Sample records for radiotherapy strong emotions

  1. Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy: Strong Emotions Decide But Rational Studies Are Needed

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Asher, Anthony L. [Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Programs, Carolinas Medical Center and Presbyterian Hospital, Charlotte, NC (United States); Farace, Elana [Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Brain metastases are common in cancer patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. For patients with limited disease and good performance status, treatment typically involves a combination of focal measures (e.g., surgical resection or radiosurgery) for the radiographically apparent disease, followed by adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to treat subclinical disease. Because of concerns regarding the toxicity of WBRT, especially neurocognitive deterioration, many have advocated withholding adjuvant WBRT. Recently published studies have shed more light on the efficacy of adjuvant WBRT and the neurocognitive effects of WBRT. However, the inclusion of neurocognitive and quality-of-life data in clinical trials are still required to better define the role of adjuvant WBRT. Currently, two Phase III trials are underway, one in Europe and one in North America, that will determine the effect of adjuvant WBRT on patients' quality of life, neurocognitive function, and survival.

  2. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Evaluation of Strong Kids and Strong Teens on Students' Social-Emotional Knowledge and Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Merrell; Michael P. Juskelis; Oanh K. Tran; Rohanna Buchanan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of three pilot studies that were conducted to evaluate the recently developed Strong Kids and Strong Teens social-emotional learning programs in increasing students' knowledge of healthy social-emotional behavior and decreasing their symptoms of negative affect and emotional distress. The first study included 120 middle school students (in grade 5) from a general education student population.

  3. Distress and emotional well-being in breast cancer patients prior to radiotherapy: an expectancy-based model.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Stephanie J; Schnur, Julie B; Sucala, Madalina; David, Daniel; Winkel, Gary; Montgomery, Guy H

    2012-01-01

    Understanding precursors to distress and emotional well-being (EWB) experienced in anticipation of radiotherapy would facilitate the ability to intervene with this emotional upset (i.e. higher distress, lower EWB). Thus, this study tested an expectancy-based model for explaining emotional upset in breast cancer patients prior to radiotherapy. Women affected by breast cancer (N?=?106) were recruited and participants completed questionnaires prior to commencing radiotherapy. Structural equation modelling was used to test a cross-sectional model, which assessed the ability of dispositional optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised - two factors), response expectancies (Visual Analog Scale items), medical (type of surgery, cancer stage and chemotherapy history) and demographic (age, race, ethnicity, education and marital status) variables to predict both EWB (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Emotional Well-being Subscale) and distress (Profile of Mood States - short version). The model represented a good fit to the data accounting for 65% of the variance in EWB and 69% in distress. Significant predictors of emotional upset were pessimism, response expectancies, Latina ethnicity, cancer stage and having had a mastectomy. These variables explained a large portion of emotional upset experienced prior to radiotherapy for breast cancer and are important to consider when aiming to reduce distress and improve EWB in this context. PMID:21678183

  4. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

  5. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Second Grade Students: A Study of the "Strong Start" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette; Kramer, Thomas J.; Kronmiller, Kalli

    2009-01-01

    The promotion of social and emotional learning (SEL) in schools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems of students. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start," on the social-emotional competence of 26 second grade students, using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Results revealed…

  6. Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    "Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

  7. Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, B.-H. [Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-S. [Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-J. [Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsiujung@ntnu.edu.tw

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

  8. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A.; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  9. A profile approach to impulsivity in bipolar disorder: the key role of strong emotions

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Carver, C. S.; Gotlib, I. H.; Ketter, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder has been associated with elevated impulsivity – a complex construct subsuming multiple facets. We aimed to compare specific facets of impulsivity in bipolar disorder, including those related to key psychological correlates of the illness: reward sensitivity and strong emotion. Method Ninety-one individuals diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (inter-episode period) and 80 controls completed several well-validated impulsivity measures, including those relevant to reward (Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale) and emotion (Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency scales). Results Bipolar participants reported higher impulsivity scores than did controls on all of the impulsivity measures, except the Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale. Positive Urgency – a measure assessing the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotion – yielded the largest group differences: F(1,170) = 78.69, P < 0.001, partial ?2 = 0.316. Positive Urgency was also associated with poorer psychosocial functioning in the bipolar group: ?R2 = 0.24, b = ?0.45, P < 0.001. Conclusion Individuals with bipolar I disorder appear to be at particular risk of behaving impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotions. Findings provide an important first step toward developing a more refined understanding of impulsivity in bipolar disorder with the potential to inform targeted interventions. PMID:23600731

  10. Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President,Russia,located within the airshed of Lake Baikal; one protester was killed and several were seriously injured by young

  11. Development of an Implementation and Evaluation Plan for Strong Teens, a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tajara Dovie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on social emotional learning (SEL) curricula has shown that implementing SEL instruction within the classroom is a qualified evidenced-based intervention to help students develop fundamental skills for success in life. SEL curricula help teach students essential skills such as recognizing and managing emotions, developing caring…

  12. Strong Teens--Grades 9-12: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

  13. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  14. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706832

  15. Emotional Intelligence: Giving Computers Effective Emotional Skills to Aid Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Creed; Russell Beale

    2008-01-01

    Why do computers need emotional intelligence? Science fiction often portrays emotional computers as dangerous and frightening,\\u000a and as a serious threat to human life. One of the most famous examples is HAL, the supercomputer onboard the spaceship Discovery,\\u000a in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could express, recognize and respond to human emotion, and generally had strong emotional skills

  16. Parents’ Beliefs about Emotions and Children’s Recognition of Parents’ Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Perez-Rivera, Marie B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated parents’ emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children’s recognition of their parents’ emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children’s emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers’ emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children’s general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child’s emotion socialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents’ emotions. PMID:20160992

  17. [Synchroton radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Deman, P; Edouard, M; Besse, S; Vautrin, M; Elleaume, H; Adam, J-F; Estève, F

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used in the treatment of cancer. The normal tissue tolerance can be a limit to deliver enough dose to the tumor to be curative. The synchrotron beam presents some interesting physical properties, which could decrease this limitation. Synchrotron beam is a medium energy X-ray nearly parallel beam with high intensity. Three methods are under preclinical investigations: the microbeam, the minibeam and the stereotactic radiotherapy. The first two use a geometric irradiation effect called spatial fractioning. The last one use highly conformational irradiation geometry combined with a dose enhancement due to the presence of high-Z element in the target. Synchrotron radiotherapy preclinical experiments have shown some curative effect on rodent glioma models. Following these encouraging results a phase I/II clinical trial of iodinated enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiotherapy is currently being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. PMID:20537443

  18. Emotional Pathfinding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Donaldson; Andrew Park; I-ling Lin

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a study of the influence of emotions on the behaviour of an intelligent pathfinding agent. A model of\\u000a pathfinding is proposed that takes into account the emotional state of the agent. Results show that blindly following the\\u000a most urgent emotion can lead to degenerate behaviour, and that cross-exclusion can be used to effectively moderate emotional\\u000a influences. Applications

  19. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  20. Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bert; M. Durante

    2011-01-01

    Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target

  1. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  2. [Hodgkin's lymphoma and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Datsenko, P V; Panshin, G A

    2015-01-01

    After a median observation time of 4,5 years, 440 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma stage I-IV to the Ann Arbor classification were treated with radiotherapy (2200 lymph areas) and ABVD (n=204) or BEACOPP (n=117) or CEA/ABVD (lomustine, etoposide, adriamycine, bleomycine, vinblastine and dacarbacine; n=119) regimens in 1995-2012. Correct allocation of groups with "CR or PR ?80%" and "PR: 0-79%", after first-line chemotherapy, is extremely important for following RT planning. Adaptation of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma can take place only after successful treatment, the probability of relapse and fear of repeated courses strongly interfere with this process, especially in the first years after its closure. Duration of remission period, especially in young people, is no less important than the criteria for overall survival. It is impossible to build recommendations for treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma, based only on long-term survival rates. Importance of radiotherapy in reducing the number of relapses is undeniable, so the idea that the development of the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of the ray method Hodgkin's lymphoma gradually becomes secondary is in serious doubt. Our findings suggest the importance of both maintaining a high disease-free survival and reducing long-term complications in designing treatments of Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:26016145

  3. The relation between negative emotional suppression and emotional distress in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Iwamitsu, Yumi; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Abe, Hajime; Tani, Toru; Okawa, Masako; Buck, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate differences in emotional distress between negative emotional suppression and expression patients in the progress of medical treatment, including the operation. We studied the differences in affective response between patients who suppress negative emotion and those who express negative emotion by using Profile of Mood States (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971) at four sessions: (a) at the first visit to the clinic, (b) immediately after being told the diagnosis of breast cancer, (c) after the operation, and (d) at 3 months after discharge. Our results showed that emotional suppression patients tended to report more emotional distress (in particular, anxiety, depression, and anger) than did emotional expression patients on 3 sessions, the exception being after the operation. Also, patients who suppress anger and anxiety felt strong psychological distress. We suggest that it is essential to encourage suppressive patients to express both negative and positive emotion clearly and appropriately. PMID:16187928

  4. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  5. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

  6. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron Boston College and Northeastern University/Harvard Medical School People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research

  7. Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

  8. The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…

  9. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  10. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Braam

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are positioned near the neck nodes and in most cases in the vicinity of the primary

  11. Planning national radiotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  12. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  13. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  14. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

  15. Emotions and antisocial behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy F. Baumeister; Jill Lobbestael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional theories have regarded emotions as transient states that directly cause or inhibit behavior. Contrary to them, recent evidence has suggested that links between emotion and behavior are largely indirect, often depending on learning by stimulating cognitive appraisal and anticipation of future emotional outcomes. We propose that one major function of the human emotion system is to foster positive social

  16. Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Mayer; Richard D. Roberts; Sigal G. Barsade

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accu- rate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find

  17. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  18. Food and emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Canetti; Eytan Bachar; Elliot M Berry

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between eating and emotion has always interested researchers of human behavior. This relationship varies according to the particular characteristics of the individual and according to the specific emotional state. We consider findings on the reciprocal interactions between, on the one hand, emotions and food intake, and, on the other, the psychological and emotional consequences of losing weight and

  19. 7?Emotion in Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary Anger Elfenbein

    2007-01-01

    Emotion has become one of the most popular—and popularized—areas within organizational scholarship. This chapter attempts to review and bring together within a single framework the wide and often disjointed literature on emotion in organizations. The integrated framework includes processes detailed by previous theorists who have defined emotion as a sequence that unfolds chronologically. The emotion process begins with a focal

  20. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  1. Bodily maps of emotions.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  2. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  3. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  4. Practical emotional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a limbic-based artificial emotional neural network (LiAENN) for a pattern recognition problem. LiAENN is a novel computational neural model of the emotional brain that models emotional situations such as anxiety and confidence in the learning process, the short paths, the forgetting processes, and inhibitory mechanisms of the emotional brain. In the model, the learning weights are adjusted by the proposed anxious confident decayed brain emotional learning rules (ACDBEL). In engineering applications, LiAENN is utilized in facial detection, and emotion recognition. According to the comparative results on ORL and Yale datasets, LiAENN shows a higher accuracy than other applied emotional networks such as brain emotional learning (BEL) and emotional back propagation (EmBP) based networks. PMID:25078111

  5. Emotion and decision making.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models. PMID:25251484

  6. Does vivid emotional imagery depend on body signals?

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, E.P.M.; Naqvi, N.; Bechara, A.; Tranel, D.

    2009-01-01

    The recall and re-experiencing of a personal emotional event (emotional imagery) are thought to evoke neural activity in the central nervous system that can affect the physiology of bodily states. It has been proposed that the more active the neural systems previously engaged in the emotional experience, and the more active the bodily state associated with that experience, the more vivid the emotional imagery is. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the gastrointestinal system (GI) are engaged in emotional reactions. On this basis, we hypothesized that vivid emotional imagery would be accompanied by strong increases in gastrointestinal and sympathetic nervous system activity. To test this hypothesis, 17 healthy participants performed emotional imagery of strong autobiographical memories involving various emotional states (happy, fear, disgust, sadness, anger). SNS and GI changes, measured by skin conductance and electrogastrogram, respectively, correlated positively with subjective ratings of arousal during the imagery. However, the SNS changes did not correlate with ratings of emotional imagery vividness, and even more intriguingly, the GI changes correlated strongly and negatively with vividness ratings. To account for these findings, we propose that in highly vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is simulating the whole emotional experience strongly, and bodily information plays a lesser role. In low vivid imagery experience, the central nervous system is not simulating very strongly the emotional experience, and information coming from the body (including the GI system) plays a greater role. This interpretation is set forth in the context of Damasio's (1999) theoretical framework, which predicts such a dissociation between a “body loop” and an “as if body loop” for the experiencing and re-experiencing of emotions and feelings. PMID:18824045

  7. Association between trait emotional awareness and dorsal anterior cingulate activity during emotion is arousal-dependent

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Kateri; Reiman, Eric M.; Fort, Carolyn L.; Chen, Kewei; Lane, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is commonly thought to subserve primarily cognitive functions, but has been strongly implicated in the allocation of attention to emotional information. In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study, we observed that women with higher emotional awareness as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) showed greater changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dACC induced by emotional films and recall. In the current study, we tested whether these effects were due to the processing of any non-neutral stimulus, or were specific to conditions of high emotional arousal. Our results extend the previous finding by demonstrating a positive correlation between emotional awareness and dACC activity only in the context of viewing highly arousing pictures. No such relationship was observed when comparing pleasant or unpleasant pictures to neutral or to each other. We also observed that the relationship between LEAS and dACC activity was present in both sexes but stronger in women than men. These results reinforce the concept that greater trait awareness of one's own emotional experiences is associated with greater engagement of the dACC during emotional arousal, which we suggest may reflect greater attentional processing of emotional information. PMID:18406175

  8. The hidden emotions of tourism 

    E-print Network

    Carnegie, Margaret Simone

    1996-01-01

    To date, scholarship has presented us with three perspectives on organizational uses of emotion: Emotion as Work, Organizational Uses of Emotional Expression, and Organizational Cultural Manipulation of Emotion. Within all three...

  9. Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. George

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion

  10. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N?=?2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative sample of the general population may become more pronounced in clinical samples. PMID:24637792

  11. Emotion, Social Function, and Psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dacher Keltner; Ann M. Kring

    1998-01-01

    The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and

  12. Emotion Detection from Text

    E-print Network

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  13. Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Mayer; Glenn Geher

    1996-01-01

    This article is concerned with individual differences in the ability to connect thoughts to emotions. People who are good at connecting thoughts to feelings may better “hear” the emotional implications of their own thoughts, as well as understand the feelings of others from what they say. We had 321 participants read the writings of a target group of people and

  14. [Particle beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, particle beam radiotherapy with protons or carbon ions has been used in cancer treatment. Energy deposition with particle beams increases as depth increases. Furthermore, carbon ion beams have stronger biological effects than X-rays or proton beams, because carbon beams generate denser ionization along the pathway of the particles. In Japan, clinical study with carbon ions for cancer therapy was initiated in 1994 at the National Institute of Radiological Science(NIRS). Four treatment facilities are now in operation, including Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center. The experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at NIRS has demonstrated advantages for the following types of cancer. In terms of histological type, adenocarcinomas, sarcomas, and melanomas that are relatively radioresistant to conventional X-ray radiotherapy may be sensitive to carbon ion radiotherapy. Primary sites that may be sensitive include the head and neck region, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissue, and pelvis(for recurrence of rectal cancer). Combined with surgery, cytotoxic drugs, molecular targeted drugs, and immunotherapy, carbon ion radiotherapy promises to be an important modality in the future. PMID:25596047

  15. Neuromodulatory Basis of Emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Fellous

    1999-01-01

    The neural basis of emotion can be found in both the neural computation and the neuromodulation of the neural substrate mediating behavior. I review the experimental evidence showing the involvement of the hypothalamus, the a mygdala and the prefrontal cortex in emotion. For each of these structures, I show the important role of various neuromodulatory systems in mediating emotional behavior.

  16. Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    Children develop emotional intelligence during the early years of life, and according to some experts, emotional intelligence is a more reliable predictor of academic achievement than is IQ. However, today's children appear to be low on emotional well-being. This has potentially negative consequences, not only for academic achievement but also for…

  17. The amygdala and emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Gallagher; Andrea A Chiba

    1996-01-01

    The amygdala complex has long been known as part of the neural circuitry critical for emotion. Beyond its role in emotional reactivity, studies of animal models and patients with amygdala damage demonstrate its importance in emotional learning, whereby cues acquire significance through association with rewarding or aversive events. Although its function in associative learning has become well established, other recent

  18. Emotional memory in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Hall; Jonathan M. Harris; James W. McKirdy; Eve C. Johnstone; Stephen M. Lawrie

    2007-01-01

    Emotionally arousing scenes are better remembered than neutral ones. The biological basis of this emotional memory effect has been studied in lesion and neuro-imaging studies and depends upon an interaction between the amygdala and medial temporal lobe memory systems including the hippocampus. This study sought to investigate whether patients with schizophrenia had performance deficits on emotional memory tasks consistent with

  19. Emotion elicitation using films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

  20. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about what you might do next time. Continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react well are part of a bigger ... about being able to notice and identify the emotions we feel at any given moment. It is ...

  1. Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    CHAPTER 1 Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS JAMES J. GROSS ROSS A. THOMPSON Standing, paper or plastic are made. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important- changes that require us to regulate how emotions are experienced and expressed. But what do people do

  2. Three dimensions of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Schlosberg

    1954-01-01

    The author contends that the activation theory of emotions is the most adequate to date for conceptualizing the intensitive dimension of emotion, and that electrical skin conductance is a good measure of the extent of activation present. For other dimensions of emotion, however, he feels that other measurement approaches are necessary and discusses facial expressions as one of these. Evidence

  3. Computational Emotions Encourage Collective

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Computational Emotions Encourage Collective Behavior in Population Dynamics Megan Olsen University of emotions may enable collective behav- ior in a predator-prey system. Our cellular automata model combines emotion-based decision rules with simple communication. Although there are a number of human psychological

  4. Acculturation and emotion among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Liem, R; Lim, B A; Liem, J H

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the emotion experience of Asian Americans in relation to respondents' orientation to acculturation: Assimilation, Integration, Separation, or Marginalization (J. W. Berry, 1980). Ego- versus other-focused emotion experiences (H. R. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991) and attention and valence, 2 stages in P. C. Ellsworth's (1994) model of emotion appraisal, were used to investigate the relation between acculturation and affect. Asian Americans most and least assimilated to the dominant Anglo American culture were expected to exhibit emotion responses correspondingly similar to and different from those of Anglo Americans. Those with a bi-cultural or integrationist trajectory should occupy a middle ground in terms of emotional experience. Compared with the appraisal process, ego- versus other-focused emotions, mediated in part by one's self-construal (e.g., independent or interdependent), were more strongly associated with acculturation orientation in the expected directions. The implications of recognizing the influence of acculturation on the emotional meaning of life encounters of newcomers are discussed in light of community psychology and clinical practice. PMID:10975164

  5. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional

  6. Corticolimbic gating of emotion-driven punishment.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Jan, Katharine; Asplund, Christopher L; Ginther, Matthew R; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

    2014-09-01

    Determining the appropriate punishment for a norm violation requires consideration of both the perpetrator's state of mind (for example, purposeful or blameless) and the strong emotions elicited by the harm caused by their actions. It has been hypothesized that such affective responses serve as a heuristic that determines appropriate punishment. However, an actor's mental state often trumps the effect of emotions, as unintended harms may go unpunished, regardless of their magnitude. Using fMRI, we found that emotionally graphic descriptions of harmful acts amplify punishment severity, boost amygdala activity and strengthen amygdala connectivity with lateral prefrontal regions involved in punishment decision-making. However, this was only observed when the actor's harm was intentional; when harm was unintended, a temporoparietal-medial-prefrontal circuit suppressed amygdala activity and the effect of graphic descriptions on punishment was abolished. These results reveal the brain mechanisms by which evaluation of a transgressor's mental state gates our emotional urges to punish. PMID:25086609

  7. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

  8. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  9. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  10. Brain Systems that Mediate both Emotion and Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Gray

    1990-01-01

    Neurobiological research with animals strongly suggests that the brain systems which mediate emotion overlap with those that mediate cognition to such a degree that it is difficult, if not impossible, to maintain any clear distinction between them. Possible reasons for this overlap are discussed; and a model of brain systems that simultaneously subserve emotion and cognition is presented. The model

  11. Rapid perceptual integration of facial expression and emotional body language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke K. M. Meeren; Corné C. R. J. van Heijnsbergen; Beatrice de Gelder

    2005-01-01

    In our natural world, a face is usually encountered not as an isolated object but as an integrated part of a whole body. The face and the body both normally contribute in conveying the emotional state of the individual. Here we show that observers judging a facial expression are strongly influenced by emotional body language. Photographs of fearful and angry

  12. Forgive and Forget: Differences between Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Fernández-Capo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To forgive and forget is a well-known idiom, which has rarely been looked at empirically. In the current experiment, we investigated differences between emotional and decisional forgiveness on forgetting. The present study provides the first empirical support that emotional forgiveness has a strong influence on subsequent incidental forgetting. Specifically, our results demonstrate that emotional forgiveness leads to substantially higher levels of forgetting in respect to offense relevant traits compared to both decisional forgiveness and no forgiveness. This provides evidence for our hypothesized effect that only individuals who have emotionally forgiven a transgression, and not those who just decided to forgive, subsequently forget offense relevant traits attributed to the transgressor. PMID:25946090

  13. [Functional imaging and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lallemand, F; Lakosi, F; Hustinx, R; Withofs, N; Meunier, P; Tshibanda, L; Jodogne, S; Coucke, P; Martinive, P

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, staging and therapeutic strategy of oncologic patients. The development of medical imaging over the last decade has allowed significant progresses in radiotherapy. Indeed, medical imaging is now considered the corner stone of radiotherapy. The main challenge for the radiation oncologist consists in the tumour identification with a view to irradiate the tumour at a curative dose while avoiding healthy tissues. To achieve these goals, the radiotherapist daily uses anatomical imaging such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since several years now, the development of functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or functional MRI has opened new perspectives in the management of oncologic diseases. Indeed, these imaging techniques offer new information on tumour metabolism that may be taken into account to plan the radiotherapy treatment. This article illustrates the different imaging techniques used in radiotherapy and the role of functional imaging for establishing new therapeutic strategies in radiation oncology. PMID:24822301

  14. Lymphocyte response after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J BRAEMAN

    1973-01-01

    The lymphocyte response of 48 patients with carcinoma of the bronehus ; was studied before and after radical radiotherapy using phytohendagglutinin (P.H. ; A.) and pokeweed mitogen (P. W. M.). The absolute lymphocyte-count bcfore and ; after treatment was also assessed. The patients received an average dose of 3200 ; rad in eight fractions, given twice weekly over 4 weeks.

