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Sample records for radiotherapy strong emotions

  1. Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy: Strong Emotions Decide But Rational Studies Are Needed

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Paul D. Asher, Anthony L.; Farace, Elana

    2008-04-01

    Brain metastases are common in cancer patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. For patients with limited disease and good performance status, treatment typically involves a combination of focal measures (e.g., surgical resection or radiosurgery) for the radiographically apparent disease, followed by adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to treat subclinical disease. Because of concerns regarding the toxicity of WBRT, especially neurocognitive deterioration, many have advocated withholding adjuvant WBRT. Recently published studies have shed more light on the efficacy of adjuvant WBRT and the neurocognitive effects of WBRT. However, the inclusion of neurocognitive and quality-of-life data in clinical trials are still required to better define the role of adjuvant WBRT. Currently, two Phase III trials are underway, one in Europe and one in North America, that will determine the effect of adjuvant WBRT on patients' quality of life, neurocognitive function, and survival.

  2. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions. PMID:25639033

  3. Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier . E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale; Mornex, Francoise; Souquet, Jean-Christophe; Favrel, Veronique; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; D'Hombres, Anne; Gerard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

  4. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Evaluation of "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" on Students' Social-Emotional Knowledge and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Juskelis, Michael P.; Tran, Oanh K.; Buchanan, Rohanna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of three pilot studies that were conducted to evaluate the recently developed "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" social-emotional learning programs in increasing students' knowledge of healthy social-emotional behavior and decreasing their symptoms of negative affect and emotional distress. The first study included…

  5. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

  6. Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

  7. Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional…

  8. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Schölch, Sebastian; Rauber, Conrad; Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A; Lipson, Kenneth E; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E

    2015-03-10

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  9. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A.; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  10. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    PubMed

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions-especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love-that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1687-1694, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174585

  11. Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, B.-H.; Huang, T.-S.; Chen, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

  12. Promoting Social-Emotional Learning in Adolescent Latino ELLs: A Study of the Culturally Adapted "Strong Teens" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted "Jóvenes Fuertes" ("Strong Teens") Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's…

  13. Why Seemingly Trivial Events Sometimes Evoke Strong Emotional Reactions: The Role of Social Exchange Rule Violations

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.; Diebels, Kate J.; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P.; Fernandez, Xuan Duong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT People sometimes display strong emotional reactions to events that appear disproportionate to the tangible magnitude of the event. Although previous work has addressed the role that perceived disrespect and unfairness have on such reactions, this study examined the role of perceived social exchange rule violations more broadly. Participants (N = 179) rated the effects of another person’s behavior on important personal outcomes, the degree to which the other person had violated fundamental rules of social exchange, and their reactions to the event. Results showed that perceptions of social exchange rule violations accounted for more variance in participants’ reactions than the tangible consequences of the event. The findings support the hypothesis that responses that appear disproportionate to the seriousness of the eliciting event are often fueled by perceived rule violations that may not be obvious to others. PMID:26331429

  14. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings. PMID:24708282

  15. "I'm Strong within Myself": Gender, Class and Emotional Capital in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Yarrow

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have received increasing attention in educational circles in the last decade. Drawing on Bourdieu, feminist scholars use emotional capital to illustrate the ways gendered inequalities can compound the disadvantages of social class. This paper examines relationships within childcare services in Australia, showing how emotional capital…

  16. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  17. Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adamietz, Irenaus A

    2010-01-01

    The intrathoracic growth of the tumor causes several severe symptoms as cough, dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, hoarseness, anorexia/nausea, and dysphagia. In patients with manifest or threatening symptoms radiotherapy (RT) as an effective measure should be implemented into the management concept. Palliative RT radiotherapy prefers short hypofractionated schemas (e.g. 10 x 3 Gy, 4 x 5 Gy, 2 x 8 Gy, 1 x 10 Gy). Careful radiation planning supports the precision of palliative RT and reduces significantly the complication rate. A good response and prolonged palliation effects (6-12 months) can be achieved in many cases. However, the minimum biologically equivalent dose should not be less than 35 Gy. RT produces a good outcome in all types of metastases of lung carcinoma. In emergencies like VCSS or spinal cord compression RT should be initiated immediately. The selection of the optimal therapy for locally advanced lung carcinoma with malignant airway obstruction is difficult. Both brachytherapy and percutaneous irradiation are effective, however published results including local a sum of response, functionality and life quality demonstrates more benefit by percutaneous RT. Due to different physical properties of these two methods the combination of brachytherapy and external beam irradiation may be advantageous. PMID:19955803

