously presented. The second subtest required deciding whether the test face with a neutral emotional expression was identical to one of the four neutral faces of different individuals previously presented. Mean response latencies were calculated for "Yes" and "No" responses. All latencies were correlated with other measures of processing speed such as discrimination time and time of figure recognition. However, the emotional expression recognition subtest was hypothesized to require the processing of emotional information in addition to that of facial identity. Latencies in this subtest were longer than those in the face recognition subtest. To obtain a measure of the additional processing that was called for by the emotionality of the stimuli, a subtraction method and regression analysis were employed. In both cases, measures calculated for "No" responses were related to ability EI, as assessed via a self-report questionnaire. According to structural equation modeling, there was a moderately negative association between latent EI and the latency of "No" responses in the subtest with emotional stimuli. These relationships were not observed for "Yes" responses in the same subtest or for responses in the subtest with neutral face stimuli. Although the differences between "Yes" and "No" responses in their associations with EI require further investigation, the results suggest that, in general, individuals with higher EI are also more efficient in the processing of emotional information. PMID:22506680

Dodonova, Yulia A; Dodonov, Yury S

2012-01-01

190

Drug Design and Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

2007-11-01

191

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

192

EARLY CAREER AWARD Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive,  

E-print Network

EARLY CAREER AWARD Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences JAMES J. GROSS challenges is successfully regulating emotions. Do some emotion regulation strategies have more to recommend of emotion regulation, strategies that act early in the emotion-generative process should have a different

Gross, James J.

193

Emotional Labor: A Conceptualization and Scale Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite increased research attention, the emotional labor construct remains without a clear conceptualization and operationalization. This study designed a conceptually grounded, psychometrically sound instrument to measure emotional labor with an emphasis on the experience of discrete emotions-the Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS).…

Glomb, Theresa M.; Tews, Michael J.

2004-01-01

194

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

195

Attention modulates emotional expression processing.  

PubMed

To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

2011-08-01

196

Emotional foundations of cognitive control  

PubMed Central

Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515

Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

2015-01-01

197

PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample.  

PubMed

Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

2015-02-01

198

Getting the cue: sensory contributions to auditory emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Individuals with schizophrenia show reliable deficits in the ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions. Here, we examined emotion recognition ability in 23 schizophrenia patients relative to 17 healthy controls using a stimulus battery with well-characterized acoustic features. We further evaluated performance deficits relative to ancillary assessments of underlying pitch perception abilities. As predicted, patients showed reduced emotion recognition ability across a range of emotions, which correlated with impaired basic tone matching abilities. Emotion identification deficits were strongly related to pitch-based acoustic cues such as mean and variability of fundamental frequency. Whereas healthy subjects' performance varied as a function of the relative presence or absence of these cues, with higher cue levels leading to enhanced performance, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less variation in performance as a function of cue level. In contrast to pitch-based cues, both groups showed equivalent variation in performance as a function of intensity-based cues. Finally, patients were less able than controls to differentiate between expressions with high and low emotion intensity, and this deficit was also correlated with impaired tone matching ability. Both emotion identification and intensity rating deficits were unrelated to valence of intended emotions. Deficits in both auditory emotion identification and more basic perceptual abilities correlated with impaired functional outcome. Overall, these findings support the concept that auditory emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia reflect, at least in part, a relative inability to process critical acoustic characteristics of prosodic stimuli and that such deficits contribute to poor global outcome. PMID:18791077

Leitman, David I; Laukka, Petri; Juslin, Patrik N; Saccente, Erica; Butler, Pamela; Javitt, Daniel C

2010-05-01

199

Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

200

Teachers' emotions and test feedback  

E-print Network

& Edmund T. Emmer Published online: 25 Nov 2010. To cite this article: Laura M. Stough & Edmund T. Emmer (1998) Teachers' emotions and test feedback, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11:2, 341-361, DOI: 10... Teachers’ emotions and test feedback LAURA M. STOUGHTexas A & M UniversityEDMUND T. EMMERUniversity of Texas at Austin A qualitative methodology, grounded theory, was used to examine the thoughts and emotions ofteachers who delivered test feedback...

Stough, Laura

1998-01-01

201

Linguistic markers and emotional intensity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced sadness. At the end of each film, subjects were asked to report on their emotions. This experiment was based on the supposition that there is a relationship between the various lexical modalities used by the subjects when writing about their emotions and the intensity of those emotions. The lexical modalities examined included intensifiers, the use of emotion words, repetitions, the use of first person singular, the use of metaphors, and the use of exclamations, among others. This experiment supported the research hypothesis, as it confirmed that significant differences existed between the lexical modalities found in texts written with lower emotional intensity (for both happiness and sadness) and those written with greater emotional intensity. PMID:19644755

Argaman, Osnat

2010-04-01

202

Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders  

PubMed Central

Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-01-01

203

Emotions in teaching environmental science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

Quigley, Cassie

2015-01-01

204

Time window for cognitive activity involved in emotional processing  

PubMed Central

Background From previous studies it is becoming evident that the processing of unpleasant stimuli occurs early (0 to 300 ms); however, it is not clear how cognitive processing related to pleasant/unpleasant emotions occurs at later time windows (?300 ms). On the other hand, as evident from the previous reports, BIS and BAS personality traits are strongly associated with unpleasant and pleasant responses, respectively. Therefore, in the present study, we aim to identify the time window involved in human pleasant/unpleasant emotional processing by investigating ERP components correlated with BIS/BAS personality traits. Methods Twenty-nine men took part in the study and recording ERP during presented sounds. BIS/BAS score was calculated using the Japanese edition of the BIS/BAS questionnaire. Results Significant correlation was not observed between BIS and BAS scores. A significant and positive correlation was observed between N100 amplitude and BIS score. A positive correlation was found between BAS fun seeking subscale score and LPP amplitude. Our findings did not contradict previous study results. Conclusions Our results suggest that the processing of unpleasant emotions takes place early on, since N100 response was larger in high BIS subjects who are known to be sensitive to unpleasant emotions. LPP was larger in high BAS subjects who are known to be sensitive to pleasant emotions. The LPP was considered to be augmented because the ACC activity level during pleasant emotions reflected on LPP. PMID:25056735

2014-01-01

205

Risk perception, emotion and policy: the case of nuclear technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the general question of the role of emotions in risk management, with an application to the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Although it is true that such siting has been very difficult to carry out without meeting with strong local opposition, there are some exceptions in recent Swedish experience. This recent experience constitutes an

LENNART SJÖBERG

2003-01-01

206

Effect of emotion on attentional processing   

E-print Network

Previous research on the relationship between emotion and attention has focused primarily on attention to emotionally valenced stimuli; trait anxiety and attentional biases for threat; or the relationship between emotion ...

Finucane, Anne Margaret

2009-11-26

207

Knowledge and Self-Knowledge of Emotions   

E-print Network

This thesis addresses two questions. One concerns the metaphysics of emotions and asks what kinds of mental states emotions are. The other asks how the metaphysics of emotions bears on first and third-personal knowledge ...

Zamuner, Edoardo

2008-01-01

208

Emotion down-regulation diminishes cognitive control: a neurophysiological investigation.  

PubMed

Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring. PMID:25286068

Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael

2014-12-01

209

Preschoolers' Understanding of Parents' Emotions: Implications for Emotional Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated preschoolers' understanding of three parental emotions: happiness, sadness, and anger. The study also examined relationships of these understandings to preschoolers' emotional competence. Subjects, 70 children with a mean age of 55 months, were presented with a dollhouse and were encouraged to imagine that the dollhouse…

Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

210

Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar  

E-print Network

), especially the semantic dementia (SD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes.1 Most previous research on these symptoms has relied on clinical inter- views,2 caregiver reports,3 and having patients identify the emotion to identify emotion in others have consistently found deficits,4,10-12 which are confirmed by caregiver

Levenson, Robert W.

211

Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion  

PubMed Central

For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory for emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects’ similarity/dissimilarity judgments were transformed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) into a 2-D description of the faces’ perceptual representations. Distances among stimuli in the MDS representation, which showed a strong linkage of emotional expression and facial identity, were good predictors of correct and false recognitions obtained previously in Experiment 1. The convergence of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggests that the overall structure and configuration of faces’ perceptual representations may parallel their representation in short-term memory and that facial identity modulates the representation of facial emotion, both in perception and in memory. The stimuli from this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:19897794

Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

2010-01-01

212

Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions  

PubMed Central

Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

2013-01-01

213

Radiotherapy delivery during motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the 3D dosimetric consequences of radiotherapy delivery during two kinds of motion, (i) the respiratory motion by the patient and (ii) the motion by the gantry while rotating around the patient. Respiratory motion primarily compromises treatments in the thorax and abdomen regions. Several strategies to reduce respiratory motion effects have been developed or are under development. The organ motion could for instance be measured and incorporated in the treatment planning, or adapted to by using respiratory gating and tumour-tracking delivery techniques. Gantry motion is involved in various forms of intensity-modulated arc-therapy techniques. The purpose is to increase the modulation by simultaneously varying the MLC positions, the rotation speed of the gantry, and the dose rate during the treatment. The advantage of these techniques is the increased possibility to deliver a high absorbed dose to the target volume while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. However, the dosimetric uncertainties associated with motion, small fields and steep dose gradients, has to be evaluated in detail, and this requires adequate true 3D dose-verification tools.

Ceberg, Sofie; Bäck, Sven Å. J.

2010-11-01

214

Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

2012-03-01

215

The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition  

PubMed Central

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-01-01

216

Importance of Emotional Competence in Designing an Antidrug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

Law, Ben M. F.; Lee, Tak Yan

2011-01-01

217

Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions. PMID:24432196

Thompson, Sam

2013-01-01

218

A REVIEW OF SCHEDULING PROBLEMS IN RADIOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the radiotherapy patient scheduling problem of minimising waiting times. Like many other service industry problems, radiotherapy patient scheduling may be solved by first modelling and formulating it into a shop scheduling problem. Over the years, these shop scheduling models have been researched and solved using various approaches. This paper typifies radiotherapy patient scheduling into a job shop

T. Kapamara; K. Sheibaniy; D. Petrovic; Coventry CV

219

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

220

Emotion and sociable humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

Cynthia Breazeal

2003-01-01

221

Emotional isolation in BBC Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

2014-03-01

222

Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

Steinberg, Carola

2008-01-01

223

Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

2012-01-01

224

Emotional States and Physical Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive emotional states may promote healthy perceptions, beliefs, and physical well-being itself. To explore potential mechanisms linking pleasant feelings and good health, the authors consider several lines of research, including (a) direct effects of positive affect on physiology, especially the immune system, (b) the information value of emotional experiences, (c) the psychological resources engendered by positive feeling states, (d) the

Peter Salovey; Alexander J. Rothman; Jerusha B. Detweiler; Wayne T. Steward

2000-01-01

225

Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.  

PubMed

Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

Pixley, Jocelyn

2002-03-01

226

The cognitive control of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to control emotion is important for human adaptation. Questions about the neural bases of emotion regulation have recently taken on new import- ance, as functional imaging studies in humans have permitted direct investigation of control strategies that draw upon higher cognitive processes difficult to study in nonhumans. Such studies have examined (1) control- ling attention to, and (2)

Kevin N. Ochsner; James J. Gross

2005-01-01

227

Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

Nelson, Dean R.

2012-01-01

228

Measures of emotion: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

2009-01-01

229

Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

Pickover, Sheri

2010-01-01

230

Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

2010-01-01

231

Conceptual spaces and robotic emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robot architecture is proposed that integrates in a simple and principled way artificial vision, artificial emotions and symbolic knowledge representation by means of a rich and expressive conceptual representation where affective computing takes place. The role of artificial emotions is to handle the expectation and confirmation mechanism at the basis of the evolution of the architecture. Experimental results are

Antonio Chella; Ignazio Infantino; Irene Macaluso

2004-01-01

232

The importance of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

Clancy, Cheri

2014-11-27

233

On the Nature of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

Kagan, Jerome

1994-01-01

234

Emotional intelligence and educational reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This reform aims primarily on the maximization of performance

Lefkios Neophytou

2012-01-01

235

Children's emotional associations with colors.  

PubMed

In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed. PMID:8021626

Boyatzis, C J; Varghese, R

1994-03-01

236

Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?  