  15. A Multi-Agent Model for Emotion Contagion Spirals Integrated within a Supporting Ambient Agent Model

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    , and script our social behavior. Research on the idea that emotion also has a strong social component, which a collective emotion. This process has been described as an inclination to mimic the gestural behavior1 A Multi-Agent Model for Emotion Contagion Spirals Integrated within a Supporting Ambient Agent

  16. Expression of Emotion: When It Causes Trauma and When It Helps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Littrell

    2009-01-01

    The idea that clients should be encouraged to express strong emotion regarding the traumas they have suffered is widely assumed. This article asks whether the empirical literature supports the underlying assumption that emotional expression leads to positive outcomes (better health and dissipation of distress). Studies in which individuals who have been given an opportunity to express emotions about past traumas

  17. The Effect of Emotional Content on Visual Recognition Memory: A PET Activation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan F. Taylor; Israel Liberzon; Lorraine M. Fig; Laura R. Decker; Satoshi Minoshima; Robert A. Koeppe

    1998-01-01

    The emotional content of stimuli can enhance memory for those stimuli. This process may occur via an interaction with systems responsible for perception and memory or via the addition of distinct brain regions specialized for emotion which augment mnemonic processing. We performed an15O PET study to identify neuroanatomical systems which encode visual stimuli with strong negative emotional valence compared to

  18. An fMRI Study of Personality Influences on Brain Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turhan Canli; Zuo Zhao; John E. Desmond; Eunjoo Kang; James Gross; John D. E. Gabrieli

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have examined which brain regions respond to emotional stimuli, but they have not determined how stable personality traits moderate such brain activation. Two personality traits, extraversion and neuroticism, are strongly associated with emotional experience and may thus moderate brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to directly test whether individual differences

  19. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kateri McRae; Kevin N. Ochsner; Iris B. Mauss; John J. D. Gabrieli; James J. Gross

    2008-01-01

    Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using

  20. The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

  1. Speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulia A. Dodonova; Yury S. Dodonov

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence (EI). To evaluate individual differences in the speed of emotional information processing, a recognition memory task consisted of two subtests similar in design but differing in the emotionality of the stimuli. The first subtest required judgment about whether an emotional facial expression

  2. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors. PMID:24936284

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Bloggers Collective Behavior Powered by Emotions

    E-print Network

    Mitrovi?, Marija; Tadi?, Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study emergence of the emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite network of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion-classifier developed for this type of texts. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and tempo...

  4. Emotion Regulation JAMES J. GROSS

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    CHAPTER 31 ·Emotion Regulation JAMES J. GROSS Have you ever gotten so angry that you've done). Although the topic of emotion regulation is a relatively late addition to the field of emotion, a concern with emotion regulation is anything but new. Emotion regu lation has been a focus in the study of psycho

  5. Emotional Robotics: Tug of War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Grant Cooper; Dov Katz; Hava T. Siegelmann

    Emotional communication skills are dominant in biological systems. Although the rules that govern creating and broadcasting emotional cues are inherently complex, their effectiveness makes them attractive for biological systems. Emotional communication requires very low bandwidth and is generally easy to interpret. Despite the ad- vantages of emotional communication, little or no research has explored which emotional cues are the most

  6. What's Basic About Basic Emotions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

    1990-01-01

    A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

  7. Hungry for Respect: The Moderating Roles of Status and Justice Orientation on Relationships between Interpersonal Justice and Emotions 

    E-print Network

    Stoverink, Adam C

    2013-07-31

    linked to emotions such as anger and hostility. In fact, interpersonal justice is arguably the most emotionally charged of all the justice types. Yet, despite the strong theoretical support and empirical evidence linking interpersonal justice to negative...

  8. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  9. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    PubMed Central

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants’ actions were influenced by their memory of the Emoter’s affect. Moreover, infants’ actions varied as a function of whether they were currently in the Emoter’s visual field. If the previously angry Emoter was absent (Experiment 1) or turned her back (Experiment 2), infants did not use the prior emotion to regulate their behavior. Infants learn from emotional eavesdropping, and their subsequent behavior depends on the Emoter’s orientation toward them. PMID:17381787

  10. A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Einar B. Thorsteinsson; Navjot Bhullar; Sally E. Rooke

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 44 effect sizes based on the responses of 7898 participants found that higher emotional intelligence was associated with better health. Emotional intelligence had a weighted average association of r=.29 with mental health, r=.31 with psychosomatic health, and r=.22 with physical health. Emotional intelligence measured as a trait was more strongly associated with mental health than emotional intelligence

  11. Emotional intelligence is…?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janette Warwick; Ted Nettelbeck

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-four tertiary students completed questionnaires measuring emotional intelligence (EI), personality, affiliation, abstract reasoning ability, emotional knowledge, and task orientation. Among personality variables, extraversion and agreeableness correlated moderately with total Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) (p<0.01), and weakly (p<0.05) with openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. TMMS was also correlated with emotional knowledge (p<0.01) but not with abstract reasoning or interest in affiliation. Results

  12. The importance of being earnest: displayed emotions and witness credibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Kaufmann; Guri C. B. Drevland; Ellen Wessel; Geir Overskeid; Svein Magnussen

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Participants viewed one of six video-recorded versions of a rape victim's testimony, role-played by a professional actress in one of six versions: Two versions of the testimony, representing a strong and a less strong rape scenario, were given in a free-recall manner with one of three kinds of emotions displayed, termed congruent, neutral and incongruent emotional expressions. Credibility judgements

  13. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gao Qingji; Wang Kai; Liu Haijuan

    2008-01-01

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this\\u000a mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will\\u000a change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism

  14. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  15. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts the physical body, it can also impact emotional and ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  16. EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

    In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

  17. Annotating Emotion in Meetings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Reidsma; Dirk Heylen; Roeland Ordelman

    We present the results of two trials testing procedures for the annotation of emotion and mental state of the AMI corpus. The first procedure is an adaptation of the FeelTrace method, focusing on a continuous labelling of emotion dimensions. The second method is centered around more discrete labeling of segments using categorical labels. The results reported are promising for this

  18. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Hess; Pascal Thibault

    2009-01-01

    In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872\\/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This

  19. Professional emotional development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Perry; I Ball

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is vital for effective teaching and teacher wellbeing, so there is good reason for teachers to get in touch with their emotions. Sooner or later, all teachers experience some kind of pressure, some form of stress and some level of concern about their performance in the classroom. They may feel that they are not in touch with the

  20. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  1. Emotionally Expressive Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

    1999-01-01

    The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

  2. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  3. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. Methodology/Principal Findings The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder. PMID:26083383

  4. Emotion in Intelligent Virtual Agents: the Flow Model of Emotion

    E-print Network

    Gaspar, Graça

    have allowed the definition of emotion like characteristics and behavior, however they also have someEmotion in Intelligent Virtual Agents: the Flow Model of Emotion Luís Morgado1,2 and Graça Gaspar2 emotion in artificial agents. However, a general framework to support the implementation of emo- tional

  5. Emotion Concepts and Emotional States in Social Judgment and Categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åse Innes-Ker; Paula M. Niedenthal

    2002-01-01

    An objection to conclusions of research investigating effects of emotions on cognitive processes is that the effects are due to the activation of semantic concepts rather than to emotional feelings. A sentence unscrambling task was developed to prime concepts of happiness, sadness, or neutral ideas. Pilot studies demonstrated that unscrambling emotional sentences did not affect emotional state but did prime

  6. Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar

    E-print Network

    Levenson, Robert W.

    Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar degeneration K.H. Werner, Ph de- cline in social and emotional behavior; however, current understanding regarding the specific aspects of emotional functioning that are preserved and disrupted is limited. Objective: To assess

  7. Self-Structure and Emotional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ditzfeld, Christopher P.; Showers, Carolin J.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examine individual differences in affective reactivity by linking emotional experience to cognitive self-structure. Consistent with the view that individuals with an evaluatively compartmentalized self-structure are emotionally reactive, we find that evaluative compartmentalization is associated with the experience of, and desire for, high-arousal positive affect, whereas evaluative integration is associated with the experience of low-arousal positive and negative affect and the desire for low-arousal positive affect. Although compartmentalized individuals are less granular in their tendency to report experiencing both high- and low-arousal affect (cf. Feldman Barrett, 2004), they are strongly differentiated in their perceptions of high-arousal states as positive and low-arousal states as negative. Thus, compartmentalized individuals’ reactivity may be explained by their preference for high-arousal positive states and the “breadth” of their emotionality (e.g., the tendency to experience sadness and nervousness at the same time). PMID:24125479

  8. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  9. Negativity bias, emotion targets, and emotion systems.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al.'s article isolates a plausible psychological factor contributing to differences in political orientation. However, there are two potential difficulties. Both the nature of negativity and the liberal-conservative opposition are ambiguous. A possible way of treating these problems enhances the theoretical framework through fuller reference to emotion systems and categories of triggers for those systems. PMID:24970436

  10. Variability and situatedness of human emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Marcos; Rosselló, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    We commend Koelsch and colleagues [14] for developing a broad and integrative explanation of the neurobiological foundations of emotions. We especially welcome this framework's emphasis on the interaction between language and emotion, and its focus on the characteristically human moral emotions. Emotions elicited by art and aesthetics also seem to be distinctively human, but comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding these. This is probably because they are usually viewed as atypical in several respects. William James [12], for instance, regarded emotional responses to artworks and aesthetic qualities as subtler emotions, because they lacked the strong bodily changes and adaptive value characteristic of coarser emotions, such as joy, anger, or fear. This view is still predominant today, and aesthetic emotions are often distinguished from everyday emotions [13]. However, the notion of a class of aesthetic emotions, separate from everyday emotions, rests on the questionable assumption that artistic and aesthetic experiences and activities are different in essence from everyday experiences and activities. The discontinuity between "aesthetic experience [and] normal processes of living" [9, p. 10], however, is the product of social and cultural developments in Europe during the 18th century [7,15,20]. Distinctions that oppose art to craft, or aesthetic to practical, in reference to objects, behaviors, experiences, and emotions, make little sense in a broader historic and geographic context [1,7,20], and hinder empirical research [7].

  11. Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    ). Such an emotional process may nevertheless drive the person's behavior and physiological reactions, even whileUnconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1 and Kent C. Berridge2 1 University of California, San Diego and necessary ingredient of emotion. Here we argue that emotion also can be genuinely unconscious. We describe

  12. Emotional intelligence and effective leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

  13. An argument for basic emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ekman

    1992-01-01

    Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish

  14. Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, C.; Durante, M.

    2011-08-01

    Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.

  15. Successful Contextual Integration of Loose Mental Associations As Evidenced by Emotional Conflict-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Ulrike; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting). Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm). For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting “negative” emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures. PMID:24618674

  16. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy of brain metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Soffietti; A. Costanza; E. Laguzzi; M. Nobile; R. Rudà

    2005-01-01

    Summary The authors have reviewed the results, the indications and the controversies regarding radiotherapy and chemotherapy of patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent brain metastases. Whole-brain radiotherapy, radiosurgery, hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy are the available options. New radiosensitizers and cytotoxic or cytostatic agents are being investigated. Adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, either after surgery or radiosurgery, and prophylactic cranial

  17. Strong Decoherence

    E-print Network

    Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

    1995-11-23

    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which -- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time -- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee what we call ``permanence of the past'' -- in particular the continued decoherence of past alternatives as the chains of projections are extended into the future. Strong decoherence is an idealization capturing in a general way this and other aspects of realistic physical mechanisms that destroy interference, as we illustrate in a simple model. We discuss the connection between the reduced density matrices that have often been used to characterize mechanisms of decoherence and the more general notion of strong decoherence. The relation between strong decoherence and a measure of classicality is briefly described.

  18. The relationship between basic need satisfaction and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, G M; Acton, G J

    2001-01-01

    Eating in response to emotions may lead to the consumption of excessive calories which typically leads to weight gain. This study examined the relationship between basic need satisfaction as identified by Maslow's hierarchy and emotional eating. According to Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, when lack of basic need satisfaction functions as a stressor, individuals may be more likely to engage in emotional eating as a substitute for fulfilling their needs in order to maintain homeostasis. The Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory (BNSI) had a strong, negative correlation (r = -.49; p < .001) to the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) indicating that the lower the level of basic need satisfaction, the more likely one engaged in emotional eating. In predicting EES score, 27.7% of the variance was explained by the self-esteem subscale of BNSI. This study supports looking at underlying issues contributing to weight gain in order to develop effective interventions for weight management. PMID:11881182

  19. Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Jonathan R.; Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception and emotion are traditionally considered separate domains of study. In this article, however, we review research showing them to be less separable that usually assumed. In fact, emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. In addition, the layout of the physical environment, including the apparent steepness of a hill and the distance to the ground from a balcony can both be affected by emotional states. We propose that emotions provide embodied information about the costs and benefits of anticipated action, information that can be used automatically and immediately, circumventing the need for cogitating on the possible consequences of potential actions. Emotions thus provide a strong motivating influence on how the environment is perceived. PMID:22039565

  20. "It's Been a Bit of a Rollercoaster": Special Educational Needs, Emotional Labour and Emotion Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of data collected--by semi-structured interviews and focus groups--from staff working with children with special educational needs (SEN) in England. The analysis highlighted the role of strong emotions, and how participants (unsurprisingly) experienced these differently, largely according to their position in…

  1. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music. PMID:21761216

  2. Postpartum Period: Emotions

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

  3. Emotion as morphofunctionality.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos Herrera; Sanz, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We argue for a morphofunctional approach to emotion modeling that can also aid the design of adaptive embodied systems. By morphofunctionality we target the online change in both structure and function of a system, and relate it to the notion of physiology and emotion in animals. Besides the biological intuition that emotions serve the function of preparing the body, we investigate the control requirements that any morphofunctional autonomous system must face. We argue that changes in morphology modify the dynamics of the system, thus forming a variable structure system (VSS). We introduce some of the techniques of control theory to deal with VSSs and derive a twofold hypothesis: first, the loose coupling between two control systems, in charge of action and action readiness, respectively; second, the formation of patterned metacontrol. Emotional phenomena can be seen as emergent from this control setup. PMID:23186348

  4. Effects of Emotions on Learning in Adult, Career and Career-Technical Education. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Recent research conducted by neurologists and educators shows a strong link between emotion and reason. The role of emotion has been addressed in various ways in the fields of adult education and training, career education and development, and career and technical education (CTE). The term "emotional intelligence" (EI) is generally used to…

  5. DeCon: A tool to detect emotional concordance in multivariate time series data of emotional responding

    PubMed Central

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Ceulemans, Eva; Thompson, Renee J.; Waugh, Christian E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of concordance among different response components during an emotional episode is a key feature of several contemporary accounts and definitions of emotion. Yet, capturing such response concordance in empirical data has proven to be elusive, in large part because of a lack of appropriate statistical tools that are tailored to measure the intricacies of response concordance in the context of data on emotional responding. In this article, we present a tool we developed to detect two different forms of response concordance—response patterning and synchronization—in multivariate time series data of emotional responding, and apply this tool to data concerning physiological responding to emotional stimuli. While the findings provide partial evidence for both response patterning and synchronization, they also show that the presence and nature of such patterning and synchronization is strongly person-dependent. PMID:24220647

  6. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Villarreal, José E.; Pedraza, Martha; García, Laura; Tendilla, José I.; Paredes, Lydia

    2001-10-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry.

  7. Immediacy bias in emotion perception: current emotions seem more intense than previous emotions.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-08-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies 1 and 2), films (Studies 3 and 4), and descriptions of terrorist threats (Study 5). The immediacy bias may be partly caused by immediate emotion's salience, and by the greater availability of information about immediate compared with previous emotion. Consistent with emotional salience, when people experienced new emotions, they perceived previous emotions as less intense than they did initially (Studies 3 and 5)-a change in perception that did not occur when people did not experience a new immediate emotion (Study 2). Consistent with emotional availability, reminding people that information about emotions naturally decays from memory reduced the immediacy bias by making previous emotions seem more intense (Study 4). Discussed are implications for psychological theory and other judgments and behaviors. PMID:19653796

  8. Critical Reflections on a Cognitive-Pysiological Theory of Emotion

    E-print Network

    Bell, Bill D.

    1972-04-01

    , that some people react more strongly to emotional stimuli than others (Valins, 1967; Berry and Martin, 1957). Schachter and Latane (1964) and Mandler and Kremen (1958) observe that psychopathic individuals are characterized by "flat affect" while at the same... time exhfbLtLng high levels of sympathetic arousal. It was suggested, initially, that the intensity of emotional reactions was a function of autonomic arousal. If this is the case, however, how can the apparant "flat affect" of the psychopathic...

  9. Emotion work: disclosing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Grace J.; Aviv, Caryn; Levine, Ellen G.; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically diverse population. Methods The participants (n=176) selected for this study were African American, Asian American, Latina, and Caucasian women who had been diagnosed with stages 0, I, or II breast cancer within the past 4 years. They completed an in-depth qualitative interview on self-disclosure and social support. Findings The results indicate self-disclosing was done at a time when important decisions about treatment needed to be made. Different strategies for disclosure were used, all of which entailed emotion work. Respondents talked about the various elements of emotion work in the disclosure process including: managing others' worry, protecting and soothing others, and educating and instructing others.. For many respondents, disclosure without calculating emotional management meant opening up to others which meant support and an increase in emotional resources. Conclusions The findings in this paper have implications for women with breast cancer and demonstrate the need for women to be involved in honest disclosure and less emotional management of others' feelings. There is also a need for education about the nature of the cancer experience among people who are not well educated about the treatment and consequences of cancer. This need may be even stronger among racial and ethnic minorities. PMID:19434430

  10. [Subcutaneous calcifications after radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Steinert, M; Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Peter, R U

    2001-06-01

    A 75-year-old female patient presented with late stage cutaneous radiation syndrome, following postoperative combined radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma administered 32 years ago. She was hospitalized because of a deep abscess in the radiation-exposed area on the sacrum. Extension into the subcutaneous fibrosis was verified by 7,5-MHz-sonography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. With intravenous cefotiam (Spizef) 2.0 g three times daily, the inflammation decreased, as seen clinically and with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. As a secondary finding, an unusual distinctive subcutaneous calcification was diagnosed in the radiation-exposed area by means of 7,5-MHz-sonography, as well as computer- and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. These subcutaneous calcifications are most likely to have been radiation-induced. PMID:11428081

  11. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  12. Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation 

    E-print Network

    Mulholland, Paula Claire

    2010-11-26

    An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN ...

