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Sample records for radiotherapy strong emotions

  1. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

  2. Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional

  3. Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

  4. Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    "Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

  5. Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, B.-H.; Huang, T.-S.; Chen, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

  6. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A.; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  7. When we go through stressful events, we often have strong emotional and physical reactions. Although not everyone has a strong or noticeable reaction, it is very common and quite normal for people to have emotional

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    When we go through stressful events, we often have strong emotional and physical reactions with troublesome reactions. Here are some very common reactions to stress: PHYSICAL MENTAL EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORAL as medical advice. If you experience physical symptoms which cause you concern, please consult your physician

  8. Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

  9. Why Seemingly Trivial Events Sometimes Evoke Strong Emotional Reactions: The Role of Social Exchange Rule Violations

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.; Diebels, Kate J.; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P.; Fernandez, Xuan Duong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT People sometimes display strong emotional reactions to events that appear disproportionate to the tangible magnitude of the event. Although previous work has addressed the role that perceived disrespect and unfairness have on such reactions, this study examined the role of perceived social exchange rule violations more broadly. Participants (N = 179) rated the effects of another person’s behavior on important personal outcomes, the degree to which the other person had violated fundamental rules of social exchange, and their reactions to the event. Results showed that perceptions of social exchange rule violations accounted for more variance in participants’ reactions than the tangible consequences of the event. The findings support the hypothesis that responses that appear disproportionate to the seriousness of the eliciting event are often fueled by perceived rule violations that may not be obvious to others. PMID:26331429

  10. Why Seemingly Trivial Events Sometimes Evoke Strong Emotional Reactions: The Role of Social Exchange Rule Violations.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Fernandez, Xuan Duong

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes display strong emotional reactions to events that appear disproportionate to the tangible magnitude of the event. Although previous work has addressed the role that perceived disrespect and unfairness have on such reactions, this study examined the role of perceived social exchange rule violations more broadly. Participants (N = 179) rated the effects of another person's behavior on important personal outcomes, the degree to which the other person had violated fundamental rules of social exchange, and their reactions to the event. Results showed that perceptions of social exchange rule violations accounted for more variance in participants' reactions than the tangible consequences of the event. The findings support the hypothesis that responses that appear disproportionate to the seriousness of the eliciting event are often fueled by perceived rule violations that may not be obvious to others. PMID:26331429

  11. "I'm Strong within Myself": Gender, Class and Emotional Capital in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Yarrow

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have received increasing attention in educational circles in the last decade. Drawing on Bourdieu, feminist scholars use emotional capital to illustrate the ways gendered inequalities can compound the disadvantages of social class. This paper examines relationships within childcare services in Australia, showing how emotional capital…

  12. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  13. Preschool Social-Emotional Skills Training: A Controlled Pilot Test of the Making Choices and Strong Families Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Natalie W.; Fraser, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to pilot test a multicomponent program designed to prevent aggressive behavior in preschool children. The first program component was comprised of social-emotional skills training. It focused on improving the social information processing and emotional-regulation skills of children. The second component was…

  14. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement. PMID:21764459

  15. [Emotional tears].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2009-07-01

    Emotional tears, an exclusively human means of communication, are complex and rarely the subject of scientific research. The same nerves, receptors, and transmitters seem to be involved in their production as those used for basal and reflex tears. However, stimuli must be received in a cognitive/social context, detected by "induction centers" in the telencephalon, and forwarded to effector centers. Increased concentrations of protein, prolactin, manganese, potassium, and serotonin have been detected in emotional tears. Various theories try to explain the reason for and benefit of emotional tears. A number of factors, such as ethnic group, social status, profession, hormonal situation, gender, and individual threshold, influence whether an individual is a "crier" or a "noncrier." Manipulative tears are a strong weapon for unbalancing other people, and the expression "crocodile tears" is used for both manipulative tears and aberrant gustolacrimal tears. Pathological crying occurs during depression, but it also occurs in the context of central nervous system disease as prolonged crying fits without cause or emotion. Absent emotional tearing is observed in congenital, often syndromal, disorders. PMID:19568753

  16. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  17. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  18. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N = 185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n = 24; DS) and non-depressive (n = 31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. PMID:21432655

  19. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  20. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  1. Emotional Disturbance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sheet with one of these specific disorders in mind, or you may be looking for information about emotional disturbances in general. In either case, keep reading to find out what different emotional distubances have ...

  2. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  3. Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-08-01

    Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed. PMID:23668818

  4. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

  5. Emotions in robot psychology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology. PMID:24677038

  6. The Influences of Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Social Cognition and Association with Hippocampal and Frontal Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yuksek, Erhan; Eroz, Seda; Yassa, Ahmet; Akturk, Dilara; Zakirov, Fagan; Akcam, Funda Engin; Emul, Murat

    2015-12-01

    The influence of brain radiotherapy on neurocognition is a major concern. Social cognition is a mental process in the meaning of social interaction and the recognition of facial emotion is a domain of social cognition. Thus, we aimed to investigate the early effect of whole brain radiotherapy on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirteen patients with various brain tumors in the study. Beck depression and anxiety inventory and the facial emotion recognition test by using a set of photographs were performed at the beginning and post radiotherapy. The severity of depression (16.40 ± 12.16 vs 04.00 ± 02.38 points) and anxiety (14.47 ± 11.96 vs 04.54 ± 03.30 points) were significantly higher in patients. The only significance according to facial emotion recognition rate between initial phase of patients and healthy controls was identifying neutral facial em otion (p = 0.002). The patients after brain radiotherapy had significantly better rate of recognizing fear facial emotions (p = 0.039). This study is the first that investigated the effects of cranial irradiation on facial emotion recognition ability and compares this ability with healthy controls. Interestingly, in the early phase the patients seem to be improved in fear facial emotion after brain radiotherapy without sparing cognition specific regions as hippocampus and frontal regions. PMID:25687977

  7. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271

  8. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions. PMID:26391957

  9. Experiencing Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities for elementary school students that focus on their emotions. Provides a list of picture books that deal with the following: general feelings, anger, embarrassment, fear/anxiety, happiness, hate, jealousy, loneliness, love, pride, and sadness. (AEF)

  10. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  11. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron Boston College and Northeastern University examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced

  12. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  13. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

  14. Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2014-04-01

    A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation. PMID:24897914

  15. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  16. Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

  17. The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…

  18. 'Emotional' does not even start to cover it: Generalization of overeating in emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Peggy; de Graaff, Anastacia; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Based on recent studies indicating that emotional eating is not the clearly defined problem it is often thought to be, the present study investigated whether emotional eaters overeat merely in response to negative emotional cues, or to other cues as well. It was hypothesized that emotional eaters would overeat after a variety of food cues, not limited to negative emotions. Participants took part in four conditions (negative mood manipulation, positive mood manipulation, food exposure and a control condition) divided over two sessions. Each condition was followed by a bogus taste test, after which food intake was measured. Results showed strong correlations between food intake after all four conditions, indicating that increased intake after one type of cue is related to increased intake after other cues. Participants were identified as emotional or non-emotional eaters based on food intake in the negative mood condition, and based on self-reported emotional eating scores. Both measures of emotional eating were significantly related to food intake after all cues. Based on the current findings, we conclude that individuals who show increased food intake when in a negative emotional state also overeat when experiencing other food-signalling cues. This indicates that 'emotional eating' may not fully capture the eating behaviour of individuals currently identified as 'emotional eaters'. PMID:26559754

  19. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  20. Planning national radiotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  1. Individual differences in emotion lateralisation and the processing of emotional information arising from social interactions.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Victoria J; Watling, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Previous research examining the possible association between emotion lateralisation and social anxiety has found conflicting results. In this paper two studies are presented to assess two aspects related to different features of social anxiety: fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and emotion regulation. Lateralisation for the processing of facial emotion was measured using the chimeric faces test. Individuals with greater FNE were more strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for the processing of anger, happiness and sadness; and, for the processing of fearful faces the relationship was found for females only. Emotion regulation strategies were reduced to two factors: positive strategies and negative strategies. For males, but not females, greater reported use of negative emotion strategies is associated with stronger right hemisphere lateralisation for processing negative emotions. The implications for further understanding the neuropsychological processing of emotion in individuals with social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24921427

  2. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  3. Personality, Emotions, and the Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    We examined symptom-level relations between the emotional disorders and general traits within the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism correlated strongly with the general distress/negative affectivity symptoms (depressed mood, anxious mood, worry) that are central to these disorders; more moderately with symptoms of social phobia, affective lability, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder, lassitude, checking, and obsessive intrusions; and more modestly with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and other symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extraversion was negatively correlated with symptoms of social anxiety/social phobia and was positively related to scales assessing expansive positive mood and increased social engagement in bipolar disorder. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness showed weaker associations and generally added little to the prediction of these symptoms. It is noteworthy, moreover, that our key findings replicated well across (a) self-rated versus (b) interview-based symptom measures. We conclude by discussing the diagnostic and assessment implications of these data. PMID:25815243

  4. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  5. Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth of the literature on positive interventions to increase "happiness" has suggested the need for an overarching conceptual framework to integrate the many and apparently disparate findings. In this review, we used the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998) to organize the existing literature on positive interventions and to advance theory by clarifying the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. We have proposed that positive emotions can be increased both in the short- and longer-term through 5 families of emotion regulation strategies (i.e., situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation), showing how these emotion regulation strategies can be applied before, during, and after positive emotional events. Regarding short-term increases in positive emotions, our review found that attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation strategies have received the most empirical support, whereas more work is needed to establish the effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification strategies. Regarding longer-term increases in positive emotions, strategies such as situation selection during an event and attentional deployment before, during, and after an event have received strong empirical support and are at the center of many positive interventions. However, more work is needed to establish the specific benefits of the other strategies, especially situation modification. We argue that our emotion regulation framework clarifies existing interventions and points the way for new interventions that might be used to increase positive emotions in both nonclinical and clinical populations. PMID:25621978

  6. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  7. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  8. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  9. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

  10. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  11. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the amygdala, in combination with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, plays an important role in the retrieval of memories for emotional events. The neural regions necessary for online emotional processing also influence emotional memory retrieval, perhaps through the reexperience of emotion during the retrieval process. PMID:17723029

  12. Radiotherapy in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hope-Stone, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of malignant disease, and modern techniques used in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery have radically improved the prognosis for patients. Although the practice of radiotherapy still may be considered by some to be more of an art than a science, the empirical era has passed and basic radiobiological research coupled with extensive clinical investigation has led to a more rational and scientifically founded approach. Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice, is a major new work for those in training or practice, and reflects the maturity of the discipline. The editor, an experienced radiotherapist of many years' standing, has assembled a team of experts from the United Kingdom to write authoritative accounts of their particular subjects. Every aspect of radiotherapeutic management of tumours is covered in detail.

  13. Practical emotional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a limbic-based artificial emotional neural network (LiAENN) for a pattern recognition problem. LiAENN is a novel computational neural model of the emotional brain that models emotional situations such as anxiety and confidence in the learning process, the short paths, the forgetting processes, and inhibitory mechanisms of the emotional brain. In the model, the learning weights are adjusted by the proposed anxious confident decayed brain emotional learning rules (ACDBEL). In engineering applications, LiAENN is utilized in facial detection, and emotion recognition. According to the comparative results on ORL and Yale datasets, LiAENN shows a higher accuracy than other applied emotional networks such as brain emotional learning (BEL) and emotional back propagation (EmBP) based networks. PMID:25078111

  14. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction EMILY A arrhythmia (RSA) figures prominently in emotional responding, but its exact role remains unclear. The present: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, Emotion regulation, Social interaction Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) refers

  15. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snacking Losing Weight Safely The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Feelings & Emotions > The Power of ... Help Us The Importance of Positive Emotions All Emotions Are Natural Let's say you start to brainstorm ...

  16. Breast Reconstruction After Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Hamuy, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    It was once common practice in the treatment of breast cancer for total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection to be conventionally performed. However, breast-conserving surgery is increasingly being performed with marked improvement in a multidisciplinary treatment approach, including surgery, chemotherapy, irradiation, and antihormonal therapy. We must choose the optimal reconstructive methods with the reduction of the excision range. Furthermore, we also consider the local chronic radiation injury after adjuvant radiotherapy on breast reconstruction. As for breast reconstruction, the use of autologous tissues or artificial prostheses is common. However, after radiotherapy or if radiotherapy is planned, the complications such as infection, skin necrosis, or exposure of the implant are increased in breast reconstruction with implants. Therefore, the breast is reconstructed with autologous tissue mainly with radiotherapy using an autologous flap transfer. Meanwhile, the autologous fat transfer with adipose-derived regenerative cells for repair and regeneration has recently been investigated in reconstructive surgery. We discuss the autologous flap and fat transfer for breast reconstruction. PMID:24761340

  17. Breast Reconstruction After Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Hamuy, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    It was once common practice in the treatment of breast cancer for total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection to be conventionally performed. However, breast-conserving surgery is increasingly being performed with marked improvement in a multidisciplinary treatment approach, including surgery, chemotherapy, irradiation, and antihormonal therapy. We must choose the optimal reconstructive methods with the reduction of the excision range. Furthermore, we also consider the local chronic radiation injury after adjuvant radiotherapy on breast reconstruction. As for breast reconstruction, the use of autologous tissues or artificial prostheses is common. However, after radiotherapy or if radiotherapy is planned, the complications such as infection, skin necrosis, or exposure of the implant are increased in breast reconstruction with implants. Therefore, the breast is reconstructed with autologous tissue mainly with radiotherapy using an autologous flap transfer. Meanwhile, the autologous fat transfer with adipose-derived regenerative cells for repair and regeneration has recently been investigated in reconstructive surgery. We discuss the autologous flap and fat transfer for breast reconstruction. PMID:24761340

  18. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N?=?2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative sample of the general population may become more pronounced in clinical samples. PMID:24637792

  19. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  20. Emotion, Learning and Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.

    2002-01-01

    Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  1. Pain and your emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stress -- are often a result. These feelings and emotions can worsen your back pain. ... you are having a hard time controlling your emotions, talk with your ... medicines to help with your feelings of stress or sadness.

  2. Emotionally Colorful Reflexive Games

    E-print Network

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the matter of reflexive control of the emotional states by means of Reflexive Game Theory (RGT). It is shown how to build a bridge between RGT and emotions. For this purpose the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) model is adopted. The major advantages of RGT are its ability to predict human behavior and unfold the entire spectra of reflexion in the human mind. On the other hand, PAD provides ultimate approach to model emotions. It is illustrated that emotions are reflexive processes and, consequently, RGT fused with PAD model is natural solution to model emotional interactions between people. The fusion of RGT and PAD, called Emotional Reflexive Games (ERG), inherits the key features of both components. Using ERG, we show how reflexive control can be successfully applied to model human emotional states. Up to date, EGR is a unique methodology capable of modeling human reflexive processes and emotional aspects simultaneously.

  3. Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chemo Next Topic Paying for chemo treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? ... help you express, understand, and cope with the emotions caused by cancer treatment. Depending on what you ...

  4. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  5. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  6. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

  7. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about what you might do next time. Continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react well are part of a bigger ... about being able to notice and identify the emotions we feel at any given moment. It is ...

  8. ExploringExploringExploringExploring EmotionalEmotionalEmotionalEmotional WordsWordsWordsWords forforforfor ChineseChineseChineseChinese DocumentDocumentDocumentDocument ChiefChiefChiefChief EmotionEmotionEmotionEmotion AnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysis

    E-print Network

    annotation. Eight basic emotion categories have been selected, including Expect, Joy, Love, Surprise, Anxiety emotion analysis. Totally eight emotion categories are selected, namely, Expect, Joy, Love, SurpriseExploringExploringExploringExploring EmotionalEmotionalEmotionalEmotional Words

  9. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  10. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  11. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  12. Commonalities outweigh differences in the communication of emotions

    E-print Network

    Caldara, Roberto

    communication. However, the strong claim of refutation is not supported by their data. Before evaluating cross-culturalLETTER Commonalities outweigh differences in the communication of emotions across human cultures. The reverse-correlation approach is an interesting contribution to the cross-cultural study of emotional

  13. Bimodal Information Analysis for Emotion Recognition Malika Meghjani

    E-print Network

    Dudek, Gregory

    i Bimodal Information Analysis for Emotion Recognition Malika Meghjani Master of Engineering members for their unconditional love, support and trust. It is their strong believe in my aspirations present an audio-visual information analysis system for automatic emotion recognition. We propose

  14. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

  15. Social and Emotional Competencies: Contributions to Young African-American Children's Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Explored the relation between measures of emotional competence, behavioral regulation, and general social competence and African American preschoolers' peer acceptance and popularity. Found that gender, emotional knowledge, emotion regulation, and themes of violence in response to hypothetical situations of interpersonal conflict were strongly

  16. A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

  17. Rethinking the Development of "Nonbasic" Emotions: A Critical Review of Existing Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Reddy, Vasudevi; Costall, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explores current theories of emotional development in order to identify the assumptions that could explain the strong antagonism toward early nonbasic emotions. Draws on the contrasting and polarity of viewpoints to examine the logical implications of these viewpoints for the very possibility of early nonbasic emotions and their reciprocal…

  18. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  19. Using Stimulants to Treat ADHD-Related Emotional Lability

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Kass, Erica; Hulvershorn, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Emotional lability, or sudden strong shifts in emotion, commonly occurs in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although these symptoms are impairing and disruptive, relatively little research has addressed their treatment, likely due to the difficulty of reliable and valid assessment. Promising signals for symptom improvement have come from recent studies using stimulants in adults, children and adolescents. Similarly, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify neurobiological mechanisms underlying stimulants’ impact on emotion regulation capacities. Here, we review these recent clinical and neuroimaging findings, as well as neurocognitive models for emotional lability in ADHD, issues of relevance to prescribers and the important role of psychiatric comorbidity with treatment choices. PMID:25135778

  20. Forgive and Forget: Differences between Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Fernández-Capo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To forgive and forget is a well-known idiom, which has rarely been looked at empirically. In the current experiment, we investigated differences between emotional and decisional forgiveness on forgetting. The present study provides the first empirical support that emotional forgiveness has a strong influence on subsequent incidental forgetting. Specifically, our results demonstrate that emotional forgiveness leads to substantially higher levels of forgetting in respect to offense relevant traits compared to both decisional forgiveness and no forgiveness. This provides evidence for our hypothesized effect that only individuals who have emotionally forgiven a transgression, and not those who just decided to forgive, subsequently forget offense relevant traits attributed to the transgressor. PMID:25946090

  1. Strong decoherence

    E-print Network

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

  2. Risk-adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yusung

    Currently, there is great interest in integrating biological information into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning with the aim of boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes. Selective boosting of tumor subvolumes can be accomplished without violating normal tissue complication constraints using information from functional imaging. In this work we have developed a risk-adaptive optimization-framework that utilizes a nonlinear biological objective function. Employing risk-adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, it is possible to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing normal tissue complications. Subsequently, we have studied the impact of functional imaging accuracy, and found on the one hand that loss in sensitivity had a large impact on expected local tumor control, which was maximal when a low-risk classification for the remaining low risk PTV was chosen. While on the other hand loss in specificity appeared to have a minimal impact on normal tissue sparing. Therefore, it appears that in order to improve the therapeutic ratio a functional imaging technique with a high sensitivity, rather than specificity, is needed. Last but not least a comparison study between selective boosting IMRT strategies and uniform-boosting IMRT strategies yielding the same EUD to the overall PTV was carried out, and found that selective boosting IMRT considerably improves expected TCP compared to uniform-boosting IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolumes is the cause of expected therapy failure. Furthermore, while selective boosting IMRT, using physical dose-volume objectives, did yield similar rectal and bladder sparing when compared its equivalent uniform-boosting IMRT plan, risk-adaptive radiotherapy, utilizing biological objective functions, did yield a 5.3% reduction in NTCP for the rectum. Hence, in risk-adaptive radiotherapy the therapeutic ratio can be increased over that which can be achieved with conventional selective boosting IMRT using physical dose-volume objectives. In conclusion, a novel risk-adaptive radiotherapy strategy is proposed and promises increased expected local control for locoregionally advanced tumors with equivalent or better normal tissue sparing.