  18. Strong Start--Grades K-2: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Parisi, Danielle M.; Whitcomb, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

  19. Development of an Implementation and Evaluation Plan for Strong Teens, a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tajara Dovie

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on social emotional learning (SEL) curricula has shown that implementing SEL instruction within the classroom is a qualified evidenced-based intervention to help students develop fundamental skills for success in life. SEL curricula help teach students essential skills such as recognizing and managing emotions, developing caring…

  20. Strong Teens--Grades 9-12: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

  1. Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-03-01

    An audience's auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acoustic effects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first experiment, and in the second test, the subjects assess the experienced subjective impact by paired comparisons. The results showed that the sound of some traditional rectangular halls provides greater psychophysiological responses and subjective impact. These findings provide a quintessential explanation for these halls' success and reveal the overall significance of room acoustics for emotional experience in music performance. PMID:27036257

  2. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  3. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  4. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients' emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12-25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists' communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists' communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists' communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  5. A Pilot Study of Strong Start: Preliminary Evidence of Feasibiliy and Efficacy of Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Social and emotional competencies have received increased attention as important components of school readiness for young children. Universal programs incorporating social and emotional learning (SEL) instruction for all preschool students are needed given the relation between social and emotional competencies in early childhood and later…

  6. Promoting Social Emotional Competency through Quality Teaching Practices: The Impact of Consultation on a Multidimensional Treatment Integrity Model of the "Strong Kids" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Verity Helaine

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the impact of brief teacher consultation on teachers' implementation fidelity, quality of implementation, and student responsiveness during the "Strong Kids" social-emotional learning curriculum. Additional outcome measures included teachers' self-efficacy and teachers' perceptions of social validity of the…

  7. Preschool Social-Emotional Skills Training: A Controlled Pilot Test of the Making Choices and Strong Families Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Natalie W.; Fraser, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to pilot test a multicomponent program designed to prevent aggressive behavior in preschool children. The first program component was comprised of social-emotional skills training. It focused on improving the social information processing and emotional-regulation skills of children. The second component was…

  8. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  9. "I Need to Be Strong and Competent": A Narrative Inquiry of a Student-Teacher's Emotions and Identities in Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2016-01-01

    In teacher identity research, limited attention has been paid to how pre-service teachers constructed their identities by negotiating with different emotions in their practice. To fill this gap, the present study, drawing upon the approach of narrative inquiry, explores how a student-teacher--Ming--negotiated and navigated conflicting emotions in…

  10. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement. PMID:21764459

  11. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  12. [Radiotherapy for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Latorzeff, I; Antoni, D; Gaudaire-Josset, S; Feuvret, L; Tallet-Richard, A; Truc, G; Noël, G

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy for brain metastases has become more multifaceted. Indeed, with the improvement of the patient's life expectancy, side effects must be undeniably avoided and the retreatments or multiple treatments are common. The cognitive side effects should be warned and the most modern techniques of radiation therapy are used regularly to reach this goal. The new classifications of patients with brain metastases help guiding treatment more appropriately. Stereotactic radiotherapy has supplanted whole brain radiation therapy both for patients with metastases in place and for those who underwent surgery. Hippocampus protection is possible with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Its relevance in terms of cognitive functioning should be more clearly demonstrated but the requirement, for using it, is increasingly strong. While addressing patients in palliative phase, the treatment of brain metastases is one of the localisations where technical thinking is the most challenging. PMID:27523410

  13. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. PMID:25706832

  14. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  15. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  16. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  17. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  18. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  19. Children's Anger, Emotional Expressiveness, and Empathy: Relations with Parents' Empathy, Emotional Expressiveness, and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Janet; Roberts, William

    2004-01-01

    In Roberts and Strayer (1996) we described how emotional factors were strongly related to children's empathy, which in turn strongly predicted prosocial behavior. This paper focuses on how these child emotional factors, assessed across methods and sources, related to parental factors (empathy, emotional expressiveness, encouragement of children's…

  20. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  1. The Influences of Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Social Cognition and Association with Hippocampal and Frontal Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yuksek, Erhan; Eroz, Seda; Yassa, Ahmet; Akturk, Dilara; Zakirov, Fagan; Akcam, Funda Engin; Emul, Murat