  13. GROUPED'ANALYSEETDETHORIECONOMIQUELYONSTTIENNE Emotions,SanctionsandCooperation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    GROUPED'ANALYSEETDETHÉORIEÉCONOMIQUELYONSTÉTIENNE WP1113 Emotions #12;Emotions, Sanctions and Cooperation Mateus Joffily 1 , David Masclet 2 , Charles N. Noussair 3-reports of hedonic valence to study the emotional basis of cooperation and punishment in a social dilemma. Emotional

  14. Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Blair; B. W. Smith; D. G. V. Mitchell; J. Morton; M. Vythilingam; L. Pessoa; D. Fridberg; A. Zametkin; E. E. Nelson; W. C. Drevets; D. S. Pine; A. Martin; R. J. R. Blair

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In particular, the BOLD response within bilateral amygdala and

  15. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

  16. In this Issue Feeling emotional: the amygdala links emotional

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    In this Issue Feeling emotional: the amygdala links emotional perception and experience The term). Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown the amygdala varies with emotional experience in both healthy or the bore of an MRI scanner, the amygdala has been associated to some extent with all of these putative

  17. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

  18. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception 

    E-print Network

    Forrester, Roisin

    2010-06-30

    Abstract The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) involves understanding the relation between reason and emotion. The present study introduces EI and investigates its relation to social intelligence (SI) and nonverbal ...

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

    1983-01-01

    Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

  1. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  2. Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.

    PubMed

    Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them. PMID:25204682

  3. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  4. Malignant cerebral glioma--II: Perspectives of patients and relatives on the value of radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E.; Clarke, C.; Hopkins, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of patients and relatives after the diagnosis and treatment of malignant cerebral glioma. DESIGN: Two year prospective study with home interviews. SETTING: Six neurosurgery and radiotherapy centres in London. SUBJECTS: 75 patients and 66 close relatives interviewed at diagnosis, 58 patients interviewed after radiotherapy, and 27 interviewed after recurrence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Awareness of likely prognosis, distress, dissatisfaction with radiotherapy, and perception of severe problems in everyday life. RESULTS: As they began radiotherapy most patients understood that they suffered from a brain tumour (95%; 71/75), but only one quarter (19/75) seemed fully aware of the poor prognosis. Others were unaware (43%; 32/75) or only partly aware (32%; 24/75). The more aware patients were more distressed. Relatives were three times more likely to be aware of the prognosis (67%; 44/66) and were more distressed. Although 39% (29/75) of patients initially made negative comments about radiotherapy, only 17% (13/75) were completely dissatisfied. The decision to accept radiotherapy could be discussed directly with 19 fully aware patients. Twelve found radiotherapy acceptable if it were medically advised or if it improved survival. Assessed by their own reports of problems only 40% of patients achieved a period of stability or remission, yet dissatisfaction with treatment did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with malignant glioma initially seemed unaware or only partly aware of the poor prognosis. Relatives were more aware, more distressed, and often concerned to protect patients from full awareness, which made it difficult to explore with patients directly the possible trade off between quality and length of life. Conceptualising the question as a rational choice ignores the social and emotional context of life threatening disease. PMID:8978225

  5. Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Chad Bobik; Tracie D. Coston; Cyndy Greeson; Christina Jedlicka; Emily Rhodes; Greta Wendorf

    2001-01-01

    In 7 studies, the authors examined the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. In Studies 1 and 2, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for empathic perspective taking and self-monitoring in social situations. In Study 3, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for social skills. In Study 4, the

  8. The Science of Emotional Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Salovey; Daisy Grewal

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on emotional intelligence. Although it has been defined in many ways, we focus on the four-branch model by Mayer and Salovey (1997), which characterizes emotional intelligence as a set of four related abilities: perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. The theory provides a useful framework for studying individual differences in abilities related

  9. Toward Machines with Emotional Intelligence

    E-print Network

    1 Toward Machines with Emotional Intelligence Rosalind W. Picard MIT Media Laboratory Abstract pets, desktop computers, and more) skills of emotional intelligence. Machines have long been able intelligent. Machines are now being given the ability to sense and recognize expressions of human emotion

  10. Moral Education and the Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1980-01-01

    This paper argues that the emotions have a central place in moral education. Two types of emotions involved in moral judgment are defined: constitutive and regulative. Fear and guilt are used as paradigms to explain how emotions are learned. A model for education in conscientiousness, compassion, and benevolence is outlined. (Author/SJL)

  11. The Physical Basis of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the theories of C. Lange and William James on emotional consciousness, affirming it to be the effect of organic changes which express emotion. The name emotion might be considered to connote organic excitement as the distinctive feature of the state. (SLD)

  12. Emotion, Cognition, and Mental State

    E-print Network

    Salzman, Daniel

    , such as the amygdala for emotion and the prefrontal cortex for cognition. In this framework, functional interactionsEmotion, Cognition, and Mental State Representation in Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex C. Daniel between the amygdala and pre- frontal cortex mediate emotional influences on cognitive processes

  13. Detecting Emotions in Mandarin Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsang-Long Pao; Yu-Te Chen; Jun-Heng Yeh; Wen-Yuan Liao

    2005-01-01

    The importance of automatically recognizing emotions in human speech has grown with the increasing role of spoken language interfaces in human-computer interaction applications. In this paper, a Mandarin speech based emotion classification method is presented. Five primary human emotions, including anger, boredom, happiness, neutral and sadness, are investigated. Combining different feature streams to obtain a more accurate result is a

  14. Emotion locomotion: promoting the emotional health of elementary school children by recognizing emotions.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Debra A; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K; Linam, Eve H; Moneymaker, Laura D; Rathke, Meghan K

    2009-10-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed Emotion Locomotion, a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school. Emotion Locomotion used an analogy that the "engine" of a train represents the "individual" and the train "cars" represent various emotions, such as happiness, sadness, calmness, and anger. Analysis of pre- and posttest scores showed an increase in appropriate student responses that involved identifying emotions from photographs and in recognition of vocabulary words representing emotions. Students' role playing during puppet shows demonstrated increased appropriate expression of emotions and healthy ways to deal with feelings during scenarios. Programs such as Emotion Locomotion present opportunities to expand the outreach of school nurses and colleges of nursing through community partnerships to provide critical life skills for student populations. PMID:19592675

  15. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovi?, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadi?, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  16. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Zhang Hong [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Jarlsfelt, Ingvar [Department of Pathology and Cytology, Joenkoeping Hospital, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  17. Proton radiotherapy: some perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kirn, T.F.

    1988-02-12

    A news article highlighting the use of protons in radiotherapy is presented. Development of stereotaxic radiosurgery is the result of contributions from physicists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons, says Jacob Fabrikant, MD, head of the Arteriovenous Malformation Program at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. It also appears to have been the product of Harvard University (Boston) and University of California (Berkeley) cooperation. Robert R. Wilson, PhD, now a professor emeritus at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is credited with proposing the medical use of charged particles. Wilson, a physicist, says that the idea occurred to him while he was at Berkeley in the mid-1940's, designing the cyclotron to be built at Harvard. Although he was aware of their work, he does not remember discussing it with Robert Stone, MD, or John Lawrence, MD, who only a few years earlier at Berkeley had begun the initial medical experiments with neutrons. Wilson says that it simply occurred to him that in certain instances charged particles had two advantages over x-rays.

  18. Emotions and Acne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Polenghi; S. Zizak; E. Molinari

    2002-01-01

    Summary Background: Acne is a very common and disfiguring disease that more or less severely affects the majority of adolescents and, to some extent, also adults. The importance of emotional stress in the onset or worsening particularly of skin diseases has long been a subject of study and debate, and it has been shown that stress stimuli may lead to

  19. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    The Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District curriculum for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students is presented. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility…

  20. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    A curriculum is presented for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility procedures and exit criteria. It contains job descriptions for…

  1. A new plan quality index for dose painting radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Park, Soyeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Siyong

    2014-01-01

    Dose painting radiotherapy is considered a promising radiotherapy technology that enables more targeted dose delivery to tumor rich regions while saving critical normal tissues. Obviously, dose painting planning would be more complicated and hard to be evaluated with current plan quality index systems that were developed under the paradigm of uniform dose prescription. In this study, we introduce a new plan quality index, named "index of achievement (IOA)" that assesses how close the planned dose distribution is to the prescribed one in a dose painting radiotherapy plan. By using voxel-based comparison between planned and prescribed dose distributions in its formulation, the index allows for a single-value evaluation regardless of the number of prescribed dose levels, which cannot be achieved with the conventional indices such as conventional homogeneity index. Benchmark calculations using patient data demonstrated feasibility of the index not only for contour-based dose painting plans, but also for dose painting by numbers plans. Also, it was shown that there is strong correlation between the new index and conventional indices, which indicates a potential of the new index as an alternative to conventional ones in general radiotherapy plan evaluation. PMID:25207424

  2. Radiotherapy for glomus jugulare paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P

    2014-09-01

    Surgery has been long considered to be the treatment of choice for glomus jugulare paragangliomas, as it is the only modality able to totally eradicate the tumour. However, despite considerable progress in interventional radiology and nerve monitoring, surgery is associated with an unacceptably high complication rate for a benign tumour, explaining the growing place of radiotherapy in the management of these tumours. This review of the literature confirms the efficacy of conformal radiotherapy with or without intensity modulation and stereotactic radiotherapy, which both achieve tumour control rates ranging from 90% to almost 100% of cases, but for different tumour volumes, almost constant stabilization or even improvement of symptoms, and a considerably lower rate of adverse effects than with surgery. However, radiotherapy remains contraindicated in the presence of intracranial invasion or extensive osteomyelitis. In the light of these results, together with the improved quality of life and a better knowledge of the natural history of this disease, many authors propose radiotherapy as first-line treatment for all glomus jugulare paragangliomas regardless of their size, particularly in patients with no preoperative deficits. PMID:24908634

  3. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

  4. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

  5. Target position variability throughout prostate radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A Dawson; Katherine Mah; Edmee Franssen; Gerard Morton

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the variability in prostate and seminal vesicle position during a course of external beam radiotherapy, and to measure the proportion of target variability due to setup error.Methods and Materials: Forty-four weekly planning computerized tomography (CT) studies were obtained on six patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. All patients were scanned in the radiotherapy treatment position, supine with

  6. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  7. [Emotional labor in nursing praxis].

    PubMed

    Vilelas, José Manuel Da Silva; Diogo, Paula Manuela Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept. PMID:25474853

  8. [Emotional labor in nursing praxis].

    PubMed

    Vilelas, José Manuel Da Silva; Diogo, Paula Manuela Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept. PMID:25508632

  9. Program Development and Outcomes Assessment of Social Emotional Curriculum Utilized with High School Special Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedam, Allison

    2012-01-01

    The present study will assess the effectiveness of a social emotional learning curriculum implemented in a Midwestern high school with special education students. The specific social emotional curriculum utilized at this particular school was organized and delivered by the school psychologists at the high school, based on the Strong Teens…

  10. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  11. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  12. Metrological Issues in Molecular Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Solc, Jaroslav; Bobin, Christophe; Rabus, Hans; Joulaeizadeh, Leila

    2014-08-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project "Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT)" is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided.

  13. Emotional Distress and Compassionate Responses in Palliative Care Decision-Making Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, David; Davis, J. Kelly; Metzger, Maureen; DeLuca, Jane; Gramling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Seriously ill hospitalized patients and their loved ones are frequently faced with complex treatment decisions laden with expressions of emotional distress during palliative care (PC) consultations. Little is known about these emotional expressions or the compassionate responses providers make and how common these are in PC decision-making conversations. Objectives: To describe the types and frequency of emotional distress that patients and loved ones express and how providers respond to these emotions during PC decision-making consultations with seriously ill hospitalized patients. Methods: We used a quantitative descriptive approach to analyze 71 audio-recorded inpatient PC decision-making consultations for emotional distress and clinicians' responses to those emotions using reliable and established methods. Results: A total of 69% of conversations contained at least one expression of emotional distress. The per-conversation frequency of expressions of emotional distress ranged from 1 to 10. Anxiety/fear were the most frequently encountered emotions (48.4%) followed by sadness (35.5%) and anger/frustration (16.1%). More than half of the emotions related to the patient's feelings (53.6%) and 41.9% were related to the loved ones' own emotions. The majority of emotions were moderate in intensity (65.8%) followed by strong (20.7%) and mild (13.5%). Clinicians responded to a majority of emotions with a compassionate response (75.7%) followed by those with medical content (21.9%) and very few were ignored (1.3%). Conclusions: Expressions of emotional distress are common during PC consultations and are usually met with compassionate responses by the clinician. PMID:24588656

  14. This Emotional Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

  15. Chemosignals communicate human emotions.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Smeets, Monique A M; Kaldewaij, Annemarie; Duijndam, Maarten J A; Semin, Gün R

    2012-01-01

    Can humans communicate emotional states via chemical signals? In the experiment reported here, we addressed this question by examining the function of chemosignals in a framework furnished by embodied social communication theory. Following this theory, we hypothesized that the processes a sender experiences during distinctive emotional states are transmitted to receivers by means of the chemicals that the sender produces, thus establishing a multilevel correspondence between sender and receiver. In a double-blind experiment, we examined facial reactions, sensory-regulation processes, and visual search in response to chemosignals. We demonstrated that fear chemosignals generated a fearful facial expression and sensory acquisition (increased sniff magnitude and eye scanning); in contrast, disgust chemosignals evoked a disgusted facial expression and sensory rejection (decreased sniff magnitude, target-detection sensitivity, and eye scanning). These findings underline the neglected social relevance of chemosignals in regulating communicative correspondence outside of conscious access. PMID:23019141

  16. Emotional gestures in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Merola

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible\\u000a differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures\\u000a a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal,\\u000a and type.

  17. Emotional Aspects of Hyperprolactinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Sobrinho

    1998-01-01

    Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not‐so‐rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details,

  18. Justice and Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Turner

    2007-01-01

    Sociological theories of justice emphasize (a) the level of discrepancy or congruence between shares of resources received\\u000a relative to individuals’ perceptions of “just shares” and (b) the emotions aroused with either discrepancy or congruence.\\u000a While these theories tend to have precision and elegance, they generally do not specify the full range of reference points\\u000a that can be used to establish

  19. Speaker Recognition Systems in the Emotional Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Shahin

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that speaker recognition systems perform extremely well in the neutral environment. However, such systems perform poorly in the emotional environment. Our work in this research focuses on text- dependent speaker identification systems in the emotional environment. Our emotional environment consists of five emotions. These emotions are angry, sad, happy, disgust, and fear. Each of the hidden

  20. Cost-effectiveness of surgery plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth C. [Departments of Surgery (Orthopedics) and Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Nosyk, Bohdan [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Fisher, Charles G. [Department of Orthopedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dvorak, Marcel [Department of Orthopedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Patchell, Roy A. [Departments of Surgery (Neurosurgery) and Neurology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States); Loblaw, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bansback, Nick [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Guh, Daphne [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sun, Huiying [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Anis, Aslam [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: aslam.anis@ubc.ca

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A recent randomized clinical trial has demonstrated that direct decompressive surgery plus radiotherapy was superior to radiotherapy alone for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. The current study compared the cost-effectiveness of the two approaches. Methods and Materials: In the original clinical trial, clinical effectiveness was measured by ambulation and survival time until death. In this study, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Costs related to treatment and posttreatment care were estimated and extended to the lifetime of the cohort. Weibull regression was applied to extrapolate outcomes in the presence of censored clinical effectiveness data. Results: From a societal perspective, the baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was found to be $60 per additional day of ambulation (all costs in 2003 Canadian dollars). Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 50% of all generated ICERs were lower than $57, and 95% were lower than $242 per additional day of ambulation. This analysis had a 95% CI of -$72.74 to 309.44, meaning that this intervention ranged from a financial savings of $72.74 to a cost of $309.44 per additional day of ambulation. Using survival as the measure of effectiveness resulted in an ICER of $30,940 per life-year gained. Conclusions: We found strong evidence that treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression with surgery in addition to radiotherapy is cost-effective both in terms of cost per additional day of ambulation, and cost per life-year gained.

  1. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Maria Roesink

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

  2. PARTICLE BEAM RADIOTHERAPY: CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    interest we also briefly will describe the clinical work using -mesons, which are a "hybrid" form of high this work has shifted to the setting of major medical centers. Two main factors have motivated this research modulated, conformal radiotherapy. The other factor relates to the more favorable radiobiologic properties

  3. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Haddad, E.; Schlumberger, M.; Hill, C.; Rougier, P.; Sarrazin, D.

    1985-05-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally, in those patients, the neoplastic tissue involves the larynx, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels or mediastinum. Of 539 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Villejuif, France, until 1976, 97 were treated by external radiotherapy after an incomplete surgical excision. Fifteen years after irradiation, the survival rate is 57% and is approximately 40% at 25 years. The relapse-free survival is lower (39% at 15 years). In patients irradiated with an adequate dose (greater than or equal to 50 Gy) to residual neoplastic tissue after incomplete surgery, the incidence of local recurrence is low (actuarial probability of local recurrence 11% at 15 years versus 23% for patients treated by surgery alone, although the irradiated patients had larger and more extensive tumors). This demonstrates the efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy on a residual tumor can be monitored by a serum thyroglobulin assay. With regard to local control of tumors, the effectiveness of radioiodine administration is clearly lower. However, since radioiodine facilitates early detection of distant metastases, a combination of external RT and radioiodine is indicated and is well-tolerated.

  4. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  5. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample.

    PubMed

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  6. Recognition of emotions from faces and voices in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Annalisa; Benuzzi, Francesca; Monti, Giulia; Mirandola, Laura; Pugnaghi, Matteo; Nichelli, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2011-04-01

    Patients with chronic medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) can be impaired in different tasks that evaluate emotional or social abilities. In particular, the recognition of facial emotions can be affected (Meletti S, Benuzzi F, Rubboli G, et al. Neurology 2003;60:426-31. Meletti S, Benuzzi F, Cantalupo G, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Nichelli P. Epilepsia 2009;50:1547-59). To better understand the nature of emotion recognition deficits in MTLE we investigated the decoding of basic emotions in the visual (facial expression) and auditory (emotional prosody) domains in 41 patients. Results showed deficits in the recognition of both facial and vocal expression of emotions, with a strong correlation between performances across the two tasks. No correlation between emotion recognition and measures of IQ, quality of life (QOLIE-31), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) was significant, except for a weak correlation between prosody recognition and IQ. These data suggest that emotion recognition impairment in MTLE is not dependent on the sensory channel through which the emotional stimulus is transmitted. Moreover, these findings support the notion that emotional processing is at least partly independent of measures of cognitive intelligence. PMID:21459049

  7. Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent attention has been given to the role of emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Gross (1998) provided a framework from which to understand emotion regulation processes, and it is within this framework that the literature on emotion regulation/dysregulation in the anxiety disorder population is reviewed, with a focus on possible deficiencies that lead to or maintain the disorders. The present paper aims to (1) briefly introduce emotion regulation strategies of suppression and reappraisal; (2) summarize the empirical studies of emotion regulation within anxiety disorders; (3) discuss the neurobiological markers of emotion regulation within these disorders; (4) provide future directions for research; and (5) summarize possible treatment implications resulting from this important area of research. PMID:17349775

  8. Emotion simulation during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Havas, David A; Glenberg, Arthur M; Rinck, Mike

    2007-06-01

    We report a novel finding on the relation of emotion and language. Covert manipulation of emotional facial posture interacts with sentence valence when measuring the amount of time to judge valence (Experiment 1) and sensibility (Experiment 2) of the sentence. In each case, an emotion-sentence compatibility effect is found: Judgment times are faster when facial posture and sentence valence match than when they mismatch. We interpret the finding using a simulation account; that is, emotional systems contribute to language comprehension much as they do in social interaction. Because the effect was not observed on a lexical decision task using emotion-laden words (Experiment 3), we suggest that the emotion simulation affects comprehension processes beyond initial lexical access. PMID:17874584

  9. Same Situation--Different Emotions: How Appraisals Shape Our Emotions Matthias Siemer

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Same Situation--Different Emotions: How Appraisals Shape Our Emotions Matthias Siemer University of Miami Iris Mauss University of Denver James J. Gross Stanford University Appraisal theories of emotion rise to one emotion rather than another emotion (or no emotion at all). Unfortunately, most prior tests

  10. Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June Price Tangney; Jeff Stuewig; Debra J. Mashek

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Moral emotions,represent a key element of our human,moral appa- ratus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral be- havior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced,“self- conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previ- ous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review

  11. Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Ciarrochi; Amy Y. C. Chan; Jane Bajgar

    2001-01-01

    Can emotional intelligence (EI) be reliably and validly measured in adolescents? One-hundred and thirty-one students (aged 13 to 15) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence (SEI) [Schutte, N., Malouff, J., Hall, L., Haggerty, D., Cooper, J., Golden, C., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.] and a

  12. Social and Emotional Learning Policies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jenn; Wright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a current push to broaden the educational agenda by integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies into the academic curriculum. This article describes how physical education (PE) provides a strong platform for integrating SEL standards into the curriculum. The alignment between SEL and the affective learning objectives of…

  13. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  14. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  15. Emotion down-regulation diminishes cognitive control: a neurophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring. PMID:25286068

  16. Knowledge and Self-Knowledge of Emotions 

    E-print Network

    Zamuner, Edoardo

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two questions. One concerns the metaphysics of emotions and asks what kinds of mental states emotions are. The other asks how the metaphysics of emotions bears on first and third-personal knowledge ...