  3. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  4. Emotions: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to understand emotions and the affect from Indian traditional point of view. In the Indian philosophical texts’ detailed descriptions of emotions are not available nor are dealt with as a separate concept. This view of emotions lays emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals. They are seen as modification of desire and attachment. The desires are seen as arising from the contact and attachment of the ego or ahamkara with the external world and are caused by a sense of imperfection, incompleteness or non-fulfillment. Ego or ahamkara is differentiated from the true Self or atman. Emotions are viewed as springs of action and are bipolar in nature. According to Patanjali's Yoga Shastra, suffering is due to ignorance about one's true “self” (avidya). Hence, suffering or dukha arises from within and not from the outside world. Bhagvadgita traces all emotional experiences to the gunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. Works of Bharathmuni have contributed to the understanding of emotional experiences. Concept of rasa or aesthetic relish is central to this approach to understanding affective experiences as dealt with in the Natyashastra of Bharathamuni. These views underline the recommended path for self-transformation. Regulating emotions, both emotional experience and emotional expression, is an integral part of the recommended “principles of living.” PMID:23858247

  5. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors. PMID:24936284

  6. Music-color associations are mediated by emotion.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R

    2013-05-28

    Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations. PMID:23671106

  7. Emotional Intelligence and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is the cornerstone of every decision a principal makes; solving problems and making judgments are part of a leader's system of values and beliefs. Mayer and Salovney (1997) described emotionally intelligent leaders as those who are able to perceive and understand emotions and to regulate emotions to foster emotional and…

  8. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  9. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  10. Increasing Organizational Productivity Through Heightened Emotional Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, a strong IQ can set the baseline for success but does not guarantee prosperity. Goleman believes that factors contributing to "emotional intelligence" (for example, self-control, zeal and persistence, and ability to motivate oneself) are key to success in the corporate world. Howard Gardner has identified…

  11. Replicable Facets of Positive Emotionality and Their Relations to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2015-12-01

    General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942

  12. Particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Sinoto, Makoto; Matsunobu, Akira; Toyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Kudo, Sho

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in external beam radiotherapy have allowed us to deliver higher doses to the tumors while decreasing doses to the surrounding tissues. Dose escalation using high-precision radiotherapy has improved the treatment outcomes of prostate cancer. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy has been widely used throughout the world as the most advanced form of photon radiotherapy. In contrast, particle radiotherapy has also been under development, and has been used as an effective and non-invasive radiation modality for prostate and other cancers. Among the particles used in such treatments, protons and carbon ions have the physical advantage that the dose can be focused on the tumor with only minimal exposure of the surrounding normal tissues. Furthermore, carbon ions also have radiobiological advantages that include higher killing effects on intrinsic radio-resistant tumors, hypoxic tumor cells and tumor cells in the G0 or S phase. However, the degree of clinical benefit derived from these theoretical advantages in the treatment of prostate cancer has not been adequately determined. The present article reviews the available literature on the use of particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer as well as the literature on the physical and radiobiological properties of this treatment, and discusses the role and the relative merits of particle radiotherapy compared with current photon-based radiotherapy, with a focus on proton beam therapy and carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:25308767

  13. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  14. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. PMID:26263224

  15. Sleep and emotional functions.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review studies investigating the role of sleep in emotional functions. In particular, evidence has recently accumulated to show that brain regions involved in the processing of emotional and reward-related information are activated during sleep. We suggest that such activation of emotional and reward systems during sleep underlies the reprocessing and consolidation of memories with a high affective and motivational relevance for the organism. We also propose that these mechanisms occurring during sleep promote adapted cognitive and emotional responses in the waking state, including overnight performance improvement, creativity, and sexual functions. Activation across emotional-limbic circuits during sleep also appears to promote emotional maturation and the emergence of consciousness in the developing brain. PMID:24385222

  16. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  17. Running Head: EMOTION AND AGING Emotion and Aging

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Running Head: EMOTION AND AGING Emotion and Aging Mara Mather, M., & Ponzio, A. (in press). Emotion and aging. In L. Feldman Barrett, M. All of these basic mechanisms and contextual factors change in normal aging

  18. Facial mimicry is modulated by implicit and explicit emotion consistency.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Alexander; Hayes, Amy; Tipper, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Adapting and integrating to our current environment through physical and social imitation of those around us, such as mimicking facial emotion, often seems to be an automatic and unconscious process. We examined whether the consistency of a person's emotional response can be learned and influence later emotional mimicry. For example, some individuals always express consistent emotions, such as smiling at a positive image whereas other people emote inappropriately, where their emotion is inconsistent, such as smiling at negative images. Is such individual consistency encoded in to memory influencing subsequent mimicry when these consistent and inconsistent people are encountered at a later time? In Study 1 participants implicitly learnt to associate 4 faces as showing consistent emotions, and 4 different faces as showing inconsistent emotions. In Study 2 participants explicitly associated all faces as showing either consistent (2a) or inconsistent (2b) emotions. In both studies participants had facial EMG responses recorded (taken from the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscles) whilst viewing and categorising each face as smiling or frowning. These recordings were taken to assess how much mimicry was shown toward each face, in relation to the expression and the emotion-consistency of that specific face. In Study 1 EMG results exhibited highly similar mimicry to both consistent and inconsistent emotion faces, despite implicit learning of individual identities and associated emotion consistency. EMG results in Study 2a showed traditional strong mimicry effects to all face emotions. In Study 2b mimicry towards frowns remained but was greatly reduced compared to 2a. No mimicry was shown toward smiles. We conclude that facial mimicry is an automatic process that is nevertheless influenced by context, especially if the context is explicitly created. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327065

  19. The Emotions (after Charles Darwin)

    E-print Network

    Swack, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Figure 3. Color-coded Schematic for “The Emotions” the eyescolor-coded “Emotional Index” which was comprised of eight basic emotionscolor-coded schematic of what I envisioned for 4 channels of my video consisting of the emotions

  20. Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

  1. Activities for Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

    The document is designed to provide teachers with ideas, materials, and resources for positive emotional development in elementary level students. It is noted that although many of the activities are geared to emotionally disturbed children, they are applicable to any classroom. Inventories of students' attitudes and experiences are included. A…

  2. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  3. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  4. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  5. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  6. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  7. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages. PMID:25596462

  8. Tactile-emotion synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S; Brang, David

    2008-01-01

    We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the valence of synesthetes' subjective reports, and SCR was significantly enhanced for negative synesthetic emotions. We suggest this effect arises from increased cross-activation between somatosensory cortex and insula for 'basic' emotions and fronto-limbic hyperactivation for more subtle emotions. It may represent an enhancement of pre-existing evolutionarily primitive interactions between touch and emotions. PMID:18821168

  9. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. Methodology/Principal Findings The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder. PMID:26083383

  10. Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy, and it supports the argument for optimal behaviour and social functioning in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PMID:23228163

  11. Self-Structure and Emotional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ditzfeld, Christopher P.; Showers, Carolin J.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examine individual differences in affective reactivity by linking emotional experience to cognitive self-structure. Consistent with the view that individuals with an evaluatively compartmentalized self-structure are emotionally reactive, we find that evaluative compartmentalization is associated with the experience of, and desire for, high-arousal positive affect, whereas evaluative integration is associated with the experience of low-arousal positive and negative affect and the desire for low-arousal positive affect. Although compartmentalized individuals are less granular in their tendency to report experiencing both high- and low-arousal affect (cf. Feldman Barrett, 2004), they are strongly differentiated in their perceptions of high-arousal states as positive and low-arousal states as negative. Thus, compartmentalized individuals’ reactivity may be explained by their preference for high-arousal positive states and the “breadth” of their emotionality (e.g., the tendency to experience sadness and nervousness at the same time). PMID:24125479

  12. Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    that people experience emotion in the same way that they see color or the way that they perceive behaviorsSolving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion Lisa Feldman Barrett Department of Psychology Boston College In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe

  13. A Framework of Changing Image Emotion Using Emotion Prediction

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Changing Image Emotion Feature transformation: histogram speci- fication in CIE XYZ color space. ResultsA Framework of Changing Image Emotion Using Emotion Prediction Kuan-Chuan Peng, Kolbeinn Karlsson.zhang, heatheryu}@huawei.com Task Given an input image and an emotion keyword, modify the low-level features

  14. Radiotherapy planning using MRI.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Maria A; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2015-11-21

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimized, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT. PMID:26509844

  15. Radiotherapy planning using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Maria A.; Payne, Geoffrey S.

    2015-11-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimized, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT.

  16. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-06-21

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of scans is taken on different days. Both allow planning to account for variability intrinsic to the patient. Treatment verification has been carried out using a variety of technologies including: MV portal imaging, kV portal/fluoroscopy, MVCT, conebeam kVCT, ultrasound and optical surface imaging. The various methods have their pros and cons. The four x-ray methods involve an extra radiation dose to normal tissue. The portal methods may not generally be used to visualize soft tissue, consequently they are often used in conjunction with implanted fiducial markers. The two CT-based methods allow measurement of inter-fraction variation only. Ultrasound allows soft-tissue measurement with zero dose but requires skilled interpretation, and there is evidence of systematic differences between ultrasound and other data sources, perhaps due to the effects of the probe pressure. Optical imaging also involves zero dose but requires good correlation between the target and the external measurement and thus is often used in conjunction with an x-ray method. The use of anatomical imaging in radiotherapy allows treatment uncertainties to be determined. These include errors between the mean position at treatment and that at planning (the systematic error) and the day-to-day variation in treatment set-up (the random error). Positional variations may also be categorized in terms of inter- and intra-fraction errors. Various empirical treatment margin formulae and intervention approaches exist to determine the optimum strategies for treatment in the presence of these known errors. Other methods exist to try to minimize error margins drastically including the currently available breath-hold techniques and the tracking methods which are largely in development. This paper will review anatomical imaging techniques in radiotherapy and how they are used to boost the therapeutic benefit of the treatment. PMID:18495981

  17. Variability and situatedness of human emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Marcos; Rosselló, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    We commend Koelsch and colleagues [14] for developing a broad and integrative explanation of the neurobiological foundations of emotions. We especially welcome this framework's emphasis on the interaction between language and emotion, and its focus on the characteristically human moral emotions. Emotions elicited by art and aesthetics also seem to be distinctively human, but comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding these. This is probably because they are usually viewed as atypical in several respects. William James [12], for instance, regarded emotional responses to artworks and aesthetic qualities as subtler emotions, because they lacked the strong bodily changes and adaptive value characteristic of coarser emotions, such as joy, anger, or fear. This view is still predominant today, and aesthetic emotions are often distinguished from everyday emotions [13]. However, the notion of a class of aesthetic emotions, separate from everyday emotions, rests on the questionable assumption that artistic and aesthetic experiences and activities are different in essence from everyday experiences and activities. The discontinuity between "aesthetic experience [and] normal processes of living" [9, p. 10], however, is the product of social and cultural developments in Europe during the 18th century [7,15,20]. Distinctions that oppose art to craft, or aesthetic to practical, in reference to objects, behaviors, experiences, and emotions, make little sense in a broader historic and geographic context [1,7,20], and hinder empirical research [7].

  18. [The emotions of oncologists].

    PubMed

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Bugán, Antal; Kiss, Csongor; Szántó, János; Gonda, Andrea; Tóth, Zoltán; Hernádi, Zoltán; Hadijev, Janaki; Remenyik, Eva; Damjanovich, László; Dinya, Tamás; Flaskó, Tibor; Bágyi, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2011-09-01

    Emotions are parts of organizational reality to an ever increasing extent. Importantly, they are not just tools in the hand of healthcare workers to achieve better physician / healthcare professional-to-patient interactions but intrinsic processes and characteristics with psychic, cognitive and somatic actions. For a thorough investigation of the issue, a PANAS-X questionnaire was used to examine the emotions of 187 physicians and other healthcare professionals, all engaged in oncology, in 2009. The research succeeded in exploring the overall emotional state oncology professionals had assumed in relation with their job as well as enabled the authors of this study to draw the respondents' emotional map and assess their fundamental emotional attitudes. Furthermore, the authors managed to identify groups of respondents that had felt more intense positive, and/or less intense negative emotions that are socially accepted than others. They included those of senior experienced oncologists, males, individuals with families, childless individuals, ward workers, and skilled professionals. According to the findings, the range of emotions an oncologist experiences / feels intently during his everyday work is dependent upon a great number of factors. PMID:21918747

  19. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

  20. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice. PMID:26276560

  1. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12 ?years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. PMID:24780349

  2. The relationship between basic need satisfaction and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, G M; Acton, G J

    2001-01-01

    Eating in response to emotions may lead to the consumption of excessive calories which typically leads to weight gain. This study examined the relationship between basic need satisfaction as identified by Maslow's hierarchy and emotional eating. According to Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, when lack of basic need satisfaction functions as a stressor, individuals may be more likely to engage in emotional eating as a substitute for fulfilling their needs in order to maintain homeostasis. The Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory (BNSI) had a strong, negative correlation (r = -.49; p < .001) to the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) indicating that the lower the level of basic need satisfaction, the more likely one engaged in emotional eating. In predicting EES score, 27.7% of the variance was explained by the self-esteem subscale of BNSI. This study supports looking at underlying issues contributing to weight gain in order to develop effective interventions for weight management. PMID:11881182

  3. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. PMID:25288043

  4. Beyond Reason: Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simões da Fonseca, J.

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

  5. Computational Emotions Encourage Collective

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    on carrots. Emotions are used by foxes and rabbits and encode data pertaining to survival. We examine they are mixed. Our predator-prey model is an analysis of foxes that feed on rabbits that feed on carrots

  6. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music. PMID:21761216

  7. Changing time and emotions.

    PubMed

    Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-01-27

    In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework. PMID:20026465

  8. Teaching Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Doudin, Pierre-Andre

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess whether it is possible to help children develop their general understanding of emotions. Thirty-six nine-year-old children divided in two groups were examined using a pre-test/train/post-test design. The emotion understanding of the two groups was measured in the pre- and post-test phases using the Test…

  9. Feeding your feelings: emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Evers, Catharine; Marijn Stok, F; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2010-06-01

    The process by which emotions affect eating behavior emerges as one of the central unresolved questions in the field of emotional eating. The present studies address the hypothesis that the regulation strategies people use to deal with these emotions are responsible for increased eating. Negative emotions were induced and intake of comfort food and non-comfort food was measured by means of taste tests. Emotion induction was preceded by measuring individual differences in emotion regulation strategies (Study 1) or by instructions to regulate emotions in either an adaptive (reappraisal) or maladaptive (suppression) manner (Study 2). Study 3 also entailed a control condition without any regulation instructions. Relative to reappraisal and spontaneous expression, suppression led to increased food intake, but only of the comfort foods. Emotions themselves were not responsible for this effect. These findings provide new evidence that the way in which emotions are regulated affects eating behavior. PMID:20460650

  10. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng . E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  12. Emotional labour: how midwives manage emotion at work.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    Midwifery is inherently emotional work. Midwives care for women at one of the most emotionally intense periods of their lives: they work during moments of birth and death, of joy, sadness and both physical and emotional pain. Yet the emotional experiences of midwives at work are often not spoken about. Midwives often tend to 'get on with the job', but the process of dealing with others' emotions, managing their own and displaying different kinds of emotion can be a challenging part of midwives' work and one for which they're not always adequately supported. PMID:26349324

  13. [Postoperative radiotherapy of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Guérif, S; Latorzeff, I; Lagrange, J-L; Hennequin, C; Supiot, S; Garcia, A; François, P; Soulié, M; Richaud, P; Salomon, L

    2014-10-01

    Between 10 and 40% of patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have a biologic recurrence. Local or distant failure represents the possible patterns of relapse. Patients at high-risk for local relapse have extraprostatic disease, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles infiltration or high Gleason score at pathology. Three phase-III randomized clinical trials have shown that, for these patients, adjuvant irradiation reduces the risk of tumoral progression without higher toxicity. Salvage radiotherapy for late relapse allows a disease control in 60-70% of the cases. Several research in order to improve the therapeutic ratio of the radiotherapy after prostatectomy are evaluate in the French Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Urogénitales (Gétug) and of the French association of urology (Afu). The Gétug-Afu 17 trial will provide answers to the question of the optimal moment for postoperative radiotherapy for pT3-4 R1 pN0 Nx patients, with the objective of comparing an immediate treatment to a differed early treatment initiated at biological recurrence. The Gétug-Afu 22 questions the place of a short hormonetherapy combined with image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in adjuvant situation for a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA). The implementation of a multicenter quality control within the Gétug-Afu in order to harmonize a modern postoperative radiotherapy will allow the development of a dose escalation IMRT after surgery. PMID:25195116

  14. Radiotherapy for glomus jugulare paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P

    2014-09-01

    Surgery has been long considered to be the treatment of choice for glomus jugulare paragangliomas, as it is the only modality able to totally eradicate the tumour. However, despite considerable progress in interventional radiology and nerve monitoring, surgery is associated with an unacceptably high complication rate for a benign tumour, explaining the growing place of radiotherapy in the management of these tumours. This review of the literature confirms the efficacy of conformal radiotherapy with or without intensity modulation and stereotactic radiotherapy, which both achieve tumour control rates ranging from 90% to almost 100% of cases, but for different tumour volumes, almost constant stabilization or even improvement of symptoms, and a considerably lower rate of adverse effects than with surgery. However, radiotherapy remains contraindicated in the presence of intracranial invasion or extensive osteomyelitis. In the light of these results, together with the improved quality of life and a better knowledge of the natural history of this disease, many authors propose radiotherapy as first-line treatment for all glomus jugulare paragangliomas regardless of their size, particularly in patients with no preoperative deficits. PMID:24908634

  15. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebi?ska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  16. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures. PMID:25260364

  17. Mining emotional profiles using e-mail messages for earlier warnings of potential terrorist activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitsky, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2006-04-01

    We develop a software system Text Scanner for Emotional Distress (TSED) for helping to detect email messages which are suspicious of coming from people under strong emotional distress. It has been confirmed by multiple studies that terrorist attackers have experienced a substantial emotional distress at some points before committing a terrorist attack. Therefore, if an individual in emotional distress can be detected on the basis of email texts, some preventive measures can be taken. The proposed detection machinery is based on extraction and classification of emotional profiles from emails. An emotional profile is a formal representation of a sequence of emotional states through a textual discourse where communicative actions are attached to these emotional states. The issues of extraction of emotional profiles from text and reasoning about it are discussed and illustrated. We then develop an inductive machine learning and reasoning framework to relate an emotional profile to the class "Emotional distress" or "No emotional distress", given a training dataset where the class is assigned by an expert. TSED's machine learning is evaluated using the database of structured customer complaints.

  18. Emotional memory and perception in temporal lobectomy patients with amygdala damage

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, B; Medford, N; Shaw, P; David, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: The human amygdala is implicated in the formation of emotional memories and the perception of emotional stimuli—particularly fear—across various modalities. Objectives: To discern the extent to which these functions are related. Methods: 28 patients who had anterior temporal lobectomy (13 left and 15 right) for intractable epilepsy were recruited. Structural magnetic resonance imaging showed that three of them had atrophy of their remaining amygdala. All participants were given tests of affect perception from facial and vocal expressions and of emotional memory, using a standard narrative test and a novel test of word recognition. The results were standardised against matched healthy controls. Results: Performance on all emotion tasks in patients with unilateral lobectomy ranged from unimpaired to moderately impaired. Perception of emotions in faces and voices was (with exceptions) significantly positively correlated, indicating multimodal emotional processing. However, there was no correlation between the subjects' performance on tests of emotional memory and perception. Several subjects showed strong emotional memory enhancement but poor fear perception. Patients with bilateral amygdala damage had greater impairment, particularly on the narrative test of emotional memory, one showing superior fear recognition but absent memory enhancement. Conclusions: Bilateral amygdala damage is particularly disruptive of emotional memory processes in comparison with unilateral temporal lobectomy. On a cognitive level, the pattern of results implies that perception of emotional expressions and emotional memory are supported by separate processing systems or streams. PMID:15026504

  19. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  20. The secret life of emotions.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of unconsciously evoked emotions is often denied because awareness of an emotion's cause is considered to be precisely what produces the emotion. However, we argue that because emotional responding is important for successful living, both global and specific emotional responses can be induced without awareness. The present research used quick and super-quick subliminal priming techniques, and cognitive, feelings, and behavioral measures, to test this hypothesis. Our results show that both global moods and specific emotions can be evoked without conscious awareness of their cause. PMID:18399892

  1. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even greater total benefit of $365·4 billion ($12·8 billion in low-income countries, $67·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $284·7 billion in upper-middle-income countries). The returns, by the human-capital approach, are projected to be less with the nominal cost model, amounting to $16·9 billion in 2015-35 (-$14·9 billion in low-income countries; -$18·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $50·5 billion in upper-middle-income countries). The returns with the efficiency model were projected to be greater, however, amounting to $104·2 billion (-$2·4 billion in low-income countries, $10·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $95·9 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Our results provide compelling evidence that investment in radiotherapy not only enables treatment of large numbers of cancer cases to save lives, but also brings positive economic benefits. PMID:26419354

  2. Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F; Atkinson, Anthony P; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-07-01

    According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

  3. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Losing Weight Safely 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Feelings & Emotions > 3 Ways to ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  4. Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

  5. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

  6. [Which rules apply to hypofractionated radiotherapy?].