    2015-12-01

    The influence of brain radiotherapy on neurocognition is a major concern. Social cognition is a mental process in the meaning of social interaction and the recognition of facial emotion is a domain of social cognition. Thus, we aimed to investigate the early effect of whole brain radiotherapy on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirteen patients with various brain tumors in the study. Beck depression and anxiety inventory and the facial emotion recognition test by using a set of photographs were performed at the beginning and post radiotherapy. The severity of depression (16.40 ± 12.16 vs 04.00 ± 02.38 points) and anxiety (14.47 ± 11.96 vs 04.54 ± 03.30 points) were significantly higher in patients. The only significance according to facial emotion recognition rate between initial phase of patients and healthy controls was identifying neutral facial em otion (p = 0.002). The patients after brain radiotherapy had significantly better rate of recognizing fear facial emotions (p = 0.039). This study is the first that investigated the effects of cranial irradiation on facial emotion recognition ability and compares this ability with healthy controls. Interestingly, in the early phase the patients seem to be improved in fear facial emotion after brain radiotherapy without sparing cognition specific regions as hippocampus and frontal regions. PMID:25687977

  2. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  3. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people. PMID:26300147

  4. Experiencing Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities for elementary school students that focus on their emotions. Provides a list of picture books that deal with the following: general feelings, anger, embarrassment, fear/anxiety, happiness, hate, jealousy, loneliness, love, pride, and sadness. (AEF)

  5. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  6. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  7. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  8. Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckenzie, Alan

    A common feature of the Radiotherapy Centres where there have been major accidents involving incorrect radiotherapy treatment is that they did not operate good Quality Assurance systems. A Quality Assurance system is sometimes called a Quality Management system, and it is designed to give assurance that quality standards are being met. One of the "spin offs" from operating a Quality Management system is that it reduces the likelihood of a radiotherapy accident. A detailed account of how to set up a quality system in radiotherapy has been given in an ESTRO booklet.2

  9. Coronary Heart Disease and Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Vlachaki, Chrisanthy P.; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is associated with emotions, especially negative ones, namely anxiety and depression. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a psychological model that consists of a variety of emotional skills. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between different dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 300 participants were studied during a 3-year period in an attempt to partially replicate and further expand a previous study conducted in Greece among CHD patients, which indicated a strong association between certain dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and the incidence of CHD. All participants completed a self-report questionnaire, assessing several aspects of Emotional Intelligence. Findings: The results showed that there is a link between the regulation of emotions and the occurrence of CHD. Conclusions: The evidence reported in the present study makes stronger the claim that EI plays a significant role in the occurrence of CHD. PMID:24171883

  10. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  11. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  12. Planning National Radiotherapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

  13. 3.4 Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  14. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

  15. Ratings for emotion film clips.

    PubMed

    Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A; Bartolini, Ellen E; Abravanel, Benjamin T; Sanislow, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    Film clips are widely utilized to elicit emotion in a variety of research studies. Normative ratings for scenes selected for these purposes support the idea that selected clips correspond to the intended target emotion, but studies reporting normative ratings are limited. Using an ethnically diverse sample of college undergraduates, selected clips were rated for intensity, discreteness, valence, and arousal. Variables hypothesized to affect the perception of stimuli (i.e., gender, race-ethnicity, and familiarity) were also examined. Our analyses generally indicated that males reacted strongly to positively valenced film clips, whereas females reacted more strongly to negatively valenced film clips. Caucasian participants tended to react more strongly to the film clips, and we found some variation by race-ethnicity across target emotions. Finally, familiarity with the films tended to produce higher ratings for positively valenced film clips, and lower ratings for negatively valenced film clips. These findings provide normative ratings for a useful set of film clips for the study of emotion, and they underscore factors to be considered in research that utilizes scenes from film for emotion elicitation. PMID:24984981

  16. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  17. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  18. [The Neural Mechanism of Emotional Sweating].