  17. The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

  18. Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  19. Emotion Communication and the Development of the Social Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Karen Caplovitz; Nelson-Goens, G. Christina

    1997-01-01

    Presents a functionalist perspective on emotion communication and its role in the development of shame and guilt. Emotion communication influences relationship-building between parent and child; gives significance to standards, rules, and achievement; and serves as a channel of communication between parent and child regarding standards, rules, and…

  20. Emotional Video Album: getting emotions into the picture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Oliveira; Teresa Chambel

    Emotions are essential to human beings, influencing their health, their cognition and creativity. One of the greatest strengths of video is its power to generate attitudes and emotions as no other medium can, and it is also an excellent tool for displaying affective information (1, 10). Video is becoming more and more pervasive in our lives. Technological developments and the

  1. Emotion in voice matters: neural correlates of emotional prosody perception.

    PubMed

    Iredale, Jaimi Marie; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye; Dimoska-Di Marco, Aneta; Swift, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    The ability to perceive emotions is imperative for successful interpersonal functioning. The present study examined the neural characteristics of emotional prosody perception with an exploratory event-related potential analysis. Participants were 59 healthy individuals who completed a discrimination task presenting 120 semantically neutral word pairs from five prosody conditions (happy/happy, angry/angry, neutral/neutral, angry/happy, happy/angry). The task required participants to determine whether words in the pair were spoken in same or different emotional prosody. Reflective of an initial processing stage, the word 1 N1 component was found to have greatest amplitude in parietal regions of the hemispheres, and was largest for emotional compared to neutral stimuli, indicating detection of emotion features. A second processing stage, represented by word 1 P2, showed similar topographic effects; however, amplitude was largest for happy in the left hemisphere while angry was largest in the right, illustrating differentiation of emotions. At the third processing stage, word 1 N3 amplitude was largest in frontal regions, indicating later cognitive processing occurs in the frontal cortex. N3 was largest for happy, which had lowest accuracy compared to angry and neutral. The present results support Schirmer and Kotz's (2006) model of vocal emotion perception because they elucidated the function and ERP components by reflecting three primary stages of emotional prosody perception, controlling for semantic influence. PMID:23830881

  2. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    PubMed Central

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  3. Importance of Emotional Competence in Designing an Antidrug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Lee, Tak Yan

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

  4. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions. PMID:24432196

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  6. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  7. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  8. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  9. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  10. The Automaticity of Emotion Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Tracy; Richard W. Robins

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of emotion typically assume that humans evolved to quickly and efficiently recognize emotion expressions because these expressions convey fitness-enhancing messages. The present research tested this assumption in 2 studies. Specifically, the authors examined (a) how quickly perceivers could recognize expressions of anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, shame, and surprise; (b) whether accuracy is improved when

  11. Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

  12. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  13. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  14. Emotion and sociable humanoid robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Breazeal

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

  15. The importance of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Cheri

    2014-11-27

    Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

  16. Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carola

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

  17. Artificial emotions as emergent phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Gomi; Joseph Ulvr

    1993-01-01

    Although some researchers claim that emotion is unique to mammals, this paper describes a notion of artificial emotion as a phenomenon resulting from a series of modifications to emergent behaviors generated by a behavior-based artificial intelligence (AI) approach. Such modifications to behaviors are caused by stimuli (including those from humans) which a robot receives from its environment. The paper describes

  18. Further Evidence for Mixed Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff T. Larsen; A. Peter McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able

  19. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  20. Logicality and Emotionality in Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrin, Elise Trumbull; And Others

    The contention of this paper is that logicality and emotionality are not two poles of a continuum but orthogonal dimensions which may exist to varying degrees in an argument. It was hypothesized that: (1) logicality and emotionality would be perceived as independent components by subject; and (2) messages high in logic would have more influence on…

  1. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  2. Examining Emotions in Identity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study I develop theoretically the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals' emotional reactions to identity nonverification (in a positive and a negative direction) and identity verification, which occurs once versus repeatedly, and which is perpetrated by a familiar other compared with an unfamiliar other. Predictions…

  3. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  4. Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

  5. Emotion Detection in Suicide Notes using Maximum Entropy Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wicentowski, Richard; Sydes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble of supervised maximum entropy classifiers can accurately detect and identify sentiments expressed in suicide notes. Using lexical and syntactic features extracted from a training set of externally annotated suicide notes, we trained separate classifiers for each of fifteen pre-specified emotions. This formed part of the 2011 i2b2 NLP Shared Task, Track 2. The precision and recall of these classifiers related strongly with the number of occurrences of each emotion in the training data. Evaluating on previously unseen test data, our best system achieved an F1 score of 0.534. PMID:22879760

  6. Single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients: comparative effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Frederick; Morton, Gerard C

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is an effective treatment for symptomatic bone metastases from a variety of primary malignancies. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported on the efficacy of EBRT on bone metastases from multiple primaries. This review is focused on the comparative effectiveness of single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. PMID:25473313

  7. Mammography findings following electron intraoperative radiotherapy or external radiotherapy for breast cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. S. A. Carvalho; A. L. Frasson; M. M. Santos; N. de Barros

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy following breast cancer conserving surgery decreases the risks of local recurrence. Because 85% of breast cancers relapse in or around the surgical bed there has been some debate on the need for irradiating the whole breast. Electron intraoperative radiotherapy (ELIOT) has been used as a viable alternative for conventional external radiotherapy (RT). While the former requires a single dose

  8. Radiotherapy and anthracyclines – cardiovascular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wo?niewski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to analyze the impact of radiotherapy and anthracyclines on the cardiovascular system, based on a survey of contemporary literature. Currently, high efficiency of anticancer therapies has increased the rate of survival in patients treated for cancer. It should be emphasized, however, that these treatments damage not only the affected but also the healthy tissue. Consequently, with the increase of survival rate in these patients, the number of patients with complaints regarding numerous organs and systems also increases as a result of earlier treatment. Thus, during the first decade of the 21st century, a number of concerns about the relationship between cancer treatment and dysfunction of the cardiovascular system were resolved. Anthracyclines, as well as radiotherapy, are capable of damaging the cardiovascular system, both at the central level, by the deterioration of cardiac function, and at peripheral levels, by increasing the hemodynamic and thrombotic changes.

  9. [Cerebral metastases: radiotherapy and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Helfre, S; Pierga, J

    1999-12-01

    Brain metastases are common events in adult patients with solid tumors. The choice of the optimal therapy is still challenging and controversial. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a standard practice in most patients with an excellent palliative effect. Boost to gross disease has also been advocated without a clear benefit. Moreover following extended irradiation, a substantial proportion of the long term survivors (>6 months), will present documented cognitive impairments. Patients with favorable prognostic factors can benefit from more aggressive therapy: local resection, mono or multifractionated irradiation with or without radiosensitizing agents, stereotactic radiotherapy, brachytherapy. Although brain metastases of solid tumors occur in the presence of progressive widespread disease, chemotherapy has played a limited role in their treatment. Poor drug penetration across the normal blood-brain barrier of chemotherapy agents is not a limiting factor because of the neovascularization in the tumor. The few prospective studies that have addressed this issue, especially in lung and breast tumors, are reviewed. PMID:10717587

  10. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ladra, Matthew M.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:24424260

  11. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  12. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

  13. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  14. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  15. [Peroperative radiotherapy in cancer of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Huguier, M; Schlienger, M; Houry, S; Charron, R

    1987-10-01

    7 patients presenting with unresected (6 cases) or resected (1 case) cancer of the pancreas were treated peroperatively by radiotherapy. Tumors were treated with 15 to 20 Gy delivered by a particle accelerator. There were no post-operative complications. Three patients who were experiencing pain before radiotherapy no longer had pain after radiotherapy and this effect was maintained. Five patients died during the follow-up period after 5 to 10 months. Two patients are still alive after 4 and 9 months' follow-up. This experience with peroperative radiotherapy should be continued. PMID:3674743

  16. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    PubMed Central

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval. PMID:18505596

  17. Further discussion on dermatological radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Campolmi, P; Morini, C; Rossi, R; Bassi, A; Mokhtarzadeh, S; Gianfaldoni, S; Lotti, T

    2011-08-01

    Dermatological radiotherapy has used for decades in the treatment of skin diseases with very good results. The Florentine school has always played a fundamental role in the development of this technique, this is where a phototherapy institute, which was going, in the future, to be 1st one in Italy to perform contact radiotherapy regularly, started. As time went by and with the development to new therapeutical modalities, the roentgentherapy met with a decreasing consent. So far, it is still proposed as an effective therapeutically modality in dermatological oncology, if even in selected cases. Basal cell carcinomas can reach big dimensions mainly for recurrence or because the tumor was overlooked for a long time. We bring to attention the case of a 65-year-old man presenting an ulcerated, sharp-bordered, infiltrating and bleeding lesion, occupying most of the left wing of the nose, with a diameter of about 3 cm. The man hadn't received any previous treatment. The lesion was subjected to a biopsy and the istopathological analysis diagnosed an ulcus rodens. The man refused the complete surgical removal, and was thus treated with roentgentherapy, with satisfying results and without any complications in the irradiated area. The patient didn't show any relapse after one year of follow-up. Radiotherapy can still be considered as an effective therapeutical alternative both for lesion requiring a surgical approach and for those developing in patients that couldn't be subjected to any other therapies. PMID:21785397

  18. Emotional intelligence and emotional reactivity and recovery in laboratory context.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Extremera, Natalio

    2006-01-01

    This research analysed the influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on emotional responses in laboratory context. Specifically, 1) how does EI affect previous mood states? 2) How does persons' emotional reactivity to different mood induction conditions depend on their EI? 3) How does EI help to a better mood recovery? For these purposes, 155 participants (123 women and 32 men) were measured for EI using Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) one month before the experimental session. The TMMS assesses perceived ability to (a) attend to moods (Attention), (b) discriminate clearly among moods (Clarity), and (c) regulate moods (Repair). The experiment comprised three phases. At time 1 experimenter assessed mood states of the participants before mood induction. At time 2 (mood reactivity phase), participants were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: amusement, anger, and sadness mood conditions. Subsequently participants were assessed in their mood states. At time 3 (mood recovery phase), following a rest period participants were evaluated in mood states and intrusive thoughts measures. Results indicated that EI, specifically Clarity and Repair, was related to previous mood states, emotional reactivity to mood induction conditions, and emotional recovery. Clarity and Repair play different but complementary roles in processing emotional situations generated in laboratory context. In this sense, EI could join the list of personal and interpersonal factors that contribute to the efficient processing of positive and negative emotions. PMID:17295961

  19. The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

  20. Emotional expressiveness and neuroticism: do they predict marital quality?

    PubMed

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2004-12-01

    This study examines how neuroticism and emotional expressiveness relate to perceptions of marital quality. Data were gathered from a sample of 197 Israeli couples. Wives scored higher than husbands on neuroticism and emotional expressiveness, but no significant gender differences were found in perceived marital quality. Structural equation models were estimated to examine the effect of both spouses' neuroticism and expressiveness on their own and on their spouse's evaluation of marital quality. Neuroticism was a strong predictor of both spouses' perceived marital quality. Wives' perceived marital quality was positively associated with both their own and their husbands' emotional expressiveness. In contrast, husbands' perceived marital quality was associated neither with their own nor with their wives' expressiveness. PMID:15598167

  1. Intact Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Complex Predicts Good Response to Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlund, Karin [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Oncology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: karin.soderlund@ibk.liu.se; Stal, Olle [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Oncology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Skoog, Lambert [Department of Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutqvist, Lars Erik [Department of Medicine/Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordenskjoeld, Bo [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Oncology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Askmalm, Marie Stenmark [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Oncology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression and predictive role of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) for the outcome of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The protein expression of ATM and the DNA repair proteins in the MRN complex were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 224 women with early breast cancer, who were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Compared with normal breast tissue, the staining intensity of Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1, and ATM was reduced in a majority of the tumors. Weak expression of the MRN complex was correlated with high histologic grade and estrogen receptor negativity (p = 0.01 and p 0.0001, respectively). Radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence as compared with chemotherapy (p = 0.04). The greatest benefit of radiotherapy was seen in patients with moderate/strong expression of the MRN complex (relative risk = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.098-0.72, p 0.009), whereas patients with negative/weak MRN expression had no benefit of radiotherapy compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that an intact MRN complex is important for the tumor cell eradicating effect of radiotherapy. Conclusions: Reduced expression of the MRN complex predicts a poor effect of radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

  2. Bias and discriminability during emotional signal detection in melancholic depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive disturbances in depression are pernicious and so contribute strongly to the burden of the disorder. Cognitive function has been traditionally studied by challenging subjects with modality-specific psychometric tasks and analysing performance using standard analysis of variance. Whilst informative, such an approach may miss deeper perceptual and inferential mechanisms that potentially unify apparently divergent emotional and cognitive deficits. Here, we sought to elucidate basic psychophysical processes underlying the detection of emotionally salient signals across individuals with melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Methods Sixty participants completed an Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) task across negative, positive and neutral target stimuli blocks. We employed hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory (SDT) to model psychometric performance across three equal groups of those with melancholic depression, those with a non-melancholic depression and healthy controls. This approach estimated likely response profiles (bias) and perceptual sensitivity (discriminability). Differences in the means of these measures speak to differences in the emotional signal detection between individuals across the groups, while differences in the variance reflect the heterogeneity of the groups themselves. Results Melancholic participants showed significantly decreased sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli compared to those in the non-melancholic group, and also had a significantly lower discriminability than healthy controls during the detection of neutral signals. The melancholic group also showed significantly higher variability in bias to both positive and negative emotionally salient material. Conclusions Disturbances of emotional signal detection in melancholic depression appear dependent on emotional context, being biased during the detection of positive stimuli, consistent with a noisier representation of neutral stimuli. The greater heterogeneity of the bias across the melancholic group is consistent with a more labile disorder (i.e. variable across the day). Future work will aim to understand how these findings reflect specific individual differences (e.g. prior cognitive biases) and clarify whether such biases change dynamically during cognitive tasks as internal models of the sensorium are refined and updated in response to experience. PMID:24766992

  3. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, C; Quispe-Escudero, D; Mathur, A; Ernst, M

    2015-01-01

    As healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over two separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented neutral and negative pictures, with the instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, but not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotion reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  4. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  5. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  6. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706833

  7. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. PMID:21219075

  8. RECOGNIZING EMOTIONS IN SPONTANEOUS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grimm; Dhrubabrata Ghosh Dastidar; Kristian Kroschel

    In this paper we present a method for classifying emotions in spon- taneous facial expressions of both active and inactive speakers in spoken dialogues. Evaluation and classification was performed for emotion categories (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, neutral) and emotion space classes (3 classes for valence and activation, respectively). In addition, continuous values of the emotion space attributes were

  9. Realistic human body movement for emotional expressiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Hertzmann; Carol O'Sullivan; Ken Perlin

    2009-01-01

    Humans express their emotions in many ways, in particular through face, eye, and body motion. So creators of virtual humans strive to convincingly depict emotional movements using a variety of methods.This course focuses on the use of realistic human body motion to generate emotional expressiveness. Topics include: applications and research relating to procedural animation of humans with emotion and personality,

  10. A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    72 3 A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence edmund t. rolls Emotions may be defined also leads to a framework for understanding emotional intelligence, in that the evolution of each and intelligence. By focusing on the core capacities that are fundamental to emotion, it is possible to identify

  11. Preschool Emotional Competence: Pathway to Social Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Blair, Kimberly A.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Levitas, Jennifer; Sawyer, Katherine; Auerbach-Major, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Assessed preschoolers' patterns of emotional expressiveness, emotion regulation, and emotion knowledge. Used latent variable modeling to identify their contributions to social competence, evidenced by sociometric liability and teacher ratings. Found that emotional competence assessed at 3 to 4 years of age contributed to both concurrent and…

  12. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents 

    E-print Network

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    on emotional intelligent agents treats emotion as a black-and-white matter. We used fuzzy rules to explore the capability of fuzzy logic in modeling emotions. Fuzzy logic helped us to capture the fuzzy and complex nature of emotions. Experience and learning...

  13. A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation Tibor Bosse, Matthijs Pontier, and Jan Treur} Abstract. Emotion regulation describes how a subject can use certain strategies to affect emotion response levels. Usually, models for emotion regulation as- sume mechanisms based on feedback loops that indicate

  14. Hypnotic Experience is Related to Emotional Contagion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etzel Cardeña; Devin B. Terhune; Angelica Lööf; Sandra Buratti

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies to evaluate whether emotional contagion, the propensity to automatically imitate the emotional expressions of others and experience the corresponding emotions, is related to behavioral and experiential indices of hypnotizability and whether such a relationship is influenced by administration context. In Study 1, behavioral and subjective measures of hypnotizability were measured alongside emotional contagion in the

  15. Towards the neurobiology of emotional body language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2006-01-01

    People's faces show fear in many different circumstances. However, when people are terrified, as well as showing emotion, they run for cover. When we see a bodily expression of emotion, we immediately know what specific action is associated with a particular emotion, leaving little need for interpretation of the signal, as is the case for facial expressions. Research on emotional

  16. Emotion lateralisation: Developments throughout the lifespan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Watling; Lance Workman; Victoria J. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    There is a great amount of research on hemispheric lateralisation for processing emotions and on the recognition of emotions across the lifespan. However, few researchers have explored the links between these two measures. This paper highlights how trends in these two research areas inform our understanding of how lateralisation for emotion processing may influence emotion recognition performance throughout the lifespan,

  17. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

  18. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

  19. Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M. Jaggar

    1989-01-01

    This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

  20. Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

  1. Explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence regarding occupational stress: Exploration of emotional labour processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moïra Mikolajczak; Clémentine Menil; Olivier Luminet

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the processes explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) regarding occupational stress. The present study focuses on a widespread occupational stressor: emotional labour (EL). EL refers to the act of managing emotions and emotional expressions in order to be consistent with organizational ‘display rules’, defined as the organizationally required emotions during interpersonal

  2. IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION How to Bite Your Tongue without Blowing Your Top: Implicit Evaluation of Emotion Regulation Predicts EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 2 Abstract People frequently have to control their emotions to function

  3. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  4. Proceedings of the Agent Construction and Emotions Workshop, 2006. Incorporating Emotions into Automated Negotiation

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Jose M.