    PubMed

    Supiot, S; Clément-Colmou, K; Paris, F; Corre, I; Chiavassa, S; Delpon, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy is now more widely prescribed due to improved targeting techniques (intensity modulated radiotherapy, image-guided radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy). Low dose hypofractionated radiotherapy is routinely administered mostly for palliative purposes. High or very high dose hypofractionated irradiation must be delivered according to very strict procedures since every minor deviation can lead to major changes in dose delivery to the tumor volume and organs at risk. Thus, each stage of the processing must be carefully monitored starting from the limitations and the choice of the hypofractionation technique, tumour contouring and dose constraints prescription, planning and finally dose calculation and patient positioning verification. PMID:26321647

  7. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  8. Emotion Recognition Evaluation Adaptation Schemes

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    Motivation Emotion Recognition Evaluation Adaptation Schemes Discussion §Performance of speech emotion recognition degrades with mismatched conditions §Model adaptation can mitigate problems §We? §Can acted data be used to train models? §What is best approach for supervised adaptation? Conclusions

  9. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  10. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  11. Emotional Development and School Readiness. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marilou

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes research on the contribution of young children's emotional competence to their school readiness. Describes ways early childhood teachers can support young children's emotional competence by creating a secure emotional environment, helping children understand emotions, modeling genuine appropriate emotions, supporting children's emotion

  12. Psychopathy, attention and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R. J. R.; Mitchell, D.G.V.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder marked by emotional hypo-responsiveness and an increased risk for antisocial behavior. Influential attention based accounts of psychopathy have long been made; however, these accounts have made relatively little reference to general models of attention in healthy individuals. The current paper has three aims: (1) To briefly describe current cognitive neuroscience data on differing attentional systems; (2) To examine the functional integrity of these attentional systems in individuals with psychopathy; (3) To consider the implications of these data for attention and emotion dysfunction accounts of psychopathy. PMID:18700991

  13. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  14. Emotion Education without Ontological Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion education is enjoying new-found popularity. This paper explores the "cosy consensus" that seems to have developed in education circles, according to which approaches to emotion education are immune from metaethical considerations such as contrasting rationalist and sentimentalist views about the moral ontology of emotions. I spell out five…

  15. Building Emotional Competence in Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Hen, Meirav; Nov, Adi Sharabi

    2013-01-01

    The importance of emotion in the process of learning interpersonal communication in educational settings has been well documented. We administered the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (Schutte et al., 1998), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980), and the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (Kirk et al., 2008) to 50…

  16. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. PMID:26473695

  17. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  18. Cost-effectiveness of surgery plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Nosyk, Bohdan; Fisher, Charles G.; Dvorak, Marcel; Patchell, Roy A.; Regine, William F.; Loblaw, Andrew; Bansback, Nick; Guh, Daphne; Sun, Huiying; Anis, Aslam . E-mail: aslam.anis@ubc.ca

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A recent randomized clinical trial has demonstrated that direct decompressive surgery plus radiotherapy was superior to radiotherapy alone for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. The current study compared the cost-effectiveness of the two approaches. Methods and Materials: In the original clinical trial, clinical effectiveness was measured by ambulation and survival time until death. In this study, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Costs related to treatment and posttreatment care were estimated and extended to the lifetime of the cohort. Weibull regression was applied to extrapolate outcomes in the presence of censored clinical effectiveness data. Results: From a societal perspective, the baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was found to be $60 per additional day of ambulation (all costs in 2003 Canadian dollars). Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 50% of all generated ICERs were lower than $57, and 95% were lower than $242 per additional day of ambulation. This analysis had a 95% CI of -$72.74 to 309.44, meaning that this intervention ranged from a financial savings of $72.74 to a cost of $309.44 per additional day of ambulation. Using survival as the measure of effectiveness resulted in an ICER of $30,940 per life-year gained. Conclusions: We found strong evidence that treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression with surgery in addition to radiotherapy is cost-effective both in terms of cost per additional day of ambulation, and cost per life-year gained.

  19. Hippocampal contributions to the processing of social emotions.

    PubMed

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Singh, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Inducing and experiencing emotions about others' mental and physical circumstances is thought to involve self-relevant processing and personal memories of similar experiences. The hippocampus is important for self-referential processing during recall and prospection; however, its contributions during social emotions have not been systematically investigated. We use event-related averaging and Granger causal connectivity mapping to investigate hippocampal contributions during the processing of varieties of admiration and compassion pertaining to protagonists' mental versus physical circumstances [admiration for virtue (AV) versus for skill; compassion for social/psychological pain (CSP) versus for physical pain]. Data were collected using a multistep emotion-induction paradigm that included psychosocial interviews, BOLD fMRI, and simultaneous psychophysiological recording. Given that mnemonic demands were equivalent among conditions, we tested whether: (1) the hippocampi would be recruited more strongly and for a longer duration during the processing of AV and CSP; and (2) connectivity between the hippocampi and cortical systems involved in visceral somatosensation/emotional feeling, social cognitive, and self-related processing would be more extensive during AV and CSP. Results elucidate the hippocampus' facilitative role in inducing and sustaining appropriate emotional reactions, the importance of self-related processing during social emotions, and corroborate the conception that varieties of emotional processing pertaining to others' mental and physical situations engage at least partially distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:22012639

  20. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  1. Robust Representations for Out-of-Domain Emotions Using Emotion Profiles Emily Mower

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    Robust Representations for Out-of-Domain Emotions Using Emotion Profiles Emily Mower , Maja J is in- cluded. The results demonstrate that EPs are a robust method for emotion representation. Index Terms: Emotion Representation, Emotion Classifica- tion, Emotion Profiles, Audio-Visual Emotion 1

  2. Beyond arousal and valence: The importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention; memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that: a) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than socially emotional images, b) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but c) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images’ subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between amygdala and MPFC than biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity. PMID:21964552

  3. How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

  4. Unconscious Emotions, Conscious Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Emotion is an innate, powerful, and principally unconscious process that is perceptible in body language, responds vigorously to high-contrast information concerning dangers and opportunities, and often biases the direction of our problem- solving responses. Curricular challenges involving the arts, play, and classroom management are discussed.…

  5. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  6. Emotional Subjects for Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

  7. Mentoring and the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine secondary school mentor teachers, the authors explore the emotional aspects of mentoring. Embracing a view of 'cool' professionalism, the mentors hid from their interns the intensity and complexity of their work as mentors. The authors argue that to maximize the value of mentoring neophyte teachers should be given a…

  8. Universal Emotional Health Screening at the Middle School Transition

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kelly A.; Herting, Jerald R.; Kuo, Elena S.; Stewart, David G.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Kushner, Siri

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the Developmental Pathways Screening Program (DPSP) and an evaluation of program feasibility, acceptability, and yield. Using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and externalizing questions from the Youth Self Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001), universal classroom-based emotional health screening was implemented with students as they began middle school. Of all sixth graders enrolled in four participating Seattle schools, 861 (83%) were screened. Students who screened positive for emotional distress (15% of students screened) received onsite structured clinical evaluations with children's mental health professionals. Seventy-one percent of students who were evaluated were found to be experiencing significant emotional distress, with 59% warranting referral to academic tutoring, school counselor, and/or community mental health services. Successful implementation of in-class screening was facilitated by strong collaboration between DPSP and school staff. Limitations of emotional health screening and the DPSP are discussed, and future steps are outlined. PMID:21430789

  9. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  10. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  11. Emotions, Cognitions, and Well-Being: The Role of Perfectionism, Emotional Overexcitability, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…

  12. Pedagogies of Strategic Empathy: Navigating through the Emotional Complexities of Anti-Racism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion…

  13. Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

  14. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  15. Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

  16. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

  17. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  18. Neural network modeling of emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

  19. Discrete emotions in later life.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Weiner, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    More positivity than negativity is demonstrated in this analysis of discrete emotions among 353 community-dwelling individuals from 72 to 99 years old. A complexity in positive emotions was displayed, with more happiness, contentment, and gratitude reported than frustration, sadness, and anger. Our results also imply that another individual's presence may elicit negative emotions such as anger and guilt, whereas perceptions of support may elicit various positive emotions. As expected, certain negative emotions were associated with poor health, with a link between sadness and sickness being most prominent. Of note, poor health did not undermine positive emotions. These findings provide an optimistic view of emotions in later life, even among individuals who are poor, not well educated, and/or physically unwell. PMID:12496298

  20. Emotions in Pervasive Computing Environments

    E-print Network

    Jungum, Nevin Vunka

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an intelligent environment to connect and adapt to real internal sates, needs and behaviors' meaning of humans can be made possible by considering users' emotional states as contextual parameters. In this paper, we build on enactive psychology and investigate the incorporation of emotions in pervasive systems. We define emotions, and discuss the coding of emotional human markers by smart environments. In addition, we compare some existing works and identify how emotions can be detected and modeled by a pervasive system in order to enhance its service and response to users. Finally, we analyze closely one XML-based language for representing and annotating emotions known as EARL and raise two important issues which pertain to emotion representation and modeling in XML-based languages.

  1. Rectal Radiotherapy - Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Delivery, Delineation and Doses.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S; Muirhead, R

    2016-02-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in rectal cancer is attractive in that it may reduce acute and late toxicities and potentially facilitate dose escalation. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy probably has a role in selected patients, but further investigation is required to identify the parameters for selection. Delineation of specific nodal groups allows maximal sparing of bladder and small bowel. In locally advanced tumours a simultaneous integrated boost allows dose escalation incorporating hypofractionation and a shorter overall treatment time. However, due to a sparsity of data on late toxicity in doses ?60 Gy, doses at this level should be used with caution, ideally within prospective trials. Future studies investigating dose escalation must ascertain late toxicity as well as local control, as both can significantly affect quality of life and without both, the risk-benefit ratio cannot be calculated. PMID:26643092

  2. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  3. Language, Emotions, and Cultures: Emotional Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. Conceptual and emotional mechanisms of languages are considered here along with their functions in the mind and cultural evolution. A fundamental contradiction in human mind is considered: language evolution requires reduced emotionality, but "too low" emotionality makes language "irrelevant to life," disconnected from sensory-motor experience. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the language instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, dynamic logic, neur...

  4. Automatic processing of emotional words during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Gootjes, Liselotte; van Strien, Jan W

    2009-05-27

    There is evidence that early event-related potential components, such as the early posterior negativity (EPN; 200-300 ms), are modulated by emotional words. This study addressed the automaticity of this early response in an emotional Stroop task. The results show that the EPN was modulated by emotional connotation. In addition, an enhanced frontal P3 and an enhanced, more broadly distributed, late positive potential emerged as response to emotional words. The present results suggest that this early event-related potential activity represents the fast and automatic processing of emotional words. Furthermore, as the EPN originates from the posterior visual association cortex, the present results suggest a role of these areas in the automatic processing of emotional connotation. PMID:19369909

  5. The longitudinal relationship between emotion awareness and internalising symptoms during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Rieffe, Carolien; De Rooij, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Emotion awareness, the ability to reflect upon the own emotions, is assumed to contribute to better mental health. However, empirical support for this relationship has only been cross-sectional. In this study we examined the extent to which individual differences in changes in emotion awareness over time can explain individual differences in changes in symptoms of internalising problems (depression, fear, worrying and ruminative thoughts). Children and young teenagers (368 boys and 295 girls) were asked four times to fill out self-report questionnaires, with a 6-month time interval between each time. The mean age was 10 years during the first data collection. Longitudinal multilevel analyses showed that the variance in emotion awareness trends was highly predictive for the variance in trends for internalizing problems over time. The ability to differentiate discrete emotions was a strong predictor and negatively contributed to all internalising symptoms. In addition, a diminished tendency to address and value emotions contributed to more depressive symptoms; whereas hiding the own emotions contributed to more worrying and ruminative thoughts. The outcomes show that individual differences in emotion awareness over time make a strong, and, above all, negative contribution to the prediction of the individual differences in various internalizing symptoms. The fact that several aspects of emotional (dys)functioning are uniquely related to different kinds of internalizing problems gives valuable and useful information not only theoretically but also clinically about the distinctive nature of these problems. PMID:22466448

  6. Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES

    E-print Network

    Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES INCREASE EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY; AGING IMPAIRS EMOTION REGULATION VIA REAPPRAISAL Running Head: Double Dissociation between

  7. Emotion processing in the auditory modality : the time course and development of emotional prosody recognition

    E-print Network

    Cornew, Lauren A.

    2008-01-01

    adult emotion processing (Cornew, Carver, & Love, in review)Love, in review) or alternatively, whether emotion- based (emotion-related biases in emotional prosody recognition, we (Cornew, Carver, & Love,

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  9. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

  10. Drug Design and Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  11. [Thalamus and Emotion].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazumi

    2015-12-01

    The basolateral limbic circuit (mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, anterior cingulated and prefrontal orbital cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and amygdala), the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus circuit, and part of the frontal-subcortical circuits (anterior cingulate and prefrontal orbital cortex, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus), and the anterior cingulate and prefrontal orbital cortex circuit are crucial systems for forming and expressing emotions. There are reciprocal projections between the hypothalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal orbital cortex, and between the hypothalamus and the amygdale. Therefore, destruction of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the hypothalamus can cause abnormal expression of emotions. Recently, converging evidence suggests that the pulvinar nucleus in the posterior thalamus mediates emotional visual information processing through the colliculo-pulvino-amygdalar pathway and/or through the colliculo-pulvino-cortical pathways. These pathways seem to contribute to the unconscious and/or conscious fast processing of ecologically relevant stimuli. Therefore, destruction of the pulvinar can cause impaired reaction to visual threats, such as photographs of a cockroach and fearfull facial expressions, if the stimuli are exposed briefly. PMID:26618764

  12. Emotional memory and psychopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, J E; Muller, J

    1997-01-01

    A leading model for studying how the brain forms memories about unpleasant experiences is fear conditioning. A cumulative body of work has identified major components of the neural system mediating this form of learning. The pathways involve transmission of sensory information from processing areas in the thalamus and cortex to the amygdala. The amygdala's lateral nucleus receives and integrates the sensory inputs from the thalamic and cortical areas, and the central nucleus provides the interface with motor systems controlling specific fear responses in various modalities (behavioural, autonomic, endocrine). Internal connections within the amygdala allow the lateral and central nuclei to communicate. Recent studies have begun to identify some sites of plasticity in the circuitry and the cellular mechanisms involved in fear conditioning. Through studies of fear conditioning, our understanding of emotional memory is being taken to the level of cells and synapses in the brain. Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved. PMID:9415924

  13. Nonconscious emotional activation colors first impressions: a regulatory role for conscious awareness.

    PubMed

    Lapate, Regina C; Rokers, Bas; Li, Tianyi; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    Emotions can color people's attitudes toward unrelated objects in the environment. Existing evidence suggests that such emotional coloring is particularly strong when emotion-triggering information escapes conscious awareness. But is emotional reactivity stronger after nonconscious emotional provocation than after conscious emotional provocation, or does conscious processing specifically change the association between emotional reactivity and evaluations of unrelated objects? In this study, we independently indexed emotional reactivity and coloring as a function of emotional-stimulus awareness to disentangle these accounts. Specifically, we recorded skin-conductance responses to spiders and fearful faces, along with subsequent preferences for novel neutral faces during visually aware and unaware states. Fearful faces increased skin-conductance responses comparably in both stimulus-aware and stimulus-unaware conditions. Yet only when visual awareness was precluded did skin-conductance responses to fearful faces predict decreased likability of neutral faces. These findings suggest a regulatory role for conscious awareness in breaking otherwise automatic associations between physiological reactivity and evaluative emotional responses. PMID:24317420

  14. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample.

    PubMed

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  15. Emotion regulation in spider phobia: role of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andrea; Schäfer, Axel; Walter, Bertram; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2009-09-01

    Phobic responses are strong emotional reactions towards phobic objects, which can be described as a deficit in the automatic regulation of emotions. Difficulties in the voluntary cognitive control of these emotions suggest a further phobia-specific deficit in effortful emotion regulation mechanisms. The actual study is based on this emotion regulation conceptualization of specific phobias. The aim is to investigate the neural correlates of these two emotion regulation deficits in spider phobics. Sixteen spider phobic females participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which they were asked to voluntarily up- and down-regulate their emotions elicited by spider and generally aversive pictures with a reappraisal strategy. In line with the hypothesis concerning an automatic emotion regulation deficit, increased activity in the insula and reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was observed. Furthermore, phobia-specific effortful regulation within phobics was associated with altered activity in medial prefrontal cortex areas. Altogether, these results suggest that spider phobic subjects are indeed characterized by a deficit in the automatic as well as the effortful regulation of emotions elicited by phobic compared with aversive stimuli. These two forms of phobic emotion regulation deficits are associated with altered activity in different medial prefrontal cortex subregions. PMID:19398537

  16. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  17. Relations between Fantasy Orientation and Emotion Regulation in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Ansley T.; Brown, Melissa M.; Pierucci, Jillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotion regulation is a strong predictor of both short- and long-term peer relationships and social competence and is often targeted in preschool curricula and interventions. Pretense is a natural activity of childhood that is thought to facilitate the development of socialization, perspective taking, language, and possibly…

  18. Voyages of Discovery: Experiencing the Emotion of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelin, Daniel A., II

    2005-01-01

    Guiding students through a dramatic exploration of an historical event can elicit strong emotional reactions that can deepen student understanding and interest in the subject matter. This article describes an integrated third grade lesson plan that focuses on Henry Hudson's voyages in the early 1600s. The students take on the roles of Hudson's…

  19. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  20. Emotional foundations of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515

  1. Time window for cognitive activity involved in emotional processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From previous studies it is becoming evident that the processing of unpleasant stimuli occurs early (0 to 300 ms); however, it is not clear how cognitive processing related to pleasant/unpleasant emotions occurs at later time windows (?300 ms). On the other hand, as evident from the previous reports, BIS and BAS personality traits are strongly associated with unpleasant and pleasant responses, respectively. Therefore, in the present study, we aim to identify the time window involved in human pleasant/unpleasant emotional processing by investigating ERP components correlated with BIS/BAS personality traits. Methods Twenty-nine men took part in the study and recording ERP during presented sounds. BIS/BAS score was calculated using the Japanese edition of the BIS/BAS questionnaire. Results Significant correlation was not observed between BIS and BAS scores. A significant and positive correlation was observed between N100 amplitude and BIS score. A positive correlation was found between BAS fun seeking subscale score and LPP amplitude. Our findings did not contradict previous study results. Conclusions Our results suggest that the processing of unpleasant emotions takes place early on, since N100 response was larger in high BIS subjects who are known to be sensitive to unpleasant emotions. LPP was larger in high BAS subjects who are known to be sensitive to pleasant emotions. The LPP was considered to be augmented because the ACC activity level during pleasant emotions reflected on LPP. PMID:25056735

  2. Emotional Development in Young Children. The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.

    This book discusses the emotional experiences of young children and explores the connections between emotions, socialization, and healthy relationships. The introductory chapter discusses the nature of emotion, emotional and social competence, and the study of young children's emotions. Chapter 2, "Emotional Expressiveness," describes patterns and…

  3. A Mixed Bag of Emotions: Model, Predict, and Transfer Emotion Distributions Supplementary Material

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    emotion in Emotion6. Figure 11. The mapping between the color codes and emotion keywords used in Section 2 effect. The boundary of each image is colored according to its dominant evoked emotion using the colorA Mixed Bag of Emotions: Model, Predict, and Transfer Emotion Distributions Supplementary Material

  4. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation Kateri McRae,1 ways emotions can be generated: from the bottom-up (in response to inherently emotional perceptual strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions

  5. Intact Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Complex Predicts Good Response to Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlund, Karin . E-mail: karin.soderlund@ibk.liu.se; Stal, Olle; Skoog, Lambert; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression and predictive role of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) for the outcome of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The protein expression of ATM and the DNA repair proteins in the MRN complex were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 224 women with early breast cancer, who were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Compared with normal breast tissue, the staining intensity of Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1, and ATM was reduced in a majority of the tumors. Weak expression of the MRN complex was correlated with high histologic grade and estrogen receptor negativity (p = 0.01 and p 0.0001, respectively). Radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence as compared with chemotherapy (p = 0.04). The greatest benefit of radiotherapy was seen in patients with moderate/strong expression of the MRN complex (relative risk = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.098-0.72, p 0.009), whereas patients with negative/weak MRN expression had no benefit of radiotherapy compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that an intact MRN complex is important for the tumor cell eradicating effect of radiotherapy. Conclusions: Reduced expression of the MRN complex predicts a poor effect of radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

  6. Human mesenchymal stem cells enhance the systemic effects of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Farias, Virgínea; O'Valle, Francisco; Lerma, Borja Alonso; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; López-Peñalver, Jesús J; Nieto, Ana; Santos, Ana; Fernández, Beatriz Irene; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Ruiz-Ruiz, María Carmen; Guirado, Damián; Schmidt, Thomas; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2015-10-13

    The outcome of radiotherapy treatment might be further improved by a better understanding of individual variations in tumor radiosensitivity and normal tissue reactions, including the bystander effect. For many tumors, however, a definitive cure cannot be achieved, despite the availablity of more and more effective cancer treatments. Therefore, any improvement in the efficacy of radiotherapy will undoubtedly benefit a significant number of patients. Many experimental studies measure a bystander component of tumor cell death after radiotherapy, which highlights the importance of confirming these observations in a preclinical situation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for use in the treatment of cancers as they are able to both preferentially home onto tumors and become incorporated into their stroma. This process increases after radiation therapy. In our study we show that in vitro MSCs, when activated with a low dose of radiation, are a source of anti-tumor cytokines that decrease the proliferative activity of tumor cells, producing a potent cytotoxic synergistic effect on tumor cells. In vivo administration of unirradiated mesenchymal cells together with radiation leads to an increased efficacy of radiotherapy, thus leading to an enhancement of short and long range bystander effects on primary-irradiated tumors and distant-non-irradiated tumors. Our experiments indicate an increased cell loss rate and the decrease in the tumor cell proliferation activity as the major mechanisms underlying the delayed tumor growth and are a strong indicator of the synergistic effect between RT and MSC when they are applied together for tumor treatment in this model. PMID:26378036

  7. Implementing "Strong Kids" School-Wide to Reduce Internalizing Behaviors and Increase Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Fischer, Lane; Warren, Jared S.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction and training in social and emotional learning (SEL) is an important component in addressing the emotional and behavioral needs of students. This study is the first to examine whether "Strong Kids", an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased…

  8. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  9. Informational need of emotional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, P. V.; Frolov, M. V.