    PubMed

    Asahina, Masato

    2016-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system mediates blood pressure, heart rate, and sweat secretion, which are strongly modulated by the limbic system. Moreover, the limbic system plays an important role in generating emotion. Therefore, monitoring autonomic activities, such as palmar sweating, could be useful to evaluate emotional responses. Palmar sweating is otherwise known as emotional sweating, and it's monitored for lie-detection or psychological therapy. The present review will be helpful for neurologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists seeking to understand the neural mechanism of emotional sweating. PMID:27503816

  19. Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

  20. The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning and,…

  1. 'Emotional' does not even start to cover it: Generalization of overeating in emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Peggy; de Graaff, Anastacia; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Based on recent studies indicating that emotional eating is not the clearly defined problem it is often thought to be, the present study investigated whether emotional eaters overeat merely in response to negative emotional cues, or to other cues as well. It was hypothesized that emotional eaters would overeat after a variety of food cues, not limited to negative emotions. Participants took part in four conditions (negative mood manipulation, positive mood manipulation, food exposure and a control condition) divided over two sessions. Each condition was followed by a bogus taste test, after which food intake was measured. Results showed strong correlations between food intake after all four conditions, indicating that increased intake after one type of cue is related to increased intake after other cues. Participants were identified as emotional or non-emotional eaters based on food intake in the negative mood condition, and based on self-reported emotional eating scores. Both measures of emotional eating were significantly related to food intake after all cues. Based on the current findings, we conclude that individuals who show increased food intake when in a negative emotional state also overeat when experiencing other food-signalling cues. This indicates that 'emotional eating' may not fully capture the eating behaviour of individuals currently identified as 'emotional eaters'. PMID:26559754

  2. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  3. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

    2006-01-01

    While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

  5. Emotional intelligence and emotional creativity.

    PubMed

    Ivcevic, Zorana; Brackett, Marc A; Mayer, John D

    2007-04-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were expected to be two distinct sets of abilities. Intercorrelations and confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesis. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that EC, but not EI, would correlate with behavioral creativity. Self-report measures of EC significantly correlated with laboratory and self-reported creativity measures in both studies, while ability measures of EC only correlated with self-reported artistic activity. EI was uncorrelated with creative behavior. PMID:17359237

  6. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing. PMID:22059517

  7. Personality, Emotions, and the Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    We examined symptom-level relations between the emotional disorders and general traits within the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism correlated strongly with the general distress/negative affectivity symptoms (depressed mood, anxious mood, worry) that are central to these disorders; more moderately with symptoms of social phobia, affective lability, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder, lassitude, checking, and obsessive intrusions; and more modestly with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and other symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extraversion was negatively correlated with symptoms of social anxiety/social phobia and was positively related to scales assessing expansive positive mood and increased social engagement in bipolar disorder. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness showed weaker associations and generally added little to the prediction of these symptoms. It is noteworthy, moreover, that our key findings replicated well across (a) self-rated versus (b) interview-based symptom measures. We conclude by discussing the diagnostic and assessment implications of these data. PMID:25815243

  8. Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index

    PubMed Central

    Caminero Cueva, Maria Jesús; Señaris González, Blanca; Llorente Pendás, José Luis; Gorriz Gil, Carmen; López Llames, Aurora; Alonso Pantiga, Ramón; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome and self-evaluation of the voice of patients with T1 glottic carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy. We performed an objective voice evaluation, as well as a physical, emotional and functional well being assessment of 19 patients treated with laser surgery and 18 patients treated with radiotherapy. Voice quality is affected both by surgery and radiotherapy. Voice parameters only show differences in the maximum phonation time between both treatments. Results in the Voice Handicap Index show that radiotherapy has less effect on patient voice quality perception. There is a reduced impact on the patient’s perception of voice quality after radiotherapy, despite there being no significant differences in vocal quality between radiotherapy and laser cordectomy. PMID:17999074

  9. [Radiotherapy of larynx cancers].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Lafond, C; Legouté, F; Trémolières, P; Servagi-Vernat, S; Giraud, P; Maingon, P; Calais, G; Lapeyre, M

    2016-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is the gold standard in the treatment of larynx cancers (except T1 glottic tumour). Early T1 and T2 tumours may be treated by exclusive radiation or surgery. For tumours requiring total laryngectomy (T2 or T3), induction chemotherapy followed by exclusive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy is possible. For T4 tumour, surgery must be proposed. The treatment of lymph nodes is based on the initial treatment of the primary tumour. In non-surgical procedure, in case of sequential radiotherapy, the curative dose is 70Gy and the prophylactic dose is 50Gy. An integrated simultaneous boost radiotherapy is allowed (70Gy in 2Gy per fraction and 56Gy in 1.8Gy per fraction or 70Gy in 2.12Gy per fraction). Postoperatively, radiotherapy is used in locally advanced cancer with dose levels based on pathologic criteria (66Gy for R1 resection, 50 to 54Gy for complete resection). Volume delineation was based on guidelines. PMID:27521037

  10. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.