    Proceedings of the Agent Construction and Emotions Workshop, 2006. Incorporating Emotions We introduce an emotional agent model that shows how emotions affect an agent's nego- tiation strategy. By adding emotions, we add the effects of these indirectly related fea- tures to the negotiation

  5. Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects Elise S. Dan-Glauser and James J. Gross Stanford University One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate

  6. "Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

  7. Teaching Methods and Strategies Used in a Christian High School for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Leslie Williams

    2013-01-01

    The findings from the case study research demonstrated that the high school students at the Christian academy who have emotional and behavioral disorders are successful in teaching, retaining, and graduating this population of students. Their teaching methods and strategies included a strong biblical foundation to develop emotional and behavioral…

  8. Cognitive and emotional predictors of female sexual dysfunctions: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The influence of cognitive and emotional variables on specific female sexual dysfunctions was investigated. A total of 207 women (160 without sexual problems and 47 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) answered a set of questionnaires assessing cognitive and emotional variables (cognitive schemas activated in sexual context - Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context (QCSASC); sexual beliefs - Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire (SDBQ); automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity - Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ)); and sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI)). Results indicated that most women with sexual dysfunction activate incompetence schemas when facing unsuccessful sexual situations. Additionally, lack of erotic thoughts and increased attentional focus on failure and disengagement thoughts during sexual activity were also common in the clinical sample. Besides these common factors, results showed that some specific cognitive and emotional factors are associated with different clinical presentations. Sexual conservative beliefs seem to be closely related to hypoactive sexual desire and to a certain extent to arousal difficulties in women. Body image beliefs and automatic thoughts focusing on self-body appearance seem to be strongly associated with orgasmic disorder. Regarding emotions, fear was one of the best predictors of vaginismus, whereas sadness, disillusion, guilt, and lack of pleasure and satisfaction were closely associated to hypoactive sexual desire. Overall, these findings may contribute to the discussion regarding the treatment strategies used for the different female sexual dysfunctions. PMID:18576234

  9. Facial emotion identification in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barkl, Sophie J; Lah, Suncica; Starling, Jean; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M

    2014-12-01

    Facial emotion identification (FEI) deficits are common in patients with chronic schizophrenia and are strongly related to impaired functioning. The objectives of this study were to determine whether FEI deficits are present and emotion specific in people experiencing early-onset psychosis (EOP), and related to current clinical symptoms and functioning. Patients with EOP (n=34, mean age=14.11, 53% female) and healthy controls (HC, n=42, mean age 13.80, 51% female) completed a task of FEI that measured accuracy, error pattern and response time. Relative to HC, patients with EOP (i) had lower accuracy for identifying facial expressions of emotions, especially fear, anger and disgust, (ii) were more likely to misattribute other emotional expressions as fear or disgust, and (iii) were slower at accurately identifying all facial expressions. FEI accuracy was not related to clinical symptoms or current functioning. Deficits in FEI (especially for fear, anger and disgust) are evident in EOP. Our findings suggest that while emotion identification deficits may reflect a trait susceptibility marker, functional deficits may represent a sequelae of illness. PMID:25464918

  10. Strategies to improve radiotherapy with targeted drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona A. Stewart; Conchita Vens; Adrian C. Begg

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients, with varying success. The dose of ionizing radiation that can be given to the tumour is determined by the sensitivity of the surrounding normal tissues. Strategies to improve radiotherapy therefore aim to increase the effect on the tumour or to decrease the effects on normal tissues. These aims must

  11. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  12. Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

  13. The Role of Emotions in Contributors Activity: A Case Study on the GENTOO Community

    E-print Network

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the relation between the emotions and the activity of contributors in the Open Source Software project Gentoo. Our case study builds on extensive data sets from the project's bug tracking platform Bugzilla, to quantify the activity of contributors, and its mail archives, to quantify the emotions of contributors by means of sentiment analysis. The Gentoo project is known for a considerable drop in development performance after the sudden retirement of a central contributor. We analyse how this event correlates with the negative emotions, both in bilateral email discussions with the central contributor, and at the level of the whole community of contributors. We then extend our study to consider the activity patters on Gentoo contributors in general. We find that contributors are more likely to become inactive when they express strong positive or negative emotions in the bug tracker, or when they deviate from the expected value of emotions in the mailing list. We use these insights to develop a Bayes...

  14. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Ku?, Rafa?; ?ygierewicz, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception 

    E-print Network

    Teale, Cassandra

    2010-06-30

    The present study had the chief aim of validating the new Social Perception Test (SPT) as a veridically scored, pragmatic measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). To this end the SPT was compared to three similarly visually ...

  16. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, your ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

  17. The emotional effects of disruption 

    E-print Network

    Adcock, Christina Annie Lee

    2004-11-15

    Disruption is something that we must negotiate as part of our everyday lives. The context of disruption can vary in nature from being positive to being negative in nature. However, the emotional effects of the disruption have not been investigated...

  18. Teachers' emotions and test feedback 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1998-01-01

    , London W1T 3JH, UK International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tqse20 Teachers' emotions and test feedback Laura M. Stough... & Edmund T. Emmer Published online: 25 Nov 2010. To cite this article: Laura M. Stough & Edmund T. Emmer (1998) Teachers' emotions and test feedback, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11:2, 341-361, DOI: 10...

  19. Teachers' emotions and test feedback

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1998-01-01

    , London W1T 3JH, UK International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tqse20 Teachers' emotions and test feedback Laura M. Stough... & Edmund T. Emmer Published online: 25 Nov 2010. To cite this article: Laura M. Stough & Edmund T. Emmer (1998) Teachers' emotions and test feedback, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11:2, 341-361, DOI: 10...

  20. Associations between emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, personality and stress in undergraduate students 

    E-print Network

    Cruickshank, Kimberley

    2009-07-03

    Emotional intelligence is the name given to the ability to identify and manage emotions. It has often been linked to emotion regulation and stress. A sample of 213 participants filled out an online questionnaire about ...

  1. Reducing the negative effects of emotion work in service occupations: emotional competence as a psychological resource.

    PubMed

    Giardini, Angelo; Frese, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Although emotion work and emotional competence focus on similar processes, there has been a lack of integration between the 2 concepts. Emotion work is the regulatory effort to express organizationally desired emotions, whereas emotional competence encompasses skills that focus on how people deal with and regulate their own affect and that of others. The general hypothesis of this study was that emotional competence can be regarded as an important personal resource in emotion work because it moderates the relationships between work characteristics, emotional dissonance, and outcome variables. Eighty-four service employees completed a questionnaire on their working conditions and their well-being. In addition, peer ratings for emotional competence were completed. The authors found that emotional competence moderated most of the proposed relationships between work characteristics and emotional dissonance, between emotional dissonance and outcome variables, and between work characteristics and outcome variables. PMID:16551175

  2. Emotion and trauma: underlying emotions and trauma symptoms in two flooded populations 

    E-print Network

    Nesbitt, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    -related distress over time. Participants were asked to complete a survey pertaining to: basic emotions experienced during the flood event, basic emotions experienced after the flood, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ...

  3. Detecting hemifacial asymmetries in emotional expression with three-dimensional computerized image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Ellis, Brooke E.; Clement, John G.; Yoshino, Mineo

    2004-01-01

    Emotions are expressed more clearly on the left side of the face than the right: an asymmetry that probably stems from right hemisphere dominance for emotional expression (right hemisphere model). More controversially, it has been suggested that the left hemiface bias is stronger for negative emotions and weaker or reversed for positive emotions (valence model). We examined the veracity of the right hemisphere and valence models by measuring asymmetries in: (i) movement of the face; and (ii) observer's rating of emotionality. The study uses a precise three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to measure facial movement and to provide images that simultaneously capture the left or right hemifaces. Models (n = 16) with happy, sad and neutral expressions were digitally captured and manipulated. Comparison of the neutral and happy or sad images revealed greater movement of the left hemiface, regardless of the valence of the emotion, supporting the right hemisphere model. There was a trend, however, for left-sided movement to be more pronounced for negative than positive emotions. Participants (n = 357) reported that portraits rotated so that the left hemiface was featured, were more expressive of negative emotions whereas right hemiface portraits were more expressive for positive emotions, supporting the valence model. The effect of valence was moderated when the images were mirror-reversed. The data demonstrate that relatively small rotations of the head have a dramatic effect on the expression of positive and negative emotions. The fact that the effect of valence was not captured by the movement analysis demonstrates that subtle movements can have a strong effect on the expression of emotion. PMID:15209097

  4. Trauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood

    PubMed Central

    Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël; Hearn, Melissa; Fürst, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. PMID:25317255

  5. An integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of observed emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-02-01

    Understanding others' emotions requires both the identification of overt behaviors ("smiling") and the attribution of behaviors to a cause ("friendly disposition"). Previous research suggests that whereas emotion identification depends on a cortical mirror system that enables the embodiment of observed motor behavior within one's own motor system, causal attribution for emotion depends on a separate cortical mentalizing system, so-named because its function is associated with mental state representation. We used fMRI to test an Identification-Attribution model of mirror and mentalizing system contributions to the comprehension of emotional behavior. Normal volunteers watched a set of ecologically valid videos of human emotional displays. During each viewing, volunteers either identified an emotion-relevant motor behavior (explicit identification) or inferred a plausible social cause (explicit attribution). These explicit identification and attribution goals strongly distinguished activity in the mirror and mentalizing systems, respectively. However, frontal mirror areas, though preferentially engaged by the identification goal, nevertheless exhibited activation when observers possessed the attribution goal. One of these areas-right posterior inferior frontal gyrus-demonstrated effective connectivity with areas of the mentalizing system during attributional processing. These results support an integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of emotional behavior, where the mirror system helps facilitate the rapid identification of emotional expressions that then serve as inputs to attributional processing in the mentalizing system. PMID:22019857

  6. Depersonalization Disorder: Disconnection of Cognitive Evaluation from Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E.; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. Methods 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). Results DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:24058547

  7. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  8. Using humour as an extrinsic source of emotion regulation in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Harm, Jonathan; Vieillard, Sandrine; Didierjean, André

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that intrinsic abilities for regulating emotions remain stable or improve with ageing, but, to date, no studies have examined age-related differences in extrinsic emotion regulation. Since humour has been found to be an effective form of emotion regulation, we used a paradigm similar to that of Strick and colleagues (2009) with two objectives: to compare extrinsic humorous emotion regulation in young and older adults and to test whether the potential beneficial effect of humour on negative emotion is better explained by the cognitive distraction hypothesis or by the positive affect elicitation hypothesis. To this end, neutral, moderately, and strongly negative pictures followed by humorous, simply positive, or weird cartoons, controlled for both their funniness and cognitive demands, were presented to 26 young and 25 older adults with the instruction to report their negative feelings. When induced to feel moderately negative emotions, both young and older adults reported a lower negative feeling after viewing the humorous cartoons than after the other ones. This indicates that the extrinsic humorous emotion regulation skill remains stable with ageing and suggests that the beneficial effect of humour on emotional feeling cannot be seen as a purely cognitive distraction. PMID:24325142

  9. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  10. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  11. An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

  12. Radiotherapy for Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Anus: Thirty Years' Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: Myerson@radonc.wustl.edu; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Chang, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Fleshman, James W. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kodner, Ira J.; Malayapa, Robert S.; Mutch, Matthew G. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Picus, Joel; Tan, Benjamin R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. Treatment evolved from radiotherapy with or without surgery, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The radiotherapy techniques also evolved. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED). Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% {+-} 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% {+-} 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% {+-} 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% {+-} 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% {+-} 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001). No association was found with gender, age, preoperative vs. definitive CRT, or human immunodeficiency virus status. The 20 human immunodeficiency virus+ patients all received CRT. The radiotherapy factors associated with Grade 3 or greater late morbidity included anorectal morbidity with tumor dose (29% with a dose {>=}55 Gy vs. 9% otherwise), small bowel injury with technique (9% with anteroposterior-posteroanterior supine vs. 0.7% with multiple fields prone), and bone injury with femoral head dose (9% with a dose of {>=}44 Gy vs. 0.7% otherwise). Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields. Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that CRT is an effective approach. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus can be treated with CRT. Tumor mobility significantly predicts the outcome; the implications for management are discussed. We also discuss the treatment planning implications of the late morbidity findings. The substantial incidence of additional malignancies underscores the importance of full oncologic screening during follow-up.

  13. Children's understanding and experience of mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; To, Yen M; Fireman, Gary

    2007-02-01

    Though some models of emotion contend that happiness and sadness are mutually exclusive in experience, recent findings suggest that adults can feel happy and sad at the same time in emotionally complex situations. Other research has shown that children develop a better conceptual understanding of mixed emotions as they grow older, but no research has examined children's actual experience of mixed emotions. To examine developmental differences in the experience of mixed emotions, we showed children ages 5 to 12 scenes from an animated film that culminated with a father and daughter's bittersweet farewell. In subsequent interviews, older children were more likely than younger children to report experiencing mixed emotions. These results suggest that in addition to having a better conceptual understanding of mixed emotions, older children are more likely than younger children to actually experience mixed emotions in emotionally complex situations. PMID:17425541

  14. STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

  15. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  16. The temporal dynamics of processing emotions from vocal, facial, and bodily expressions.

    PubMed

    Jessen, S; Kotz, S A

    2011-09-15

    Face-to-face communication works multimodally. Not only do we employ vocal and facial expressions; body language provides valuable information as well. Here we focused on multimodal perception of emotion expressions, monitoring the temporal unfolding of the interaction of different modalities in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the auditory condition, participants listened to emotional interjections such as "ah", while they saw mute video clips containing emotional body language in the visual condition. In the audiovisual condition participants saw video clips with matching interjections. In all three conditions, the emotions "anger" and "fear", as well as non-emotional stimuli were used. The N100 amplitude was strongly reduced in the audiovisual compared to the auditory condition, suggesting a significant impact of visual information on early auditory processing. Furthermore, anger and fear expressions were distinct in the auditory but not the audiovisual condition. Complementing these event-related potential (ERP) findings, we report strong similarities in the alpha- and beta-band in the visual and the audiovisual conditions, suggesting a strong visual processing component in the perception of audiovisual stimuli. Overall, our results show an early interaction of modalities in emotional face-to-face communication using complex and highly natural stimuli. PMID:21718792

  17. The relationship of case managers’ expressed emotion to clients’ outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Solomon; Leslie Alexander; Stacey Uhl

    2010-01-01

    Background  Expressed emotion (EE) has been studied in families of a relative with schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders;\\u000a and high EE (hostile, critical, and overinvolved) families have been found to be strongly related to relapse among their relatives.\\u000a EE has been assessed on a limited basis among non-familial care providers and determined that providers can also have high\\u000a EE

  18. Do emergency nurses have enough emotional intelligence?

    PubMed

    Codier, Estelle; Codier, David

    2015-06-01

    A significant body of research suggests there is a correlation between measured emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and performance in nursing. The four critical elements of EI, namely the abilities to identify emotions correctly in self and others, using emotions to support reasoning, understanding emotions and managing emotions, apply to emergency care settings and are important for safe patient care, teamwork, retention and burnout prevention. This article describes 'emotional labour' and the importance of EI abilities for emergency nurses, and suggests that such abilities should be considered core competencies for the profession. PMID:26050781

  19. Emotional Intelligence as a Moderator of Affectivity\\/Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor\\/Psychological Distress Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jahanvash Karim; Robert Weisz

    Emotional labor refers to effort, planning, and control required to display organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal\\u000a transactions and performed by individuals either through deep acting or surface acting. Deep acting refers to the modification\\u000a of inner feeling in order to express the organizationally desired emotions, whereas surface acting refers to the change of\\u000a emotional expression without facilitating the change of

  20. Radiotherapy and head neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, V.K.; Griffiths, C.M.; Ray, P.; Perry, R.R.; Olson, M.H.

    1980-07-01

    The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values. Lymphocyte counts slowly increased after treatment to 77% of control values after two years, but responses to mitogens remained at about 40%. Responses to PHA and Con A for 38 patients who lived beyond 18 months were significantly greater before and after treatment than responses for 39 patients who died within 18 months. In general, a poor pretreatment response to PHA and Con A correlated with a poor clinical course, whereas responses near the control level indicated a good clinical course.

  1. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  2. Critical Feature Analysis of a Radiotherapy Machine

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    Critical Feature Analysis of a Radiotherapy Machine Andrew Rae1 , Daniel Jackson2 , Prasad Ramanan2 Group in the MIT Lab for Computer Science began a col- laboration in April 2002 with NPTC and Ion Beam

  3. Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques for Precision Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Katia; Parodi, Katia; Thieke, Christian; Thieke, Christian

    Over the last decade, several technological advances have considerably improved the achievable precision of dose delivery in radiation therapy. Clinical exploitation of the superior tumor-dose conformality offered by modern radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy and ion beam therapy requires morphological and functional assessment of the tumor during the entire therapy chain from treatment planning to beam application and treatment response evaluation. This chapter will address the main rationale and role of imaging in state-of-the-art external beam radiotherapy. Moreover, it will present the status of novel imaging instrumentation and techniques being nowadays introduced in clinical use or still under development for image guidance and, ultimately, dose guidance of precision radiotherapy.

  4. Review of cranial radiotherapy-induced vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Xie, Hao; Merchant, Thomas E; Yu, Jennifer S; Chao, Samuel T; Suh, John H

    2015-05-01

    Cranial radiation can impact the cerebral vasculature in many ways, with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The incidence of these late effects including cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), lacunar lesions, vascular occlusive disease including moyamoya syndrome, vascular malformations, and hemorrhage is not well known. This article reviews the preclinical findings regarding the pathophysiology of late radiation-induced vascular damage, and discusses the clinical incidence and risk factors for each type of vasculopathy. The pathophysiology is complex and dependent on the targeted blood vessels, and upregulation of pro-inflammatory and hypoxia-related genes. The risk factors for adult CVAs are similar to those for patients not exposed to cranial radiotherapy. For children, risks for late vascular complications include young age at radiotherapy, radiotherapy dose, NF1, tumor location, chemotherapy, and endocrine abnormalities. The incidence of late vascular complications of radiotherapy may be impacted by improved technology, therapeutic interventions, and appropriate follow up. PMID:25670390

  5. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  6. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wolff, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  7. The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

  8. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  9. Radiotherapy in the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, S.L.; Schlupp, W.R.; Chiminazzo, H. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are not common. Although radiotherapy has been used as treatment, the data are sparse concerning total dose, fractionation and results. The authors report nine patients with vertebral hemangioma treated with 3000-4000 rad, 200 rad/day, 5 fractions per week, followed from 6 to 62 months. Seventy-seven percent had complete or almost complete disappearance of the symptoms. Radiotherapy schedules are discussed.

  10. [Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Pichon, B; Thillays, F; Bourgier, C; Mahé, M-A; Supiot, S

    2014-01-01

    Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy can deliver high doses of bone metastases while sparing adjacent healthy tissue not only for a decompressive or analgesic purpose, but also to improve the local control of the irradiated region. Various phases I or II studies showed the feasibility of such an approach at the cost of limited toxicity, including during re-irradiation. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy to oligometastases may also improve the long-term control of metastatic disease. PMID:24908177

  11. Emotion is Essential to All Intentional Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Freeman, Walter J III

    2000-01-01

    Emotion is Essential to All Intentional Behaviors Walter JEmotion is defined as a property of intentional behavior.emotion, actions that conform to social standards of considerate, productive behavior

  12. http://emr.sagepub.com/ Emotion Review

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    as satisfying social-attachment needs. A Functionalist Approach to Emotion and Emotion Regulation Rimé's approach is functionalist in the sense that he holds that social sharing serves important social functions

  13. The effect of praying on emotion regulation 

    E-print Network

    Kossurok, Anke

    2012-11-28

    , and is associated with experiencing a greater purpose in life. Similarly, the present study examined whether praying affects people’s ability to regulate emotions. Participants were randomly assigned to a prayer, coping and control group. They completed the Emotion...

  14. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents

    E-print Network

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    Emotions were shown to have a leading role in the human decision-making process, and thus they play an important role in human intelligence. Intelligent agents' research produced many models of emotional agents. However, most of these models focused...

  15. Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Peter

    Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge of Cambridge Keywords: Facial expression analysis, animation 1 Introduction Facial feature point tracking conducted an experiment that compared human raters judgements of emotional expressions between actual video

  16. EmotionML an upcoming standard for representing emotions and related states

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    annotation of data; (2) automatic recognition of emotion-related states from user behavior; and (3) generation of emotion-related system behavior. This exploratory work was formalised in the "RecommendationEmotionML ­ an upcoming standard for representing emotions and related states Marc Schröder1

  17. Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents Jonathan Gratch's plans and goals. Marsella et al.'s IPD system focuses more on the impact of emotions on behavior, to the appraisal of their emotional significance, through to their outward impact on an agent's behavior. The focus

  18. The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a,

    E-print Network

    The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a, , Deanna Schizophrenia Face recognition Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits both in facial emotion recognition­1644). Thus, individuals with schizophrenia may have deficits in facial emotion processing, at least in part

  19. The Development of Emotional Competence. The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    The concept of emotional competence entails resilience, self-efficacy, and acting in accord with one's sense of moral character. This suggests argues that emotional competence is demonstrated by the self-efficacy in emotion-eliciting encounters and identifies eight key emotional skills that support its acquisition in interpersonal contexts. The…

  20. The Relationships Among Momentary Emotion Experiences, Personality Descriptions, and Retrospective Ratings of Emotion.