    According to the informational theory of emotions[1], emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need staisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.

  10. The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

  11. The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

  12. Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  13. Effect of emotion on attentional processing 

    E-print Network

    Finucane, Anne Margaret

    2009-11-26

    Previous research on the relationship between emotion and attention has focused primarily on attention to emotionally valenced stimuli; trait anxiety and attentional biases for threat; or the relationship between emotion ...

  14. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  15. Preschoolers' Understanding of Parents' Emotions: Implications for Emotional Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    This study investigated preschoolers' understanding of three parental emotions: happiness, sadness, and anger. The study also examined relationships of these understandings to preschoolers' emotional competence. Subjects, 70 children with a mean age of 55 months, were presented with a dollhouse and were encouraged to imagine that the dollhouse…

  16. Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words in the Bilingual Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw on recent studies of bilingualism and emotions to argue for three types of modifications to the current models of the bilingual lexicon. The first modification involves word categories: I will show that emotion words need to be considered as a separate class of words in the mental lexicon, represented and…

  17. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    PubMed Central

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  18. False Beliefs about Emotion: Children's Understanding of Misleading Emotional Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Dana; Harris, Paul L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-eight children aged four and six years listened to stories in which it would be appropriate for the protagonist to feel a negative emotion. Results indicated that six-year-olds were more accurate than four-year-olds in judging that real and apparent emotion would not coincide when the protagonist hid feelings. (RJC)

  19. Importance of Emotional Competence in Designing an Antidrug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Lee, Tak Yan

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

  20. Importance of emotional competence in designing an antidrug education curriculum for junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Law, Ben M F; Lee, Tak Yan

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

  1. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions. PMID:24432196

  2. Selenium supplementation in radiotherapy patients: do we need to measure selenium levels in serum or blood regularly prior radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Muecke, Ralph; Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Kisters, Klaus; Buentzel, Jens; Huebner, Jutta; Kriz, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Considering the review by Puspitasari and colleagues, an additional discussion of the endpoints of the Se supplementation studies described would be helpful. In our view, selenium can safely be given to selenium-deficient cancer patients prior to and during radiotherapy. Therefore, in order to help the radiation oncologist in decision making, we strongly advocate to determine the selenium status prior to and during a potential adjuvant selenium supplementation, e.g. when trying to ease the side-effects of radiation treatment or in the aftercare situation when the selenium status may become insufficient. PMID:25511764

  3. Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery. PMID:26210976

  5. Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shyh-An

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for patients with head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiotherapy is employed as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to surgery. Each specific subsite dictates the appropriate radiotherapy techniques, fields, dose, and fractionation scheme. Quality of life is also an important issue in the management of head and neck cancer. The radiation-related complications have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Modern radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy, can offer precise radiation delivery and reduce the dose to the surrounding normal tissues without compromise of target coverage. In the future, efforts should be made in the exploration of novel strategies to improve treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:22550433

  6. The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Carol May

    Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

  7. Monkey Business: Emotion and Consciousness in Primates

    E-print Network

    Rai, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    human psyche that for some, conceding animal consciousnessdiversity of human emotions. Consciousness, in addition toconsciousness, admits that “there is continuity between the emotional lives of humans and

  8. Emotion Detection in Suicide Notes using Maximum Entropy Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wicentowski, Richard; Sydes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble of supervised maximum entropy classifiers can accurately detect and identify sentiments expressed in suicide notes. Using lexical and syntactic features extracted from a training set of externally annotated suicide notes, we trained separate classifiers for each of fifteen pre-specified emotions. This formed part of the 2011 i2b2 NLP Shared Task, Track 2. The precision and recall of these classifiers related strongly with the number of occurrences of each emotion in the training data. Evaluating on previously unseen test data, our best system achieved an F1 score of 0.534. PMID:22879760

  9. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  10. On the Nature of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

  11. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  12. Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

  13. The hidden emotions of tourism 

    E-print Network

    Carnegie, Margaret Simone

    1996-01-01

    of these perspectives, the modem employee is defined as a passive victim who is controlled by a corporate management which strategically influences the emotional expression of workers. This thesis proposes a forth perspective on the role of emotion in work. Indeed, I...

  14. FINDING BALANCE: ENHANCING PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL,

    E-print Network

    FINDING BALANCE: ENHANCING PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING 3rd Annual Conference for psychologists requesting CE credits TOPICS INCLUDE: How finding "balance" can support our physical, emotional, and social well-being Balance exercises and physical fitness to prevent injuries and cognitive decline

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  16. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  17. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  18. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  19. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  20. Emotion Regulation Deficits in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Levenson, Robert W.

    in the emotional realm. Keywords: emotion, emotion regulation, frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, dementia The ability to regulate emotions is a critical aspect of emotional functioning. Adjusting (e.g., focal lesions, traumatic brain injuries, and vascular events). Neurodegenerative diseases (e

  1. Negotiating with emotion.

    PubMed

    Leary, Kimberlyn; Pillemer, Julianna; Wheeler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some people are practically phobic about going to the bargaining table. If their minimum needs are met, they'll sign on the dotted line just to end the stress of dealing with people who have different agendas and styles. But that can be an expensive aversion, the authors write. When you're facing an important negotiation, rigorous preparation--running the numbers, scouting the marketplace, developing a plan B--is essential. But it's only half the story. The truth is that your passions matter in real-life deal making and dispute resolution. You need to understand, channel, and learn from your emotions in order to adapt to the situation at hand and engage others successfully. The authors studied 20 seasoned negotiators to explore their thoughts and feelings about the process. They invited their participants to find and combine pictures that metaphorically depicted those feelings and to describe in in-depth interviews the collages they'd created. Three reasons for the stressfulness of the negotiation experience emerged: lack of control, unpredictability, and the absence of feedback. This article includes a six-step warm-up exercise to help you prepare emotionally to negotiate effectively. PMID:23390744

  2. Impaired recognition of prosody and subtle emotional facial expressions in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Sharon L; MacDonald, Lorraine; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-04-01

    Accurately recognizing the emotional states of others is crucial for successful social interactions and social relationships. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have shown deficits in emotional recognition abilities although findings have been inconsistent. This study examined recognition of emotions from prosody and from facial emotional expressions with three levels of subtlety, in 30 individuals with PD (without dementia) and 30 control participants. The PD group were impaired on the prosody task, with no differential impairments in specific emotions. PD participants were also impaired at recognizing facial expressions of emotion, with a significant association between how well they could recognize emotions in the two modalities, even after controlling for disease severity. When recognizing facial expressions, the PD group had no difficulty identifying prototypical Ekman and Friesen (1976) emotional faces, but were poorer than controls at recognizing the moderate and difficult levels of subtle expressions. They were differentially impaired at recognizing moderately subtle expressions of disgust and sad expressions at the difficult level. Notably, however, they were impaired at recognizing happy expressions at both levels of subtlety. Furthermore how well PD participants identified happy expressions conveyed by either face or voice was strongly related to accuracy in the other modality. This suggests dysfunction of overlapping components of the circuitry processing happy expressions in PD. This study demonstrates the usefulness of including subtle expressions of emotion, likely to be encountered in everyday life, when assessing recognition of facial expressions. PMID:23565934

  3. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237053

  4. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  5. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  6. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  7. Radiotherapy for Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Anus: Thirty Years' Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J. Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Chang, Albert; Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Kodner, Ira J.; Malayapa, Robert S.; Mutch, Matthew G.; Parikh, Parag; Picus, Joel; Tan, Benjamin R.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. Treatment evolved from radiotherapy with or without surgery, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The radiotherapy techniques also evolved. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED). Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% {+-} 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% {+-} 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% {+-} 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% {+-} 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% {+-} 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001). No association was found with gender, age, preoperative vs. definitive CRT, or human immunodeficiency virus status. The 20 human immunodeficiency virus+ patients all received CRT. The radiotherapy factors associated with Grade 3 or greater late morbidity included anorectal morbidity with tumor dose (29% with a dose {>=}55 Gy vs. 9% otherwise), small bowel injury with technique (9% with anteroposterior-posteroanterior supine vs. 0.7% with multiple fields prone), and bone injury with femoral head dose (9% with a dose of {>=}44 Gy vs. 0.7% otherwise). Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields. Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that CRT is an effective approach. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus can be treated with CRT. Tumor mobility significantly predicts the outcome; the implications for management are discussed. We also discuss the treatment planning implications of the late morbidity findings. The substantial incidence of additional malignancies underscores the importance of full oncologic screening during follow-up.

  8. Recognition of emotional prosody is altered after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Le Jeune, Florence; Sauleau, Paul; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Vérin, Marc

    2010-03-01

    The recognition of facial emotions is impaired following subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). These changes have been linked to a disturbance in the STN's limbic territory, which is thought to be involved in emotional processing. This was confirmed by a recent PET study where these emotional modifications were correlated with changes in glucose metabolism in different brain regions, including the amygdala and the orbitofrontal regions that are well known for their involvement in emotional processing. Nevertheless, the question as to whether these emotional changes induced by STN DBS in PD are modality-specific has yet to be answered. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effects of STN DBS in PD on the recognition of emotional prosody. An original emotional prosody paradigm was administered to twenty-one post-operative PD patients, twenty-one pre-operative PD patients and twenty-one matched controls. Results showed that both the pre- and post-operative groups differed from the healthy controls. There was also a significant difference between the pre and post groups. More specifically, an analysis of their continuous judgments revealed that the performance of the post-operative group compared with that of the other two groups was characterized by a systematic emotional bias whereby they perceived emotions more strongly. These results suggest that the impaired recognition of emotions may not be specific to the visual modality but may also be present when emotions are expressed through the human voice, implying the involvement of the STN in the brain network underlying the recognition of emotional prosody. PMID:20005239

  9. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  10. Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.

    PubMed

    Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness. PMID:22931014

  11. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  12. The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

  13. Expression of emotion in the kinematics of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Barliya, Avi; Omlor, Lars; Giese, Martin A; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2013-03-01

    Here, we examine how different emotions-happiness, fear, sadness and anger-affect the kinematics of locomotion. We focus on a compact representation of locomotion properties using the intersegmental law of coordination (Borghese et al. in J Physiol 494(3):863-879, 1996), which states that, during the gait cycle of human locomotion, the elevation angles of the thigh, shank and foot do not evolve independently of each other but form a planar pattern of co-variation. This phenomenon is highly robust and has been extensively studied. The orientation of the plane has been correlated with changes in the speed of locomotion and with reduction in energy expenditure as speed increases. An analytical model explaining the conditions underlying the emergence of this plane and predicting its orientation reveals that it suffices to examine the amplitudes of the elevation angles of the different segments along with the phase shifts between them (Barliya et al. in Exp Brain Res 193:371-385, 2009). We thus investigated the influence of different emotions on the parameters directly determining the orientation of the intersegmental plane and on the angular rotation profiles of the leg segments, examining both the effect of changes in walking speed and effects independent of speed. Subjects were professional actors and naïve subjects with no training in acting. As expected, emotions were found to strongly affect the kinematics of locomotion, particularly walking speed. The intersegmental coordination patterns revealed that emotional expression caused additional modifications to the locomotion patterns that could not be explained solely by a change in speed. For all emotions except sadness, the amplitude of thigh elevation angles changed from those in neutral locomotion. The intersegmental plane was also differently oriented, especially during anger. We suggest that, while speed is the dominant variable allowing discrimination between different emotional gaits, emotion can be reliably recognized in locomotion only when speed is considered together with these kinematic changes. PMID:23250443

  14. Teaching Methods and Strategies Used in a Christian High School for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Leslie Williams

    2013-01-01

    The findings from the case study research demonstrated that the high school students at the Christian academy who have emotional and behavioral disorders are successful in teaching, retaining, and graduating this population of students. Their teaching methods and strategies included a strong biblical foundation to develop emotional and behavioral…

  15. The Relative Power of an Emotion's Facial Expression, Label, and Behavioral Consequence to Evoke Preschoolers' Knowledge of Its Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Lay people and scientists alike assume that, especially for young children, facial expressions are a strong cue to another's emotion. We report a study in which children (N=120; 3-4 years) described events that would cause basic emotions (surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness) presented as its facial expression, as its label, or as its…

  16. "Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

  17. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers’ emotion coaching and children’s emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children’s adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment. When children were high in emotion lability/negativity, mothers’ emotion coaching was associated with lower mother and child reports of externalizing behavior. Results suggest the role of emotion regulation and emotion lability in child awareness of socio-emotional problems and support the potential of maternal emotion coaching as a protective factor for children with ODD, especially for those high in emotion lability. PMID:24187441

  18. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  19. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    PubMed

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. PMID:25799160

  20. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  1. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, C; Quispe-Escudero, D; Mathur, A; Ernst, M

    2015-01-01

    As healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over two separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented neutral and negative pictures, with the instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, but not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotion reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  2. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  3. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2h after treatment with oral cocaine (300mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  4. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  5. Stress, sense of coherence and emotional symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A; Haugan, Gørill

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the association between the domains of stress, sense of coherence (SOC) and emotional symptoms (depression and anxiety) in adolescents, as well as the potential moderating role of SOC on the relationship between stress and emotional symptoms. The study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 1183 adolescents aged 13-18 who attend public elementary and secondary schools in Mid-Norway. The results showed that girls scored higher than boys on stress related to peer pressure, home life, school performance, school/leisure conflict and emotional symptoms. Conversely, boys reported higher SOC than girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that for boys, stress related to school performance was positively associated with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, whereas stress from peer pressure was associated with depressive symptoms. For girls, stress from peer pressure, romantic relationships and school was associated with more depressive symptoms. SOC was strongly and inversely associated with emotional symptoms, especially anxiety in girls. SOC also moderated the association between stress related to peer pressure and depressive symptoms in both genders. The study provides evidence of the association of SOC with stress and emotional symptoms during adolescence. PMID:23906224

  6. Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students

    PubMed Central

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

  7. Emotional reactivity, coping style and cancer trauma symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Laskowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article studies the relationship between emotional reactivity and coping style on the one hand and intensity of symptoms of trauma in adult patients with cancer on the other hand. Material and methods The study was conducted on 150 patients, 55 women and 95 men, hospitalized for diagnosed cancer. Temperament was assessed with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI). Coping style was assessed with the Polish version of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC). Intensity of intrusion/hyperarousal and avoidance/numbing was assessed with the Factorial Version Inventory (PTSD), a quantitative measure of trauma-related symptoms. Results The outcomes of this study suggest that individual coping style is what determines the intensity of trauma-related symptoms most strongly. Destructive coping style accounts for 49% of the variance of symptom intensity and emotional reactivity accounts for 6%. Combined, destructive coping style and emotional reactivity account for 55% of the variance of general post-traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusions Destructive coping style (more important determinant of trauma symptoms) and high emotional reactivity as one of temperament traits are conducive to intensification of cancer trauma symptoms in adult patients. Our findings suggest that constructive coping style and low emotional reactivity may act as a specific protector against cancer trauma symptoms in adults. PMID:24701223

  8. A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    72 3 A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence edmund t. rolls Emotions may be defined also leads to a framework for understanding emotional intelligence, in that the evolution of each and intelligence. By focusing on the core capacities that are fundamental to emotion, it is possible to identify

  9. Preschool Emotional Competence: Pathway to Social Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Blair, Kimberly A.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Levitas, Jennifer; Sawyer, Katherine; Auerbach-Major, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Assessed preschoolers' patterns of emotional expressiveness, emotion regulation, and emotion knowledge. Used latent variable modeling to identify their contributions to social competence, evidenced by sociometric liability and teacher ratings. Found that emotional competence assessed at 3 to 4 years of age contributed to both concurrent and…

  10. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  11. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

  12. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

  13. Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

  14. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  15. Emotional stress and the electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Ruttkay-Nedecký, I; Cherkovich, G M

    1982-01-01

    The joint function of electrocardiographic cycle duration and of the spatial magnitude of the repolarization maximum vector, recorded with the physically corrected orthogonal lead system McFee-Parungao was used for studies of the effect of mental arithmetics in man and of emotional stimulation in unrestrained macaques. This approach allowed to distinguish between heart rate changes with and without signs of direct sympathetic stimulation of the working myocardium, and to study the correlation between emotionally induced effects on the pacemaker and on ventricular myocardial fibers. The latter was found to be much more expressed in macaques than in man. Emotionally induced ECG changes may detect persons prone to hyperkinetic circulation. PMID:7183103

  16. The fusiform response to faces: explicit versus implicit processing of emotion.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Justin F; Griffin, Mark; Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Roberts, Timothy P L; Christopher Edgar, J

    2013-01-01

    Regions of the fusiform gyrus (FG) respond preferentially to faces over other classes of visual stimuli. It remains unclear whether emotional face information modulates FG activity. In the present study, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was obtained from fifteen healthy adults who viewed emotionally expressive faces and made button responses based upon emotion (explicit condition) or age (implicit condition). Dipole source modeling produced source waveforms for left and right primary visual and left and right fusiform areas. Stronger left FG activity (M170) to fearful than happy or neutral faces was observed only in the explicit task, suggesting that directed attention to the emotional content of faces facilitates observation of M170 valence modulation. A strong association between M170 FG activity and reaction times in the explicit task provided additional evidence for a role of the fusiform gyrus in processing emotional information. PMID:21932258

  17. Are effects of emotion expression on trait impressions mediated by babyfaceness? Evidence from connectionist modeling.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2007-05-01

    Two studies provided evidence that bolsters the Marsh, Adams, and Kleck hypothesis that the morphology of certain emotion expressions reflects an evolved adaptation to mimic babies or mature adults. Study 1 found differences in emotion expressions' resemblance to babies using objective indices of babyfaceness provided by connectionist models that are impervious to overlapping cultural stereotypes about babies and the emotions. Study 2 not only replicated parallels between impressions of certain emotions and babies versus adults but also showed that objective indices of babyfaceness partially mediated impressions of the emotion expressions. babyface effects were independent of strong effects of attractiveness, and babyfaceness did not mediate impressions of happy expressions, to which the evolutionary hypothesis would not apply. PMID:17440203

  18. Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

  19. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  20. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Holt, Bronno van der; Braat, Cora; Klaveren, Robertus J. van; Pattynama, Peter M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

  1. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. PMID:25291087

  2. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Ku?, Rafa?; ?ygierewicz, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  3. Emotion mediation in audio-visual correspondences among natural sounds, texture, and art.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joshua; Palmer, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research shows that music-to-color associations are mediated by emotion (Palmer et al., 2013), even for low-level musical stimuli, including two-note intervals and instrumental timbres (Griscom & Palmer, VSS-2012). To test the generality of such emotional effects beyond music and color, we first examined crossmodal relationships between natural sounds (e.g. zippers, flames, radio static) and line-based visual textures. For each sound, participants chose the three most-consistent and three least-consistent among 28 black-and-white textures. Subjects later rated each sound and texture individually on 5 emotional (e.g. happy/sad, angry/not-angry) and 8 non-emotional dimensions (e.g. sharp/smooth, simple/complex). For each dimension, we computed an index of sound-to-texture associations (STAs) as a weighted average of the ratings of the 6 textures chosen as going best/worst with each sound. We found medium correlations between ratings of the sounds and the STAs of the textures chosen to go best/worst with them for some non-emotional dimensions (e.g. simple/complex=+.57, slanted/not-slanted=+.59), but no emotional dimensions. Because previous emotion mediation effects involved highly emotional stimuli, such as music, we hypothesized that an emotional visual stimulus, such as abstract art, might result in emotion mediation with the same natural sounds. Using the same design, a sound-to-artwork association task produced medium correlations between sound ratings and the sound-to-artwork association indices of the artwork chosen to go best/worst with them for both emotional (e.g. angry/not-angry=+.62) and non-emotional dimensions (e.g. simple/complex=+.60). We also tested for synergistic effects using two modalities that both contained highly emotional content: the same 28 abstract-art pieces and 34 widely-varying musical selections from heavy-metal to Hindustani-sitar. Strong correlations emerged between music ratings and the music-to-artwork association indices of the artwork chosen as going best/worst with them for both emotional (e.g. calm/agitated=+.88) and non-emotional dimensions (e.g. active/passive=+.87). The results suggest that emotion-mediated crossmodal matches are context dependent, depending on the modalities involved. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326543

  4. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

  5. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juslin, Patrik N.