PubMed Central

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

237

Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

2012-01-01

238

Emotion Detection in Suicide Notes using Maximum Entropy Classification  

PubMed Central

An ensemble of supervised maximum entropy classifiers can accurately detect and identify sentiments expressed in suicide notes. Using lexical and syntactic features extracted from a training set of externally annotated suicide notes, we trained separate classifiers for each of fifteen pre-specified emotions. This formed part of the 2011 i2b2 NLP Shared Task, Track 2. The precision and recall of these classifiers related strongly with the number of occurrences of each emotion in the training data. Evaluating on previously unseen test data, our best system achieved an F1 score of 0.534. PMID:22879760

Wicentowski, Richard; Sydes, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

239

Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.  

PubMed

Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2?Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

2013-02-01

240

Radiotherapy for ocular tumours  

PubMed Central

Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2?Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

2013-01-01

241

Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

Kumar, Sanath

2012-01-01

242

The attraction of emotions: Irrelevant emotional information modulates motor actions.  

PubMed

Emotional expressions are important cues that capture our attention automatically. Although a wide range of work has explored the role and influence of emotions on cognition and behavior, little is known about the way that emotions influence motor actions. Moreover, considering how critical detecting emotional facial expressions in the environment can be, it is important to understand their impact even when they are not directly relevant to the task being performed. Our novel approach was to explore this issue from the attention-and-action perspective, using a task-irrelevant distractor paradigm in which participants are asked to reach for a target while a nontarget stimulus is also presented. We tested whether the movement trajectory would be influenced by irrelevant stimuli-faces with or without emotional expressions. The results showed that reaching paths veered toward faces with emotional expressions, in particular happiness, but not toward neutral expressions. This reinforces the view of emotions as attention-capturing stimuli that are, however, also potential sources of distraction for motor actions. PMID:25471046

Ambron, Elisabetta; Foroni, Francesco

2014-12-01

243

Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

2009-01-01

244

Investigating the moderating role of emotional awareness in the association between urgency and binge eating.  

PubMed

Binge eating has been found to be associated with urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect) and emotional awareness (i.e., attention to emotions, clarity of emotions). The present study tested the hypothesis that the relation between binge eating and urgency would be moderated by emotional awareness, over and above negative affect. Participants were 249 female college students. Items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), the Urgency subscale of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Bulimia (B) subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3) were administered. As predicted, emotional awareness moderated the link between urgency and binge eating. Both Urgency×Attention to emotions and Urgency×Clarity of emotions significantly predicted binge eating scores, even after taking into account negative affect. Consistent with past research, higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of binge eating, even after taking negative affect into account. However, the associations were particularly strong among individuals with low levels of attention to emotions and low levels of clarity of emotions. The findings from this study have implications for future research examining binge eating. PMID:25679369

Manjrekar, Eishita; Berenbaum, Howard; Bhayani, Natasha

2015-04-01

245

The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

2014-01-01

246

Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display: The Signaling Effects of Supervisors’ Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated how supervisors’ emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates’ emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates’ emotional exhaustion was

Catherine K. Lam; Xu Huang; Onne Janssen

2010-01-01

247

Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions. PMID:20230076

Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

2010-03-01

248

Moral emotions and moral behavior.  

PubMed

Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

2007-01-01

249

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

250

Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection  

PubMed Central

Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

2011-01-01

251

Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

252

Further evidence for mixed emotions.  

PubMed

Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. PMID:21219075

Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

2011-06-01

253

A study of emotional processing in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

This study investigated three aspects of processing materials with emotional content in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD): the ability to produce affective prosody, to discriminate affectively loaded speech, and to detect the surprise element in humorous sketches. Study aims were the characterization of an emotional processing deficit, and to test whether impaired emotional processing is mental state dependent. Forty-eight nondemented PD patients were divided according to neuropsychological criteria into a sample with intact mental functions and a sample with mild to moderate cognitive deterioration, particularly memory impairment. PD patients with intact cognitive functions were solely impaired at producing affectively loaded sentences, but otherwise displayed normal emotional processing abilities as compared to a clinical control group. PD patients with mental impairment were significantly disabled on all three tasks. The observed emo tional processing deficit was not related to variables like age, disease duration, de gree of functional impairment, motor disability or depression. Active and receptive emotional prosody were significantly correlated. Further strong positive correlations were found between the ability to disclose pictorial humour and tasks of visuoconceptual knowledge, as well as between the ability to produce affectively loaded speech and years of schooling. These results were interpreted as indicating that not only the production of emotional prosody, but also its recognition and the discovery of pictorial humour are reduced in a subgroup of PD patients with mental impairment. Impaired emotional processing skills are mental state dependent findings in PD which seem to be independent from demographic or disease variables and may indicate beginning dementia. PMID:9735177

Benke, T; Bösch, S; Andree, B

1998-10-01

254

Bias and discriminability during emotional signal detection in melancholic depression  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive disturbances in depression are pernicious and so contribute strongly to the burden of the disorder. Cognitive function has been traditionally studied by challenging subjects with modality-specific psychometric tasks and analysing performance using standard analysis of variance. Whilst informative, such an approach may miss deeper perceptual and inferential mechanisms that potentially unify apparently divergent emotional and cognitive deficits. Here, we sought to elucidate basic psychophysical processes underlying the detection of emotionally salient signals across individuals with melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Methods Sixty participants completed an Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) task across negative, positive and neutral target stimuli blocks. We employed hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory (SDT) to model psychometric performance across three equal groups of those with melancholic depression, those with a non-melancholic depression and healthy controls. This approach estimated likely response profiles (bias) and perceptual sensitivity (discriminability). Differences in the means of these measures speak to differences in the emotional signal detection between individuals across the groups, while differences in the variance reflect the heterogeneity of the groups themselves. Results Melancholic participants showed significantly decreased sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli compared to those in the non-melancholic group, and also had a significantly lower discriminability than healthy controls during the detection of neutral signals. The melancholic group also showed significantly higher variability in bias to both positive and negative emotionally salient material. Conclusions Disturbances of emotional signal detection in melancholic depression appear dependent on emotional context, being biased during the detection of positive stimuli, consistent with a noisier representation of neutral stimuli. The greater heterogeneity of the bias across the melancholic group is consistent with a more labile disorder (i.e. variable across the day). Future work will aim to understand how these findings reflect specific individual differences (e.g. prior cognitive biases) and clarify whether such biases change dynamically during cognitive tasks as internal models of the sensorium are refined and updated in response to experience. PMID:24766992

2014-01-01

255

Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

Morgan, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

256

Quantum Mechanical Model of Emotional Robot Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the emotional model of the humanoid Cynthea (Cybernetic Networked Humanoid Emotional Agent) robot is presented. The robot is explained at two lev- els: the cognitive level is described by the CRL language, and the emotional level manipulates the language in a data independent way. An emotional mapping is introduced and is used to alter the language words

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2007-01-01

257

Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness Franck Berthelon  

E-print Network

Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness Franck Berthelon Laboratoire I3S Sophia-Antipolis, France@polytech.unice.fr Abstract--We present an emotion ontology for describing and reasoning on emotion context in order to improve emotion detection based on bodily expression. We incorporate context into the two-factor theory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

,CHAPTER 11 USING AN EMOTION REGULATION  

E-print Network

,CHAPTER 11 USING AN EMOTION REGULATION FRAMEWORK TO PREDICT THE OUTCOMES OF EMOTIONAL LABOR Moira Mikolajczak, Veronique Tran, Celeste M. Brotheridge and James J. Gross ABSTRACT Because our emotions different perspec- tives have sought to understand how emotions can be best managed for optimal functioning

Gross, James J.

259

A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation  

E-print Network

A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation Tibor Bosse, Matthijs Pontier, and Jan Treur} Abstract. Emotion regulation describes how a subject can use certain strategies to affect emotion response levels. Usually, models for emotion regulation as- sume mechanisms based on feedback loops that indicate

Treur, Jan

260

Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

2012-01-01

261

The Emotional Side of Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of performance improvement focuses on the effect of emotions on performance. Topics include the emotional intelligence of the performers; how people deal with emotional demands and the stress of their performance; and emotional states that affect attention, focus, perception, and time on task. (LRW)

Gerson, Richard F.

2000-01-01

262

A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence  

E-print Network

72 3 A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence edmund t. rolls Emotions may be defined also leads to a framework for understanding emotional intelligence, in that the evolution of each and intelligence. By focusing on the core capacities that are fundamental to emotion, it is possible to identify

Rolls, Edmund T.

263

Syllabus Subject to Change Human Emotion  

E-print Network

with whom!). In particular we will cover topics of: Theories of emotion: Are our emotions a general physical to the case of Autism. Emotion Regulation: How do we change the emotions we have to turn up or down positive in general. Course Requirements The bulk of the class work will consist of active participation, predicated

264

Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

2012-01-01

265

Emotion Clustering Using the Results of Subjective Opinion Tests for Emotion Recognition in Infants' Cries  

E-print Network

Emotion Clustering Using the Results of Subjective Opinion Tests for Emotion Recognition in Infants}@cis.nagasaki-u.ac.jp Abstract This paper proposes an emotion clustering procedure for emotion detection in infants' cries. Our clustering procedure is performed using the results of subjective opinion tests regarding the emotions

Hirschberg, Julia

266

Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2013-01-01

267

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects  

E-print Network

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects Elise S. Dan-Glauser and James J. Gross Stanford University One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate

Gross, James J.

268

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs About Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was

Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch

2012-01-01

269

Parotid gland function after radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

Judith Maria Roesink

2005-01-01

270

Radiotherapy and head neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values.

V. K. Jenkins; C. M. Griffiths; P. Ray; R. R. Perry; M. H. Olson

1980-01-01

271

Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22540056

Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

2011-01-01

272

Emotional conflict and social context  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur. PMID:22661905

FitzGerald, Chloë

2011-01-01

273

[Adding the perspective of emotion on cognitive rehabilitation].  

PubMed

Cognitive rehabilitation has been gradually disseminated in Japan lately. Cognitive rehabilitation is distinct from other psychosocial rehabilitation methods, which aims to enhance cognitive function per se, by various training tools, using paper and pencil tasks, computer games, etc. It stands on the hypothesis that enhancing cognitive function should lead to improvement in social functioning. However, it is becoming clear that cognitive rehabilitation on its own is not strongly effective on social functioning, but rather it appears effective when combined with other methods of rehabilitation. Moreover, it does not treat the emotional problems, which is essential considering the treatment endpoint, to enhance "subjective well-being". Emotional problems arise much often at social interaction in patients with schizophrenia, which can be amended by improving their social cognition as well as social skills. Recently, one of the social cognition training programs has been developed in USA by Penn and his colleagues, named SCIT (Social Cognition and Interaction Training) . The program treats a number of factors involved in social cognition, a) emotion perception, b) attributional style, and c) theory of mind, using various techniques such as Socrates quotes. In previous studies, SCIT showed good effectiveness in various aspects of social cognition for inpatients, whereas the finding was not as clear for outpatients. It may be assumed that integrating SCIT into a cognitive rehabilitation program should alleviate emotional stress the patients often encounter at social interaction in their daily activities. Presumably the next candidate target for psychosocial treatments coming after cognition and emotion should be "intrinsic motivation". PMID:22250444

Nakagome, Kazuyuki

2011-01-01

274

Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students  

PubMed Central

Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

2014-01-01

275

Teaching Methods and Strategies Used in a Christian High School for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from the case study research demonstrated that the high school students at the Christian academy who have emotional and behavioral disorders are successful in teaching, retaining, and graduating this population of students. Their teaching methods and strategies included a strong biblical foundation to develop emotional and behavioral…

Cappiello, Leslie Williams

2013-01-01

276

The interplay between the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli as measured by pupillary dilatation: the role of cognitive reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Emotions can occur during an emotion-eliciting event, but they can also arise when anticipating the event. We used pupillary responses, as a measure of effortful cognitive processing, to test whether the anticipation of an emotional stimulus (positive and negative) influences the subsequent online processing of that emotional stimulus. Moreover, we tested whether individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies are associated with pupillary responses during the anticipation and/or online processing of this emotional stimulus. Our results show that, both for positive and negative stimuli, pupillary diameter during the anticipation of emotion-eliciting events is inversely and strongly correlated to pupillary responses during the emotional image presentation. The variance in this temporal interplay between anticipation and online processing was related to individual differences in emotion regulation. Specifically, the results show that high reappraisal scores are related to larger pupil diameter during the anticipation which is related to smaller pupillary responses during the online processing of emotion-eliciting events. The habitual use of expressive suppression was not associated to pupillary responses in the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli. Taken together, the current data suggest (most strongly for individuals scoring high on the habitual use of reappraisal) that larger pupillary responses during the anticipation of an emotional stimulus are indicative of a sustained attentional set activation to prepare for an upcoming emotional stimulus, which subsequently directs a reduced need to cognitively process that emotional event. Hence, because the habitual use of reappraisal is known to have a positive influence on emotional well-being, the interplay between anticipation and online processing of emotional stimuli might be a significant marker of this well-being. PMID:24659976

Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Remue, Jonathan; Ng, Kwun Kei; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-01-01

277

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-09-01

278

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

279

The need to nurse the nurse: emotional labor in neonatal intensive care.  