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    . At the end of the study, participants recalled what their emotions had been during the course of the study retrospective ratings of their emotional experiences after an extended period of time. The present study sought emotionality, over and above a summary of their momentary emotion ratings. Participants completed self-report

  1. Do you know how I feel? Evaluating emotional display of primary and secondary emotions

    E-print Network

    Becker-Asano, Christian

    Do you know how I feel? Evaluating emotional display of primary and secondary emotions Julia Tolksdorf, Christian Becker-Asano, Stefan Kopp Artificial Intelligence Group, University of Bielefeld, 33594 and secondary emotions [2] can be recognized from the face of our emotional virtual human Max [1]. Primary

  2. Developing Emotionally Competent Teachers: Emotional Intelligence and Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Roisin P.; Tormey, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Classrooms are emotional places, filled at different times with enjoyment, excitement, anger, hurt and boredom. The teacher's skill in working with emotional information and in regulating their own and their pupils' emotion impacts upon what and how pupils learn. But what emotional competence do teachers need? Can they learn this in pre-service…

  3. Emotion Regulation as Situated Conceptualizations 1 RUNNING HEAD: EMOTION REGULATION AS SITUATED CONCEPTUALIZATIONS

    E-print Network

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    Emotion Regulation as Situated Conceptualizations 1 RUNNING HEAD: EMOTION REGULATION AS SITUATED CONCEPTUALIZATIONS TITLE: A psychological construction account of emotion regulation and dysregulation: The role Boston, MA 02115 Phone: 617-373-2044 Fax: 617-373-8714 Email: l.barrett@neu.edu #12;Emotion Regulation

  4. Temporal Interaction of Emotional Prosody and Emotional Semantics: Evidence from ERPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Paulmann; Sonja A. Kotz

    2006-01-01

    Emotional prosody carries information about the inner state of a speaker and therefore helps us to understand how other people feel. However, emotions are also transferred verbally. In or- der to further substantiate the underlying mechanisms of emo- tional prosodic processing we investigated the interaction of both emotional prosody and emotional semantics with event- related brain potentials (ERPs) utilizing a

  5. The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

  6. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

  7. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench,

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    COMMENT The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural

  8. Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  9. Robust Representations for Out-of-Domain Emotions Using Emotion Profiles Emily Mower

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    Robust Representations for Out-of-Domain Emotions Using Emotion Profiles Emily Mower , Maja J@usc.edu, mataric@usc.edu, shri@sipi.usc.edu Abstract The proper representation of emotion is of vital importance the course of an interaction, the human interaction partner will express an emotion not seen during

  10. Movement to emotions to music: using whole body emotional expression as an interaction for electronic music

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Movement to emotions to music: using whole body emotional expression as an interaction interaction that we used in the frame of this project: using the dancer's movements to recognize the emotions he expresses, and use these emotions to generate musical audio flows evolving in real

  11. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

  12. Emotion and language - When and how comes emotion into words?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Emotion [13] is the first emotion theory to include language as part of its four affect systems allocating two functions of language in emotion processing: communication and regulation. Both are supposed to occur late during the emotion process and by translation or reconfiguration of a pre-verbal emotion percept into a symbolic language code which then gives rise to the conscious experience of an emotion allowing communication or regulation [14] of a felt emotion.

  13. Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Links to Pretend and Physical Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between preschoolers' play and emotional competence with peers. Found that emotion regulation and emotion understanding made unique contributions to teacher ratings of children's emotional competence with peers. High pretend play levels related to high emotion understanding for both boys and girls, and high emotion regulation…

  14. The Couples Emotion Rating Form: Psychometric Properties and Theoretical Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Couples Emotion Rating Form assesses 3 types of negative emotion that are salient during times of relationship conflict. Hard emotion includes feeling angry and aggravated, soft emotion includes feeling hurt and sad, and flat emotion includes feeling bored and indifferent. In Study 1, scales measuring hard and soft emotion were validated by…

  15. Intelligent Expressions of Emotions Magalie Ochs1, 3

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    Intelligent Expressions of Emotions Magalie Ochs1, 3 , Radoslaw Niewiadomski2 , Catherine Pelachaud aspects of emotions: the emotions triggered by an event (the felt emotions) and the expressed emotions of emotion eliciting-events based on a model of the agent's mental state composed of beliefs, choices

  16. The Strong Distance Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justie Su-tzu Juan; Chun-ming Huang

    2004-01-01

    Suppose G = (V,E) is a graph and D = (V,F) is a strong orientation of G. Let u,v ? V, the strong distance sd(u,v) is the minimum size of strong subdigraph of D containing u and v, the strong eccentricity se(u) is the maximum strong distance sd(u,v) between u and v for all v ? V. The strong radius

  17. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  18. Common Emotional Problems of Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Froese, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    Common emotional problems of adolescence are discussed under three headings: those specific to adolescence; common psychiatric problems of adolescence, and those complicating physical illness in adolescence. Adolescence is a phase of emotional sensitivity and self-centeredness. The whole family is affected and may require professional support. As the adolescent moves towards greater independence, some turbulence and acting out is normal. Some make an impulsive break from their family by running away, others gradually gain their independence and some remain overly dependent. The latter group often become dependent on and demanding of their physician. PMID:20469172

  19. The empirical themes of five maternal emotions 

    E-print Network

    Krause, Matthew David

    1998-01-01

    of parental emotions is proposed. Parental Emotions Many researchers have suggested that the emotional states experienced by parents play an important role in parenting behavior. For example, Vasta (1982) suggested a dual-component model of child abuse... and format of the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. the skills repertoire and learning history of the parent. The impulsive element of parental aggression directed at children is composed of the emotional state of the parent (e. g. , anger and arousal...

  20. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  1. [Effects of finitude salience and social value intention on emotional responses of "kandoh" (the state of being emotionally moved) associated with sadness].

    PubMed

    Kato, Juri; Murata, Koji

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments investigated whether emotional responses of "kandoh" (the state of being emotionally moved) associated with sadness were facilitated by the factors of "finitude salience" and "social value intention". We predicted that participants who strongly intended social value would be more strongly moved by movies that portrayed social values than participants who weakly intended social value. Furthermore we predicted that this difference would increase in the finitude salience condition. In both experiments, participants assigned to the finitude salience condition subtracted the years of the person's birth from death. In the control condition, participants performed the same task in the form of simple numerical calculations. Then all participants watched a movie that portrayed family love and death in Experiment 1 (N = 88). We used another movie that described friendship and separation in Experiment 2 (N = 82). The results supported the two hypotheses that social value intention facilitated emotional responses of "kandoh" and this effect increased under finitude salience. PMID:23848001

  2. Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

  3. Advances in radiotherapy delivery for rectal cancer: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Sermeus, Alexandra; Engels, Benedikt; Urbain, Daniel; De Ridder, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy with an integrated boost offer excellent local control rates in patients with rectal cancer. The introduction of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy has drastically improved the tolerance of these treatments. The new challenge is developing organ-preserving strategies and curative treatments for medically inoperable patients. Contact radiotherapy seems efficient for small tumors. Tumor hypoxia limits the success of radiotherapy for locally advanced cancers. Modulation of the L-arginine/iNOS pathway and implementation of hypoxia imaging in radiotherapy planning may overcome this hurdle. PMID:25644307

  4. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Education: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Curran, Andrew; Morris, Elisabeth; Farrell, Peter; Woods, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the role of emotional intelligence in both the academic success of students and their emotional adjustment in school. However, promotion of emotional intelligence in schools has proven a controversial pursuit, challenging as it does traditional "rationalist" views of education. Furthermore,…

  6. Social and Emotional Learning in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Howard E.; Larson, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses what social and emotional learning is; why it is necessary; what its key concepts and goals are; and why it is necessary to focus on social and emotional learning in the middle grades. Discusses how social and emotional learning is related to the social studies. Describes ways middle-school social-studies teachers can foster such…

  7. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  8. Emotion Based Control Architecture for Robotics Applications

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    suggest that emotion plays an important role in rational and intelligent behavior [1]. Because: behavior, emotion, and cognition. All possible movements of the robot from simple reflexes up to high level level behaviors are mostly activated by the emotion and especially by the cognitive part. Whereas

  9. Visual Search for Faces with Emotional Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Eastwood, John D.; Smilek, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to critically examine contradictory findings in the study of visual search for emotionally expressive faces. Several key issues are addressed: Can emotional faces be processed preattentively and guide attention? What properties of these faces influence search efficiency? Is search moderated by the emotional state of the…

  10. Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias

    PubMed Central

    Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

  11. The Emotional Life of the Toddler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.

    Noting that parenting a toddler can be both exhilarating and frustrating, this book draws on lifelong research into children's emotional development to provide parents with a better understanding of toddlers' emotional range and how it affects toddler behavior. The 10 chapters and the conclusion cover the following areas: (1) the emotional

  12. Rumination and intentional forgetting of emotional material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Joormann; Tanya B. Tran

    2009-01-01

    The tendency to respond to negative life events and negative mood states with ruminative thinking has been linked to emotion dysregulation and to a heightened risk for the onset and maintenance of emotional disorders. To further investigate this maladaptive response style, the present study examined whether rumination is linked to individual differences in the ability to intentionally forget emotional material.

  13. Immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed. PMID:22148998

  14. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for: Managers who want to increase intelligence. Emotional intelligence can be learned and improved over time, as opposed to traditional intelligence that is generally stable over time. The ability to manage one's own emotions, thoughts, stress

  15. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Mayer; Peter Salovey; David R. Caruso

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI

  16. PETEEI: a PET with evolving emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magy Seif El-Nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of what is now called 'emotional inte lligence' has revealed yet another aspect of human intelligence. Emotions have been shown to have a major impact on many of our everyday functions, including decision-making, planning, communication, and behavior. AI researchers have recently acknowle dged this major role that emotions play, and thus have began to incorporate models for simulating

  17. Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun Newsome; Arla L. Day; Victor M. Catano

    2000-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has become a fashionable topic in the popular press, and has been heralded as an effective predictor of successful performance. However, little empirical evidence has borne out these claims. The present study was conducted in order to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and personality with academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the EQ-i (total

  18. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  19. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  20. Expressions of Emotion as Mediated by Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altarriba, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    In her thoughtful work regarding various aspects of emotion and emotion related words, Pavlenko explores a variety of perspectives on how we might characterize and conceptualize expressions of emotion. It is a work that is quite rich in breadth--one that leads to a variety of different thoughts on this topic, many of which are amenable to…

  1. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  2. The Role of Emotion in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the…

  3. Emotional body language displayed by artificial agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aryel Beck; Brett Stevens; Kim A. Bard; Lola Cañamero

    2012-01-01

    Complex and natural social interaction between artificial agents (computer-generated or robotic) and humans necessitates the display of rich emotions in order to be believable, socially relevant, and accepted, and to generate the natural emotional responses that humans show in the context of social interaction, such as engagement or empathy. Whereas some robots use faces to display (simplified) emotional expressions, for

  4. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  5. "Keeping It Real" with an Emotional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storrs, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Students' emotions can significantly enhance or distract from learning. This paper details a case study of innovative pedagogy in which an "emotional curriculum" was central to my teaching. The analysis of student journals, on-line discussions, and metaphorical exercises revealed a vicissitude of emotions that stemmed from challenging course…

  6. Pedagogical Possibilities: Engaging Cultural Rules of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight-Diop, Michelle; Oesterreich, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Teaching, leading, and learning are inextricably connected to emotions. Yet, the significance of emotions is rarely addressed in educational settings, and when it is, the relationship between emotions and curricula is most often framed by of an overly individualistic behavior model that focuses on the management and regulation…

  7. Emotion capture based on body postures and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Emotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review the literature on the various approaches for defining and characterizing human emotions. After justifying

  8. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  9. Ritual and Emotions: Moving Relations, Patterned Effusions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ritual and Emotions: Moving Relations, Patterned Effusions François Berthomé and Michael Houseman ABSTRACT: This article reconsiders the connection between `ritual' and `emotion' from a pragmatic, relational perspective in which rituals are seen as dynamic inter- active contexts and emotions as fairly

  10. Are Emotions Natural Kinds? Lisa Feldman Barrett

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Are Emotions Natural Kinds? Lisa Feldman Barrett Boston College ABSTRACT--Laypeople and scientists alike believe that they know anger, or sadness, or fear, when they see it. These emotions and a few kinds. If a given emotion is a natural kind and can be identified objectively, then it is possible

  11. Emotion recognition from Mandarin speech signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsang-Long Pao; Yu-Te Chen; Jun-Heng Yeh

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Mandarin speech based emotion classification method is presented. Five primary human emotions including anger, boredom, happiness, neutral and sadness are investigated. In emotion classification of speech signals, the conventional features are statistics of fundamental frequency, loudness, duration and voice quality. However, the recognition accuracy of systems employing these features degrades substantially when more than two valence

  12. Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder: a critical review of fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, Linda; Siep, Nicolette; Jacob, Gitta A; Goebel, Rainer; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-04-01

    Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity are fundamental topics in research of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies using fMRI examining the neural correlates concerning these topics is growing and has just begun understanding the underlying neural correlates in BPD. However, there are strong similarities but also important differences in results of different studies. It is therefore important to know in more detail what these differences are and how we should interpret these. In present review a critical light is shed on the fMRI studies examining emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity in BPD patients. First an outline of the methodology and the results of the studies will be given. Thereafter important issues that remained unanswered and topics to improve future research are discussed. Future research should take into account the limited power of previous studies and focus more on BPD specificity with regard to time course responses, different regulation strategies, manipulation of self-regulation, medication use, a wider range of stimuli, gender effects and the inclusion of a clinical control group. PMID:25616185

  13. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    PubMed

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

  14. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: Timbre affects perception of emotion in music

    PubMed Central

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M. D.; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G.; Warren, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18–30 years, 24 older adults aged 58–75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p < .0001 for each age group). The effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p < .05) in another group of young adults for novel synthetic timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors. PMID:19391047

  15. Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested two days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories. PMID:24380867

  16. Beautiful friendship: Social sharing of emotions improves subjective feelings and activates the neural reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lisa; Schott, Björn H.; Wold, Andrew; van der Schalk, Job; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Scherer, Klaus; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to affiliate with other people, especially in emotional situations. Here, we suggest that a critical mechanism underlying this tendency is that socially sharing emotional experiences is in itself perceived as hedonically positive and thereby contributes to the regulation of individual emotions. We investigated the effect of social sharing of emotions on subjective feelings and neural activity by having pairs of friends view emotional (negative and positive) and neutral pictures either alone or with the friend. While the two friends remained physically separated throughout the experiment—with one undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and the other performing the task in an adjacent room—they were made aware on a trial-by-trial basis whether they were seeing pictures simultaneously with their friend (shared) or alone (unshared). Ratings of subjective feelings were improved significantly when participants viewed emotional pictures together than alone, an effect that was accompanied by activity increase in ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two important components of the reward circuitry. Because these effects occurred without any communication or interaction between the friends, they point to an important proximate explanation for the basic human motivation to affiliate with others, particularly in emotional situations. PMID:25298009

  17. Emotion regulation and sport performance.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2014-08-01

    This study used a single-blind, within-participant, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to examine the relationship between emotional self-regulation and sport performance. Twenty competitive athletes completed four laboratory-based conditions; familiarization, control, emotion suppression, and nonsuppression. In each condition participants completed a 10-km cycling time trial requiring self-regulation. In the experimental conditions participants watched an upsetting video before performing the cycle task. When participants suppressed their emotional reactions to the video (suppression condition) they completed the cycling task slower, generated lower mean power outputs, and reached a lower maximum heart rate and perceived greater physical exertion than when they were given no self-regulation instructions during the video (nonsuppression condition) and received no video treatment (control condition). The findings suggest that emotional self-regulation resource impairment affects perceived exertion, pacing and sport performance and extends previous research examining the regulation of persistence on physical tasks. The results are discussed in line with relevant psychophysiological theories of self-regulation and fatigue and pertinent potential implications for practice regarding performance and well-being are suggested. PMID:25226609

  18. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  19. Boosting Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

  20. Emotion Circuits in the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. LeDoux

    2000-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

  1. Gender, Emotion, and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie

    Breaking with conventional wisdom, this book integrates a wealth of perspectives and research-- biological, sociocultural, developmental--to explore the nature and extent of gender differences in emotional expression and the question of how such differences come about. In the book, nurture rather than nature emerges as the stronger force in…

  2. Emotional Contagion and Social Judgment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. William Doherty

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the influence of another's emotional expressions and individual differences in responsiveness to afferent feedback on attention, evaluations, and memory. In a mixed design, participants (N = 71) rated pictures following exposure to a “sender” in a neutral mood and then in either a happy or sad mood. Attention, ratings, and recall evidenced a bias characteristic of the

  3. The Public Life of Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Squire

    Emotionalism, the centring of social and political as well as personal judgements on individual feeling, seems to many to be an increasingly prevalent frame for thought and action. A variety of historical and cultural explanations are advanced to account for this situation, ranging from the conceptual contradictions of Enlightenment thinking through the power of popular media to the aftereffects of

  4. Learning Emotional Intelligence: Training & Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shults, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This core assessment provides an overview and training of the use of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the workplace. It includes a needs analysis for a local Chamber of Commerce, and outlines the importance of improving their organizational communication with the improvement of their EI. Behavioral objectives related to the skills needed are…

  5. Attentional bias in emotional disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

    1986-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

  6. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  7. Mandarin emotion recognition in speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsang-Long Pao; Yu-Te Chen

    2003-01-01

    Humans interact with others in several ways, such as speech, gesture, eye contact etc. Among them, speech is the most effective way of communication through which people can readily exchange information without the need for any other tool. Emotions color the speech, and can make the meaning more complex and tell about how it is said. A Mandarin speech based

  8. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  9. Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  10. Emotions: Happy, Sad, Mad, and Glad

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Plouffe

    2011-12-09

    In this activity, you and your child can explore the emotions we all experience. Read the instructions aloud to your child and follow the links provided. Discuss each question with your child as you go through. You may be surprised by how much you both learn! Do you know what emotions are? Emotions are the feelings we have. We can show these feelings on our face, by our actions, or through our words. Some examples of positive emotions are: happiness, joy, and excitement. Some examples of negative emotions are: sadness, fear, or anger. In this video, our friend Kermit ...

  11. Estimating the need for palliative radiotherapy for brain metastasis: a benchmarking approach.

    PubMed

    Kong, W; Jarvis, C; Mackillop, W J

    2015-02-01

    Palliative radiotherapy (PRT) is useful in the management of many patients with brain metastases, but the need for this treatment in the general cancer population is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the appropriate rate of use of PRT for brain metastases (PRT.Br). Ontario's population-based cancer registry was used to identify patients who died of cancer. Radiotherapy records from all the province's radiotherapy centres were linked to Ontario's cancer registry to identify patients who received PRT.Br in the last 2 years of life. Multivariate analysis was used to identify social and health system-related barriers to the use of PRT.Br and to identify a subpopulation of patients with unimpeded access to PRT.Br. The rate of use of PRT.Br was measured in this benchmark subpopulation. The benchmark rate was standardised to the case mix of the overall cancer population. The study population included 231,397 patients who died of cancer in Ontario between 1998 and 2007. Overall, 13,944 patients received at least one course of PRT.Br in the last 2 years of life (6.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that the use of PRT.Br was strongly associated with: the availability of radiotherapy at the diagnosing hospital; the socioeconomic status of the community where the patient lived; and the distance from his/her home to the nearest radiotherapy centre. The benchmark subpopulation was defined as patients diagnosed in a hospital with radiotherapy facilities on site and who resided in a high income community, within 50 km of the nearest radiotherapy centre. The standardised benchmark rate of PRT.Br was 8.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5%, 8.5%). The overall shortfall between the actual rate and the benchmark was 25%, but varied by primary cancer site: lung, 27.6%; melanoma, 19.4%; breast, 13.9%. The magnitude of the shortfall in the use of PRT.Br varied widely across the province. At least 8.0% of patients who die of cancer require PRT.Br at least once in the last 2 years of life, but PRT.Br is widely underutilised in Ontario. The 25% shortfall in the use of PRT.Br reported here is much greater than the previously reported 7.8% shortfall in the overall lifetime rate of use of any radiotherapy in Ontario. PMID:25481789

  12. How does emotional content affect lexical processing?

    PubMed Central

    Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

  13. How does emotional content affect lexical processing?

    PubMed

    Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

  14. Neural Correlates of Emotional Interference in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients’ interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738

  15. Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using Twitter. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We det...