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

  6. Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellitteri, John; Dealy, Michael; Fasano, Charles; Kugler, John

    2006-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective…

  7. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  8. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  9. Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Knife page for more information . Linear accelerator (LINAC) machines, prevalent throughout the world, deliver high-energy x- ... stereotactic radiotherapy. Multiple manufacturers make this type of machine, which have brand names such as Novalis Tx™, ...

  10. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  11. The emotional economy of housing 

    E-print Network

    Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

  12. Emodiversity and the emotional ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Gruber, June; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Kogan, Alexsandr; Kotsou, Ilios; Norton, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 143(6) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2014-49316-001). There is a color coding error in Figure 2. The correct color coding is explained in the erratum.] Bridging psychological research exploring emotional complexity and research in the natural sciences on the measurement of biodiversity, we introduce--and demonstrate the benefits of--emodiversity: the variety and relative abundance of the emotions that humans experience. Two cross-sectional studies across more than 37,000 respondents demonstrate that emodiversity is an independent predictor of mental and physical health--such as decreased depression and doctor's visits--over and above mean levels of positive and negative emotion. These results remained robust after controlling for gender, age, and the 5 main dimensions of personality. Emodiversity is a practically important and previously unidentified metric for assessing the health of the human emotional ecosystem. PMID:25285428

  13. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frustration, possibly with a temper tantrum or sullen rage. He may even strike back by hitting, biting, ... emotions, be prepared for everything from delight to rage. However, you should consult your pediatrician if your ...

  14. Longitudinal Effects of Social Support and Adaptive Coping on the Emotional Well-Being of Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bustillo, Natalie E.; Benedict, Catherine; Rasheed, Mikal; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques. PMID:21086876

  15. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  16. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  17. Detecting hemifacial asymmetries in emotional expression with three-dimensional computerized image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Ellis, Brooke E.; Clement, John G.; Yoshino, Mineo

    2004-01-01

    Emotions are expressed more clearly on the left side of the face than the right: an asymmetry that probably stems from right hemisphere dominance for emotional expression (right hemisphere model). More controversially, it has been suggested that the left hemiface bias is stronger for negative emotions and weaker or reversed for positive emotions (valence model). We examined the veracity of the right hemisphere and valence models by measuring asymmetries in: (i) movement of the face; and (ii) observer's rating of emotionality. The study uses a precise three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to measure facial movement and to provide images that simultaneously capture the left or right hemifaces. Models (n = 16) with happy, sad and neutral expressions were digitally captured and manipulated. Comparison of the neutral and happy or sad images revealed greater movement of the left hemiface, regardless of the valence of the emotion, supporting the right hemisphere model. There was a trend, however, for left-sided movement to be more pronounced for negative than positive emotions. Participants (n = 357) reported that portraits rotated so that the left hemiface was featured, were more expressive of negative emotions whereas right hemiface portraits were more expressive for positive emotions, supporting the valence model. The effect of valence was moderated when the images were mirror-reversed. The data demonstrate that relatively small rotations of the head have a dramatic effect on the expression of positive and negative emotions. The fact that the effect of valence was not captured by the movement analysis demonstrates that subtle movements can have a strong effect on the expression of emotion. PMID:15209097

  18. The Strength of Weak Identities: Social Structural Sources of Self, Situation and Emotional Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Lovin, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Modern societies are highly differentiated, with relatively uncorrelated socially salient dimensions and a preponderance of weak, unidimensional (as opposed to strong, multiplex) ties. What are the implications of a society with fewer strong ties and more weak ties for the self? What do these changes mean for our emotional experience in everyday…

  19. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

  20. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  1. Temperament, emotion, and childhood stuttering.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2014-05-01

    Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The traitlike nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more statelike and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter. Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

  2. Using humour as an extrinsic source of emotion regulation in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Harm, Jonathan; Vieillard, Sandrine; Didierjean, André

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that intrinsic abilities for regulating emotions remain stable or improve with ageing, but, to date, no studies have examined age-related differences in extrinsic emotion regulation. Since humour has been found to be an effective form of emotion regulation, we used a paradigm similar to that of Strick and colleagues (2009) with two objectives: to compare extrinsic humorous emotion regulation in young and older adults and to test whether the potential beneficial effect of humour on negative emotion is better explained by the cognitive distraction hypothesis or by the positive affect elicitation hypothesis. To this end, neutral, moderately, and strongly negative pictures followed by humorous, simply positive, or weird cartoons, controlled for both their funniness and cognitive demands, were presented to 26 young and 25 older adults with the instruction to report their negative feelings. When induced to feel moderately negative emotions, both young and older adults reported a lower negative feeling after viewing the humorous cartoons than after the other ones. This indicates that the extrinsic humorous emotion regulation skill remains stable with ageing and suggests that the beneficial effect of humour on emotional feeling cannot be seen as a purely cognitive distraction. PMID:24325142

  3. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  4. Language and emotions: emotional Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. The paper considers conceptual and emotional mechanisms of language along with their role in the mind and cultural evolution. Language evolution from primordial undifferentiated animal cries is discussed: while conceptual contents increase, emotional reduced. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, neural modeling fields. Mathematical results are related to cognitive science, linguistics, and psychology. Experimental evidence and theoretical arguments are discussed. Dynamics of the hierarchy-heterarchy of human minds and cultures is formulated using mean-field approach and approximate equations are obtained. The knowledge instinct operating in the mind heterarchy leads to mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis determining ontological development and cultural evolution. These mathematical models identify three types of cultures: "conceptual" pragmatic cultures in which emotionality of language is reduced and differentiation overtakes synthesis resulting in fast evolution at the price of uncertainty of values, self doubts, and internal crises; "traditional-emotional" cultures where differentiation lags behind synthesis, resulting in cultural stability at the price of stagnation; and "multi-cultural" societies combining fast cultural evolution and stability. Unsolved problems and future theoretical and experimental directions are discussed. PMID:19616406

  5. The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

  6. Personality and susceptibility to positive and negative emotional states.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R J; Ketelaar, T

    1991-07-01

    Gray's (1981) theory suggests that extraverts and neurotics are differentially sensitive to stimuli that generate positive and negative affect, respectively. From this theory it was hypothesized that efficacy of a standard positive-affect induction would be more strongly related to extraversion than to neuroticism scores, whereas efficacy of a standard negative-affect induction would be more strongly related to neuroticism scores. Positive and negative affect was manipulated in a controlled setting, and the effectiveness of the mood induction was assessed using standard mood adjective rating scales. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotic Ss (compared with stable Ss) show heightened emotional reactivity to the negative-mood induction, whereas extraverts (compared with intraverts) show heightened emotional reactivity to the positive-mood induction. Results corroborate and extend previous findings. PMID:1890584

  7. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  8. BUILDING STRONG Industry Listening

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Communications Team #12;BUILDING STRONG® U.S. Port and Inland Waterways Modernization Strategy: OptionsBUILDING STRONG® 1 Industry Listening Session Keith Hofseth USACE Institute for Water Resources US Strategy: Options for the Future #12;BUILDING STRONG® U.S. Port and Inland Waterways Modernization Strategy

  9. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields and step-and-shoot intensity levels). Simulated random and systematic errors in the pO2-related images reduced the TCP for the non-uniform dose prescription. In conclusion, improved tumour control of hypoxic tumours by dose redistribution may be expected following hypoxia imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and IMRT.

  10. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  11. The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

  12. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  13. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Roopashri, G; Baig, Muqeet

    2013-01-01

    Necessity is the mother of all inventions. This is also true in case of cancer therapy. With increasing incidence of head and neck malignancies, remarkable developments have been made towards cancer development and treatment which continues to be a major challenge. Approximately fifty percent of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy which contributes towards forty percent of curative treatment for cancer. New developments in radiation oncology have helped to improve outlook for patients and find more effective treatment. With the advent of new technologies, radiotherapy seems to be promising in patients with head and neck malignancies these advancements include Altered fractionation, Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Image Guided Radiotherapy, Stereotactic radiation, Charged-particle radiotherapy, and Intraoperative radiotherapy. How to cite this article: Roopashri G, Baig M. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):119-23 . PMID:24453456

  14. Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition. PMID:24278456

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer After 76 Gy Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy vs. 70 Gy Conformal Radiotherapy in a Prospective and Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene Dehnad, Human; Kruger, Arto Boeken; Moorselaar, Jeroen van; Heide, Uulke van; Battermann, Jan; Vulpen, Marco van

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QoL) after 70 Gy conformal radiotherapy with QoL after 76 Gy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were treated with 70 Gy three-field conformal radiotherapy, and 92 patients received 76 Gy IMRT with fiducial markers for position verification. Quality of life was measured by RAND-36, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30(+3)), and the prostate-specific EORTC QLQ-PR25, before radiotherapy (baseline) and 1 month and 6 months after treatment. Quality of life changes in time (baseline vs. 1 month and baseline vs. 6 months) of {>=}10 points were considered clinically relevant. Results: Differences between the treatment groups for QoL changes over time occurred in several QoL domains. The 76-Gy group revealed no significant deterioration in QoL compared with the 70-Gy group. The IMRT 76-Gy group even demonstrated a significantly better change in QoL from baseline to 1 month in several domains. The conformal 70-Gy group revealed temporary deterioration in pain, role functioning, and urinary symptoms; for the IMRT 76-Gy group a better QoL in terms of change in health existed after 1 month, which persisted after 6 months. For both treatment groups temporary deterioration in physical role restriction occurred after 1 month, and an improvement in emotional role restriction occurred after 6 months. Sexual activity was reduced after treatment for both groups and remained decreased after 6 months. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and accurate position verification seem to provide a possibility to increase the radiation dose for prostate cancer without deterioration in QoL.

  16. Salvage surgery and microsurgical reconstruction for recurrence of skull base osteosarcoma after carbon ion radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kohyama, Keishi; Yamada, Kenji; Sugiura, Hideshi; Hyodo, Ikuo; Ozawa, Taijiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Kato, Hisakazu; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbon ion radiotherapy has recently emerged as an alternative choice of treatment for malignant tumors of the head and neck. However, it is still in the infant stages and its influence on subsequent salvage surgery remains unclear. Here we report the case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent salvage surgery for left frontal bone osteosarcoma recurrence following carbon ion radiotherapy. Tumor resection was performed with a wide margin including the tissue considered to have been damaged by carbon ion radiotherapy. The dural defect was reconstructed using a fascia lata graft and pedicled galeal pericranial flap. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed using an anterolateral thigh flap anastomosed to the ipsilateral neck interposed by the radial forearm flap. As the patient developed no postoperative wound complications, she was able to initiate adjuvant chemotherapy early. Carbon ion radiotherapy is useful for its focused distribution and strong biological effects. Although the affected field may be limited, its high potency may severely damage adjacent normal tissue and lead to serious postoperative complications. Despite these concerns, satisfactory results were achieved in this case. PMID:26663946

  17. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  18. The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

  19. The Mysterious Noh Mask: Contribution of Multiple Facial Parts to the Recognition of Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally formulated performing styles when evaluating the emotions of the Noh masks. PMID:23185595

  20. The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

  1. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  2. Emotionally challenging learning situations: medical students' experiences of autopsies

    PubMed Central

    Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore medical students’ experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy. Methods Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen. Conclusions Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.

  3. The emotional experience associated with worrying: anxiety, depression, or stress?

    PubMed

    Szabó, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance theories propose that worrying results in a reduction of the physiological arousal symptoms of anxiety. However, relatively little is known about the emotional symptoms that remain associated with worrying. This study explored whether the emotional states of anxiety, depression, or stress are specifically associated with excessive and uncontrollable worry. A group of 126 university students were selected to represent a wide range on the dimension of worry proneness. They completed a worry questionnaire, monitored the frequency and uncontrollability of their worry episodes for 1 week, and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) to indicate their level of negative affect during the monitoring period. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that all measures of worrying had a unique positive association with stress, over and above their associations with anxiety and depression. Item-level analyses showed that stress symptoms were uniformly strongly associated with worrying, while anxiety symptoms had the weakest associations. These results increase our knowledge regarding the phenomenology of worrying and underline the potential theoretical significance of the emotional state assessed by the DASS Stress scale. This scale fills the current need for a psychometrically sound instrument to assess the emotional experience associated with worrying. PMID:20198520

  4. Automatic emotion regulation after social exclusion: tuning to positivity.

    PubMed

    DeWall, C Nathan; Twenge, Jean M; Koole, Sander L; Baumeister, Roy F; Marquez, Allissa; Reid, Mark W

    2011-06-01

    Nine experiments tested competing hypotheses regarding nonconscious affective responses to acute social exclusion and how such responses may relate to positive mental health. The results strongly and consistently indicated that acute social exclusion increased nonconscious positive affect. Compared to nonexcluded participants, excluded participants recalled more positive memories from childhood than did accepted participants (Experiment 1), gave greater weight to positive emotion in their judgments of word similarity (Experiments 2 and 3), and completed more ambiguous word stems with happy words (Experiments 4a and 4b). This process was apparently automatic, as participants asked to imagine exclusion overestimated explicit distress and underestimated implicit positivity (Experiment 3). Four final experiments showed that this automatic emotion regulation process was found among participants low (but not high) in depressive symptoms (Experiments 5 and 6) and among participants high (but not low) in self-esteem (Experiments 7 and 8). These findings suggest that acute exclusion sets in motion an automatic emotion regulation process in which positive emotions become highly accessible, which relates to positive mental health. PMID:21668113

  5. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents 

    E-print Network

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    Emotions were shown to have a leading role in the human decision-making process, and thus they play an important role in human intelligence. Intelligent agents' research produced many models of emotional agents. However, most of these models focused...

  6. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  7. Cogsys Principia --Emotions Finn Arup Nielsen

    E-print Network

    on cats with severed afferent nerves of the sympathetic ner- vous system: They still experience `emotions with severed afferent nerves of the sympathetic ner- vous system: They still experience `emotions

  8. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the main findings of a ...

  9. Imagery and emotion in chronic pain 

    E-print Network

    Lonsdale, Jennifer Helen

    2010-11-26

    Psychological factors have important implications for adjustment to chronic pain, which itself has a variety of emotional consequences. Mental imagery has historically been assumed to be closely connected to emotional responses, and some...

  10. Identification of Youngsters with Emotional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl R.

    A clarification of the identification process for emotionally disturbed children is presented. Traditional definitions of emotional disturbance (ED) are explored and four behavioral clusters within traditional definitions are presented. The four are withdrawal from social interaction (autism), unsatisfactory interpersonal relationships,…

  11. Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsson, Alf

    1999-01-01

    Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

  12. Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.

    2009-01-01

    Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

  13. Entropy growth in emotional online dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Skowron, M.; Paltoglou, G.; Ho?yst, Janusz A.

    2013-02-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and model the dialogues between its participants by assuming that the driving force for the discussion is the entropy growth of emotional probability distribution.

  14. Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Methods Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). Results Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p<.001), whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=?.39, p<.001). Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=?.20, p<.01). Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. Conclusions The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector. PMID:23244390

  15. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

  16. EMOTION PUPPETS Emotion puppets are a great way to start a

    E-print Network

    Kornfeld, S. Kerry

    EMOTION PUPPETS Emotion puppets are a great way to start a conversation with your kids about the child create puppets with the materials provided. 3. Have the child choose an emotion for each puppet. Let the child display the emotion on the puppet in whatever way he or she feels best expresses

  17. Experienced Emotions, Emotion Regulation and Student Activity in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuorela, Minna; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    We examined what events cause emotional reactions when students use a web-based learning environment (WBLE) in their studies, and how the emotions experienced while using the WBLE, emotion regulation strategies and computer self-efficacy are related to collaborative activities in the environment. Lability of emotional reactions and their…

  18. Affective Science and Health: The Importance of Emotion and Emotion Regulation

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    . Keywords: affective science, health, emotion, emotion regulation, stress The past few decades haveAffective Science and Health: The Importance of Emotion and Emotion Regulation David DeSteno Northeastern University James J. Gross Stanford University Laura Kubzansky Harvard School of Public Health

  19. Relationships of Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse to Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Incarcerated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Koopman, Cheryl; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Nicole; Canterbury, R. J., II

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationships of sexual, physical and emotional abuse to emotional and behavioral problems among incarcerated girls and boys. Analyses indicated that girls were more likely than boys to internalize their problems. The only abuse variable that was positively and significantly associated with emotional problems was emotional abuse.…

  20. Socialization of Emotion: Pathway to Preschoolers' Affect Regulation and Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship among four possible mechanisms for children's socialization of emotion: (1) mothers are essentially modeling the expression of emotion; (2) mothers' emotions serve a coaching function; (3) the affective environment to which a child is exposed may impact general social-emotional competence; and (4) mothers'…

  1. Responding to User Emotional State by Adding Emotional Coloring to Utterances

    E-print Network

    Ward, Nigel

    Responding to User Emotional State by Adding Emotional Coloring to Utterances Jaime C. Acosta the staff member colored her utterances in response to the emotion shown by the student in the immediately such as varying prosody in voice. These be- haviors, sometimes interpreted as demonstrations of emotions, call

  2. Mothers' Socialization of Emotion Regulation: The Moderating Role of Children's Negative Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Scott P.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Robison, Sarah D.

    2009-01-01

    During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children's propensity towards negative emotional arousal interacts with mothers' efforts to socialize emotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and…

  3. "Practice What You Preach": Teachers' Perceptions of Emotional Competence and Emotionally Supportive Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The connections between parents' emotional competence (emotion expression, regulation, and knowledge) and children's social-emotional learning (SEL) have been well studied; however, the associations among teachers' emotional competencies and children's SEL remain widely understudied. In the present study, private preschool and…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Suppression and Reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Emotion dysregulation has long been thought to be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders. However vulnerability is related to difficulties with emotion regulation by comparing recovered-depressed and never

  5. Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

  6. The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

  7. Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  8. Emotion and language - When and how comes emotion into words?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Emotion [13] is the first emotion theory to include language as part of its four affect systems allocating two functions of language in emotion processing: communication and regulation. Both are supposed to occur late during the emotion process and by translation or reconfiguration of a pre-verbal emotion percept into a symbolic language code which then gives rise to the conscious experience of an emotion allowing communication or regulation [14] of a felt emotion.