PubMed

In this 14-month ethnographic study, I examined the emotional labor and coping strategies of 114, level-4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses. Emotional labor was an underrecognized component in the care of vulnerable infants and families. The nature of this labor was contextualized within complex personal, professional, and organizational layers of demand on the emotions of NICU nurses. Coping strategies included talking with the sisterhood of nurses, being a super nurse, using social talk and humor, taking breaks, offering flexible aid, withdrawing from emotional pain, transferring out of the NICU, attending memorial services, and reframing loss to find meaning in work. The organization had strong staffing, but emotional labor was not recognized, supported, or rewarded. The findings can contribute to the development of interventions to nurse the nurse, and to ultimately facilitate NICU nurses' nurturance of stressed families. These have implications for staff retention, job satisfaction, and delivery of care. PMID:24675967

Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

2014-05-01

280

Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

281

The architecture of emotion experience  

E-print Network

consistent with the hypothesis that happiness is an approachhappiness, to be a withdrawal emotion, which places significant doubt upon the hypothesishappiness. More plausible, as Phan et al. suggest is the hypothesis

Damm, Lisa Marie

2009-01-01

282

The emotional economy of housing   

E-print Network

This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

2008-10-01

283

Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception   

E-print Network

The present study had the chief aim of validating the new Social Perception Test (SPT) as a veridically scored, pragmatic measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). To this end the SPT was compared to three similarly visually based tests – picture...

Teale, Cassandra

2010-06-30

284

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider writes them down so you can review them after leaving the office. All of these recommendations are intended to reduce the emotional concerns and stress most patients experience with pain. If you are ...

285

Is Disgust a Homogeneous Emotion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theoretical accounts consider disgust to be a unitary emotion, although others have challenged this notion. We predict\\u000a that if core disgust and socio-moral disgust are different constructs, then their co-associated elicited emotions are likely\\u000a to be different, and time as well as gender are likely to differentially affect their intensity (via a greater reliance of\\u000a socio-moral disgust on cognitive

Jane Simpson; Sarah Carter; Susan H. Anthony; Paul G. Overton

2006-01-01

286

The Relationships Among Momentary Emotion Experiences, Personality Descriptions, and Retrospective Ratings of Emotion.  

E-print Network

The Relationships Among Momentary Emotion Experiences, Personality Descriptions, and Retrospective Ratings of Emotion. by LISA FELDMAN BARRETT In psychological research, respondents often make retrospective ratings of their emotional experiences after an extended period of time. The present study sought

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

287

Emotion and trauma: underlying emotions and trauma symptoms in two flooded populations   

E-print Network

-related distress over time. Participants were asked to complete a survey pertaining to: basic emotions experienced during the flood event, basic emotions experienced after the flood, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ...

Nesbitt, Catherine

2010-01-01

288

Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

2015-01-01

289

An audiovisual emotion recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

2007-12-01

290

Language and emotions: emotional Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  

PubMed

An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. The paper considers conceptual and emotional mechanisms of language along with their role in the mind and cultural evolution. Language evolution from primordial undifferentiated animal cries is discussed: while conceptual contents increase, emotional reduced. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, neural modeling fields. Mathematical results are related to cognitive science, linguistics, and psychology. Experimental evidence and theoretical arguments are discussed. Dynamics of the hierarchy-heterarchy of human minds and cultures is formulated using mean-field approach and approximate equations are obtained. The knowledge instinct operating in the mind heterarchy leads to mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis determining ontological development and cultural evolution. These mathematical models identify three types of cultures: "conceptual" pragmatic cultures in which emotionality of language is reduced and differentiation overtakes synthesis resulting in fast evolution at the price of uncertainty of values, self doubts, and internal crises; "traditional-emotional" cultures where differentiation lags behind synthesis, resulting in cultural stability at the price of stagnation; and "multi-cultural" societies combining fast cultural evolution and stability. Unsolved problems and future theoretical and experimental directions are discussed. PMID:19616406

Perlovsky, Leonid

2009-01-01

291

Integration of cross-modal emotional information in the human brain: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

The interaction of information derived from the voice and facial expression of a speaker contributes to the interpretation of the emotional state of the speaker and to the formation of inferences about information that may have been merely implied in the verbal communication. Therefore, we investigated the brain processes responsible for the integration of emotional information originating from different sources. Although several studies have reported possible sites for integration, further investigation using a neutral emotional condition is required to locate emotion-specific networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the brain regions involved in the integration of emotional information from different modalities in comparison to those involved in integrating emotionally neutral information. There was significant activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG); inferior frontal gyrus (IFG); and parahippocampal gyrus, including the amygdala, under the bimodal versus the unimodal condition, irrespective of the emotional content. We confirmed the results of previous studies by finding that the bimodal emotional condition elicited strong activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and we extended this finding to locate the effects of emotional factors by using a neutral condition in the experimental design. We found anger-specific activation in the posterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellum, whereas we found happiness-specific activation in the MTG, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, claustrum, inferior parietal lobule, cuneus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), IFG, and anterior cingulate. These emotion-specific activations suggest that each emotion uses a separate network to integrate bimodal information and shares a common network for cross-modal integration. PMID:18691703

Park, Ji-Young; Gu, Bon-Mi; Kang, Do-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

2010-02-01

292

Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566

Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

2011-04-01

293

Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity.  

PubMed

With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Collier, Antonie P M

2014-01-01

294

Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity  

PubMed Central

With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

2014-01-01

295

Using humour as an extrinsic source of emotion regulation in young and older adults.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that intrinsic abilities for regulating emotions remain stable or improve with ageing, but, to date, no studies have examined age-related differences in extrinsic emotion regulation. Since humour has been found to be an effective form of emotion regulation, we used a paradigm similar to that of Strick and colleagues (2009) with two objectives: to compare extrinsic humorous emotion regulation in young and older adults and to test whether the potential beneficial effect of humour on negative emotion is better explained by the cognitive distraction hypothesis or by the positive affect elicitation hypothesis. To this end, neutral, moderately, and strongly negative pictures followed by humorous, simply positive, or weird cartoons, controlled for both their funniness and cognitive demands, were presented to 26 young and 25 older adults with the instruction to report their negative feelings. When induced to feel moderately negative emotions, both young and older adults reported a lower negative feeling after viewing the humorous cartoons than after the other ones. This indicates that the extrinsic humorous emotion regulation skill remains stable with ageing and suggests that the beneficial effect of humour on emotional feeling cannot be seen as a purely cognitive distraction. PMID:24325142

Harm, Jonathan; Vieillard, Sandrine; Didierjean, André

2014-10-01

296

Depersonalization Disorder: Disconnection of Cognitive Evaluation from Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. Methods 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). Results DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:24058547

Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E.; Gamer, Matthias

2013-01-01

297

An integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of observed emotional behavior.  

PubMed

Understanding others' emotions requires both the identification of overt behaviors ("smiling") and the attribution of behaviors to a cause ("friendly disposition"). Previous research suggests that whereas emotion identification depends on a cortical mirror system that enables the embodiment of observed motor behavior within one's own motor system, causal attribution for emotion depends on a separate cortical mentalizing system, so-named because its function is associated with mental state representation. We used fMRI to test an Identification-Attribution model of mirror and mentalizing system contributions to the comprehension of emotional behavior. Normal volunteers watched a set of ecologically valid videos of human emotional displays. During each viewing, volunteers either identified an emotion-relevant motor behavior (explicit identification) or inferred a plausible social cause (explicit attribution). These explicit identification and attribution goals strongly distinguished activity in the mirror and mentalizing systems, respectively. However, frontal mirror areas, though preferentially engaged by the identification goal, nevertheless exhibited activation when observers possessed the attribution goal. One of these areas-right posterior inferior frontal gyrus-demonstrated effective connectivity with areas of the mentalizing system during attributional processing. These results support an integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of emotional behavior, where the mirror system helps facilitate the rapid identification of emotional expressions that then serve as inputs to attributional processing in the mentalizing system. PMID:22019857

Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

2012-02-01

298

Body regard as a moderator of the relation between emotion dysregulation and nonsuicidal self-injury.  

PubMed

Despite research documenting a strong association between emotion dysregulation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the moderators of this association have received little attention. Thus, it remains unclear why some individuals with heightened emotion dysregulation engage in NSSI and others do not. Body regard (i.e., how one perceives, experiences, and cares for the body) may be one such moderator, explaining the risk for NSSI among some individuals with emotion dysregulation. The current study used structural equation modeling within a sample of 398 undergraduates (26% reporting NSSI, mean frequency = 25.16, SD = 40.5) to test the interactive effect of emotion dysregulation and body regard on NSSI frequency when controlling for negative affect and borderline personality disorder symptoms. The interaction model provided a strong fit to the data and showed that emotion regulation was associated with NSSI only when low levels of body regard were present. Results suggest that body regard may be important to understanding who engages in NSSI within the context of emotion dysregulation. Possible mechanisms underlying the interaction between body regard and emotion dysregulation are discussed along with treatment and prevention implications. PMID:23611413

Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Bagge, Courtney L; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

2013-10-01

299

Single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients: comparative effectiveness  

PubMed Central

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is an effective treatment for symptomatic bone metastases from a variety of primary malignancies. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported on the efficacy of EBRT on bone metastases from multiple primaries. This review is focused on the comparative effectiveness of single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. PMID:25473313

Yoon, Frederick; Morton, Gerard C

2014-01-01

300

Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:24424260

Ladra, Matthew M.; Yock, Torunn I.

2014-01-01

301

Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

Williams, Norman R; Pigott, Katharine H; Brew-Graves, Chris; Keshtgar, Mohammed R S

2014-05-01

302

Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

2014-01-01

303

Radiotherapy-induced ear toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their particular functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced ear injuries remain under-evaluated and under-reported. These reactions may have acute or late character, may affect all structures of the hearing organ, and result in conductive, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Up to 40% of patients have acute middle ear side effects during radical irradiation including acoustic structures and about one-third of patients develop

Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa; Andrzej Zarowski; Franco Milani; Roberto Orecchia

2003-01-01

304

Radical Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of prostate cancer is rising worldwide due to the ageing of the population and the increasing availability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Prostate-specific antigen testing has led specifically to an increase in the proportion of patients diagnosed with early-stage (localized) prostate cancer. Radical radiotherapy is one of the curative treatment options for localized prostate cancer and it also

Mererid Evans; Malcolm D. Mason

305

Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

Saldern, Matthias V.

306

The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

2015-01-01

307

Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.  

PubMed

Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

2015-02-01

308

Strong EAPEmployee Assistance Program January 2010 Fighting Depression  

E-print Network

Strong EAPEmployee Assistance Program January 2010 Fighting Depression in the Recession Recessions can take an emotional toll along with their financial impact. Keep an eye out for signs of depression-888-764-3456 www.urmc.rochester.edu/EAP If you wrestle with accomplishing exercise goals, getting things done

Goldman, Steven A.