  16. "I Am Really Good at It" or "I Am Just Feeling Lucky": The Effects of Emotions on Information Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    The ability to search, process, extract, evaluate and integrate information for learning purposes has clearly become the basic skills of the twenty first century. Although this process is often taken as a cognitive process, research has shown a strong connection between emotion and cognition. Recent research has suggested that positive emotions

  17. An Initial Evaluation of the Role of Emotion and Impulsivity in Explaining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Use of Corporal Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.; O'Leary, Susan G.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The authors sought to provide an initial evaluation of the hypothesis that corporal punishment is less strongly associated with parental emotion and impulsivity among African American ("Black") in contrast to European American ("White") parents. White-Latino and Black-Latino differences in corporal punishment, emotion, and impulsivity were…

  18. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time) in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate) of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old) were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p < 0.001) and the association was not moderated (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18) after controlling for the effects of other covariates. Emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were all significantly associated with adolescents' current smoking. Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere. PMID:20128920

  19. Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

  20. Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration. PMID:25759676

  1. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  2. Perceptions of Efficacy, Expressed Emotion, and the Course of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; López, Steven R.; Aguilera, Adrian; Kopelowicz, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Although it is clear that expressed emotion (EE) is associated with the course of schizophrenia, proposed models for this association have struggled to account for the relationship between the EE index of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) and relapse. To expand our understanding of the EOI-relapse association, we first attempted to replicate the finding that the EOI-relapse association is curvilinear among 55 Mexican-Americans with schizophrenia and their caregiving relatives. Second, we evaluated whether the caregivers’ perception of their ill relative’s efficacy may account for the EOI-relapse association. Our results comport with past findings with regard to the curvilinear nature of the EOI-relapse association among Mexican-Americans and suggest that EOI may only seem to be a risk factor of relapse because of its strong association with a true risk factor for relapse (i.e., caregivers’ perception of their ill relative’s efficacy). PMID:24080669

  3. Risk Factors for Emotional and Relationship Problems in Peyronie’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Conti, Simon L.; Turek, Paul; Lue, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Peyronie’s disease (PD) occurs in 3–9% of all men. Little is known regarding the specific psychological or emotional disruptions to sexuality associated with PD. Aim Our primary aim was to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial difficulties in men with PD. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. Detailed medical histories, physical examinations, and a PD-specific questionnaire were used to define clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were used as a measure of association. Main Outcome Measures Emotional and relationship problems were determined by “yes” or “no” answers to two specific questions. Results The mean age of all PD patients (N = 245) was 54.4 years (range 19.4–75.6); 62% were married, and 59% presented within 2 years of disease onset. The overall prevalence of emotional and relationship problems attributable to PD was 81% and 54%, respectively. Among men who had relationship problems, the prevalence of emotional problems was 93%. In men with emotional problems due to PD, relationship issues were observed in 62%. Multivariable analysis revealed that emotional difficulties (OR 6.9, P < 0.001) and ability to have intercourse (OR 0.4, P = 0.004) were independently associated with relationship problems. Relationship problems (OR 8.0, P < 0.001) and loss of penile length (OR 2.7, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of emotional problems after adjustment for the ability to maintain erections, low libido, and penile pain. Conclusions Among men with PD, there is a very high prevalence of emotional and relationship problems. Loss of penile length and inability to have intercourse are strong predictors of these problems and as such make ideal targets for intervention. Medical and surgical therapies may enhance quality of life through their ability to improve sexual function. Further research will characterize the ways in which individual symptoms affect emotional and psychological well-being. PMID:18638001

  4. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

  5. [Pituitary radiotherapy. Current data and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Cortet-Rudelli, C; Coche-Dequeant, B; Castelain, B; Blond, S; Hamon, M; Defoort, S; Vantyghem, M C; Fossati, P; Dewailly, D

    1997-01-01

    Some technical improvements have allowed to minimize the frequency of severe complications following fractionated pituitary conventional radiotherapy, without altering its efficiency. "Conformational" radiotherapy is currently under development, aiming at the best fitting of the tumor borders to the irradiation zone, by the means of stereotactic imaging. More recently, radiosurgery has been proposed for pituitary adenomas. It consists in a single high radiation dose to the tumor, by the means of either cobalt minibeams (Gamma Unit) or photon beams from a linear particle accelerator. These techniques require the use of a stereotactic frame and precise 3D imaging in order to tightly superimpose the target volume to the reference isodose. They must not be viewed as an alternative to conventional radiotherapy. They can be applied only to small lesions (less than 20 mm in their maximal axis) which are distant (> 5 mm) from the optic chiasma and nerves. Their efficiency is similar to the one of fractionated conventional radiotherapy, with a shorter response time. In conclusion, radiotherapy can be used safely for pituitary adenomas. It remains however a second line treatment, when surgery has been incomplete and when a simple, effective and inexpensive medical treatment is not possible. PMID:9207963

  6. What motivates children's behavior and emotion? Joint effects of perceived control and autonomy in the academic domain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, B C; Skinner, E A; Connell, J P

    1993-10-01

    This study examined the contribution of perceived control and autonomy to children's self-reported behavior and emotion in the classroom (N = 246 children ages 8-10 years). Multiple regression analyses revealed unique effects of autonomy over and above the strong effects of perceived control. In addition, both sets of perceptions (and their interaction) were found to distinguish children who were active but emotionally disaffected from those who were active and emotionally positive. Specific predictions were also tested regarding the effects of (a) control attributions to 5 causes and (b) 4 reasons for task involvement that differed in degree of autonomy on children's active (vs. passive) behavior and 4 kinds of emotions: boredom, distress, anger, and positive emotions. Implications of the findings for theories of children's motivation are discussed, as well as for diagnostic strategies to identify children at risk for motivational problems PMID:8229650

  7. "Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-04-01

    Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

  8. The calibration of CT Hounsfield units for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Schneider; Eros Pedroni; Antony Lomax

    1996-01-01

    Computer tomographic (CT) scans are used to correct for tissue inhomogeneities in radiotherapy treatment planning. In order to guarantee a precise treatment, it is important to obtain the relationship between CT Hounsfield units and electron densities (or proton stopping powers for proton radiotherapy), which is the basic input for radiotherapy planning systems which consider tissue heterogeneities. A method is described

  9. PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name Radiography (Radiotherapy and Oncology)

    E-print Network

    Weyde, Tillman

    (Radiotherapy and Oncology) Award BSc (Hons) School School of Health Sciences Department or equivalent Division radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The BSc(Hons) Radiography (Radiotherapy & Oncology) programme to health and disease. Recognise and apply recent developments in the practice of oncology in particular

  10. Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Korcyl, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest terms, doctoral dissertation entitled "Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy" is part of the supporting research background in the development of the ambitious proton radiotherapy project currently under way at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Krak\\'ow. Another broad motivation was the desire to become directly involved in research on a topical and challenging subject of possibly developing a therapy planning system for carbon beam radiotherapy, based in its radiobiological part on the Track Structure model developed by prof. Robert Katz over 50 years ago. Thus, the general aim of this work was, firstly, to recapitulate the Track Structure model and to propose an updated and complete formulation of this model by incorporating advances made by several authors who had contributed to its development in the past. Secondly, the updated and amended (if necessary) formulation of the model was presented in a form applicable for use in computer codes which would constitute the "radiobio...

  11. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  12. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  13. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. PMID:21787073

  14. A Framework for Studying Emotions Across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David J.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether “emotions” are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have “emotions,” since emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as “emotion primitives”, can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases, and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach aims not only at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. PMID:24679535

  15. Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Christian E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility – the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli; and b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high trait resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low trait resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High trait resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. PMID:21707168

  16. Mental imagery of emotions: Electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Suess, Franziska; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-07-01

    Affective stimuli such as emotional words, scenes or facial expressions elicit well-investigated emotional responses. For instance, two distinct event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been reported in response to emotional facial expressions, the early posterior negativity (EPN), associated with enhanced attention and perception of affective stimuli, and a later centro-parietal positivity (LPP) that is taken to reflect evaluations of the intrinsic relevance of emotional stimuli. However, other rich sources of emotions that have as yet received little attention are internal mental events such as thoughts, memories and imagination. Here we investigated mental imagery of emotional facial expressions and its time course using ERPs. Participants viewed neutral familiar and unfamiliar faces, and were subsequently asked to imagine the faces with an emotional or neutral expression. Imagery was compared to visually perceiving the same faces with the different expressions. Early ERP modulations during imagery resemble the effects frequently reported for perceived emotional facial expressions, suggesting that common early processes are associated with emotion perception and imagination. A later posterior positivity was also found in the imagery condition, but with a different distribution than for perception. These findings underscore the similarity of the brain's responses to internally generated and external sources of emotions. PMID:25842292

  17. The development of radiotherapy: physics, technology methods.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy was introduced in Sweden already before the turn of the century, ie, a few years after the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity. Pioneering contributions were made by Forssell, Berven, Heyman, Sievert, and Strandqvist in general radiotherapy, gynecologic radiotherapy, dosimetry, teleradium methods, and radiation biology. Technological advancements, along with nearly 100% followup of treatment effects, created a foundation for compiling early empirical experience in a methodologically sound specialty. Therapeutic radiology in Sweden was distinguished from diagnostic radiology already in 1917, at which time the specialties of general and gynecologic radiotherapy were founded. These specialties later developed into general and gynecologic oncology. Progress during recent decades has been characterized by access to better equipment such as telegamma devices and accelerators for external radiotherapy, and new radionuclides, eg, for remote controlled local application. With CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), SPECT and PET (tomography using gamma radiation and positron-irradiated nuclides), and ultrasound diagnostics, the anatomic basis for individual dose planning has radically improved. Dosage can now be planned with high precision and visualized in three dimensions using advanced computer programs. Technical safety has increased with improved methods for in vivo dosimetry and computer-controlled verification of all parameters for every treatment. It is now possible to deliver the intended radiation dose to a benign tumor without causing serious side effects. Important research fields include the impact of different fractionation schedules on the effects of radiation and how radiotherapy can best be combined with other forms of therapy such as surgery and chemotherapy. PMID:9154081

  18. Strategic automation of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed. PMID:19210061

  19. Clinical Experience With Image-Guided Radiotherapy in an Accelerated Partial Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Leonard; Michael M. S. Tallhamer; Tim Johnson; Kari C. M. D. Hunter; Kathryn Howell; Jane Kercher; Jodi Widener; Terese Kaske; Devchand Paul; Scot Sedlacek; Dennis L. Carter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total

  20. Crossing the Cartesian Divide: An Investigation into the Role of Emotion in Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staus, Nancy L.

    Although many science educators and researchers believe that emotion is an important part of the learning process, few researchers have dealt with the topic in a systematic fashion. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotion in the learning process, particularly in the learning of science content. My study utilized a dimensional perspective which defined emotion in terms of arousal and valence, and drew on research from the fields of psychology and neuroscience to examine how emotion affects different aspects of cognition such as attention and memory. On the basis of these findings, I developed and tested a path model to investigate the predicted relationships among emotional arousal, valence, attention, intrinsic motivation and short- and long-term learning outcomes. I conducted the study in two phases. The first phase took place in a psychology laboratory in which participants watched either an exciting or neutral nature video, read a factual article related to the video and were tested on their learning. The second phase took place at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in which participants watched a narrated otter or sea lion presentation and took a short posttest after the show. In both phases, participants' emotional arousal, valence, attention, and motivation levels were also measured for inclusion in the model. The results indicated that emotional arousal was an important predictor of short-term learning in both experiments although its effect was fully mediated by attention at the aquarium. In addition, negative valence (displeasure) and intrinsic motivation were strong predictors of short-term learning in the laboratory experiment. At the aquarium, the narrator of the animal presentation strongly affected both attention and short-term learning---visitors who listened to a non-scripted rather than a scripted narration paid more attention and had significantly better short-term learning outcomes. In the aquarium study, emotional arousal correlated strongly with several measures of long-term learning. In particular, those who felt more arousal during the animal presentation were able to describe their experience at greater length and with more detail and complexity two to three months after their visit. My findings suggest that emotional arousal is an important component of science learning both directly and through its relationship with attention. Therefore, science educators in both informal and formal learning institutions may be able to increase both attention and learning outcomes by designing emotionally arousing learning experiences around the science content they wish to teach. In addition, the importance of narrator quality in the aquarium study suggests that narrators and teachers should be trained to deliver information in such a way that supports short- and long-term science learning.

  1. Value Maps, Drives, and Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Levine

    \\u000a This chapter discusses value maps, drives, and emotions through the modeling of decision making, judgment, and choice. Ever\\u000a the since the seminal work of Amos Tversky and Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman (Tversky and Kahneman 1974, 1981), it has been\\u000a known that decision models based on rational maximization of expected utility do not capture the typical choices that people\\u000a or nonhuman

  2. Strategic Automation of Emotion Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge Schweiger Gallo; Andreas Keil; Kathleen C. McCulloch; Brigitte Rockstroh; Peter M. Gollwitzer

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively,

  3. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. PMID:22884218

  4. Toddlers’ Understanding of Peers’ Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia

    2012-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants’ ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, a social referencing paradigm was employed to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children can use a peer’s positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their own behavior with the toys. Twelve-month-olds decreased their play with toys toward which a peer had expressed either positive or negative emotion compared to play following a peer’s neutral attention toward a toy. Eighteen-month-olds did not respond systematically, but 24-month-old children increased their toy play after watching a peer display negative affect toward the toy. Regardless of their age, children with siblings decreased their play with toys toward which they had seen a peer display fear, the typical social referencing response. Results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social understanding and peer interaction over the second year of life. PMID:20333894

  5. The time–emotion paradox

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Gil, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The present manuscript discusses the time–emotion paradox in time psychology: although humans are able to accurately estimate time as if they possess a specific mechanism that allows them to measure time (i.e. an internal clock), their representations of time are easily distorted by the context. Indeed, our sense of time depends on intrinsic context, such as the emotional state, and on extrinsic context, such as the rhythm of others' activity. Existing studies on the relationships between emotion and time suggest that these contextual variations in subjective time do not result from the incorrect functioning of the internal clock but rather from the excellent ability of the internal clock to adapt to events in one's environment. Finally, the fact that we live and move in time and that everything, every act, takes more or less time has often been neglected. Thus, there is no unique, homogeneous time but instead multiple experiences of time. Our subjective temporal distortions directly reflect the way our brain and body adapt to these multiple time scales. PMID:19487196

  6. Neurocognition and symptoms identify links between facial recognition and emotion processing in schizophrenia: Meta-analytic findings

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joseph; Wood, Rachel C.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Hellemann, Gerhard S.

    2014-01-01

    Background In schizophrenia patients, one of the most commonly studied deficits of social cognition is emotion processing (EP), which has documented links to facial recognition (FR). But, how are deficits in facial recognition linked to emotion processing deficits? Can neurocognitive and symptom correlates of FR and EP help differentiate the unique contribution of FR to the domain of social cognition? Methods A meta-analysis of 102 studies (combined n = 4826) in schizophrenia patients was conducted to determine the magnitude and pattern of relationships between facial recognition, emotion processing, neurocognition, and type of symptom. Results Meta-analytic results indicated that facial recognition and emotion processing are strongly interrelated (r = .51). In addition, the relationship between FR and EP through voice prosody (r = .58) is as strong as the relationship between FR and EP based on facial stimuli (r = .53). Further, the relationship between emotion recognition, neurocognition, and symptoms is independent of the emotion processing modality – facial stimuli and voice prosody. Discussion The association between FR and EP that occurs through voice prosody suggests that FR is a fundamental cognitive process. The observed links between FR and EP might be due to bottom-up associations between neurocognition and EP, and not simply because most emotion recognition tasks use visual facial stimuli. In addition, links with symptoms, especially negative symptoms and disorganization, suggest possible symptom mechanisms that contribute to FR and EP deficits. PMID:24268469

  7. Cognitive Emotion Regulation Insights From Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Ochsner, Kevin

    in the study of cognitive emotion regulation illustrate how functional imaging is extending behavioral analyses understanding of cognitive emotion regulation. MULTILEVEL MODELS One tenet of SCAN research is that behavior- tive emotion regulation. BEHAVIORAL STUDIES OF COGNITIVE EMOTION REGULATION Empirical work on emotion

  8. Vocal communication of emotion: A review of research paradigms

    E-print Network

    Hirschberg, Julia

    research efforts are discussed. In particular, it is suggested to use the Brunswikian lens model as a base of the model (i.e., the speakerÕs emotional state, the listenerÕs attribution, and the mediating acoustic cues; Evaluation of emotion effects on voice and speech; Acoustic markers of emotion; Emotion induction; Emotion

  9. Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Stefan; Paulus, Frieder M; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2013-12-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology. PMID:24304773

  10. Neural Correlates of Positive and Negative Emotion Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Hee Kim; Stephan Hamann

    2007-01-01

    The ability to cope adaptively with emotional events by volitionally altering one's emotional reactions is important for psychological and physical health as well as social interaction. Cognitive regulation of emotional responses to aversive events engages prefrontal regions that modulate activity in emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala. However, the neural correlates of the regulation of positive emotions remain largely unexplored.

  11. Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céleste M. Brotheridge; Alicia A. Grandey

    2002-01-01

    Although it has often been presumed that jobs involving “people work” (e.g., nurses, service workers) are emotionally taxing (Maslach & Jackson, 1982), seldom is the emotional component of these jobs explicitly studied. The current study compared two perspectives of emotional labor as predictors of burnout beyond the effects of negative affectivity: job-focused emotional labor (work demands regarding emotion expression) and

  12. The development of nonverbal communication of emotion: A functionalist perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Caplovitz Barrett

    1993-01-01

    A functionalist perspective on the development of nonverbal communication of emotion is presented. This perspective is distinguished from other current conceptualizations by the following features: (a) Emphasis is placed on the functional implications of emotion-relevant movements for social regulation (communication), intrapersonal (internal) regulation, and behavior regulation. (b) Emotions are viewed as “members of families of emotions.” Emotion families are composed

  13. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  14. Auditory emotional cues enhance visual perception.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, René; Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by emotional cues as compared to neutral cues. When the cue was presented visually we replicated the emotion-induced impairment found in other studies. Our results suggest emotional stimuli have a twofold effect on perception. They impair perception by reflexively attracting attention at the expense of competing stimuli. However, emotional stimuli also induce a nonspecific perceptual enhancement that carries over onto other stimuli when competition is reduced, for example, by presenting stimuli in different modalities. PMID:20096407

  15. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    ?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  16. Building Emotional Resilience to Promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked positive emotional health with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of negative emotion. Several potential mechanisms have been posited to account for these associations, including improved health behavior, direct physiological benefits, and enhanced resistance to and recovery from stress among individuals with high versus low positive emotional resources. Links between positive emotion and health have implications for targeted interventions, but no empirical investigations to date have tested the impact of efforts to enhance positive emotion on cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, some existing data point to the potential value of strategies to increase emotional resources for individuals' functional health and capacity to manage stress. PMID:20046858

  17. The motion in emotion a CERT based approach to the FERA emotion challenge

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    of automated facial expression recognition is rapidly advancing. Technologies like smile detection have already Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT) for classifying emotions in the Facial Expression Recognition on the emotion recognition subtest of the Facial Expression Recognition Analysis Challenge (FERA) [13

  18. Emotion Recognition: The Effects of Age on the Identification of Emotion from Facial and Body Expressions 

    E-print Network

    Gibbon, Sarah

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has identified a well-replicated decline in the recognition of emotion in healthy adult ageing. Furthermore, research has shown that multiple sources of emotion al information can help to reduce the severity of this decline...

  19. Do Emotional Intelligence and personality predict the way that Emotional Labour is performed 

    E-print Network

    Dore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Despite the many claims made about the importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI) for employee performance, no previous research has studied EI as an antecedent of Emotional Labour (EL). The focus of the present study was ...

  20. Experiencing emotional labor: an analysis of the discursive construction of emotional labor 

    E-print Network

    Haman, Mary Kathryn

    2007-04-25

    This study analyzes how employees at a university recreation center discursively construct their experiences of emotional labor, how they conceptualize such behavior in terms of displaying unfelt emotions and faking in good and bad faith, and what...

  1. Long-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Stanford University Corresponding author: Eran Halperin, Deputy Director Political Psychology ProgramLong-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are thought to play a central role in initiating and sustaining intergroup conflicts (Halperin, 2010; Halperin, Bar

  2. A database of German emotional speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Burkhardt; Astrid Paeschke; M. Rolfes; Walter F. Sendlmeier; Benjamin Weiss

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The article describes a database ,of emotional ,speech. Ten actors (5 female and 5 male) simulated the emotions, producing,10 German ,utterances (5 short and ,5 longer sentences) which could be used ,in everyday ,communication and are interpretable in all applied emotions. The recordings were taken in an ,anechoic chamber ,with high-quality recording equipment. In addition ,to the ,sound electro-glottograms

  3. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

  4. The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. A Parker; Graeme J Taylor; R. Michael Bagby

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the empirical association between the apparently similar constructs of emotional intelligence and alexithymia was examined using latent variable analysis in a large community sample of adults (N=734). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess alexithymia and emotional intelligence. Results revealed that although the constructs are independent, they

  5. The effects of emotional responsiveness in marriage 

    E-print Network

    Hass, Sally Duffin

    1987-01-01

    THE EFFECFS OF EMOTIONAL RESPONSIVENESS IN MARRIAGE A Thesis by SALLY DUFFIN BASS Approved as to style and content by: ndoza i n f Comnitt Willi S. Rholes (Member) Lowell J. Krokoff (Member) Frances Worchel (Member) Steph Worchel... (Head of: Department) May 1987 The Effects of Emotional Responsiveness in Harriage. (Nay 1987) Sally Ouffin Hase, B. S. , University of Illinois Chairnmn of Advisory Cozmittee: Or. Jorge Nendoza This paper examines the effects of emotional...