    1985-04-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand.

  11. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  12. Emotional Interdependence and Well-Being in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114

  13. Radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Namer, M.; Lalanne, C.M.; Boublil, J.L.; Hery, M.; Chauvel, P.; Verschoore, J.; Aubanel, J.M.; Bruneton, J.N.

    1980-08-01

    Evaluation of loco-regional results obtained by radiotherapy for 31 patients with inoperable epidermoid lung cancer revealed objective remission (over 50%) in only 25% of patients. These results emphasize the limited effectiveness of radiotherapy in such cases and point out the need for increased research in radiotherapy techniques if survival rates are to be improved.

  14. Effects of color on emotions.

    PubMed

    Valdez, P; Mehrabian, A

    1994-12-01

    Emotional reactions to color hue, saturation, and brightness (Munsell color system and color chips) were investigated using the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance emotion model. Saturation (S) and brightness (B) evidenced strong and consistent effects on emotions. Regression equations for standardized variables were; Pleasure = .69B + .22S, Arousal = -.31B + .60S, Dominance = -.76B + .32S. Brightness effects were nearly the same for chromatic and achromatic colors. Blue, blue-green, green, red-purple, purple, and purple-blue were the most pleasant hues, whereas yellow and green-yellow were the least pleasant. Green-yellow, blue-green, and green were the most arousing, whereas purple-blue and yellow-red were the least arousing. Green-yellow induced greater dominance than red-purple. PMID:7996122

  15. [Radiotherapy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Verheij, M; Slotman, B J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important part in the curing of cancer patients and is an effective treatment for tumour-related symptoms. However, in many countries the level of access to this treatment modality is unacceptably low due to shortage of infrastructure, modern apparatus and trained staff. In Europe it is mainly the Eastern European countries that are behind in the provision of and accessibility to radiotherapy. Worldwide investment to narrow the gap would put an end to these undesirable differences. In addition, these investments would deliver economic benefits, especially in low-to-middle income countries. In this article, on the basis of a number of recently published reports, we discuss the differences that exist in the geographical spread of radiotherapy departments and the availability of apparatus within Europe. In conclusion we also take a short look at the Dutch situation. PMID:27334085

  16. Radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bleehen, N.M.; Cox, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    The role of radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer was reviewed at a workshop held in Cambridge, England, in June 1984. It was concluded that there was a continuing role for radiation therapy in the primary management of small cell lung cancer, including the loco-regional treatment for patients with limited disease. Radical radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell carcinoma could be curative for a proportion of patients with limited disease. Careful planning and quality control was essential. Palliative radiotherapy provided useful treatment for many other patients. Other related aspects of treatment are also presented.

  17. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  18. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  19. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  20. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  1. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  2. Emotional Inertia is Associated with Lower Well-Being when Controlling for Differences in Emotional Context

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have linked higher emotional inertia (i.e., a stronger autoregressive slope of emotions) with lower well-being. We aimed to replicate these findings, while extending upon previous research by addressing a number of unresolved issues and controlling for potential confounds. Specifically, we report results from two studies (Ns = 100 and 202) examining how emotional inertia, assessed in response to a standardized sequence of emotional stimuli in the lab, correlates with several measures of well-being. The current studies build on previous research by examining how inertia of both positive emotions (PE) and negative emotions (NE) relates to positive (e.g., life satisfaction) and negative (e.g., depressive symptoms) indicators of well-being, while controlling for between-person differences in the mean level and variability of emotions. Our findings replicated previous research and further revealed that (a) NE inertia was more strongly associated with lower well-being than PE inertia; (b) emotional inertia correlated more consistently with negative indicators (e.g., depressive symptoms) than positive indicators (e.g., life satisfaction) of well-being; and (c) these relationships were independent of individual differences in mean level and variability of emotions. We conclude, in line with recent findings, that higher emotional inertia, particularly of NE, may be an indicator of increased vulnerability to depression. PMID:26779099

  3. Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C

    2002-08-01

    How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed. PMID:16118974

  4. Association between trait emotional awareness and dorsal anterior cingulate activity during emotion is arousal-dependent.