309

Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact  

PubMed Central

Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition. PMID:24278456

Krüger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

2013-01-01

310

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

311

Virtual Humans Growing up: From Primary Toward Secondary Emotions  

E-print Network

of emotions ­ from primary emotions like happiness and fear, toward secondary emotions like hope and relief. 1 to classify emotions along a varying number of dimensions of connotative meaning [14]. In the following, we

Kopp, Stefan

312

Blocking HIF-1? Following Radiotherapy to Prolong and Enhance the Immune Effects of Radiotherapy: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Tumor local immune escape is one of the “hallmarks” of cancer leading to poor prognosis. The effects of local radiotherapy on tumors are rapidly emerging as opportunities to remodel and enhance immunity against cancer. However, this immunity remodeling and enhancing are not permanent after local radiotherapy. High expression of HIF-1? following local radiotherapy for tumor cell reoxygenation has been confirmed, and recently accumulating evidence shows the tumor immune suppression effects. These research findings suggest a new direction in the investigation of methods to enhance the efficacy of local radiotherapy. We speculate that by blocking HIF-1?, the immune effects of radiotherapy might be prolonged and enhanced. PMID:25358601

Wei, Luo; Wei, Ge; Jing, Song; Cong, Chen; Huilin, Xu; Pingpo, Ming

2014-01-01

313

Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

314

Abortion: Strong’s counterexamples fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis’s argument against abortion fail. Strong’s basic idea is that there are cases—for example, terminally ill patients—where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a “valuable future”. So

E Di Nucci

2009-01-01

315

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

316

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion  

E-print Network

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto-Amygdalar Differences during Emotional Perception and Episodic Memory Peggy L. St. Jacques, Brandy Bessette

Cabeza, Roberto

317

CORRESPONDENCE Neurobiology of Emotional Dysfunction in  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Neurobiology of Emotional Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: New Directions Revealed Through Meta-Analyses To the Editor: A ffective dysfunction is a prominent feature of schizophrenia psychopathology. Behavioral studies converge on several distinct aspects of emotional dysfunction, namely, 1) emo

318

The effect of praying on emotion regulation   

E-print Network

, and is associated with experiencing a greater purpose in life. Similarly, the present study examined whether praying affects people’s ability to regulate emotions. Participants were randomly assigned to a prayer, coping and control group. They completed the Emotion...

Kossurok, Anke

2012-11-28

319

Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions  

MedlinePLUS

Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions Dealing with a flood of emotions can be hard for stroke ... your doctor, “Where am I on my stroke recovery journey? Note: This fact sheet is compiled from ...

320

Imagery and emotion in chronic pain   

E-print Network

Psychological factors have important implications for adjustment to chronic pain, which itself has a variety of emotional consequences. Mental imagery has historically been assumed to be closely connected to emotional ...

Lonsdale, Jennifer Helen

2010-11-26

321

Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health  

MedlinePLUS

... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...

322

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for  

E-print Network

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for: Managers who want to increase intelligence in leading employees to optimal performance. Course Description: Current research in organizations intelligence. Emotional intelligence can be learned and improved over time, as opposed to traditional

Gleeson, Joseph G.

323

3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Feelings & Emotions > 3 Ways to ...

324

"There Are No Emotions in Math": How Teachers Approach Emotions in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Our research describes teacher emotions and the way that teachers manage emotional events in the classroom. Recent work completed by these researchers suggests that teachers' emotions and their reaction to student emotions are influenced by the teachers' beliefs. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: In this…

Williams, Meca; Cross, Dionne; Hong, Ji; Aultman, Lori; Osbon, Jennifer; Schutz, Paul

2008-01-01

325

Unpacking the neural associations of emotion and judgment in emotion-congruent judgment  

E-print Network

Unpacking the neural associations of emotion and judgment in emotion-congruent judgment Jamil P The current study takes a new approach to understand the neural systems that support emotion-congruent judgment. The bulk of previous neural research has inferred emotional influences on judgment from

Beer, Jennifer

326

Attention and emotion: Does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films?  

E-print Network

Attention and emotion: Does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films? C potent emotion-eliciting amusing and sad films, employed a novel method of continuous self-reported rating of emotion experience, and compared the impact of rating with passive viewing of amusing and sad

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

327

Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Suppression and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Emotion dysregulation has long been thought to be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders. However vulnerability is related to difficulties with emotion regulation by comparing recovered-depressed and never

Gross, James J.

328

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

329

Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial Expressions of  

E-print Network

Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial}@rrlab.kaist.ac.kr, 4 mjchung@ee.kaist.ac.kr Abstract. We can't overemphasize the importance of robot's emotional expressions as robots step into human's daily lives. So, the believable and socially acceptable emotional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

In press: Emotion (July, 2013) Association learning for emotional harbinger cues  

E-print Network

In press: Emotion (July, 2013) Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: When do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations? Michiko-213-740-9407, Fax: +1-213-821-5561. #12;MEMORY OF EMOTIONAL PREDICTIVE CUES 2 Abstract Neutral cues that predict

Mather, Mara

331

The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion  

E-print Network

The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion Philippe R. Goldin, Kateri McRae, Wiveka Ramel, and James J. Gross Background: Emotion regulation strategies are thought to differ in when and how they influence the emotion-generative process. However, no study to date

Gross, James J.

332

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

2012-01-01

333

Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies of autobiographical memory, women typically remember more emotional information than do men. The present study evaluated whether women recall more emotional information than men when the content of an event is controlled. Participants read a script containing emotional and neutral information, under instructions to prepare advice for the characters addressing either interpersonal issues (emotional focus), concrete plans (neutral

Suzanne M. Bloise; Marcia K. Johnson

2007-01-01

334

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a,  

E-print Network

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a, , Deanna Schizophrenia Face recognition Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits both in facial emotion recognition­1644). Thus, individuals with schizophrenia may have deficits in facial emotion processing, at least in part

335

Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

336

Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expressions and their influence on decoding accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study had the goal to assess whether individuals mimic and show emotional contagion in response to relatively weak and idiosyncratic dynamic facial expressions of emotions similar to those encountered in everyday life. Furthermore, the question of whether mimicry leads to emotional contagion and in turn facilitates emotion recognition was addressed. Forty-one female participants rated a series of short

Ursula Hess; Sylvie Blairy

2001-01-01

337

Dream Emotions, Waking Emotions, Personality Characteristics and Well-Being—A Positive Psychology Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to discover whether personality characteristics and waking emotions relate to dreaming emotions. There were 123 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. It was hypothesized that participants with significant positive emotional trait and state ratings in waking life would experience more positive dreams. Data collection utilized diaries and questionnaires, including Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire, IPIP Emotional

Sue Gilchrist; John Davidson; Jane Shakespeare-Finch

2007-01-01

338

The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

Spasova, Z.

2011-03-01

339

The Couples Emotion Rating Form: Psychometric Properties and Theoretical Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Couples Emotion Rating Form assesses 3 types of negative emotion that are salient during times of relationship conflict. Hard emotion includes feeling angry and aggravated, soft emotion includes feeling hurt and sad, and flat emotion includes feeling bored and indifferent. In Study 1, scales measuring hard and soft emotion were validated by…

Sanford, Keith

2007-01-01

340

Emotional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to motor symptomatology, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by emotional dysfunction. Depression affects some 30 to 40 percent of Parkinson patients and other psychiatric co-morbidities include anxiety and apathy. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional dysfunction in Parkinson patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. There is also evidence suggesting that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems is important in the understanding and treatment of mood disorders in Parkinson's disease. In this review we discuss the neuropsychiatric abnormalities that accompany Parkinson's disease and describe their neuropsychological, neuropharmacologic, and neuroimaging concomitants. PMID:21876260

Blonder, Lee X.; Slevin, John T.

2011-01-01

341

Emotional Sequencing and Development in Fairy Tales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afiect is a transient phenomenon, with emotions tending to blend and interact over time (4). This paper discusses emotional distri- butions in child-directed texts. It provides statistical evidence for the relevance of emotional sequencing, and evaluates trends of emotional story development, based on annotation statistics on 22 Grimms' fairy tales which form part of a larger on-going text-annotation project that

Cecilia Ovesdotter Alm; Richard Sproat

2005-01-01

342

Moving Beyond Basic Emotions in Aging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is consistent evidence that older adults have difficulties in perceiving emotions. However, emotion perception measures\\u000a to date have focused on one particular type of assessment: using standard photographs of facial expressions posing six basic\\u000a emotions. We argue that it is important in future research to explore adult age differences in understanding more complex,\\u000a social and blended emotions. Using stimuli

Louise H. Phillips; Gillian Slessor

343

Milestones and Mechanisms of Emotional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes central stages in the development of emotions and emotion regulation. A developmental theory is proposed\\u000a that focuses on the complex interaction of emotions and social interactions. Expression signs for emotions in caregiver–child\\u000a interaction are seen as an important mediating factor that serves as the critical means of communication, particularly during\\u000a early ontogenesis, and through which culture enters

Manfred Holodynski

344

Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*  

PubMed Central

Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

Clore, Gerald L.

2014-01-01

345

Radiotherapy dosimetry assessment with optical projection tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in radiotherapy have created the need to develop novel methods for the accurate, three-dimensional assessment of the applied radiation dose during specific radiotherapy plans. Here we present a study based on the use of polymer gel dosimeters in combination with a novel Optical Projection Tomography system, which allows the association of optical properties, namely the attenuation coefficient, to

Giannis Zacharakis; Antonios Papadakis; Fotini Zacharopoulou; Anikitos Garofalakis; Thomas Maris; Jorge Ripoll

2007-01-01

346

Prostatorectal fistula associated with iodine seed radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 4 cases of prostatorectal fistula following 125iodine interstitial radiotherapy. While 125iodine interstitial radiotherapy has become a popular form of treatment for localized prostate cancer, it is not without potential serious complications. Transurethral resection may be contraindicated before or after 125iodine therapy for prostate tumor.

K. Mouli; R. Sharifi; P. Ray; G. Baumgartner; P. Guinan

1983-01-01

347

[Radiotherapy promises: focus on lung cancer].  

PubMed

Radiotherapy is a key cancer treatment, which greatly modified its practice in recent years thanks to medical imaging and technical improvements. The systematic use of computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning, the imaging fusion/co-registration between CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT/positron emission tomography (PET) improve target identification/selection and delineation. New irradiation techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), stereotactic radiotherapy or hadron therapy offer a more diverse therapeutic armamentarium to patients together with lower toxicity. Radiotherapy, as well as medical oncology, tends to offer a personalized treatment to patients thanks to the IGRT, which takes into account the inter- or intra-fraction anatomic variations. IGRT leads to adaptive radiotherapy (ART) with a new planification in the treatment course in order to decrease toxicity and improve tumor control. The use of systemic therapies with radiations needs to be studied in order to improve efficiency without increasing toxicities from these multimodal approaches. Finally, radiotherapy advances were impacted by radiotherapy accidents like Epinal. They led to an increased quality control with the intensification of identity control, the emergence of in vivo dosimetry or the experience feedback committee in radiotherapy. We will illustrate through the example of lung cancer. PMID:23719541

Jouin, Anaïs; Durand-Labrunie, Jérôme; Leroy, Thomas; Pannier, Diane; Wagner, Antoine; Rault, Erwan; Lartigau, Eric

2013-06-01

348

Algorithms for radiotherapy treatment booking Sanja Petrovic*  

E-print Network

* and Santhanam Sundar # * Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning Research Group, School of Computer, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Typically, several forms of treatment are combined to increase the chance of success. For example, surgery is often followed by chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy to ensure

Qu, Rong

349

Temporal dynamics of emotional responding: amygdala recovery predicts emotional traits  

PubMed Central

An individual’s affective style is influenced by many things, including the manner in which an individual responds to an emotional challenge. Emotional response is composed of a number of factors, two of which are the initial reactivity to an emotional stimulus and the subsequent recovery once the stimulus terminates or ceases to be relevant. However, most neuroimaging studies examining emotional processing in humans focus on the magnitude of initial reactivity to a stimulus rather than the prolonged response. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the time course of amygdala activity in healthy adults in response to presentation of negative images. We split the amygdala time course into an initial reactivity period and a recovery period beginning after the offset of the stimulus. We find that initial reactivity in the amygdala does not predict trait measures of affective style. Conversely, amygdala recovery shows predictive power such that slower amygdala recovery from negative images predicts greater trait neuroticism, in addition to lower levels of likability of a set of social stimuli (neutral faces). These data underscore the importance of taking into account temporal dynamics when studying affective processing using neuroimaging. PMID:23160815