  9. The Couples Emotion Rating Form: Psychometric Properties and Theoretical Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Couples Emotion Rating Form assesses 3 types of negative emotion that are salient during times of relationship conflict. Hard emotion includes feeling angry and aggravated, soft emotion includes feeling hurt and sad, and flat emotion includes feeling bored and indifferent. In Study 1, scales measuring hard and soft emotion were validated by…

  10. Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Links to Pretend and Physical Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between preschoolers' play and emotional competence with peers. Found that emotion regulation and emotion understanding made unique contributions to teacher ratings of children's emotional competence with peers. High pretend play levels related to high emotion understanding for both boys and girls, and high emotion regulation…

  11. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  12. Emotions as pragmatic and epistemic actions

    PubMed Central

    Wilutzky, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that emotions in social contexts and their intentionality may be conceived of as pragmatic or epistemic actions. That is, emotions are often aimed at achieving certain goals within a social context, so that they resemble pragmatic actions; and in other cases emotions can be plausibly construed as acts of probing the social environment so as to extract or uncover important information, thus complying with the functions of epistemic actions (cf. Kirsh and Maglio, 1994). This view of emotions stands at odds with the wide-held conception that emotions' intentionality can be cashed out in terms of representations of value. On such a position, emotions' intentionality has only a mind-to-world direction of fit while any world-to-mind direction of fit is deemed secondary or is even outrightly denied. However, acknowledging that emotions (qua actions) also have a world-to-mind direction fit has several advantages over the typical rendition of emotions as representations of value, such as accounting for emotions' sensitivity to contextual factors, variations in emotion expression and, importantly, assessing the appropriateness of emotional reactions. To substantiate this claim, several cases of emotions in social contexts are discussed, as the social dimension of emotions highlights that emotions are inherently ways of interacting with one's social environment. In sum, the construal of emotions in social contexts as pragmatic or epistemic actions yields a more fine-grained and accurate understanding of emotions' intentionality and their roles in social contexts than the insistence on a purely mind-to-world direction of fit. PMID:26578999

  13. Dose optimisation during imaging in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, P

    2007-01-01

    The desire to increase the precision in radiotherapy delivery has led to the development of advanced imaging systems such as amorphous silicon (a-Si)-based electronic portal imaging, and kV and MV cone beam CT. These are used prior to the delivery of radiation to visualise the organ to be treated and to ensure that the patient setup and treatment delivery are accurate. However, little attention has been given to the dose received by adjacent normal tissues during these imaging procedures. Though these doses are very small compared to the dose delivered during radiotherapy, the involvement of normal tissues and the concern that these could increase the probability of stochastic effect, mainly the induction of secondary malignancy, cannot be ignored. This article reviews some work on the doses received during imaging in radiotherapy and the methods to optimise the same. PMID:21614272

  14. [Good practice of image-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Créhange, G; Castelli, J; Lafond, C; Delpon, G

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account the anatomical variations occurring during the course of radiotherapy, by direct or indirect visualization of the target volume followed by a corrective action. The movements of the target, or at least the set-up errors are corrected by moving the treatment table, corresponding to the simplest and most validated IGRT modality in a standard practice. The deformations of the target volume and organs at risk are however much more common, and unfortunately much more complicated to consider, requiring multiple planning before or during the treatment, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy strategies. The planning target volume must be carefully chosen according to these anatomic variations. This article reviews the modalities of IGRT, standard or under evaluation, according to the different tumour sites. PMID:26344443

  15. Strong Navajo marriages.

    PubMed

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenband, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths: (1) maintain communication, (2) nurture your relationship, (3) learn about marriage, (4) be prepared for marriage, and (5) have a strong foundation. PMID:19085828

  16. The future of emotion L'avenir des emotions

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    literature on two key aspects of the central circuitry of emotion ± the prefrontal cortex (PFC body of literature is converging on the idea that there exist two fundamental systems that underlie and Gardner, 1999; Davidson and Irwin, 1999a; Gray, 1994; Lang et al., 1990; Schneirla, 1959). The precise

  17. Molecular Imaging to Plan Radiotherapy and Evaluate Its Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeraj, Robert; Bradshaw, Tyler; Simon?i?, Urban

    2015-11-01

    Molecular imaging plays a central role in the management of radiation oncology patients. Specific uses of imaging, particularly to plan radiotherapy and assess its efficacy, require an additional level of reproducibility and image quality beyond what is required for diagnostic imaging. Specific requirements include proper patient preparation, adequate technologist training, careful imaging protocol design, reliable scanner technology, reproducible software algorithms, and reliable data analysis methods. As uncertainty in target definition is arguably the greatest challenge facing radiation oncology, the greatest impact that molecular imaging can have may be in the reduction of interobserver variability in target volume delineation and in providing greater conformity between target volume boundaries and true tumor boundaries. Several automatic and semiautomatic contouring methods based on molecular imaging are available but still need sufficient validation to be widely adopted. Biologically conformal radiotherapy (dose painting) based on molecular imaging-assessed tumor heterogeneity is being investigated, but many challenges remain to fully exploring its potential. Molecular imaging also plays increasingly important roles in both early (during treatment) and late (after treatment) response assessment as both a predictive and a prognostic tool. Because of potentially confounding effects of radiation-induced inflammation, treatment response assessment requires careful interpretation. Although molecular imaging is already strongly embedded in radiotherapy, the path to widespread and all-inclusive use is still long. The lack of solid clinical evidence is the main impediment to broader use. Recommendations for practicing physicians are still rather scarce. (18)F-FDG PET/CT remains the main molecular imaging modality in radiation oncology applications. Although other molecular imaging options (e.g., proliferation imaging) are becoming more common, their widespread use is limited by lack of tracer availability and inadequate reimbursement models. With the increasing presence of molecular imaging in radiation oncology, special emphasis should be placed on adequate training of radiation oncology personnel to understand the potential, and particularly the limitations, of quantitative molecular imaging applications. Similarly, radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists should be sensitized to the special need of the radiation oncologist in terms of quantification and reproducibility. Furthermore, strong collaboration between radiation oncology, nuclear medicine/radiology, and medical physics teams is necessary, as optimal and safe use of molecular imaging can be ensured only within appropriate interdisciplinary teams. PMID:26383148

  18. Patterns of care of radiotherapy in México

    PubMed Central

    Poitevin-Chacón, Adela; Hinojosa-Gómez, José

    2012-01-01

    Aim This survey is performed to learn about the structure of radiotherapy in México. Background Radiation oncology practice is increasing because of the higher incidence of cancer. There is no published data about radiotherapy in México. Materials and methods A questionnaire was sent to the 83 registered centers in the database of the Mexican regulatory agency. One out of the 32 states has no radiotherapy. 27 centers from 14 states provided their answers. Results 829 patients are treated annually with any radiotherapy modality in each center. Two centers have one cobalt machine, 7 have a cobalt and a linac and 10 have more than one linac. Five centers use 2D planning systems, 22 use 3D; 9, conventional simulators; 22, CT based simulation, and 1 center has no simulation. Most of the centers verify beams with films, electronic portal image devices and cone beam CTs are also used. Intensity modulated and image guided radiotherapy are performed in 5 states. Breast, prostate, cervix, lung, rectum and head and neck cancer are the six most common locations. There are 45 public and 38 private centers, 2 dedicated to children. Two gamma knife units, 5 Novalis systems, 1 tomotherapy and 2 cyberknife machines are working. All centers have at least one radiation oncologist, one physicist and one radiotherapist. Conclusions Definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from this limited feedback due to a low participation of centers. This survey about radiotherapy in Mexico shows the heterogeneity of equipment as well as medical and technical staff in the whole country. PMID:24416531

  19. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    PubMed Central

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  20. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  1. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  2. Emotion capture based on body postures and

    E-print Network

    systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 #12;The goalEmotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay

  3. Pedagogical Possibilities: Engaging Cultural Rules of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight-Diop, Michelle; Oesterreich, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Teaching, leading, and learning are inextricably connected to emotions. Yet, the significance of emotions is rarely addressed in educational settings, and when it is, the relationship between emotions and curricula is most often framed by of an overly individualistic behavior model that focuses on the management and regulation…

  4. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  5. Designing Instructional Technology from an Emotional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astleitner, Hermann; Leutner, Detlev

    2000-01-01

    Presents strategies for making instructional technology more emotionally sound. Discusses fear, envy, anger, sympathy, and pleasure, and describes 20 instructional strategies that can be used to decrease negative emotions and increase positive emotions including computer-assisted instruction, multimedia, linked information, social networks on the…

  6. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  7. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  8. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions

  9. "Keeping It Real" with an Emotional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storrs, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Students' emotions can significantly enhance or distract from learning. This paper details a case study of innovative pedagogy in which an "emotional curriculum" was central to my teaching. The analysis of student journals, on-line discussions, and metaphorical exercises revealed a vicissitude of emotions that stemmed from challenging course…

  10. Immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed. PMID:22148998

  11. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  12. Positive Emotions: Passionate Scholarship and Student Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Colin; Humberstone, Barbara; Clayton, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the practical and conceptual understanding of the role of emotions in higher education from the twin perspectives of transition and transformation. Focusing on the neglected area of positive emotions, exploratory data reveal a rich, low-level milieu of undergraduate emotional awareness in students chiefly attributed to…

  13. Bullying Reconsidered: Educating for Emotional Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional literacy has an important place in the English curriculum because emotions cannot be separated from reading, writing, and thinking critically with language. Teachers can use the study of literature, writing, and language to reframe emotion from being something that creates victims and victimizers into feelings that can be critically…

  14. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  15. "Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

  16. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  17. Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

  18. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  19. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    PubMed

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  20. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  1. Children's Ability to Recognise Emotion from Photographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Maureen; Ireson, Judith M.

    A total of 128 middle- and upper-working class children in four age groups, ranging in 2-year intervals from 4 to 10 years of age and equally divided by sex, viewed 28 photographs of adults and children expressing seven emotions in order to explore developmental changes in children's ability to differentiate emotions. Emotions modeled were…

  2. Facilitating Maltreated Children's Use of Emotional Language.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Lyon, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4-9-year-old maltreated children's spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children's use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children's use of emotional language. PMID:25243047

  3. Emotional Development in the First Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciuti, Henry N.

    Concerning the issues of emotional development, general agreement can only be reached on the definition of "emotional" behavior. Behavior is emotional when it varies from an individual's behavioral baseline by the addition of three components: (1) an action component, (2) an arousal component, and (3) a subjective "feeling" component. In all areas…

  4. Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias

    PubMed Central

    Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

  5. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion

  6. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  7. Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

  8. The Emotional Life of the Toddler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.

    Noting that parenting a toddler can be both exhilarating and frustrating, this book draws on lifelong research into children's emotional development to provide parents with a better understanding of toddlers' emotional range and how it affects toddler behavior. The 10 chapters and the conclusion cover the following areas: (1) the emotional

  9. Model of Emotional Expressions in Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozaliev, Vladimir L.; Orlova, Yulia A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to automated identification of human emotions based on analysis of body movements, a recognition of gestures and poses. Methodology, models and automated system for emotion identification are considered. To characterize the person emotions in the model, body movements are described with linguistic variables and a…

  10. Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Systems Science

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Dan Yang Systems Science University of Ottawa Ottawa that is extended to 23 specific emotion categories. Our results for mining the lyrical text of songs for specific that correspond to commonsense intuitions about specific emotions. Mining lyrics focused in this paper is one

  11. Understanding Atypical Emotions among Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieffe, Carolien; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Stockmann, Lex

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three high-functioning children with autism (ages 5-11), 42 6-year-old controls, and 43 10-year-old controls were presented with six emotion-evoking stories and were asked to explain protagonists' typical and atypical emotions. In the case of atypical emotions, the children with autism performed as well as the 10-year-old controls.…

  12. False memories to emotional stimuli are not equally affected in right- and left-brain-damaged stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. PMID:25129810

  13. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    PubMed

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

  14. Beautiful friendship: Social sharing of emotions improves subjective feelings and activates the neural reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lisa; Schott, Björn H.; Wold, Andrew; van der Schalk, Job; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Scherer, Klaus; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to affiliate with other people, especially in emotional situations. Here, we suggest that a critical mechanism underlying this tendency is that socially sharing emotional experiences is in itself perceived as hedonically positive and thereby contributes to the regulation of individual emotions. We investigated the effect of social sharing of emotions on subjective feelings and neural activity by having pairs of friends view emotional (negative and positive) and neutral pictures either alone or with the friend. While the two friends remained physically separated throughout the experiment—with one undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and the other performing the task in an adjacent room—they were made aware on a trial-by-trial basis whether they were seeing pictures simultaneously with their friend (shared) or alone (unshared). Ratings of subjective feelings were improved significantly when participants viewed emotional pictures together than alone, an effect that was accompanied by activity increase in ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two important components of the reward circuitry. Because these effects occurred without any communication or interaction between the friends, they point to an important proximate explanation for the basic human motivation to affiliate with others, particularly in emotional situations. PMID:25298009

  15. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  16. Faints, fits, and fatalities from emotion in Shakespeare's characters: survey of the canon

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine how often Shakespeare's characters faint, fit, or die from extreme emotion; to assess Shakespeare's uniqueness in this regard; and to examine the plausibility of these dramatised events. Design Line by line search through modern editions of these late 16th and early 17th century works for accounts of characters fainting, fitting, or dying while under strong emotion and for no other apparent reason. Data sources All 39 canonical plays by Shakespeare and his three long narrative poems; 18 similar works by seven of Shakespeare's best known contemporaries. Results 10 deaths from strong emotion are recorded by Shakespeare (three occur on stage); all are due to grief, typically at the loss of a loved one. All but two of the deaths are in the playwright's late works. Some deaths are sudden. Another 29 emotion induced deaths are mentioned as possible, but the likelihood of some can be challenged. Transient loss of consciousness is staged or reported in 18 cases (sounding like epilepsy in two) and near fainting in a further 13. Extreme joy is sometimes depicted as a factor in these events. Emotional death and fainting also occur occasionally in works by Shakespeare's contemporaries. Conclusions These dramatic phenomena are part of the early modern belief system but are also plausible by modern understanding of physiology and disease. They teach us not to underestimate the power of the emotions to disturb bodily functions. PMID:17185734

  17. Behavioral and emotional profile and parental stress in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Giulia; Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura M; Sanges, Veronica; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vassena, Lia; Rose, Paola De; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were shown to experience more stress than parents of typically developing peers, although little is known about risk factors predicting stress in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental stress levels and behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of preschool children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) peers and to investigate the role of several factors, including the severity of autistic symptoms, adaptive skills, cognitive abilities and behavioral and emotional problems, on parental stress. Results confirmed that parents of children with ASD experience higher stress levels than parents of TD and that children with ASD show more behavioral and emotional problems than controls. Moreover, our results showed that behavioral and emotional problems are strong predictors of parental stress, while stress related to a parent-child dysfunctional relationship was associated with daily living and communication skills as well as cognitive abilities. Findings revealed different behavioral and emotional problems affecting parental stress in ASD and TD samples. No association between the severity of autism symptoms and parental stress was detected. These results suggest that dysfunctional behaviors in preschool children with ASD have a strong impact on parental stress, profoundly affecting the well-being of the entire family. Therefore, strategies aimed at the early detection and management of these behavioral and emotional problems are crucial in order to prevent parental stress and to develop the most appropriate treatment interventions. PMID:26318505

  18. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-15

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies that underpin our current practice are discussed briefly.

  19. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    PubMed Central

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect. PMID:25018740

  20. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  1. The association of emotional lability and emotional and behavioral difficulties among children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul J; Walerius, Danielle M; Fogleman, Nicholas D; Factor, Perry I

    2015-12-01

    Children with ADHD often demonstrate a pattern of emotional lability characterized by sudden and intense shifts in affect. Emotional lability has been linked to emotional and behavioral problems in children with and without ADHD, but few studies have examined emotional lability over time. This study examined the effects of emotional lability over time on the behavioral and emotional difficulties of children with and without ADHD using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology. One hundred and two children aged 8-12 years (56 with ADHD and 46 without ADHD) and their parents completed baseline measures of the children's behavioral and emotional difficulties. Parents then completed a 28-day 3-times daily EMA assessment protocol to rate their child's emotional lability. Results suggested that emotional lability was associated with internalizing and/or externalizing diagnoses independent of ADHD diagnostic status, but was not directly associated with ADHD. Hierarchical regression analyses supported ADHD diagnostic status as a moderator of the association of greater EMA-derived emotional lability with children's behavioral difficulties, such that greater emotional lability was associated with greater behavioral difficulties among children with ADHD but not among children without ADHD. Results indicated that greater emotional lability was directly linked with greater emotional difficulties and that this relation was not moderated by ADHD diagnostic status. Overall, this study suggested that emotional lability is related to emotional difficulties independent of ADHD, but is differentially related to behavioral difficulties among children with and without ADHD. PMID:25957599

  2. Emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Positive interpersonal relationships hinge on individuals' competence in regulating others' emotions as well as their own. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between emotional competence and specific interpersonal behaviors. In particular, it is unclear which situations require emotional competence for extrinsic emotion regulation and whether emotionally competent individuals actually attempt to regulate others' emotions. To clarify these issues, the current investigation examined the relationship between emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person. The results of Study 1 (N = 39) indicated that interpersonal emotional competence (competence related to others' emotions) was positively associated with participants' efforts to relieve the ostracized person's sadness. In Study 2 (N = 120), this relationship was moderated by the ostracized person's emotional expression. In particular, participants with high interpersonal emotional competence were more likely to attempt to regulate the sadness of ostracized individuals who expressed neutral affect. In contrast, when the ostracized person expressed sadness, there were no significant relationships between high or low interpersonal emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation behavior. These results offer novel insight into how emotionally competent individuals use their competence to benefit others. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938611

  3. Learning Emotional Intelligence: Training & Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shults, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This core assessment provides an overview and training of the use of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the workplace. It includes a needs analysis for a local Chamber of Commerce, and outlines the importance of improving their organizational communication with the improvement of their EI. Behavioral objectives related to the skills needed are…

  4. Making Connections: Writing and Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Bruce; Fowler, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Claims that despite the fact that writing research has drawn extensively on cognitive processes, little research has been done to describe the role that the unconscious and emotions play in the writing process. Offers a pedagogy designed to enable students to draw writing energy from the realm of the unconscious. (HB)

  5. Boosting Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

  6. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  7. The Importance of Emotional Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yi-Hsuen; Liu, Min

    2008-01-01

    As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver…

  8. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

  10. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

  11. Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    is also supported by evidence from affective neuroscience indicating that subcortical brain systems to introspection. Despite the absence of subjective feelings in such cases, subliminally induced affective affective reactions origi- nated prior to systems for conscious awareness. The idea of unconscious emotion

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

  13. Research Article Emotion as Motion

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    for action. A large body of research indicates that flexor and extensor movements are conditionally the higher participants'self-reported level of daily positive affect and the lower their self-reported level of dispositional anxiety. Collectively, these findings have direct implications for models of embodied emotional

  14. Second Language as an Exemptor from Sociocultural Norms. Emotion-Related Language Choice Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Gawinkowska, Marta; Paradowski, Micha? B.; Bilewicz, Micha?

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals often switch languages depending on what they are saying. According to the Emotion-Related Language Choice theory, they find their second language an easier medium of conveying content which evokes strong emotions. The first language carries too much emotional power, which can be threatening for the speaker. In a covert experiment, bilingual Polish students translated texts brimming with expletives from Polish into English and vice versa. In the Polish translations, the swear word equivalents used were weaker than in the source text; in the English translations, they were stronger than in the original. These results corroborate the ERLC theory. However, the effect was only observed for ethnophaulisms, i.e. expletives directed at social groups. It turns out that the main factor triggering the language choice in bilinguals is not necessarily the different emotional power of both languages, but social and cultural norms. PMID:24349044

  15. Effects of cultural characteristics on building an emotion classifier through facial expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Flávio Altinier Maximiano; Pedrini, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions are an important demonstration of humanity's humors and emotions. Algorithms capable of recognizing facial expressions and associating them with emotions were developed and employed to compare the expressions that different cultural groups use to show their emotions. Static pictures of predominantly occidental and oriental subjects from public datasets were used to train machine learning algorithms, whereas local binary patterns, histogram of oriented gradients (HOGs), and Gabor filters were employed to describe the facial expressions for six different basic emotions. The most consistent combination, formed by the association of HOG filter and support vector machines, was then used to classify the other cultural group: there was a strong drop in accuracy, meaning that the subtle differences of facial expressions of each culture affected the classifier performance. Finally, a classifier was trained with images from both occidental and oriental subjects and its accuracy was higher on multicultural data, evidencing the need of a multicultural training set to build an efficient classifier.