    PubMed

    McRae, Kateri; Reiman, Eric M; Fort, Carolyn L; Chen, Kewei; Lane, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is commonly thought to subserve primarily cognitive functions, but has been strongly implicated in the allocation of attention to emotional information. In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study, we observed that women with higher emotional awareness as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) showed greater changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dACC induced by emotional films and recall. In the current study, we tested whether these effects were due to the processing of any non-neutral stimulus, or were specific to conditions of high emotional arousal. Our results extend the previous finding by demonstrating a positive correlation between emotional awareness and dACC activity only in the context of viewing highly arousing pictures. No such relationship was observed when comparing pleasant or unpleasant pictures to neutral or to each other. We also observed that the relationship between LEAS and dACC activity was present in both sexes but stronger in women than men. These results reinforce the concept that greater trait awareness of one's own emotional experiences is associated with greater engagement of the dACC during emotional arousal, which we suggest may reflect greater attentional processing of emotional information. PMID:18406175

  5. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  6. Perception of emotion in abstract artworks: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Melcher, David; Bacci, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing and fundamental debate regarding how emotion can be expressed by fine art. Some artists and theorists have claimed that certain features of paintings, such as color, line, form, and composition, can consistently express an "objective" emotion, while others have argued that emotion perception is subjective and depends more on expertise of the observer. Here, we discuss two studies in which we have found evidence for consistency in observer ratings of emotion for abstract artworks. We have developed a stimulus set of abstract art images to test emotional priming, both between different painting images and between paintings and faces. The ratings were also used in a computational vision analysis of the visual features underlying emotion expression. Overall, these findings suggest that there is a strong bottom-up and objective aspect to perception of emotion in abstract artworks that may tap into basic visual mechanisms. PMID:24041325

  7. Notes on emotional components of musical creativity and performance.

    PubMed

    Lund, N L; Kranz, P L

    1994-11-01

    We explored emotional accompaniments to stages of a musician's cycle of creativity through interviews with musicians. Creativity was defined in terms of performance or composition. These musicians described strong emotional vacillations that occur across the creative cycle and discussed ways of dealing with emotional issues involved in moving from one work to the next. Parallels were drawn between emotional aspects of completing a performance or composition to emotional aspects of termination in psychotherapy. Suggestions were offered to musicians for means of dealing with naturally occurring but powerful emotional components of creativity. In addition, some of the musicians suggested that music educators consider teaching students about potential emotional issues that may accompany creative effort. An integration of these issues into music education programs might better prepare students for careers as professional musicians. PMID:7815377

  8. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  9. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The

  10. Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    Children develop emotional intelligence during the early years of life, and according to some experts, emotional intelligence is a more reliable predictor of academic achievement than is IQ. However, today's children appear to be low on emotional well-being. This has potentially negative consequences, not only for academic achievement but also for…

  11. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  12. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  13. Teaching Emotional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Jerome

    In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

  14. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... about what you might do next time. continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react well are part of a bigger ... about being able to notice and identify the emotions we feel at any given moment. It is ...

  15. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

  16. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  17. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  18. Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

    2006-12-01

    Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

  19. The operator's emotional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  20. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  1. [Stereotactic radiotherapy in brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Colin, P; Métellus, P; Mornex, F; Noël, G

    2015-02-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases is increasingly proposed after polydisciplinary debates among experts. Its definition and modalities of prescription, indications and clinical interest regarding the balance between efficacy versus toxicity need to be discussed. Stereotactic radiotherapy is a 'high precision' irradiation technique (within 1mm), using different machines (with invasive contention or frameless, photons X or gamma) delivering high doses (4 to 25Gy) in a limited number of fractions (usually 1 to 5, ten maximum) with a high dose gradient. Dose prescription will depend on materials, dose constraints to organs at risk varying with fractionation. Stereotactic radiotherapy may be proposed: (1) in combination with whole brain radiotherapy with the goal of increasing (modestly) overall survival of patients with a good performance status, 1 to 3 brain metastases and a controlled extracranial disease; (2) for recurrence of 1-3 brain metastases after whole brain radiotherapy; (3) after complete resection of a large and/or symptomatic brain metastases; (4) after diagnosis of 3-5 asymptomatic new or progressing brain metastases during systemic therapy, with the aim of delaying whole brain radiotherapy (avoiding its potential neurotoxicity) and maintaining a high focal control rate. Only a strict follow-up with clinical and MRI every 3 months will permit to deliver iterative stereotactic radiotherapies without jeopardizing survival. Simultaneous delivering of stereotactic radiotherapy with targeted medicines should be carefully discussed. PMID:25640215

  2. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

  3. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  5. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  6. Supramodal representation of emotions.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

    2011-09-21

    Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

  7. Imaging in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandrino, R.; Del Maschio, A.; Cattaneo, G. M.; Castiglioni, I.