Schuyler, Brianna S.; Kral, Tammi R. A.; Jacquart, Jolene; Burghy, Cory A.; Weng, Helen Y.; Perlman, David M.; Bachhuber, David R. W.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; MacCoon, Donal G.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lutz, Antoine

2014-01-01

350

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

351

Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior  

PubMed Central

Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain’s endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior. PMID:21949506

Zanettini, Claudio; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Aliczki, Mano; Goldberg, Steven R.; Haller, József; Yasar, Sevil

2011-01-01

352

Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Emotion Identification  

PubMed Central

Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed a well-characterized emotion identification task. As expected, the amygdala responded to THREAT (angry or fearful) faces more than NON-THREAT (sad or happy) faces. A functional connectivity analysis of the time series from an anatomically defined amygdala seed revealed a strong anti-correlation between the amygdala and the ventral striatum /ventral pallidum, consistent with an opposing role for these regions in during emotion identification. A second functional connectivity analysis (psychophysiological interaction) investigating relative connectivity on THREAT vs. NON-THREAT trials demonstrated that the amygdala had increased connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex during THREAT trials, whereas the ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity with the posterior hippocampus on NON-THREAT trials. These results indicate that activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum may be inversely related, and that both regions may provide opposing affective bias signals during emotion identification. PMID:21600684

Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

2011-01-01

353

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

354

Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

2007-01-01

355

Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

Kelly, Adrian

2015-01-01

356

PETEEI: a PET with evolving emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of what is now called 'emotional inte lligence' has revealed yet another aspect of human intelligence. Emotions have been shown to have a major impact on many of our everyday functions, including decision-making, planning, communication, and behavior. AI researchers have recently acknowle dged this major role that emotions play, and thus have began to incorporate models for simulating

Magy Seif El-Nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen

1999-01-01

357

Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

2010-01-01

358

Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion

Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

2007-01-01

359

Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

2008-01-01

360

Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Systems Science  

E-print Network

Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Dan Yang Systems Science University of Ottawa Ottawa aspect of research which combines different classifiers of musical emotion such as acoustics and lyrical text. Keywords: Text Mining, Text Classification, Music Information Retrieval, Lyrical Text, Emotion. I

Lee, WonSook

361

Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression  

E-print Network

Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression Asuka Murata,1 Jason S. Moser,2 that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are culturally trained to down

Liu, Taosheng

362

Identifying Expressions of Emotion in Text  

E-print Network

Identifying Expressions of Emotion in Text Saima Aman and Stan Szpakowicz School of Information, disgust, surprise, fear Goals investigate the expression of emotion in text through a corpus annotation study explore computational techniques for emotion classification Data drawn from blog posts

363

Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

364

Examining categorical perception of emotional facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals perceive emotional facial expressions in categories. Specifically, for basic emotional expressions, discrimination performance is better for pairs of stimuli that fall on either side of a perceptual category boundary than for those within a perceptual category. In this thesis I have examined categorical perception of emotional facial expressions from a number of different perspectives. In Chapter 2, I found

Jenna L Cheal

2010-01-01

365

Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

2008-01-01

366

Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

2011-01-01

367

Emotion capture based on body postures and  

E-print Network

systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 #12;The goalEmotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay

368

Patterns of Cognitive Appraisal in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has long been interest in describing emotional experience in terms of underlying dimensions, but traditionally only two dimensions, pleasantness and arousal, have been reliably found. The reasons for these findings are reviewed, and integrating this review with two recent theories of emotions (Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1982), we propose eight cognitive appraisal dimensions to differentiate emotional experience. In an investigation

Craig A. Smith; Phoebe C. Ellsworth

1985-01-01

369

Relationships Among Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Constructs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although predictive accuracy (cognitive empathy) and emotional empathy may be aspects of the same general ability, few empirical studies have examined the relationships between these dimensions. The relationship between cognitive empathy and emotional empathy was investigated by correlating the Mehrabian and Epstein Emotional Empathy Scale and its…

Barron, William L.; And Others

370

Functional aspects of emotions in fish.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened. PMID:24056239

Kittilsen, Silje

2013-11-01

371

EMOTION AND CARDIAC TECHNOLOGY: AN INTERPRETIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a frequently overlooked aspect of advanced technological care - that of the human dimension and emotions. Emotionality is defined as the emotional ways that a client experiences their embodied experience as a recipient of a cardiac pacemaker. One individual' s story from a larger interpretive study of clients who received pacemakers is presented and interpreted. Kev' s

Carole Anderson; Wendy Moyle; Margaret McAllister

372

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

373

Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion

Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

374

Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting

Nina R. Jakoby

2012-01-01

375

Facilitating Maltreated Children's Use of Emotional Language.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4-9-year-old maltreated children's spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children's use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children's use of emotional language. PMID:25243047

Ahern, Elizabeth C; Lyon, Thomas D

2013-05-01

376

Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces  

PubMed Central

Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d? analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

377

Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

378

Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

379

Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

Arnold, Cath

2010-01-01

380

Assessing Your Emotional IQ. Professional Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the current popular concept of emotional intelligence and discusses its relevance to teaching. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand, interpret, and control ones emotions. This is important for teachers, not only in terms of role modeling and classroom management, but also for understanding their students. (MJP)

Stufft, William David

1996-01-01

381

Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

2005-01-01

382

Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

2005-01-01

383

Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

2004-01-01

384

How Emotional Development Unfolds Starting at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ross Thompson, PhD, responds to questions about the capacity of infants and toddlers to experience complex emotions and about how parents and caregivers can support early social and emotional development. He underscores the importance of allowing children to experience a wide range of emotions--including frustration and anger--as vital to their…

Thompson, Ross

2012-01-01

385

[Radiotherapy of chiasmal gliomas in children].  

PubMed

Chiasmal gliomas are rare tumors occurring predominantly in children. Their treatment consists of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surgical removal can usually be only partial, and radiotherapy frequently follows. There are supporters of radiotherapy, as well as opponents. The author has been engaged in problems of optimal treatment of this entity for more than 10 years. He offers a review of knowledge provided by literature concerning radiotherapy of this disease in children. In the past he was enthusiastic for radiotherapy. Nevertheless after passing the Postgraduate course in paediatric neurosurgery in Bonn (1989), where J.F. Hirsch demonstrated very pessimistic progressive long-term harmful sequellae of irradiation of the developing child's brain, the author has re-evaluated his attitude to this therapy. The short history and basic physical principles of radiotherapy are reviewed. Some new trends of this therapy are also mentioned (hyperbaric oxygenation, radiosensitizing agents, hyperthermia etc.). Great attention is paid to the deleterious adverse effects of radiotherapy and to the possible technical parameters enabling to avoid them (optional daily fractions, optimal total dose, limiting age in infants etc.). Harmful effects of radiotherapy are reviewed in detail. The most frequent are chronic sequellae: brain atrophy, radiation-induced brain necrosis, progressive intellectual deterioration, growth retardation, panhypopituitarism, galactorea, learning disabilities, moya-moya syndrome, radiation-induced secondary brain tumors (especially gliomas). Risks of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy are also emphasized. Nevertheless radiotherapy has remained an important therapeutical measure in the treatment of chiasmal gliomas in children with progressive disease in cases when surgery and chemotherapy have failed. PMID:8689301

Helcl, F

1996-01-01

386

Recommendations for the use of PET and PET–CT for radiotherapy planning in research projects  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) for disease staging, follow-up and therapy monitoring in a number of oncological indications there is growing interest in the use of PET and PET–CT for radiation treatment planning. In order to create a strong clinical evidence base for this, it is important to ensure that research data are clinically relevant and of a high quality. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute PET Research Network make these recommendations to assist investigators in the development of radiotherapy clinical trials involving the use of PET and PET–CT. These recommendations provide an overview of the current literature in this rapidly evolving field, including standards for PET in clinical trials, disease staging, volume delineation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and PET-augmented planning techniques, and are targeted at a general audience. We conclude with specific recommendations for the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in research projects. PMID:22374274

Somer, E J; Pike, L C; Marsden, P K

2012-01-01

387

Current developments in radiotherapy for paediatric brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises current developments in radiation oncology and how they impact on the management of children with brain tumours. Improved understanding of radiobiology has led to attempts to improve the therapeutic ratio with hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Recent advances in planning and delivery of radiotherapy, including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and proton therapy allow a more precise localisation of

Roger E. Taylor

2006-01-01

388

Remembering faces with emotional expressions  

PubMed Central

It is known that happy faces create more robust identity recognition memory than faces with some other expressions. However, this advantage was not verified against all basic expressions. Moreover, no research has assessed whether similar differences also exist among other expressions. To tackle these questions, we compared the effects of six basic emotional expressions on recognition memory using a standard old/new recognition task. The experiment also examined whether exposure to different emotional expressions at training creates variable effects on transfer of the trained faces to a new/neutral expression. Our results suggest that happy faces produced better identity recognition relative to disgusted faces, regardless of whether they were tested in the same image or a new image displaying a neutral expression. None of the other emotional expressions created measurable advantage for recognition memory. Overall, our data lend further support for the happy face advantage for long-term recognition memory. However, our detailed analyses also show that the advantage of happy expression on identity recognition may not be equally discernible from all other emotional expressions. PMID:25540634

Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng; Ward, James

2014-01-01

389

Common Reactions to Stress Emotional  

E-print Network

· Take breaks from social media and news #12;Things to consider... · This may take time, take the time#12;Common Reactions to Stress · Physical · Mental · Emotional · Behavioral #12;Physical · Fatigue Health Services · www.uhs.fsu.edu · (850) 644-4567 #12;Resources · Career Center · www

Weston, Ken

390

Emotion and reason in persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas practitioners in advertising and marketing clearly appreciate the importance of affect and emotion, traditional academic approaches to the analysis of persuasion tend to stress rational “central route” or “systematic” processing. However, the notion of two sorts of cognitive process—one rational, the other affective—has gained increasing support. This paper presents a view of the conceptualization and operationalization of the interaction

Ross Buck; Erika Anderson; Arjun Chaudhuri; Ipshita Ray

2004-01-01

391

Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

392

Attentional bias in emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

1986-01-01

393

Emotion Circuits in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

Joseph E. LeDoux

2000-01-01

394

Emotional adjustment in infertile couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study assessed emotional adjustment of infertile couples and the psychological outcomes of infertility (depression, anxiety, relationship and sexual problems, and personality disorders) in different phases of treatment. References used include studies which have been performed within the last two decades. The articles were invested on data bases at Pub med, Scholar, Google, Scpous and Amazon and key words

Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Nasrin Abedinia; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

2009-01-01

395

Motor Action and Emotional Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

2010-01-01

396

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

397

The Importance of Emotional Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver…

Shih, Yi-Hsuen; Liu, Min

2008-01-01

398

Emotional effects of dynamic textures  

PubMed Central

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

399

Spatial frequencies and emotional perception.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that, during evolution, specific mechanisms developed in order to optimize the detection of threats and opportunities even in perceptually degraded conditions. A naturalistic example of perceptual degradation can be found in blurry images, which contain the coarsest elements of a scene (low spatial frequencies) but lack the fine-grained details (high spatial frequencies). In the past decade, several studies have examined the relation between spatial frequencies and emotions, using a variety of methods, stimuli, and rationales. Here, we conduct a literature survey on the studies that have examined the relation between emotion and spatial frequencies. Some studies have suggested that the low spatial frequencies of emotional stimuli may be processed by a subcortical neural pathway, eventually eliciting emotional responses. However, the evidence provided by the reviewed studies does not support this possibility, for conceptual and methodological reasons (e.g., mistaking the processing of a fuzzy stimulus for subcortical processing). Here, the conceptual and methodological problems present in the reviewed studies are analyzed and discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23183741

De Cesarei, Andrea; Codispoti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

400

Autism, Emotion Recognition and the Mirror Neuron System: The Case of Music  

PubMed Central

Understanding emotions is fundamental to our ability to navigate and thrive in a complex world of human social interaction. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are known to experience difficulties with the communication and understanding of emotion, such as the nonverbal expression of emotion and the interpretation of emotions of others from facial expressions and body language. These deficits often lead to loneliness and isolation from peers, and social withdrawal from the environment in general. In the case of music however, there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD do not have difficulties recognizing simple emotions. In addition, individuals with ASD have been found to show normal and even superior abilities with specific aspects of music processing, and often show strong preferences towards music. It is possible these varying abilities with different types of expressive communication may be related to a neural system referred to as the mirror neuron system (MNS), which has been proposed as deficient in individuals with autism. Music’s power to stimulate emotions and intensify our social experiences might activate the MNS in individuals with ASD, and thus provide a neural foundation for music as an effective therapeutic tool. In this review, we present literature on the ontogeny of emotion processing in typical development and in individuals with ASD, with a focus on the case of music. PMID:21264050

Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Wang, Martha J.; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Overy, Katie; Wu, Wai-Ling; Piggot, Judith

2009-01-01

401

Heart rate response after emotional picture presentation is modulated by interoceptive awareness.  