  16. Consequential late effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer - a prospective longitudinal quality of life study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To answer the question if and to which extent acute symptoms at the end and/or several weeks after radiotherapy can predict adverse urinary and gastrointestinal long-term quality of life (QoL). Methods A group of 298 patients has been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), two months after (C) and >one year after (D) radiotherapy using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). A subgroup of 10% with the greatest urinary/bowel bother score decrease at time D was defined as patients with adverse long-term QoL. Results Subgroup and correlation analyses could demonstrate a strong dependence of urinary/bowel QoL after radiotherapy on urinary/bowel QoL before radiotherapy. In contrast to absolute scores, QoL score changes (relative to baseline scores) did not correlate with pretreatment scores. Long-term changes could be well predicted by acute changes. Patients reporting great/moderate bother with urinary/bowel problems at time C reported to have great/moderate bother at time D in ? 50%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis of factors for adverse long-term urinary and bowel QoL, score changes at time C were found to be independent predictors, respectively. Additionally, QoL changes at time B were independently predictive for adverse long-term bowel QoL. Conclusions Consequential late effects play a major role after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients with greater and particularly longer non-healing acute toxicity are candidates for closer follow-up and possible prophylactic actions to reduce a high probability of long-term problems. PMID:20377874

  17. Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  18. "I Am Really Good at It" or "I Am Just Feeling Lucky": The Effects of Emotions on Information Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    The ability to search, process, extract, evaluate and integrate information for learning purposes has clearly become the basic skills of the twenty first century. Although this process is often taken as a cognitive process, research has shown a strong connection between emotion and cognition. Recent research has suggested that positive emotions

  19. Comparison of Repeated and Two Non-Repeated Readings Conditions on Reading Abilities of Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escarpio, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) present considerable academic challenges along with emotional and/or behavioral problems. In terms of reading, these students typically perform one-to-two years below grade level (Kauffman, 2001). Given the strong correlation between reading failure and school failure and overall success…

  20. Neural Correlates of Emotional Interference in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients’ interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738

  1. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research. PMID:25470436

  2. Follow your heart: Emotion adaptively influences perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Lessard, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The current review introduces a new program of research that suggests the perception of spatial layout is influenced by emotions. Though perceptual systems are often described as closed and insulated, this review presents research suggesting that a variety of induced emotions (e.g., fear, disgust, sadness) can produce changes in vision and audition. Thus, the perceptual system may be highly interconnected, allowing emotional information to influence perceptions that, in turn, influence cognition. The body of work presented here also suggests that emotion-based changes in perception help us solve particular adaptive problems because emotion does not change all perceptions of the world. Taking the adaptive significance of emotion into account allows us to make predictions about when and how emotion influences perception. PMID:21731579

  3. Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using Twitter. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We det...

  4. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  5. Results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Niewald, Marcus . E-mail: ramnie@uniklinikum-saarland.de; Wenzlawowicz, Knut v.; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Wisser, Lothar; Derouet, Harry; Ruebe, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease. Patients and Methods: In the time interval 1983-2000, 154 patients in our clinic were irradiated for Peyronie's disease. Of those, 101 had at least one complete follow-up data set and are the subject of this study. In the majority of patients, penis deviation was between 30 and 50{sup o}, there were one or two indurated foci with a diameter between 5 and 15 mm. Pain was recorded in 48/92 patients. Seventy-two of the 101 patients received radiotherapy with a total dose of 30 Gy, and 25 received 36 Gy in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy. The remaining patients received the following dosage: 34 Gy (1 patient), 38-40 Gy (3 patients). Mean duration of follow-up was 5 years. Results: The best results ever at any time during follow-up were an improvement of deviation in 47%, reduction of number of foci in 32%, reduction of size of foci in 49%, and less induration in 52%. Approximately 50% reported pain relief after radiotherapy. There were 28 patients with mild acute dermatitis and only 4 patients with mild urethritis. There were no long-term side effects. Conclusion: Our results compare well with those of other studies in the literature. In our patient cohort, radiotherapy was an effective therapy option with only very rare and mild side effects.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Reduces Radiotherapy Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lynn; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Vadas, Timothy M.; Smilowitz, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can absorb near infrared light, resulting in heating and ablation of tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the dose of X-rays in tumors during radiotherapy. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy is synergistic, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, which were then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radioresistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 55 Gy, could be reduced to <15 Gy (a factor of >3.7). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine hyperthermia and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing the side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective. PMID:24990355

  7. Radiotherapy dosimetry assessment with optical projection tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharakis, Giannis; Papadakis, Antonios; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Garofalakis, Anikitos; Maris, Thomas; Ripoll, Jorge

    2007-07-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy have created the need to develop novel methods for the accurate, three-dimensional assessment of the applied radiation dose during specific radiotherapy plans. Here we present a study based on the use of polymer gel dosimeters in combination with a novel Optical Projection Tomography system, which allows the association of optical properties, namely the attenuation coefficient, to the irradiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters are polymerized after X-ray irradiation via free radical production during water radiolysis resulting to increased optical opacity as well as change of the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, thus making it possible to study them with both optical and MRI techniques. The optical tomographic system employs a sensitive CCD camera, a rotation stage allowing full 360 degrees rotation and a homogeneous white light source transilluminating the samples. This setup allows the calculation of the optical attenuation coefficient which can then be directly related to the applied radiotherapy dose, as well as the definition of the surface of the sample in space. The experimental procedure involves the recording of transillumination images of the polymer samples in steps of 1 degree to get the desired resolution. Data analysis is performed by back propagating the photons using an inverse Radon transform resulting to the reconstruction of three dimensional images of the attenuation coefficient or equivalently the dose distribution. The sensitivity and dynamic range offered by the technique covers the range of radiotherapy doses in modern clinical practice and are compared with the corresponding achieved with MRI.

  8. [Valorisation of high technology radiotherapy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y

    2006-11-01

    In order to support adoption and dissemination into clinical practice of innovative treatment strategies, being almost by definition more expensive than the corresponding standard treatments, an appropriate reimbursement is a prerequisite. This article describes different possible financing systems in the context of technological advances in radiation oncology and analyses if and how the reimbursement issue has been tackled in European radiotherapy centres. PMID:17027312

  9. Late subcutaneous fibrosis following megavoltage radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Odom, R.B.

    1980-12-01

    A woman who received radiotherapy for a breast carcinoma developed symptomatic deep subcutaneous fibrosis 7 months after treatment. Deep biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A good response to prednisone therapy was obtained in this patient. Long-term sequelae may include soft tissue sarcoma.

  10. Ensemble strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, W. L.

    2015-08-01

    Strong coupling between light and an ensemble of molecules leads to the formation of new hybrid states and offers the exciting prospect of a new route to control material properties. Now a theoretical model has been introduced to complement the recent observation of strong coupling between the vibrational modes of molecules and an electromagnetic (cavity) mode. This new work by del Pino et al (2015 New J. Phys. 17 053040) makes an important contribution by offering fresh insight into the underlying physics, especially into the role of dephasing processes in determining the dynamics of ensemble strong coupling.

  11. Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

  12. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  13. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  14. Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration. PMID:25759676

  15. Relations among Visual Texture, Musical Features, and Emotion.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Thomas; Peterson, Joshua; Palmer, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research indicates that systematic music-to-color cross-modal associations in non-synesthetes are mediated by emotion (e.g., Palmer et al., 2013; Langlois et al., under review; Whiteford et al., VSS-2013). The present research asks whether specific musical features mediate cross-modal associations from music-to-texture by using single-line melodies that vary along highly controlled musical dimensions: register (low/high), mode (major/minor), note-rate (slow/medium/fast), and timbre (piano-sound/cello-sound). We also investigated whether these associations are mediated by emotional and/or geometric factors. First, 46 non-synesthetic participants picked the 3 most-consistent (and later 3 least-consistent) textures for each of 32 variations on a synthesized melody from a 4x7 array of black-and-white textures. Next, they rated each melody, and later each texture along 5 emotional dimensions (Happy/Sad, Angry/Not Angry, Agitated/Calm, Weak/Strong, Harmonious/Disharmonious), and a series of geometric dimensions (e.g., Simple/Complex, Sharp/Smooth, Granular/Fibrous, Curved/Straight, Separate/Connected). For each dimension, we computed Music-Texture-Associations (MTAs) as a weighted average of the ratings of the 3 textures chosen as going best/worst with each melody. Results indicated that cross-modal melody-to-texture associations were emotionally mediated, because the correlation between the emotional ratings of the music and the emotional MTAs of the chosen textures were so high (Angry/Not-Angry=.79, Calm/Agitated=.91, Active/Passive=.76, Harmonious/Disharmonious=.64). Unlike music-to-color associations, the Happy/Sad correlation (r=.31). was not significant. Melodies-to-texture associations were also mediated by shared geometric features (e.g., Sharp/Smooth=.96, .Curved/Straight=.92, Simple/Complex=.89, Granular/Fibrous=.80). Crucially, the cross-modal melody-to-texture associations corresponded to specific musical features. k-means clustering analyses revealed strong timbre and note-rate effects: cello melodies were paired with straight/sharp/fibrous textures, and piano melodies with curved/smooth/granular textures. Different textures were also chosen for different note-rates, with more granular/separate textures being chosen with slow note-rate melodies, and more fibrous/connected textures being chosen with faster note-rate melodies. These clusters show that the note-rate and timbre of a melody can be inferred reliably from visual texture correspondences alone. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326541

  16. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

  17. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    E-print Network

    Bakr, Waseem S.

    Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, ion beam radiotherapy (including protons as well as heavier ions) gained considerable interest. Although ion beam radiotherapy requires dose prescription in terms of iso-effective dose (referring to an iso-effective photon dose), absorbed dose is still required as an operative quantity to control beam delivery, to characterize the beam dosimetrically and to verify dose delivery. This paper reviews current methods and standards to determine absorbed dose to water in ion beam radiotherapy, including (i) the detectors used to measure absorbed dose, (ii) dosimetry under reference conditions and (iii) dosimetry under non-reference conditions. Due to the LET dependence of the response of films and solid-state detectors, dosimetric measurements are mostly based on ion chambers. While a primary standard for ion beam radiotherapy still remains to be established, ion chamber dosimetry under reference conditions is based on similar protocols as for photons and electrons although the involved uncertainty is larger than for photon beams. For non-reference conditions, dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials may also be necessary. Regarding the atomic numbers of the composites of tissue-equivalent phantoms, special requirements have to be fulfilled for ion beams. Methods for calibrating the beam monitor depend on whether passive or active beam delivery techniques are used. QA measurements are comparable to conventional radiotherapy; however, dose verification is usually single field rather than treatment plan based. Dose verification for active beam delivery techniques requires the use of multi-channel dosimetry systems to check the compliance of measured and calculated dose for a representative sample of measurement points. Although methods for ion beam dosimetry have been established, there is still room for developments. This includes improvement of the dosimetric accuracy as well as development of more efficient measurement techniques.

  20. Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glimelius, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    In rectal cancer treatment, attention has focused on the local primary tumour and the regional tumour cell deposits to diminish the risk of a loco-regional recurrence. Several large randomized trials have also shown that combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have markedly reduced the risk of a loco-regional recurrence, but this has not yet had any major influence on overall survival. The best results have been achieved when the radiotherapy has been given preoperatively. Preoperative radiotherapy improves loco-regional control even when surgery has been optimized to improve lateral clearance, i.e., when a total mesorectal excision has been performed. The relative reduction is then 50%-70%. The value of radiotherapy has not been tested in combination with more extensive surgery including lateral lymph node clearance, as practised in some Asian countries. Many details about how the radiotherapy is performed are still open for discussion, and practice varies between countries. A highly fractionated radiation schedule (5 Gy × 5), proven efficacious in many trials, has gained much popularity in some countries, whereas a conventionally fractionated regimen (1.8-2.0 Gy × 25-28), often combined with chemotherapy, is used in other countries. The additional therapy adds morbidity to the morbidity that surgery causes, and should therefore be administered only when the risk of loco-regional recurrence is sufficiently high. The best integration of the weakest modality, to date the drugs (conventional cytotoxics and biologicals) is not known. A new generation of trials exploring the best sequence of treatments is required. Furthermore, there is a great need to develop predictors of response, so that treatment can be further individualized and not solely based upon clinical factors and anatomic imaging. PMID:24379566

  1. Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: Amygdala activation during aversive olfactory?stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zald, David H.; Pardo, José V.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophysiologic and lesion studies of animals increasingly implicate the amygdala in aspects of emotional processing. Yet, the functions of the human amygdala remain poorly understood. To examine the contributions of the amygdala and other limbic and paralimbic regions to emotional processing, we exposed healthy subjects to aversive olfactory stimuli while measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography. Exposure to a highly aversive odorant produced strong rCBF increases in both amygdalae and in the left orbitofrontal cortex. Exposure to less aversive odorants produced rCBF increases in the orbitofrontal cortex but not in the amygdala. Change of rCBF within the left amygdala and the left OFC was highly intercorrelated, indicating a strong functional interaction between these brain regions. Furthermore, the activity within the left amygdala was associated significantly with subjective ratings of perceived aversiveness. These findings provide evidence that the human amygdala participates in the hedonic or emotional processing of olfactory stimuli. PMID:9108115

  2. Crossing the Cartesian Divide: An Investigation into the Role of Emotion in Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staus, Nancy L.

    Although many science educators and researchers believe that emotion is an important part of the learning process, few researchers have dealt with the topic in a systematic fashion. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotion in the learning process, particularly in the learning of science content. My study utilized a dimensional perspective which defined emotion in terms of arousal and valence, and drew on research from the fields of psychology and neuroscience to examine how emotion affects different aspects of cognition such as attention and memory. On the basis of these findings, I developed and tested a path model to investigate the predicted relationships among emotional arousal, valence, attention, intrinsic motivation and short- and long-term learning outcomes. I conducted the study in two phases. The first phase took place in a psychology laboratory in which participants watched either an exciting or neutral nature video, read a factual article related to the video and were tested on their learning. The second phase took place at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in which participants watched a narrated otter or sea lion presentation and took a short posttest after the show. In both phases, participants' emotional arousal, valence, attention, and motivation levels were also measured for inclusion in the model. The results indicated that emotional arousal was an important predictor of short-term learning in both experiments although its effect was fully mediated by attention at the aquarium. In addition, negative valence (displeasure) and intrinsic motivation were strong predictors of short-term learning in the laboratory experiment. At the aquarium, the narrator of the animal presentation strongly affected both attention and short-term learning---visitors who listened to a non-scripted rather than a scripted narration paid more attention and had significantly better short-term learning outcomes. In the aquarium study, emotional arousal correlated strongly with several measures of long-term learning. In particular, those who felt more arousal during the animal presentation were able to describe their experience at greater length and with more detail and complexity two to three months after their visit. My findings suggest that emotional arousal is an important component of science learning both directly and through its relationship with attention. Therefore, science educators in both informal and formal learning institutions may be able to increase both attention and learning outcomes by designing emotionally arousing learning experiences around the science content they wish to teach. In addition, the importance of narrator quality in the aquarium study suggests that narrators and teachers should be trained to deliver information in such a way that supports short- and long-term science learning.

  3. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  4. Mental imagery of emotions: Electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Suess, Franziska; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-07-01

    Affective stimuli such as emotional words, scenes or facial expressions elicit well-investigated emotional responses. For instance, two distinct event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been reported in response to emotional facial expressions, the early posterior negativity (EPN), associated with enhanced attention and perception of affective stimuli, and a later centro-parietal positivity (LPP) that is taken to reflect evaluations of the intrinsic relevance of emotional stimuli. However, other rich sources of emotions that have as yet received little attention are internal mental events such as thoughts, memories and imagination. Here we investigated mental imagery of emotional facial expressions and its time course using ERPs. Participants viewed neutral familiar and unfamiliar faces, and were subsequently asked to imagine the faces with an emotional or neutral expression. Imagery was compared to visually perceiving the same faces with the different expressions. Early ERP modulations during imagery resemble the effects frequently reported for perceived emotional facial expressions, suggesting that common early processes are associated with emotion perception and imagination. A later posterior positivity was also found in the imagery condition, but with a different distribution than for perception. These findings underscore the similarity of the brain's responses to internally generated and external sources of emotions. PMID:25842292

  5. Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

  6. A Framework for Studying Emotions Across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David J.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether “emotions” are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have “emotions,” since emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as “emotion primitives”, can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases, and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach aims not only at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. PMID:24679535

  7. Emotion recognition from speech: tools and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talabani, Abdulbasit; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion recognition from speech is studied frequently for its importance in many applications, e.g. human-computer interaction. There is a wide diversity and non-agreement about the basic emotion or emotion-related states on one hand and about where the emotion related information lies in the speech signal on the other side. These diversities motivate our investigations into extracting Meta-features using the PCA approach, or using a non-adaptive random projection RP, which significantly reduce the large dimensional speech feature vectors that may contain a wide range of emotion related information. Subsets of Meta-features are fused to increase the performance of the recognition model that adopts the score-based LDC classifier. We shall demonstrate that our scheme outperform the state of the art results when tested on non-prompted databases or acted databases (i.e. when subjects act specific emotions while uttering a sentence). However, the huge gap between accuracy rates achieved on the different types of datasets of speech raises questions about the way emotions modulate the speech. In particular we shall argue that emotion recognition from speech should not be dealt with as a classification problem. We shall demonstrate the presence of a spectrum of different emotions in the same speech portion especially in the non-prompted data sets, which tends to be more "natural" than the acted datasets where the subjects attempt to suppress all but one emotion.

  8. Asymmetric effects of emotion on mnemonic interference

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Tighe, Sarah K.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional experiences can strengthen memories so that they can be used to guide future behavior. Emotional arousal, mediated by the amygdala, is thought to modulate storage by the hippocampus, which may encode unique episodic memories via pattern separation – the process by which similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations. While prior work has examined mnemonic interference due to similarity and emotional modulation of memory independently, examining the mechanisms by which emotion influences mnemonic interference has not been previously accomplished in humans. To this end, we developed an emotional memory task where emotional content and stimulus similarity were varied to examine the effect of emotion on fine mnemonic discrimination (a putative behavioral correlate of hippocampal pattern separation). When tested immediately after encoding, discrimination was reduced for similar emotional items compared to similar neutral items, consistent with a reduced bias towards pattern separation. After 24 h, recognition of emotional target items was preserved compared to neutral items, whereas similar emotional item discrimination was further diminished. This suggests a potential mechanism for the emotional modulation of memory with a selective remembering of gist, as well as a selective forgetting of detail, indicating an emotion-induced reduction in pattern separation. This can potentially increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio in any given situation to promote survival. Furthermore, we found that individuals with depressive symptoms hyper-discriminate negative items, which correlated with their symptom severity. This suggests that utilizing mnemonic discrimination paradigms allows us to tease apart the nuances of disorders with aberrant emotional mnemonic processing. PMID:24607286

  9. Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using a random sample of Twitter users, whose activity (and the stimuli they were exposed to) was observed during a week of September 2014. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions. PMID:26544688

  10. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. PMID:25400166

  11. Perception of emotion in facial stimuli: The interaction of ADRA2A and COMT genotypes, and sex.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-01-01

    Emotional facial stimuli are important social signals that are essential to be perceived and recognized in order to make appropriate decisions and responses in everyday communication. The ability to voluntarily guide attention to perceive and recognize emotions, and react to them varies largely across individuals, and has a strong genetic component (Friedman et al., 2008). Two key genetic variants of the catecholamine system that have been related to emotion perception and attention are the catechol-O-methyl transferase genetic variant (COMT Val158Met) and the ?2A-receptor gene promoter polymorphism (ADRA2A C-1291G) accordingly. So far, the interaction of the two with sex in emotion perception has not been studied. Multilevel modeling method was applied to study how COMT Val158Met, ADRA2A C-1291G and sex are associated with measures of emotion perception in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n=506) completed emotion recognition and behavioral emotion detection tasks. It was found that COMT Val158Met genotype in combination with the ADRA2A C-1291G and sex predicts emotion detection, and perception of valence and arousal. In simple visual detection, the ADRA2A C-1291G G-allele leads to slower detection of a highly arousing face (scheming), which is modulated by each additional COMT Val158Met Met-allele and male sex predicting faster responses. The combination of G-allele, Met-allele and male sex also predicts higher perceived negativity in sad faces. No effects of C-1291G, Val158Met, and sex were found on verbal emotion recognition. Applying the findings to study the interplay between catecholamine-O-methyl transferase activity and ?2A-receptors in emotion perception disorders (such as ADHD, autism and schizophrenia) in men and women would be the next step towards understanding individual differences in emotion perception. PMID:26234518

  12. The emotional effects of disruption 

    E-print Network

    Adcock, Christina Annie Lee

    2004-11-15

    emotions. Further, the degree of interdependency of the actor and the group are important; when interdependency is higher, group members are more likely to identify with the group success or failure (Deutsch, 1949). While each actor?s contributions may... of Macrosociology." American Journal of Sociology 86(3):984-1014. Deci, Edward L. 1975. Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press. ???. 1980. The Psychology of Self Determination. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Deutsch, Morton A. 1949. " A Theory...