  6. EEMML: the emotional eye movement animation toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Li; Xia Mao

    Eye movement plays an important role in face to face communication in that it conveys nonverbal information and emotional\\u000a intent beyond speech. Being “a window to the mind”, the eye and its behavior are tightly coupled with human cognitive processes.\\u000a In this paper, we proposed an Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language (EEMML) which is an emotional eye movement animation\\u000a scripting

  7. Continuous dimensional emotion tracking in music

    E-print Network

    Imbrasaite, Vaiva

    2015-04-28

    ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.5. An example of a 2.5 dimensional representation of emotion predic- tion over time (height represents the intensity of emotion and colour is an interpolation between red-green axis of valence and yellow- blue axis of arousal with time... and Intelligent Interaction, Geneva, Switzerland, September 2013. Chapter 3 Vaiva Imbrasaite?, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Peter Robinson Emotion tracking in music using continuous conditional random fields and baseline feature representation. AAM workshop, IEEE...

  8. An Emotional Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Ge; Zhang Rubo

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a modification of the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) intended to introduce some psychology\\u000a factor of emotion into the algorithm. In the new algorithm, which is based on a simple perception and emotion psychology model,\\u000a each particle has its own feeling and reaction to the current position, and it also has specified emotional factor towards\\u000a the sense

  9. Impact of transient emotions on functional connectivity during subsequent resting state: a wavelet correlation approach.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Schwartz, Sophie; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2011-02-01

    The functional properties of resting brain activity are poorly understood, but have generally been related to self-monitoring and introspective processes. Here we investigated how emotionally positive and negative information differentially influenced subsequent brain activity at rest. We acquired fMRI data in 15 participants during rest periods following fearful, joyful, and neutral movies. Several brain regions were more active during resting than during movie-watching, including posterior/anterior cingulate cortices (PCC, ACC), bilateral insula and inferior parietal lobules (IPL). Functional connectivity at different frequency bands was also assessed using a wavelet correlation approach and small-world network analysis. Resting activity in ACC and insula as well as their coupling were strongly enhanced by preceding emotions, while coupling between ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala was selectively reduced. These effects were more pronounced after fearful than joyful movies for higher frequency bands. Moreover, the initial suppression of resting activity in ACC and insula after emotional stimuli was followed by a gradual restoration over time. Emotions did not affect IPL average activity but increased its connectivity with other regions. These findings reveal specific neural circuits recruited during the recovery from emotional arousal and highlight the complex functional dynamics of default mode networks in emotionally salient contexts. PMID:20955802

  10. Emotion recognition and emotional theory of mind in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Oldershaw; D. Hambrook; K. A. Rimes; K. Tchanturia; J. Treasure; S. Richards; U. Schmidt; T. Chalder

    2011-01-01

    Background: Difficulties with social function have been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but underpinning factors are unknown. Emotion recognition, theory of mind (inference of another's mental state) and ‘emotional’ theory of mind (eToM) (inference of another's emotional state) are important social abilities, facilitating understanding of others. This study examined emotion recognition and eToM in CFS patients and their relationship

  11. Child and Adolescent Emotion Regulation: The Role of Parental Emotion Regulation and Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Bariola; Eleonora Gullone; Elizabeth K. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and child emotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory\\u000a skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths\\u000a and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future research are proposed. First,\\u000a it is argued that consistency in the measurement of emotion regulation is

  12. A Service for Emotion Management: Turkish Version of the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, A. Esra; Sevincler-Togan, Seyhan

    2009-01-01

    An individual's activities are closely related with his/her communication abilities. One's awareness of his feelings and needs and to what extend he can control such feelings are the key factors which effect communication abilities. Webster (1996) defines anger as, "a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed…

  13. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  14. Critical Pedagogy and Emotion: Working through "Troubled Knowledge" in Posttraumatic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques some of the existing literature in critical pedagogy and the way it tends to overlook or downplay the strong emotional investments of troubled knowledge in posttraumatic situations. Examining existing literature in critical pedagogy reiterates the argument that the discourse of critical pedagogy constructs and sustains its…

  15. The role of emotional intelligence and other individual difference variables in predicting emotional labor relative to situational demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céleste M. Brotheridge

    2006-01-01

    This study found a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence (MSCEIT) and deep acting (making an effort to feel emotions that are required in interpersonal interactions) in a sample of service workers. Surface acting (faking displayed emotions and hiding personal feelings) was positi- vely associated with emotional awareness. Emotional intelligence did not add to the prediction of va- riance in

  16. Adolescents’ Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents’ emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with adolescents’ reactivity to conflict in friendships and romantic relationships during middle adolescence. Close friendship reactivity partially explained the prospective association between reactivity to interparental conflict and romantic relationship reactivity. The association between perceived emotional reactivity and relationship conflict was stronger for girls than boys. Results have important developmental implications regarding adolescents’ emotional reactivity across salient interpersonal contexts during adolescence. PMID:22545839

  17. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  18. Exciting Course Cultivating the Power of Emotional

    E-print Network

    Niebur, Ernst

    ..........................................................................13 E-Learning, Department Training, Diversity Training for the High-Pressure Workplace Negativity: Creating Optimism in the Workplace Cultivating the Power of Emotional Intelligence The Downside

  19. The etiology of nonpsychotic emotional illness.

    PubMed

    Waring, E M; Patton, D; Wister, A V

    1990-02-01

    Two hundred and fifty couples in the general population completed self-report questionnaires which measured life events, personality, marital intimacy, and symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Path analysis was utilized to explain the development of symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion explained most of the variance of symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Life events played a much smaller but significant role and marital intimacy was a nonsignificant factor. The data support a proneness model for the etiology of nonpsychotic emotional illness. PMID:2317734

  20. Increased negative emotional responses in PROP supertasters.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-02-28

    Based on animal data it has been suggested that an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes is linked with increased emotional reactivity. The present study examined for the first time in humans whether the intensity of experimentally induced negative emotional responses is related to sensitivity to the bitter tasting compound PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). Normal-weight participants (61 men, 57 women) with a mean age of 24 years were classified into PROP non-tasters (n=54), medium tasters (n=25), or supertasters (n=39), and were shown two film clips to induce negative emotional response patterns: one pattern predominated by anger and tension, and another predominated by sadness and depressed mood. A third film clip was emotionally neutral. Before and after film clip viewing, self-rated emotional responses were obtained. PROP supertasters showed more intense responses than non-tasters or medium tasters after the anger-inducing film clip (increased anger, tension, sadness and fear as well as decreased mood and joy). Significant correlations were found between emotional responses and a continuos measure of PROP sensitivity. Group differences and correlations could not be attributed to personality measures, trait affectivity, or gender. For emotional responses after the sadness-inducing film clip, no differences between taster groups could be detected. PROP sensitivity appears to be related to arousability of emotions, in particular those emotions that are associated with an increased readiness to respond actively to stimuli from the environment, e.g. anger, disgust and fear. PMID:17141813

  1. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Katsunuma, Ruri; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Motomura, Yuki; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on “here and now” experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one’s own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed. PMID:26083379

  2. Social regulation of emotion: messy layers

    PubMed Central

    Kappas, Arvid

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049

  3. Adolescents’ emotional competence is associated with parents’ neural sensitivity to emotions

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.; Qu, Yang; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galván, Adriana; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of youths’ successful development is learning to appropriately respond to emotions, including the ability to recognize, identify, and describe one’s feelings. Such emotional competence is thought to arise through the parent–child relationship. Yet, the mechanisms by which parents transmit emotional competence to their children are difficult to measure because they are often implicit, idiosyncratic, and not easily articulated by parents or children. In the current study, we used a multifaceted approach that went beyond self-report measures and examined whether parental neural sensitivity to emotions predicted their child’s emotional competence. Twenty-two adolescent–parent dyads completed an fMRI scan during which they labeled the emotional expressions of negatively valenced faces. Results indicate that parents who recruited the amygdala, VLPFC, and brain regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., inferring others’ emotional states) had adolescent children with greater emotional competence. These results held after controlling for parents’ self-reports of emotional expressivity and adolescents’ self-reports of the warmth and support of their parent relationships. In addition, adolescents recruited neural regions involved in mentalizing during affect labeling, which significantly mediated the associated between parental neural sensitivity and adolescents’ emotional competence, suggesting that youth are modeling or referencing their parents’ emotional profiles, thereby contributing to better emotional competence. PMID:25100982

  4. Tears and fears: modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gratch; Stacy Marsella

    2001-01-01

    Emotions play a critical role in creating engaging and believable characters to populate virtual worlds. Our goal is to create general computational models to support characters that act in virtual environments, make decisions, but whose behavior also suggests an underlying emotional current. In service of this goal, we integrate two complementary approaches to emotional modeling into a single unified system.

  5. The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    has directly probed the neural bases of two contrasting (e.g., cognitive versus behavioral) emotion) and expressive suppression (a behavioral strategy thought to have its impact later in the emotion demonstrate the differential efficacy of reappraisal and suppression on emotional experience, facial behavior

  6. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  7. Parents' Reactions to Elementary School Children's Negative Emotions: Relations to Social and Emotional Functioning at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah; Eisenberg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations of parents' reactions to first- through fourth-graders' negative emotions with children's social and emotional competence at school and the moderating role of children's dispositional emotionality. Found that problem-focused parental reactions related positively to socioemotional competence for boys but negatively for girls.…

  8. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  9. An ontology for predicting students' emotions during a quiz. Comparison with self-reported emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Eyharabide; Analia Amandi; Matthieu Courgeon; Celine Clavel; Chahnez Zakaria; Jean-Claude Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that predicting students' emotions during e-learning is quite relevant but should be situated in the learning context and consider the individual profile of users. More knowledge is required for assessing the possible contributions of multiple sources of information for predicting students' emotions. In this paper we describe an ontology that we have implemented for predicting students' emotions

  10. Facial EMG Responses to Emotional Expressions Are Related to Emotion Perception Ability

    PubMed Central

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a “reactivation” of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG) - in response to emotional facial expressions. N°?=?°269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N°?=?°110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective. PMID:24489647

  11. On the Validity of the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task for Emotion Induction

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed. PMID:24776697

  12. Investigating Transactions among Motives, Emotional Regulation Related to Testing, and Test Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Aultman, Lori Price; Schutz, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among achievement motives, emotional regulation, and emotions. They collected data from 425 college undergraduates (110 men, 315 women) and used several scales, including the Achievement Motives Scales (K. Hagtvet & L. Zou, 2000), the Emotional Regulation During Testing Scale (P. A. Schutz, C. DiStefano, J.…

  13. Emotional Competence, Emotion Socialization, and Young Children's Peer-Related Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Estep, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated linkages between aspects of emotional competence and preschoolers' social skills with peers, as well as parental emotion socialization practices as predictors of social skill. Found that emotional competence variables were meaningfully related to the peer variables and that, for non-constructive anger reactions, maternal reports of…

  14. Automatic emotion processing as a function of trait emotional awareness: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lichev, Vladimir; Sacher, Julia; Ihme, Klas; Rosenberg, Nicole; Quirin, Markus; Lepsien, Jöran; Pampel, André; Rufer, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Kugel, Harald; Kersting, Anette; Villringer, Arno; Lane, Richard D; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear whether reflective awareness of emotions is related to extent and intensity of implicit affective reactions. This study is the first to investigate automatic brain reactivity to emotional stimuli as a function of trait emotional awareness. To assess emotional awareness the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) was administered. During scanning, masked happy, angry, fearful and neutral facial expressions were presented to 46 healthy subjects, who had to rate the fit between artificial and emotional words. The rating procedure allowed assessment of shifts in implicit affectivity due to emotion faces. Trait emotional awareness was associated with increased activation in the primary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal and cerebellar areas, thalamus, putamen and amygdala in response to masked happy faces. LEAS correlated positively with shifts in implicit affect caused by masked happy faces. According to our findings, people with high emotional awareness show stronger affective reactivity and more activation in brain areas involved in emotion processing and simulation during the perception of masked happy facial expression than people with low emotional awareness. High emotional awareness appears to be characterized by an enhanced positive affective resonance to others at an automatic processing level. PMID:25140051

  15. Emotional labor actors: A latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25068812

  16. Aging and Goal-Directed Emotional Attention: Distraction Reverses Emotional Biases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa Knight; Travis L. Seymour; Joshua T. Gaunt; Christopher Baker; Kathryn Nesmith; Mara Mather

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings reveal that older adults favor positive over negative stimuli in both memory and attention (for a review, see Mather & Carstensen, 2005). This study used eye tracking to investigate the role of cognitive control in older adults’ selective visual attention. Younger and older adults viewed emotional-neutral and emotional-emotional pairs of faces and pictures while their gaze patterns were

  17. Emotionally-Vulnerable Subjects and New Inequalities: The Educational Implications of an "Epistemology of the Emotions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by very different goals, various interest groups argue that the British government should address problems with citizens' emotional well-being. Concerns about emotional vulnerability and poor emotional well-being amongst growing numbers of children, young people and adults produce ideas and approaches from different branches of…

  18. Are Women the ``More Emotional'' Sex? Evidence From Emotional Experiences in Social Context

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    . These beliefs pervade American culture, from self-help books to talk shows, from ® lms to comedy routines between global, retrospective, and on-line, momentary self-descriptions of emotional experience-related differences in emotion in global self-descriptions, but not in the averaged momentary ratings of emotion

  19. Emotion Regulation in Youth with Emotional Disorders: Implications for a Unified Treatment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Sarah E.; Buzzella, Brian A.; Bennett, Shannon M.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    Given the relationship between internalizing disorders and deficits in emotion regulation in youth, the emotion science literature has suggested several avenues for increasing the efficacy of interventions for youth presenting with anxiety and depression. These possibilities include the identification and addition of emotion-regulation skills to…

  20. The Nonverbal Expression of Negative Emotions: Peer and Supervisor Responses to Occupational Therapy Students' Emotional Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality

  1. The Components of Young Children's Emotion Knowledge: Which Are Enhanced by Adult Emotion Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks were…

  2. Giving Shape and Form to Emotion: Using Drawings to Identify Emotions in University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academia is generally not considered a place for expressing emotions, yet emotions are inevitably present in complex activities such as teaching. We investigated whether drawings could be used as a means of gaining access to emotions in university teaching and how. The data consisted of academics' drawings of themselves as university teachers…

  3. Investigating Children's Emotion Regulation in Socio-Emotionally Challenging Classroom Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Kristiina; Järvelä, Sanna; Mykkänen, Arttu; Määttä, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have associated effective emotion and behaviour regulation with learning and social competence among young children. However, further studies on children's use of emotion regulation in their everyday lives are required. This study focuses on investigating six- to nine-year-old children's (N?=?24) use of emotion regulation…

  4. Selective Attention to Emotional Stimuli: What IQ and Openness Do, and Emotional Intelligence Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiori, Marina; Antonakis, John

    2012-01-01

    We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence--measured as an ability using the MSCEIT--predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on…

  5. Algorithms for radiotherapy treatment booking Sanja Petrovic*

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    types, there is a variety of approaches to treat cancer. The most common forms of treatment are surgery the elimination of cancerous cells. Radiotherapy often forms part of the treatment for the patient due to its. Treatment fields are the precisely defined areas where the beams of radiation, varying by angle

  6. Monte Carlo dose calculations in advanced radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Kenneth Bush

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation algorithms has led to the widely accepted view that these methods should and will play a central role in the radiotherapy treatment verification and planning of the future. The advantages of using MC clinically are particularly evident for radiation fields passing through inhomogeneities, such as lung and air cavities, and for

  7. Complications of Breast-cancer Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Senkus-Konefka; J. Jassem

    2006-01-01

    Although the beneficial effect of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer is well documented, this treatment may be related to a number of complications, which may affect patient quality of life and possibly survival. Among significant long-term irradiation sequelae are cardiac and lung damage, lymphoedema, brachial plexopathy, impaired shoulder mobility and second malignancies. The risk of these complications, particularly high with

  8. Galectin-1 and immune suppression during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James W; Seyedin, Steven N; Cortez, Maria Angelica; Maity, Amit; Hahn, Stephen M

    2014-12-15

    Radiotherapy induces galectin-1 (Gal-1) secretion by tumors, which induces CD8(+) T-cell apoptosis and lymphopenia. These effects are substantially decreased by Gal-1 shRNA. Inhibition of Gal-1 may be an effective strategy for overcoming radiation-induced lymphopenia, which may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25348514

  9. Fatigue patterns in Chinese patients receiving radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Molassiotis; C. W. H. Chan

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue has been reported as the most frequently occurring symptom in cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of the current descriptive study was to explore the pattern, associated factors, and experience of fatigue in Chinese cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Twenty-seven subjects from an out patient clinic of a university hospital in Hong Kong participated in the study. They were asked

  10. Experience Programming Radiotherapy Applications in Common Lisp

    E-print Network

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    Experience Programming Radiotherapy Applications in Common Lisp Ira J. Kalet, Ph.D. 1, Jonathan M experience using Common Lisp 1] as the programming language for a new radiation treatment planning (RTP technologies. We decided to use Lisp because of: its high level of expressive power, the existence of a direct

  11. Cancer risk after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Levi; L Randimbison; V-C Te; C La Vecchia

    2006-01-01

    Among women with breast cancer, we compared the relative and absolute rates of subsequent cancers in 1541 women treated with radiotherapy (RT) to 4570 women not so treated (NRT), using all registered in the Swiss Vaud Cancer Registry in the period between 1978 and 1998, and followed up to December 2002. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence

  12. Radiation transport in a radiotherapy room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Agosteo; A. Foglio Para; B. Maggioni; V. Sangiust; S. Terrani; G. Borasi

    1995-01-01

    The photoneutron dose equivalent in a linac radio-therapy room and its entrance maze was investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations under different conditions. Particularly, the effect of neutron absorbers and moderator layers placed on the maze walls was considered. The contribution of prompt gamma rays emitted in absorption reactions of thermal neutrons was also taken into account. The simulation

  13. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Katrine D; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness. PMID:25878902

  14. The influence of oxytocin on volitional and emotional ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-07-01

    Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:25398434

  15. Attentional control of the processing of neural and emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luiz; Kastner, Sabine; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2002-12-01

    A typical scene contains many different objects that compete for neural representation due to the limited processing capacity of the visual system. At the neural level, competition among multiple stimuli is evidenced by the mutual suppression of their visually evoked responses and occurs most strongly at the level of the receptive field. The competition among multiple objects can be biased by both bottom-up sensory-driven mechanisms and top-down influences, such as selective attention. Functional brain imaging studies reveal that biasing signals due to selective attention can modulate neural activity in visual cortex not only in the presence but also in the absence of visual stimulation. Although the competition among stimuli for representation is ultimately resolved within visual cortex, the source of top-down biasing signals likely derives from a distributed network of areas in frontal and parietal cortex. Competition suggests that once attentional resources are depleted, no further processing is possible. Yet, existing data suggest that emotional stimuli activate brain regions "automatically," largely immune from attentional control. We tested the alternative possibility, namely, that the neural processing of stimuli with emotional content is not automatic and instead requires some degree of attention. Our results revealed that, contrary to the prevailing view, all brain regions responding differentially to emotional faces, including the amygdala, did so only when sufficient attentional resources were available to process the faces. Thus, similar to the processing of other stimulus categories, the processing of facial expression is under top-down control. PMID:12433381

  16. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2014-09-25

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  17. NEURAL DYNAMICS OF AUTISTIC BEHAVIORS: Cognitive, Emotional, and Timing Substrates

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    NEURAL DYNAMICS OF AUTISTIC BEHAVIORS: Cognitive, Emotional, and Timing Substrates Stephen behavioral symptoms. The model includes interactions between cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor of normal cognitive and cognitive- emotional behavior was derived over a period of years to explain many

  18. ForPeerReview Preferential association between childhood emotional abuse

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ForPeerReview Preferential association between childhood emotional abuse and bipolar disorder Exposure: Sexual abuse/assault, childhood Keyword - Statistical Categories: Keyword - Intervention: Keyword association between childhood emotional abuse and bipolar disorder Running head: Emotional abuse and bipolar

  19. Emotion Regulation in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder Andrea C. Samson group- matched typically developing (TD) controls completed a Reactivity and Regulation Situation Task. This task assesses emotional reactivity and spontaneous use of emotion regulation strategies (problem

  20. Personality and the prediction of short-duration emotional reactions 

    E-print Network

    Sheese, Bradley E

    2000-01-01

    Three converging studies (N=1413) presented initial evidence on the associations between personality dimensions and emotions (short-duration emotional reactions). We evaluated two distinct conceptual models of personality-emotion ...