PubMed

The perception of visceral signals plays a crucial role in many theories of emotions. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between interoceptive awareness, emotional experience and heart rate responses in an emotional stimulation paradigm. Based on their performance in a heartbeat perception task 38 participants (16 males, 22 females) were classified as subjects with either high (n=19; 8 males) or low interoceptive awareness (n=19; 8 males). 120 pictures (40 pleasant, 40 unpleasant, 40 neutral slides) from the International Affective Picture System served as emotional stimuli. Heart rate changes were recorded during baseline and during slide presentation. After each slide, the subjects had to rate emotional valence and arousal on a 9-point self-report scale. Statistical analyses revealed significantly stronger heart rate responses to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in subjects with high interoceptive awareness. Furthermore, subjects with high interoceptive awareness rated pleasant and unpleasant slides as significantly more arousing; no differences were found in the emotional valence ratings. Heartbeat perception scores correlated significantly positive with both the mean arousal rating and with the mean heart rate changes. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between the perception of cardiac signals and the peripheral processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:17137662

Pollatos, Olga; Herbert, Beate M; Matthias, Ellen; Schandry, Rainer

2007-01-01

402

[Present and future of the image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and its applications in lung cancer treatment].  

PubMed

These last years, the new irradiation techniques as the conformal 3D radiotherapy and the IMRT are strongly correlated with the technological developments in radiotherapy. The rigorous definition of the target volume and the organs at risk required by these irradiation techniques, imposed the development of various image guided patient positioning and target tracking techniques. The availability of these imaging systems inside the treatment room has lead to the exploration of performing real-time adaptive radiation therapy. In this paper we present the different image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques and the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) approaches. IGRT developments are focused in the following areas: 1) biological imaging for better definition of tumor volume; 2) 4D imaging for modeling the intra-fraction organ motion; 3) on-board imaging system or imaging devices registered to the treatment machines for inter-fraction patient localization; and 4) treatment planning and delivery schemes incorporating the information derived from the new imaging techniques. As this paper is included in the "Cancer-Radiotherapie" special volume dedicated to the lung cancers, in the description of the different IGRT techniques we try to present the lung tumors applications when this is possible. PMID:17113331

Lefkopoulos, D; Ferreira, I; Isambert, A; Le Péchoux, C; Mornex, F

2007-01-01

403

A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces  

PubMed Central

This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect. PMID:25018740

Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

2014-01-01

404

Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

405

Emotions: Happy, Sad, Mad, and Glad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you and your child can explore the emotions we all experience. Read the instructions aloud to your child and follow the links provided. Discuss each question with your child as you go through. You may be surprised by how much you both learn! Do you know what emotions are? Emotions are the feelings we have. We can show these feelings on our face, by our actions, or through our words. Some examples of positive emotions are: happiness, joy, and excitement. Some examples of negative emotions are: sadness, fear, or anger. In this video, our friend Kermit ...

Mrs. Plouffe

2011-12-09

406

Faints, fits, and fatalities from emotion in Shakespeare's characters: survey of the canon  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine how often Shakespeare's characters faint, fit, or die from extreme emotion; to assess Shakespeare's uniqueness in this regard; and to examine the plausibility of these dramatised events. Design Line by line search through modern editions of these late 16th and early 17th century works for accounts of characters fainting, fitting, or dying while under strong emotion and for no other apparent reason. Data sources All 39 canonical plays by Shakespeare and his three long narrative poems; 18 similar works by seven of Shakespeare's best known contemporaries. Results 10 deaths from strong emotion are recorded by Shakespeare (three occur on stage); all are due to grief, typically at the loss of a loved one. All but two of the deaths are in the playwright's late works. Some deaths are sudden. Another 29 emotion induced deaths are mentioned as possible, but the likelihood of some can be challenged. Transient loss of consciousness is staged or reported in 18 cases (sounding like epilepsy in two) and near fainting in a further 13. Extreme joy is sometimes depicted as a factor in these events. Emotional death and fainting also occur occasionally in works by Shakespeare's contemporaries. Conclusions These dramatic phenomena are part of the early modern belief system but are also plausible by modern understanding of physiology and disease. They teach us not to underestimate the power of the emotions to disturb bodily functions. PMID:17185734

2006-01-01

407

The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

408

Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der, E-mail: n.vandervoortvanzyp@erasmusmc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prevost, Jean-Briac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Holt, Bronno van der [Department of Trials and Statistics, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Braat, Cora [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Klaveren, Robertus J. van [Department of Pulmonology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2010-05-01

409

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOEpatents

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

1996-08-20

410

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOEpatents

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

411

[Radiotherapy of metastatic brain tumors].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the role of radiotherapy cases of brain metastases, we retrospectively have analyzed the results of treatment in 89 patients with brain metastases, who had completed a course radiotherapy at the Jichi Medical School Hospital from August, 1973 to October, 1986. Cases analyzed included 60 patients with lung cancers, 6 with breast cancers, 6 with gastric cancers, 10 with other types, and 7 with unknown primary sites. The over-all median survival time was 4.7 months. Crude survival rates were 38.2% at 6 months, and 11.2% at one year, respectively. Two patients survived more than 3 years. The over-all rate of improvement of neurologic function (NF) were 75.3% of NF III patients, and 58% of NF II patients. There was, however, no significant difference in survival rates between the patients with and without NF improvement. Prognostic factors were investigated by a statistical method of a proportional hazard model. Age, the combined treatment with surgery and irradiation, and the neurologic standard dose (Neuret) were found to be factors which influenced the survival rate with a fair statistical significance. Survival rate increased with a decrease in age, an increase in the thoroughness of the surgical excision, and an increase in the Neuret dose. These data suggest that an aggressive approach to brain metastases in younger patients, so far as clinical judgements permit, may indeed improve survival. PMID:3126330

Nakama, M; Sugawara, T; Touei, H

1988-02-01

412

High negative valence does not protect emotional event-related potentials from spatial inattention and perceptual load.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that intense, emotional pictures at fixation elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP) despite manipulations of spatial inattention and perceptual load. However, if high emotional intensity protects against such manipulations, then these manipulations should reduce emotional effects on EPN and LPP more strongly for medium than for intense emotional pictures. To test this prediction, pictures that were high negative, medium negative, or neutral were shown at fixation, and a small letter string was superimposed on the picture center. When participants attended the pictures, there were clear emotional effects on EPN and LPP. When participants attended the letter string, the emotional effects on LPP decreased; this decrease was smaller for medium than for high negative pictures. Thus, opposite of predictions, spatial inattention reduced the emotional effects more strongly for high than for medium negative pictures. As a manipulation of perceptual load, participants performed the letter task with one, three, or six relevant letters. Irrespective of load, EPN and LPP were similar for high and medium negative pictures. Our findings suggest that high negative valence does not protect EPN and LPP more strongly from effects of spatial inattention and perceptual load than does medium negative valence. PMID:22095306

Wiens, Stefan; Molapour, Tanaz; Overfeld, Judith; Sand, Anders

2012-03-01

413

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2014-01-01

414

Radiotherapy for Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Anus: Thirty Years' Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. Treatment evolved from radiotherapy with or without surgery, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The radiotherapy techniques also evolved. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED). Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% {+-} 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% {+-} 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% {+-} 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% {+-} 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% {+-} 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001). No association was found with gender, age, preoperative vs. definitive CRT, or human immunodeficiency virus status. The 20 human immunodeficiency virus+ patients all received CRT. The radiotherapy factors associated with Grade 3 or greater late morbidity included anorectal morbidity with tumor dose (29% with a dose {>=}55 Gy vs. 9% otherwise), small bowel injury with technique (9% with anteroposterior-posteroanterior supine vs. 0.7% with multiple fields prone), and bone injury with femoral head dose (9% with a dose of {>=}44 Gy vs. 0.7% otherwise). Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields. Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that CRT is an effective approach. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus can be treated with CRT. Tumor mobility significantly predicts the outcome; the implications for management are discussed. We also discuss the treatment planning implications of the late morbidity findings. The substantial incidence of additional malignancies underscores the importance of full oncologic screening during follow-up.

Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: Myerson@radonc.wustl.edu; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Chang, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Fleshman, James W. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kodner, Ira J.; Malayapa, Robert S.; Mutch, Matthew G. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Picus, Joel; Tan, Benjamin R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2009-10-01

415

Second Language as an Exemptor from Sociocultural Norms. Emotion-Related Language Choice Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bilinguals often switch languages depending on what they are saying. According to the Emotion-Related Language Choice theory, they find their second language an easier medium of conveying content which evokes strong emotions. The first language carries too much emotional power, which can be threatening for the speaker. In a covert experiment, bilingual Polish students translated texts brimming with expletives from Polish into English and vice versa. In the Polish translations, the swear word equivalents used were weaker than in the source text; in the English translations, they were stronger than in the original. These results corroborate the ERLC theory. However, the effect was only observed for ethnophaulisms, i.e. expletives directed at social groups. It turns out that the main factor triggering the language choice in bilinguals is not necessarily the different emotional power of both languages, but social and cultural norms. PMID:24349044

Gawinkowska, Marta; Paradowski, Micha? B.; Bilewicz, Micha?

2013-01-01

416

Affective processing in positive schizotypy: Loose control of social-emotional information.  

PubMed

Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. PMID:25463142

Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas

2014-10-30

417

Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.  

PubMed

This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. PMID:24309879

Vaillant, George E

2013-12-01

418

Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends  

PubMed Central

Contrasting cognitive and physical decline, research in emotional aging suggests that most older adults enjoy high levels of affective well-being and emotional stability into their 70s and 80s. We investigate the contributions of age-related changes in emotional motivation and competence to positive affect trajectories. We give an overview on the recent literature on emotional processing and emotional regulation, combining evidence from correlational and experimental, as well as behavioral and neuroscience studies. In particular, we focus on emotion–cognition interactions, including the positivity effect. Looking forward, we argue that efforts to link levels of emotional functioning with long-term outcomes, combining space- and time-sensitive measures of brain function, and developing interventions to improve life quality for older adults may further refine life-span theories and open promising avenues of empirical investigation. PMID:20054013

Carstensen, Laura L.

2010-01-01

419

Age and emotional experience during mutual reminiscing.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, 129 adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion. Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience during other social activities. Age was associated with increasing positive emotion during mutual reminiscing. In Study 2 (n = 132), the authors examined emotions during reminiscing for specific positive and negative events. In this case, age was associated with improved emotional experiences but only during reminiscing about positive experiences. Findings are discussed in terms of socioemotional selectivity theory and the literature on reminiscence and life review. PMID:14518806

Pasupathi, Monisha; Carstensen, Laura L

2003-09-01

420

[Recent advances in radiotherapy for breast cancer].  