  13. Dealing with Feelings: Characterization of Trait Alexithymia on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Cognitive-Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marte; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, or “no words for feelings”, is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. Method Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing). Results The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. Conclusion Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group. PMID:19492045

  14. Cognitive emotion regulation enhances aversive prediction error activity while reducing emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. PMID:26306990

  15. On Strong Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086

  16. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be appropriate to use categorical ratings in conjunction with unimodal measures, which assess the ‘magnitude’ to which words evoke feelings (e.g., Newcombe et al., 2012). Towards this aim we provide a set of emotion-related action words, accompanied by generation frequency and rating data, which show how strongly each word evokes knowledge relevant to basic emotional states. PMID:26246965

  17. The time–emotion paradox

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Gil, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The present manuscript discusses the time–emotion paradox in time psychology: although humans are able to accurately estimate time as if they possess a specific mechanism that allows them to measure time (i.e. an internal clock), their representations of time are easily distorted by the context. Indeed, our sense of time depends on intrinsic context, such as the emotional state, and on extrinsic context, such as the rhythm of others' activity. Existing studies on the relationships between emotion and time suggest that these contextual variations in subjective time do not result from the incorrect functioning of the internal clock but rather from the excellent ability of the internal clock to adapt to events in one's environment. Finally, the fact that we live and move in time and that everything, every act, takes more or less time has often been neglected. Thus, there is no unique, homogeneous time but instead multiple experiences of time. Our subjective temporal distortions directly reflect the way our brain and body adapt to these multiple time scales. PMID:19487196

  18. The Cerebellum and Emotional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Beth M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Marvel, Cherie L.; Pierson, Ronald; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Hichwa, Richard D.; Robinson, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Summary While the role of the cerebellum in motor coordination is widely accepted, the notion that it is involved in emotion has only recently gained popularity. To date, functional neuroimaging has not been used in combination with lesion studies to elucidate the role of the cerebellum in the processing of emotional material. We examined six participants with cerebellar stroke and nine age and education matched healthy volunteers. In addition to a complete neuropsychological, neurologic, and psychiatric examination, participants underwent [15O]water positron emission tomography (PET) while responding to emotion-evoking visual stimuli. Cerebellar lesions were associated with reduced pleasant experience in response to happiness-evoking stimuli. Stroke patients reported an unpleasant experience to frightening stimuli similar to healthy controls, yet showed significantly lower activity in the right ventral lateral and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, and retrosplenial cingulate gyrus. Frightening stimuli led to increased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, pulvinar, and insular cortex. This suggests that alternate neural circuitry became responsible for maintaining the evolutionarily critical fear response after cerebellar damage. PMID:17123557

  19. The cerebellum and emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Turner, Beth M; Paradiso, Sergio; Marvel, Cherie L; Pierson, Ronald; Boles Ponto, Laura L; Hichwa, Richard D; Robinson, Robert G

    2007-03-25

    While the role of the cerebellum in motor coordination is widely accepted, the notion that it is involved in emotion has only recently gained popularity. To date, functional neuroimaging has not been used in combination with lesion studies to elucidate the role of the cerebellum in the processing of emotional material. We examined six participants with cerebellar stroke and nine age and education matched healthy volunteers. In addition to a complete neuropsychological, neurologic, and psychiatric examination, participants underwent [15O]water positron emission tomography (PET) while responding to emotion-evoking visual stimuli. Cerebellar lesions were associated with reduced pleasant experience in response to happiness-evoking stimuli. Stroke patients reported an unpleasant experience to frightening stimuli similar to healthy controls, yet showed significantly lower activity in the right ventral lateral and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, and retrosplenial cingulate gyrus. Frightening stimuli led to increased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, pulvinar, and insular cortex. This suggests that alternate neural circuitry became responsible for maintaining the evolutionarily critical fear response after cerebellar damage. PMID:17123557

  20. Reflections on Investigating Emotion in Educational Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Paul A.; Hong, Ji Y.; Cross, Dionne I.; Osbon, Jennifer N.

    2006-01-01

    This article represents our current reflections on our approach to inquiry on emotions in education. Our views reflect an eclectic blend of, educational, psychological, and social historical approaches to inquiry on emotion and emotional regulation. In an effort to explicate our approach, we address our working definitions of emotion and emotional

  1. Promoting Emergent Literacy and Social-Emotional Learning through Dialogic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Brooke Graham; Bramwell, Wendie

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers face increasing pressure to focus on academics in kindergarten, research indicates that promoting school success in young children involves integrating skills in multiple domains. For example, by using dialogic reading--a well-researched shared-reading technique--and books with strong social-emotional content, teachers can…

  2. Getting in Touch: Dreaming, the Emotions and the Work of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Bullough, Dawn Ann Mortensen; Mayes, Pamela Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the emotional lives of teachers, teacher dreaming has received remarkably little researcher interest or attention. Drawing on recent studies of dreaming that demonstrate a strong connection between dream content and the life conditions of the dreamer, in this study the authors explored teacher dreaming as an avenue for…

  3. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Profile Assessment Using the BASC-2 with Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myunghee Ahn, Christine; Ebesutani, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Korean middle school students are experiencing high rates of behavioral and emotional problems, suggesting a need for comprehensive screening instruments with strong psychometric properties in school settings. The present study investigated the utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Self-Report of Personality, Adolescent Form…

  5. The Association among Emotional Intelligence, Resilience, and Academic Performance of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Caryn S.

    2010-01-01

    New teachers often struggle with handling their students and their many responsibilities because of demanding nature of the job. A strong preservice preparation is critical to teachers' success and increases teacher retention in the profession. This quantitative study examined the association among emotional intelligence, as measured by the…

  6. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Chronic Pain and the Emotional Brain: Specific Brain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    ). Continuous ratings of fluctuations of spontaneous pain during functional magnetic resonance imaging werePFC activity was strongly related to intensity of CBP, and the region is known to be involved in negative emotions, response conflict, and detection of unfavorable outcomes, especially in relation to the self

  7. Examination of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Profiles of Illinois Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Ty

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the transformational leadership and emotional intelligence profiles of current Illinois superintendents. Demographic characteristics related to age, gender, degree, experience, and district size, type, and location were also examined. As schools are asked to "do more with less," the impact of leaders who demonstrate strong

  8. A Service for Emotion Management: Turkish Version of the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, A. Esra; Sevincler-Togan, Seyhan

    2009-01-01

    An individual's activities are closely related with his/her communication abilities. One's awareness of his feelings and needs and to what extend he can control such feelings are the key factors which effect communication abilities. Webster (1996) defines anger as, "a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed…

  9. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  10. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621

  11. Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.

    SciTech Connect

    Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-08-01

    Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

  12. Negative emotional stimuli enhance vestibular processing.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Nora; Ellis, Andrew W; Mast, Fred W

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that vestibular stimulation can influence affective processes. In the present study, we examined whether emotional information can also modulate vestibular perception. Participants performed a vestibular discrimination task on a motion platform while viewing emotional pictures. Six different picture categories were taken from the International Affective Picture System: mutilation, threat, snakes, neutral objects, sports, and erotic pictures. Using a Bayesian hierarchical approach, we were able to show that vestibular discrimination improved when participants viewed emotionally negative pictures (mutilation, threat, snake) when compared to neutral/positive objects. We conclude that some of the mechanisms involved in the processing of vestibular information are also sensitive to emotional content. Emotional information signals importance and mobilizes the body for action. In case of danger, a successful motor response requires precise vestibular processing. Therefore, negative emotional information improves processing of vestibular information. PMID:26098730

  13. The influence of emotion on face processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden one's thought-action repertoire, which may manifest as a widened attentional scope in cognitive processing. The present study directly tests this hypothesis by examining the influences of induced emotions (positive, neutral and negative) on holistic processing of face (Experiment 1) and face discrimination (Experiment 2). In both experiments, emotions induced with images from the International Affective Picture System significantly interacted with face processing. That is, positive emotions engendered greater holistic face encoding in a composite-face task in Experiment 1 and more accurate face discrimination in Experiment 2, relative to the neutral condition. In contrast, negative emotions impaired holistic face encoding in the composite-face task and reduced face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these results provide further support for the attentional broadening effect of positive affect by demonstrating that induced positive emotions facilitate holistic/configural processing. PMID:25621898

  14. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  15. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    ?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  16. Emotion Recognition: The Effects of Age on the Identification of Emotion from Facial and Body Expressions 

    E-print Network

    Gibbon, Sarah

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has identified a well-replicated decline in the recognition of emotion in healthy adult ageing. Furthermore, research has shown that multiple sources of emotion al information can help to reduce the severity of this decline...

  17. The slow forgetting of emotional episodic memories: an emotional binding account.

    PubMed

    Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ritchey, Maureen

    2015-05-01

    Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events, and this emotion advantage becomes particularly pronounced over time. The time-dependent effects of emotion impact upon recollection rather than on familiarity-based recognition, and they influence the recollection of item-specific details rather than contextual details. Moreover, the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, is crucial for producing these effects. Time-dependent effects of emotion have been attributed to an emotional consolidation process whereby the amygdala gradually facilitates the storage of emotional memories by other medial temporal lobe regions. However, we propose that these effects can be better understood by an emotional binding account whereby the amygdala mediates the recollection of item-emotion bindings that are forgotten more slowly than item-context bindings supported by the hippocampus. PMID:25836045

  18. Do Emotional Intelligence and personality predict the way that Emotional Labour is performed 

    E-print Network

    Dore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Despite the many claims made about the importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI) for employee performance, no previous research has studied EI as an antecedent of Emotional Labour (EL). The focus of the present study was ...

  19. Deriving meaning from others’ emotions: attribution, appraisal, and the use of emotions as social information

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, Evert A.; van Kleef, Gerben A.; van der Pligt, Joop

    2015-01-01

    Emotional expressions constitute a rich source of information. Integrating theorizing on attribution, appraisal processes, and the use of emotions as social information, we examined how emotional expressions influence attributions of agency and responsibility under conditions of ambiguity. Three vignette studies involving different scenarios indicate that participants used information about others’ emotional expressions to make sense of ambiguous social situations. Expressions of regret fueled inferences that the expresser was responsible for an adverse situation, whereas expressions of anger fueled inferences that someone else was responsible. Also, expressions of anger were interpreted as a sign of injustice, and expressions of disappointment increased prosocial intentions (i.e., to help the expresser). The results show that emotional expressions can help people understand ambiguous social situations by informing attributions that correspond with each emotion’s associated appraisal structures. The findings advance understanding of the ways in which emotional expressions help individuals understand and coordinate social life. PMID:26284001

  20. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench,

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    with the alternative (a psychological constructionist approach to emotion). We close by appealing for a construct or not certain emotion categories (named with the English words: anger, sadness, fear, disgust, happiness, etc

  1. Emotional news : how emotional content of news and financial markets are related

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Wan Li, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    We present here a first step towards developing a quantitative model that relates investor emotions to financial markets. We used Wall Street Journal articles as a proxy of investor emotions on a "macro" level. We measured ...

  2. Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

  3. The Relationship between Empathy Subcomponents, Emotional Intelligence, Machiavellianism and Emotional Perception 

    E-print Network

    Allan, Fiona

    2009-07-03

    ). To critically examine the relationships between empathy subcomponents and other constructs, participants (N = 186) completed two empathy measures (EQ and IRI), and a measure of trait emotional intelligence (TEIQue-SF), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV) and emotional...

  4. Investigation of the role of parenting, emotion regulation, emotional eating and lifestyle factors in adolescents’ weight 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arlene Anne

    2012-11-28

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescent’s weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of ...

  5. Adjuvant Radiotherapy with Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy of Lacrimal Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, Vikas; Mallick, Supriya; Chander, Subhash; Sen, Seema; Chawla, Bhavna

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of lacrimal gland is a rare tumour with aggressive behaviour. There is sparse data to address optimum therapy for such tumours. So, the present study was aimed at evaluating the role of adjuvant three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in cases of incomplete (R1) resection along with review of literature pertaining to management of lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the demographic and treatment data of 10 biopsy proven ACC of lacrimal gland patients, treated from December 2006 to June 2013. They were treated with radiotherapy following surgical resection. Eight patients underwent gross total excision of the tumour mass (enbloc excision) followed by conformal radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray/30fractions/ 6 weeks. Two patients with advanced disease were treated with palliative radiotherapy after biopsy. Results The median age was 32 years. There were equal numbers of male and female patients. The median duration of symptoms was 7 months. At a median follow up of 21 months, eight patients had no evidence of disease and had complete tumour response, two patients worsened, and one of the two had systemic failure with bone metastasis. Conclusion Despite a small sample size and short follow, enbloc surgical excision with adjuvant radiotherapy is well tolerated and shows good control in ACC of lacrimal gland. PMID:26557600

  6. Correlates between ear postures and emotional reactivity in a wild type mouse species.

    PubMed

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Féron, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Facial expressions have been extensively used to assess emotions in humans and thus could be extended to other species that also display facial movements. In mice both painful and fearful situations have been associated with particular shifts in facial expressions. Like other species, mice frequently show a great inter-individual variability when exposed to emotional situations, but so far no study has been conducted to investigate if facial expressions are related to these differences. The aim of this study is to explore if mice of wild origin (Mus spicilegus) express different facial expressions when confronted to novelty and to relate these mimics to their emotional reactivity profile. We used individual exploration scores in a novel odour test and in the elevated plus maze test as proxy measures of individual emotional reactivity. Our results showed that exploration scores in both tests were positively correlated, and both were related to the ear postures expressed by the individuals during their first exploration of the novel odour. This single component of facial expression was in fact a good indicator of inter-individual differences expressed in these two different tests suggesting a strong link between this marker and the individual emotional reactivity. These results highlight the great potential of facial expressions to assess emotional states in animals. PMID:26275830

  7. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion

    E-print Network

    Cabeza, Roberto

    Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto:peggy.st.jacques@duke.edu #12;Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 2 Abstract Emotional processes are enhanced

  8. A strong comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.

    1992-03-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders.

  9. Networks of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Adamic, Lada A.; Strauss, Martin J.

    2007-05-01

    Social networks transmitting covert or sensitive information cannot use all ties for this purpose. Rather, they can only use a subset of ties that are strong enough to be “trusted”. This paper addresses whether it is still possible, under this restriction, for information to be transmitted widely and rapidly in social networks. We use transitivity as evidence of strong ties, requiring one or more shared contacts in order to count an edge as strong. We examine the effect of removing all non-transitive ties in two real social network data sets, imposing varying thresholds in the number of shared contacts. We observe that transitive ties occupy a large portion of the network and that removing all other ties, while causing some individuals to become disconnected, preserves the majority of the giant connected component. Furthermore, the average shortest path, important for the rapid diffusion of information, increases only slightly relative to the original network. We also evaluate the cost of forming transitive ties by modeling a random graph composed entirely of closed triads and comparing its connectivity and average shortest path with the equivalent Erdös-Renyi random graph. Both the empirical study and random model point to a robustness of strong ties with respect to the connectivity and small world property of social networks.

  10. Strong Little Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  11. Strongly Coupled Plasma Liquids

    E-print Network

    Z. Donko; P. Hartmann; G. J. Kalman

    2007-10-27

    This paper intends to review some of the prominent properties of strongly coupled classical plasmas having in mind the possible link with the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions. Thermodynamic and transport properties of classical liquid-state one-component plasmas are described and features of collective excitations are presented.

  12. Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.

    1982-08-01

    Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design.

  13. [Postoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer and cardiotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Nagy, A Csaba; Landherr, László

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac complications may present a particular problem following radiation treatment applied to the mediastinum and thoracic wall (and especially to the left breast). Exposure of the heart during radiotherapy increases the risk of ischemic heart disease occurring generally years after the treatment. The incidence of radiation cardiotoxicity depends on various factors related to oncological therapies and the patient (details of radiotherapy, age, gender, comorbidities, smoking habits, etc.). Until recently the majority of clinical studies reported increased cardiac morbidity in patients receiving radiation treatment of the chest wall and the breast. Due to modern methods, however, postoperative chest wall and left breast irradiation is much safer today than previously. In order to avoid cardiotoxicity, adherence to clinical practice guidelines for chemo- and targeted therapy of breast cancer, use of the most advanced irradiation procedures, regular monitoring of patients, and close cooperation between cardiologists and oncologists are all recommended. PMID:24880968

  14. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.E.

    1997-03-01

    The study of second cancer risk after radiotherapy provides a unique opportunity to study carcinogenesis since large groups of humans are deliberately exposed to substantial doses of radiation in order to cure disease. Detailed radiotherapy records for cancer patients allow precise quantification of organ dose, and population-based cancer registries are frequently available to provide access to large groups of patients who are closely followed for long periods. Moreover, cancer patients treated with surgery alone (no radiation) are frequently available to serve as a non-irradiated comparison group. New information can be provided on relatively insensitive organs, and low dose exposures in the range of scientific interest are received by organs outside the radiation treatment fields. This paper will review several recently completed studies that characterize the risk of radiation-induced second cancers. Emphasis will be given to studies providing new information on the dose-response relationship of radiation-induced leukemia, breast cancer and lung cancer.

  15. Radiotherapy of nonfunctioning and gonadotroph adenomas.

    PubMed

    Kanner, Andrew A; Corn, Benjamin W; Greenman, Yona

    2009-01-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for NFPA but is seldom curative. The management of patients in whom residual tumor is detected after surgery is not clear-cut. Radiation therapy is effective in controlling tumor mass in the majority of patients, but is associated with long term complications that call for restriction of its use to patients at high risk for tumor growth. New radiation techniques may prove to be safer while retaining the effectiveness of conventional radiotherapy, however longer follow-up is necessary to confirm this assumption. For now, it appears to be safe to withhold radiation and carefully follow patients with small tumor remnants, whereas large remnants from invasive tumors should be considered for radiotherapy. Nevertheless, there are no prospective controlled studies that support this empirical approach. PMID:18286373

  16. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Katrine D; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness. PMID:25878902

  17. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  18. Detecting Emotions from Connected Action Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Daniel; Robinson, Peter

    In this paper we deal with the problem of detecting emotions from the body movements produced by naturally connected action sequences. Although action sequences are one of the most common forms of body motions in everyday scenarios their potential for emotion recognition has not been explored in the past. We show that there are fundamental differences between actions recorded in isolation and in natural sequences and demonstrate a number of techniques which allow us to correctly label action sequences with one of four emotions up to 86% of the time. Our results bring us an important step closer to recognizing emotions from body movements in natural scenarios.

  19. Increased negative emotional responses in PROP supertasters.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-02-28

    Based on animal data it has been suggested that an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes is linked with increased emotional reactivity. The present study examined for the first time in humans whether the intensity of experimentally induced negative emotional responses is related to sensitivity to the bitter tasting compound PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). Normal-weight participants (61 men, 57 women) with a mean age of 24 years were classified into PROP non-tasters (n=54), medium tasters (n=25), or supertasters (n=39), and were shown two film clips to induce negative emotional response patterns: one pattern predominated by anger and tension, and another predominated by sadness and depressed mood. A third film clip was emotionally neutral. Before and after film clip viewing, self-rated emotional responses were obtained. PROP supertasters showed more intense responses than non-tasters or medium tasters after the anger-inducing film clip (increased anger, tension, sadness and fear as well as decreased mood and joy). Significant correlations were found between emotional responses and a continuos measure of PROP sensitivity. Group differences and correlations could not be attributed to personality measures, trait affectivity, or gender. For emotional responses after the sadness-inducing film clip, no differences between taster groups could be detected. PROP sensitivity appears to be related to arousability of emotions, in particular those emotions that are associated with an increased readiness to respond actively to stimuli from the environment, e.g. anger, disgust and fear. PMID:17141813

  20. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Katsunuma, Ruri; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Motomura, Yuki; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on “here and now” experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one’s own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed. PMID:26083379