    2009-09-01

    The diagnostic methodologies used for the radiotherapy planning have undergone great developments in the last 30 years. Since the 1980s, after the introduction of the CT scanner, the modality for the planning moved beyond the planar 2D assessment to approach a real and more realistic volumetric 3D definition. Consequently the dose distribution, previously obtained by means of an overly simple approximation, became increasingly complex, better tailoring the true shape of the tumour. The final therapeutic improvement has been obtained by a parallel increase in the complexity of the irradiating units: the Linacs for therapy have, in fact, been equipped with a full accessory set capable to modulate the fluence (IMRT) and to check the correct target position continuously during the therapy session (IMRT-IGRT). The multimodal diagnostic approach, which integrates diagnostic information, from images of the patient taken with CT, NMR, PET and US, further improves the data for a biological and topological optimization of the radiotherapy plan and consequently of the dose distribution in the Planning Target Volume. Proteomic and genomic analysis will be the next step in tumour diagnosis. These methods will provide the planners with further information, for a true personalization of the treatment regimen and the assessment of the predictive essays for each tumour and each patient.

  8. Visualization of complex DNA double-strand breaks in a tumor treated with carbon ion radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Takahiro; Niimi, Atsuko; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Murata, Kazutoshi; Matsumura, Akihiko; Noda, Shin-Ei; Kobayashi, Daijiro; Iwanaga, Mototaro; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Shibata, Atsushi; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy shows great potential as a cure for X-ray-resistant tumors. Basic research suggests that the strong cell-killing effect induced by carbon ions is based on their ability to cause complex DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, evidence supporting the formation of complex DSBs in actual patients is lacking. Here, we used advanced high-resolution microscopy with deconvolution to show that complex DSBs are formed in a human tumor clinically treated with carbon ion radiotherapy, but not in a tumor treated with X-ray radiotherapy. Furthermore, analysis using a physics model suggested that the complexity of radiotherapy-induced DSBs is related to linear energy transfer, which is much higher for carbon ion beams than for X-rays. Visualization of complex DSBs in clinical specimens will help us to understand the anti-tumor effects of carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:26925533

  9. Using Stimulants to Treat ADHD-Related Emotional Lability

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Kass, Erica; Hulvershorn, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Emotional lability, or sudden strong shifts in emotion, commonly occurs in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although these symptoms are impairing and disruptive, relatively little research has addressed their treatment, likely due to the difficulty of reliable and valid assessment. Promising signals for symptom improvement have come from recent studies using stimulants in adults, children and adolescents. Similarly, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify neurobiological mechanisms underlying stimulants’ impact on emotion regulation capacities. Here, we review these recent clinical and neuroimaging findings, as well as neurocognitive models for emotional lability in ADHD, issues of relevance to prescribers and the important role of psychiatric comorbidity with treatment choices. PMID:25135778

  10. Forgive and Forget: Differences between Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Buechner, Vanessa L; Maier, Markus A; Fernández-Capo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To forgive and forget is a well-known idiom, which has rarely been looked at empirically. In the current experiment, we investigated differences between emotional and decisional forgiveness on forgetting. The present study provides the first empirical support that emotional forgiveness has a strong influence on subsequent incidental forgetting. Specifically, our results demonstrate that emotional forgiveness leads to substantially higher levels of forgetting in respect to offense relevant traits compared to both decisional forgiveness and no forgiveness. This provides evidence for our hypothesized effect that only individuals who have emotionally forgiven a transgression, and not those who just decided to forgive, subsequently forget offense relevant traits attributed to the transgressor. PMID:25946090