PubMed

Radiotherapy for breast cancer has been performed as adjuvant lymph node irradiation after radical operation, irradiation for chest wall relapse, and palliative treatment for bone, lung and brain metastases. However, attention has been paid to irradiation of the breast as a conservative treatment. The role of radiotherapy in breast conservative treatment is to reduce local relapse after shrinkage of operation, and to enhance the cosmetic outcome. The indications of this treatment, technique of irradiation, effects and side effects of irradiation, and risk of radiation-induced cancer were discussed. In Japan, we have experience with this treatment. Breast conservation treatment and modified mastectomy showed the same results in local control and survival. Sometimes the cure and most cases of relief of complaints are attained for recurrent or advanced breast cancer by radiotherapy. High dose rate brachytherapy by 192-Ir showed high local control of uncontrollable tumor by external irradiation. And hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy is also effective for superficial (less than 3 cm in depth) tumor. Even in patients with lung and or brain metastases, radiotherapy sometimes showed complete remission for years. The standard method of radiotherapy for bone and brain metastases is 30 Gy/2 wks, and the symptom relief rate is over 80%. Oncologists should be made aware of the high complaint relief rate by radiotherapy. PMID:7993109

Yamashita, T; Furukawa, M; Aoki, M; Kitahara, T; Ogata, H; Sekiguchi, K

1994-12-01

421

Cancer occurring after radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can effectively control cancer but can also cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Almost all types of cancer have been associated with radiotherapy. The breast, thyroid, and bone marrow are the organs most susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. The bone marrow is also most frequently involved by chemotherapy and the leukemia risk is much higher than after radiotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. The latent period between radiotherapy/chemotherapy and the appearance of a second primary cancer ranges from a few years to several decades. The risk for a second primary cancer following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for life long follow-up of patients receiving such treatments. This is particularly the case in individuals with long life expectancy, for example, patients treated for childhood neoplasms. The benefits of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncology exceed the risks for second primary cancers. Efforts should be directed towards identifying those patients who will benefit from the treatments so that only they are exposed to the risk. 33 references.

Holm, L.E. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-11-01

422

Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

423

Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration. PMID:25759676

Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J.

2015-01-01

424

Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: Relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

2015-01-01

425

A rule-based emotion-dependent feature extraction method for emotion analysis from speech.  

PubMed

This paper presents a rule-based method to determine emotion-dependent features, which are defined from high-level features derived from the statistical measurements of prosodic parameters of speech. Emotion-dependent features are selected from high-level features using extraction rules. The ratio of emotional expression similarity between two speakers is defined by calculating the number and values of the emotion-dependent features that are present for the two speakers being compared. Emotional speech from Interface databases is used for evaluation of the proposed method, which was used to analyze emotional speech from five male and four female speakers in order to find any similarities and differences among individual speakers. The speakers are actors that have interpreted six emotions in four different languages. The results show that all the speakers share some universal signs regarding certain emotion-dependent features of emotional expression. Further analysis revealed that almost all speakers in the analysis used unique sets of emotion-dependent features and each speaker used unique values for the defined emotion-dependent features. The comparison among speakers shows that the expressed emotions can be analyzed according to two criteria. The first criterion is a defined set of emotion-dependent features and the second is an emotion-dependent feature value. PMID:16708965

Hozjan, Vladimir; Kacic, Zdravko

2006-05-01

426

Relations among Teachers’ Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices, and Preschoolers’ Emotional Competence  

PubMed Central

Research Findings Utilizing a three-part model of emotion socialization that includes Modeling, Contingent Responding, and Teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers’ self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers’ emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multi-level analyses revealed that the majority of the variance in the children’s emotion knowledge scores and observed emotional behavior was predicted by factors within, rather than between, classrooms. Teachers’ use of all three emotion socialization techniques did contribute to the prediction of the children’s scores; however, the nature of these associations differed by children’s age and gender. Practice or Policy The development of children’s emotional competence is a complex, multi-faceted process in which many interaction partners play a role; early childhood teachers act as emotion socialization agents for the children in their care by modeling emotions, responding either supportively or punitively to children’s expressions of emotions, and engaging in direct instruction regarding emotional experience. This research may provide a basis for potential future interventions designed to assist teachers in developing their own emotion socialization skills so that they can be more effective emotion socialization agents for the children in their care. PMID:24159256

Morris, Carol A.S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

427

Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

2015-01-01

428

Minimal strong digraphs  

E-print Network

We introduce adequate concepts of expansion of a digraph to obtain a sequential construction of minimal strong digraphs. We characterize the class of minimal strong digraphs whose expansion preserves the property of minimality. We prove that every minimal strong digraph of order $n\\geq 2$ is the expansion of a minimal strong digraph of order $n-1$ and we give sequentially generative procedures for the constructive characterization of the classes of minimal strong digraphs. Finally we describe algorithms to compute unlabeled minimal strong digraphs and their isospectral classes.

García-López, Jesús

2010-01-01

429

Recent advances in radiotherapy for thoracic tumours  

PubMed Central

Radiation Oncology technology has continued to advance at a rapid rate and is bringing significant benefits to patients. This review outlines some of the advances in technology and radiotherapy treatment of thoracic cancers including brachytherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy. The importance of functional imaging with PET and management of movement are highlighted. Most of the discussion relates to non-small cell lung cancer but management of mesothelioma and small cell lung cancer are also covered. This technology has substantial benefits to patients in terms of decreasing toxicity both in the short and longer term. PMID:24163747

Poole, Christopher M.; Pratt, Gary

2013-01-01

430

The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality.  

PubMed

Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user's sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom-up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of presence is suggested as a first step toward an integrative framework for emotion research in VR. Gaps in the current literature and future directions are outlined. PMID:25688218

Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W; Peperkorn, Henrik M; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

2015-01-01

431

The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB) signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning, and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall, and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviors and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLA???mPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLA???mPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing, learning, and memory abnormalities related to various neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia-related psychoses. PMID:25071606

Tan, Huibing; Ahmad, Tasha; Loureiro, Michael; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R.

2014-01-01

432

Risk Factors for Emotional and Relationship Problems in Peyronie’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Peyronie’s disease (PD) occurs in 3–9% of all men. Little is known regarding the specific psychological or emotional disruptions to sexuality associated with PD. Aim Our primary aim was to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial difficulties in men with PD. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. Detailed medical histories, physical examinations, and a PD-specific questionnaire were used to define clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were used as a measure of association. Main Outcome Measures Emotional and relationship problems were determined by “yes” or “no” answers to two specific questions. Results The mean age of all PD patients (N = 245) was 54.4 years (range 19.4–75.6); 62% were married, and 59% presented within 2 years of disease onset. The overall prevalence of emotional and relationship problems attributable to PD was 81% and 54%, respectively. Among men who had relationship problems, the prevalence of emotional problems was 93%. In men with emotional problems due to PD, relationship issues were observed in 62%. Multivariable analysis revealed that emotional difficulties (OR 6.9, P < 0.001) and ability to have intercourse (OR 0.4, P = 0.004) were independently associated with relationship problems. Relationship problems (OR 8.0, P < 0.001) and loss of penile length (OR 2.7, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of emotional problems after adjustment for the ability to maintain erections, low libido, and penile pain. Conclusions Among men with PD, there is a very high prevalence of emotional and relationship problems. Loss of penile length and inability to have intercourse are strong predictors of these problems and as such make ideal targets for intervention. Medical and surgical therapies may enhance quality of life through their ability to improve sexual function. Further research will characterize the ways in which individual symptoms affect emotional and psychological well-being. PMID:18638001

Smith, James F.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Conti, Simon L.; Turek, Paul; Lue, Tom

2010-01-01

433

Perceptions of Efficacy, Expressed Emotion, and the Course of Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Although it is clear that expressed emotion (EE) is associated with the course of schizophrenia, proposed models for this association have struggled to account for the relationship between the EE index of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) and relapse. To expand our understanding of the EOI-relapse association, we first attempted to replicate the finding that the EOI-relapse association is curvilinear among 55 Mexican-Americans with schizophrenia and their caregiving relatives. Second, we evaluated whether the caregivers’ perception of their ill relative’s efficacy may account for the EOI-relapse association. Our results comport with past findings with regard to the curvilinear nature of the EOI-relapse association among Mexican-Americans and suggest that EOI may only seem to be a risk factor of relapse because of its strong association with a true risk factor for relapse (i.e., caregivers’ perception of their ill relative’s efficacy). PMID:24080669

Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; López, Steven R.; Aguilera, Adrian; Kopelowicz, Alex

2014-01-01

434

"I Am Really Good at It" or "I Am Just Feeling Lucky": The Effects of Emotions on Information Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to search, process, extract, evaluate and integrate information for learning purposes has clearly become the basic skills of the twenty first century. Although this process is often taken as a cognitive process, research has shown a strong connection between emotion and cognition. Recent research has suggested that positive emotions

Zhou, Mingming

2013-01-01

435

An Initial Evaluation of the Role of Emotion and Impulsivity in Explaining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Use of Corporal Punishment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors sought to provide an initial evaluation of the hypothesis that corporal punishment is less strongly associated with parental emotion and impulsivity among African American ("Black") in contrast to European American ("White") parents. White-Latino and Black-Latino differences in corporal punishment, emotion, and impulsivity were…

Lorber, Michael F.; O'Leary, Susan G.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

2011-01-01

436

Comparison of Repeated and Two Non-Repeated Readings Conditions on Reading Abilities of Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) present considerable academic challenges along with emotional and/or behavioral problems. In terms of reading, these students typically perform one-to-two years below grade level (Kauffman, 2001). Given the strong correlation between reading failure and school failure and overall success…

Escarpio, Raul

2011-01-01

437

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-04-01

438

Introduction to Radiotherapy with Photon and Electron Beams and Treatment Planning from Conformal Radiotherapy to IMRT  

SciTech Connect

Besides surgery and chemotherapy, radiation therapy is one of the three main treatment options for cancer patients. This paper provides an introduction to the basic principles of radiotherapy with photons and electrons. It includes a brief summary of the physical properties for photon and electron beams as well as a description of treatment machines used to create these beams. The second part introduces the treatment planning process as it is commonly employed in radiotherapy. It covers dose calculation algorithms, conventional planning strategies for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and optimization techniques for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2007-11-26

439

Social-emotional predictors of preschoolers' responses to adult negative emotion.  

PubMed

The study examined predictors of children's prosocial responses to adult negative emotions. An adult displayed anger, sadness and pain during play sessions with 39 preschoolers (mean age = 43 months). Older children responded more prosocially to all three emotions, whereas children with greater emotion knowledge responded more prosocially to the adult's sadness. Children who behaved prosocially in response to peers' negative emotions also were prosocial after the adult's negative emotions, even with effects of age and emotion knowledge held constant. Assertive children responded more prosocially to the adult's anger, even with effects of other variables held constant. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:1864891

Denham, S A; Couchoud, E A

1991-05-01

440

Yugoslav strong motion network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response

Vladimir Mihailov

1985-01-01

441

Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.  

PubMed

The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. PMID:21787073

Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

2011-12-01

442

Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

2013-01-01

443

Neuroanatomical correlates of categorizing emotional valence.  

PubMed

Categorization is fundamental to cognition, and evidence suggests that categorizing emotional stimuli holds a privileged position in human information processing. According to theories on embodied emotion, the subjective emotional feeling elicited by a stimulus plays a causal role in its categorization. Using functional MRI, we tested the hypothesis that categorizing emotional stimuli in terms of valence would activate structures involved in valence-specific experience of emotion. On each trial, two pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented successively. Upon viewing the second picture, participants categorized it as belonging to the same valence category as or a different valence category from the first picture. Categorization activated an exclusively left-lateralized set of regions implicated in taxonomic categorization (i.e. judging whether two items are of the same kind) including the middle temporal gyrus and precuneus, as well as the posterior cingulate cortex. Critically, for negative pictures categorization activated structures that underlie the experience of negative emotions (anterior insula, left orbitofrontal cortex), whereas for positive pictures categorization activated structures that underlie the experience of positive emotions (dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Consistent with predictions derived from theories on embodied emotion, these results suggest that experience of emotion contributes to categorizing emotional valence. PMID:24922349

Beatty, Erin L; Vartanian, Oshin; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Robertson, John A; Mandel, David R; Stergiopoulos, Stergios

2014-06-11

444

A Framework for Studying Emotions Across Phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether “emotions” are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have “emotions,” since emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as “emotion primitives”, can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases, and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach aims not only at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. PMID:24679535

Anderson, David J.; Adolphs, Ralph

2014-01-01

445

Asymmetric effects of emotion on mnemonic interference  

PubMed Central

Emotional experiences can strengthen memories so that they can be used to guide future behavior. Emotional arousal, mediated by the amygdala, is thought to modulate storage by the hippocampus, which may encode unique episodic memories via pattern separation – the process by which similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations. While prior work has examined mnemonic interference due to similarity and emotional modulation of memory independently, examining the mechanisms by which emotion influences mnemonic interference has not been previously accomplished in humans. To this end, we developed an emotional memory task where emotional content and stimulus similarity were varied to examine the effect of emotion on fine mnemonic discrimination (a putative behavioral correlate of hippocampal pattern separation). When tested immediately after encoding, discrimination was reduced for similar emotional items compared to similar neutral items, consistent with a reduced bias towards pattern separation. After 24 h, recognition of emotional target items was preserved compared to neutral items, whereas similar emotional item discrimination was further diminished. This suggests a potential mechanism for the emotional modulation of memory with a selective remembering of gist, as well as a selective forgetting of detail, indicating an emotion-induced reduction in pattern separation. This can potentially increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio in any given situation to promote survival. Furthermore, we found that individuals with depressive symptoms hyper-discriminate negative items, which correlated with their symptom severity. This suggests that utilizing mnemonic discrimination paradigms allows us to tease apart the nuances of disorders with aberrant emotional mnemonic processing. PMID:24607286

Leal, Stephanie L.; Tighe, Sarah K.; Yassa, Michael A.

2014-01-01

446

Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality  

PubMed Central

This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

2015-01-01

447

Multi-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Precision and accuracy of a patient's treatment are key advantages of single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for arteriovenous malformations (AVMS) and some small brain metastases. These advantages are equally valuable in fractionated treatment of the pituitary, brain metastases and brain boost fields. The need to implement the preciseness from stereotactic radiosurgery to fractionated treatments was recognized. Using our experience with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a model, we developed a multi-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy technique that allows us to immobilize a patient daily and implement important existing devices such as the Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) angiographic localizer, CT scan localizer, and non-coplanar shaped field treatment planning. Development of this technique also allows us to achieve reproducible patient positioning based on immobilization techniques using polyurethane foam immobilization and heat moldable plastic technology without the necessity of the invasive technique of skull fixation. The development, implementation and dosimetry of this technique will be discussed in this paper. PMID:8985923

Edlund, T L; Moeller, J H; Leavitt, D D

1996-01-01

448

The emotional effects of disruption  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Jane Sell Dudley Poston (Chair of Committee) (Member) Charles Samuelson Rogelio Saenz (Member) (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: Sociology iii ABSTRACT... The Emotional Effects of Disruption. (August 2004) Christina Annie Lee Adcock, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jane Sell Disruption is something that we must negotiate as part of our everyday lives. The context of disruption...

Adcock, Christina Annie Lee

2004-11-15

449

Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. PMID:22884218

Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

2012-12-30

450

Fulminant Meningitis after Radiotherapy for Clival Chordoma  

PubMed Central

The best treatment for clival chordoma is obtained with total surgical excision, sometimes combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula is a fatal complication that may occur following extended transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and adjuvant radiotherapy. We report a case of fulminant meningitis without a CSF fistula in a 57-year-old woman who underwent TSS and multiple radiotherapies for a clival chordoma. She presented to our emergency room with copious epistaxis and odor inside her nasal cavity and had an unexpected fatal outcome. She was diagnosed with meningitis based on CSF culture and blood culture. While treating clival chordomas with adjuvant radiotherapy, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of fulminant meningitis. PMID:24904902

Park, Hyun Wook; Park, Moon Sun; Chung, Seung Young; Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Do Sung; Oh, Jung Tae

2013-01-01

451

Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques for Precision Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, several technological advances have considerably improved the achievable precision of dose delivery in radiation therapy. Clinical exploitation of the superior tumor-dose conformality offered by modern radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy and ion beam therapy requires morphological and functional assessment of the tumor during the entire therapy chain from treatment planning to beam application and treatment response evaluation. This chapter will address the main rationale and role of imaging in state-of-the-art external beam radiotherapy. Moreover, it will present the status of novel imaging instrumentation and techniques being nowadays introduced in clinical use or still under development for image guidance and, ultimately, dose guidance of precision radiotherapy.

Parodi, Katia; Parodi, Katia; Thieke, Christian; Thieke, Christian

452

Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls  

SciTech Connect

The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

Faju, M.R.

1980-01-01

453

Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wolff, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2009-11-15

454

Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm,

Bertil. Damato; Andrzej Kacperek; Mona Chopra; Martin A. Sheen; Ian R. Campbell; R. Douglas Errington

2005-01-01

455

Blisters - an unusual effect during radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The skin reaction to radiation is regularly monitored in order to detect enhanced radiosensitivity of the patient, unexpected interactions (e.g. with drugs) or any inadvertent overdosage. It is important to distinguish secondary disease from radiation reaction to provide adequate treatment and to avoid unnecessary discontinuation of radiotherapy. A case of bullous eruption or blisters during radiotherapy of the breast is presented. Differential diagnoses bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and bullous impetigo are discussed and treatment described. PMID:24158604

Höller, U; Schubert, T; Budach, V; Trefzer, U; Beyer, M

2013-11-01

456

Pituitary Radiotherapy for Cushing’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The treatment of choice for Cushing’s disease is pituitary surgery. Second-line treatments include repeat pituitary surgery, radiation therapy, medical therapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy. The most used modalities to irradiate patients with Cushing’s disease include fractionated radiotherapy and single-dose Gamma Knife. We aim to review the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy in patients with persistent or recurring Cushing’s disease. Results:

Marco Losa; Piero Picozzi; Maria Grazia Redaelli; Andrea Laurenzi; Pietro Mortini

2010-01-01

457

Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas  

SciTech Connect

Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

1985-02-01

458

Crossing the Cartesian Divide: An Investigation into the Role of Emotion in Science Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many science educators and researchers believe that emotion is an important part of the learning process, few researchers have dealt with the topic in a systematic fashion. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotion in the learning process, particularly in the learning of science content. My study utilized a dimensional perspective which defined emotion in terms of arousal and valence, and drew on research from the fields of psychology and neuroscience to examine how emotion affects different aspects of cognition such as attention and memory. On the basis of these findings, I developed and tested a path model to investigate the predicted relationships among emotional arousal, valence, attention, intrinsic motivation and short- and long-term learning outcomes. I conducted the study in two phases. The first phase took place in a psychology laboratory in which participants watched either an exciting or neutral nature video, read a factual article related to the video and were tested on their learning. The second phase took place at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in which participants watched a narrated otter or sea lion presentation and took a short posttest after the show. In both phases, participants' emotional arousal, valence, attention, and motivation levels were also measured for inclusion in the model. The results indicated that emotional arousal was an important predictor of short-term learning in both experiments although its effect was fully mediated by attention at the aquarium. In addition, negative valence (displeasure) and intrinsic motivation were strong predictors of short-term learning in the laboratory experiment. At the aquarium, the narrator of the animal presentation strongly affected both attention and short-term learning---visitors who listened to a non-scripted rather than a scripted narration paid more attention and had significantly better short-term learning outcomes. In the aquarium study, emotional arousal correlated strongly with several measures of long-term learning. In particular, those who felt more arousal during the animal presentation were able to describe their experience at greater length and with more detail and complexity two to three months after their visit. My findings suggest that emotional arousal is an important component of science learning both directly and through its relationship with attention. Therefore, science educators in both informal and formal learning institutions may be able to increase both attention and learning outcomes by designing emotionally arousing learning experiences around the science content they wish to teach. In addition, the importance of narrator quality in the aquarium study suggests that narrators and teachers should be trained to deliver information in such a way that supports short- and long-term science learning.

Staus, Nancy L.

459

Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies of emotional responding have found that women are more emotionally expressive than men, it remains unclear whether men and women differ in other domains of emotional response. We assessed the expressive, experiential, and physiological emotional responses of men and women in 2 studies. In Study 1, undergraduates viewed emotional films. Compared with men, women were more expressive,

Ann M. Kring; Albert H. Gordon

1998-01-01

460

Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

Klaus R. Scherer

1993-01-01

461

Joint Emotion-Topic Modeling for Social Affective Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the problem of social affective text mining, which aims to discover the connections between social emotions and affective terms based on user-generated emotion labels. We propose a joint emotion-topic model by augmenting latent Dirichlet allocation with an additional layer for emotion modeling. It first generates a set of latent topics from emotions, followed by generating

Shenghua Bao; Shengliang Xu; Li Zhang; Rong Yan; Zhong Su; Dingyi Han; Yong Yu

2009-01-01

462

Towards Background Emotion Modeling for Embodied Virtual Agents  

E-print Network

Towards Background Emotion Modeling for Embodied Virtual Agents Luís Morgado1,2 1 Instituto a model of emotion that represents both structural and dynamic aspects of emotional phenomena to serve as background support for multifaceted emotion characterization. In this paper we present an emotion model

Gaspar, Graça

463

Emotion and Decision-Making Explained Edmund T. Rolls  

E-print Network

Emotion and Decision-Making Explained Edmund T. Rolls Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience Oxford England OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS . OXFORD 2014 #12;Preface What produces emotions? Why do we have emotions? How do we have emotions? Why do emotional states feel like something? How do we take decisions

Rolls, Edmund T.

464

Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder  

E-print Network

Emotion Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder Aleena C. Hay, Gal How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder. Emotion. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000024 #12;BRIEF REPORT Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar

Gross, James J.

465

Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology. PMID:24304773

Westermann, Stefan; Paulus, Frieder M; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

2013-12-01

466

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

467

Individual Differences in Emotional Complexity: Their Psychological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies explored the nature and psychological impli- cations of individual differences in emotional complexity, defined as hav- ing emotional experiences that are broad in range and well differentiated. Emotional complexity was predicted to be associated with private self- consciousness, openness to experience, empathic tendencies, cognitive complexity, ability to differentiate among named emotions, range of emotions experienced daily, and interpersonal

Sun-Mee Kang; Phillip R. Shaver

2004-01-01

468

Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review  

SciTech Connect

Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

Murphy, Erin S., E-mail: murphye3@ccf.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-03-15

469

TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence  

PubMed Central

The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

470

Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.  

PubMed

We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

2013-03-01

471

Emotional Granularity and Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant–unpleasant) and arousal (calm–activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21171723

Suvak, Michael K.; Litz, Brett T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2011-01-01

472

Building Emotional Resilience to Promote Health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked positive emotional health with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of negative emotion. Several potential mechanisms have been posited to account for these associations, including improved health behavior, direct physiological benefits, and enhanced resistance to and recovery from stress among individuals with high versus low positive emotional resources. Links between positive emotion and health have implications for targeted interventions, but no empirical investigations to date have tested the impact of efforts to enhance positive emotion on cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, some existing data point to the potential value of strategies to increase emotional resources for individuals' functional health and capacity to manage stress. PMID:20046858

Davis, Mary C.

2009-01-01

473

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

474

The impact of emotion on numerosity estimation  

PubMed Central

Both time and numerosity can be represented continuously as analog properties whose discrimination conforms to Weber’s Law, suggesting that the two properties may be represented similarly. Recent research suggests that the representation of time is influenced by the presence of emotional stimuli. If time and numerosity share a common cognitive representation, it follows that a similar relationship may exist between emotional stimuli and the representation of numerosity. Here, we provide evidence that emotional stimuli significantly affect humans’ estimation of visual numerosity. During a numerical bisection task, enumeration of emotional stimuli (angry faces) was more accurate compared to enumeration of neutrally valenced stimuli (neutral faces), demonstrating that emotional stimuli affect humans’ visual representation of numerosity as previously demonstrated for time. These results inform and broaden our understanding of the effect of negative emotional stimuli on psychophysical discriminations of quantity. PMID:23950754

Baker, Joseph M.; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry

2013-01-01

475

Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.  

SciTech Connect

Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

2008-08-01

476

Emotional persistence in online chatting communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

2012-05-01

477

Auditory emotional cues enhance visual perception.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by emotional cues as compared to neutral cues. When the cue was presented visually we replicated the emotion-induced impairment found in other studies. Our results suggest emotional stimuli have a twofold effect on perception. They impair perception by reflexively attracting attention at the expense of competing stimuli. However, emotional stimuli also induce a nonspecific perceptual enhancement that carries over onto other stimuli when competition is reduced, for example, by presenting stimuli in different modalities. PMID:20096407

Zeelenberg, René; Bocanegra, Bruno R

2010-04-01

478

Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

2014-01-01

479

Investigation of the role of parenting, emotion regulation, emotional eating and lifestyle factors in adolescents’ weight   

E-print Network

Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescent’s weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of ...

Ross, Arlene Anne

2012-11-28