  11. Forgive and Forget: Differences between Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Fernández-Capo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To forgive and forget is a well-known idiom, which has rarely been looked at empirically. In the current experiment, we investigated differences between emotional and decisional forgiveness on forgetting. The present study provides the first empirical support that emotional forgiveness has a strong influence on subsequent incidental forgetting. Specifically, our results demonstrate that emotional forgiveness leads to substantially higher levels of forgetting in respect to offense relevant traits compared to both decisional forgiveness and no forgiveness. This provides evidence for our hypothesized effect that only individuals who have emotionally forgiven a transgression, and not those who just decided to forgive, subsequently forget offense relevant traits attributed to the transgressor. PMID:25946090

  12. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  13. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  14. Self-Study in Emotion Work: Organizing Chaos by Negotiating Private and Public Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve her practice, a teacher educator explored emotions as catalysts for teaching and learning by asking the research question, "How can I support preservice teachers' emotional intelligence (EI), as well as my own, as we negotiate the impact of strong emotions in the pedagogical environment?" Three levels of reflection…

  15. A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

  16. Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development. PMID:23949724

  17. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. PMID:16938094

  18. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. PMID:26263224

  19. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  20. Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herbener, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:18632728

  1. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  2. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  3. Increasing Organizational Productivity Through Heightened Emotional Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, a strong IQ can set the baseline for success but does not guarantee prosperity. Goleman believes that factors contributing to "emotional intelligence" (for example, self-control, zeal and persistence, and ability to motivate oneself) are key to success in the corporate world. Howard Gardner has identified…

  4. How Large Is the Role of Emotion in Judgments of Moral Dilemmas?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Moral dilemmas often pose dramatic and gut-wrenching emotional choices. It is now widely accepted that emotions are not simply experienced alongside people’s judgments about moral dilemmas, but that our affective processes play a central role in determining those judgments. However, much of the evidence purporting to demonstrate the connection between people’s emotional responses and their judgments about moral dilemmas has recently been called into question. In the present studies, we reexamined the role of emotion in people’s judgments about moral dilemmas using a validated self-report measure of emotion. We measured participants’ specific emotional responses to moral dilemmas and, although we found that moral dilemmas evoked strong emotional responses, we found that these responses were only weakly correlated with participants’ moral judgments. We argue that the purportedly strong connection between emotion and judgments of moral dilemmas may have been overestimated. PMID:27385365

  5. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is the cornerstone of every decision a principal makes; solving problems and making judgments are part of a leader's system of values and beliefs. Mayer and Salovney (1997) described emotionally intelligent leaders as those who are able to perceive and understand emotions and to regulate emotions to foster emotional and…

  7. Music-color associations are mediated by emotion.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R

    2013-05-28

    Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations. PMID:23671106

  8. Emotional expressions in voice and music: same code, same effect?

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Nicolas; Zhong, Jidan; Schirmer, Annett; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-08-01

    Scholars have documented similarities in the way voice and music convey emotions. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we explored whether these similarities imply overlapping processing substrates. We asked participants to trace changes in either the emotion or pitch of vocalizations and music using a joystick. Compared to music, vocalizations more strongly activated superior and middle temporal cortex, cuneus, and precuneus. However, despite these differences, overlapping rather than differing regions emerged when comparing emotion with pitch tracing for music and vocalizations, respectively. Relative to pitch tracing, emotion tracing activated medial superior frontal and anterior cingulate cortex regardless of stimulus type. Additionally, we observed emotion specific effects in primary and secondary auditory cortex as well as in medial frontal cortex that were comparable for voice and music. Together these results indicate that similar mechanisms support emotional inferences from vocalizations and music and that these mechanisms tap on a general system involved in social cognition. PMID:22505222

  9. Neural representation of emotion regulation goals.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Baudewig, Juergen; Jacobs, Arthur M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-02-01

    The use of top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses as circumstances change is critical for mental and physical health. Several theoretical models of emotion regulation have been postulated; it remains unclear, however, in which brain regions emotion regulation goals (e.g., the downregulation of fear) are represented. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of regulating emotion using fMRI and identified brain regions representing reappraisal goals. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, combining standard activation-based and pattern-information analyses, we identified a distributed network of lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions implicated in reappraisal and within it, a core system that represents reappraisal goals in an abstract, stimulus-independent fashion. Within this core system, the neural pattern-separability in a subset of regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe was related to the success in emotion regulation. Those brain regions might link the prefrontal control regions with the subcortical affective regions. Given the strong association of this subsystem with inner speech functions and semantic memory, we conclude that those cognitive mechanisms may be used for orchestrating emotion regulation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:600-620, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26537018

  10. Improving Visual Saliency Computing With Emotion Intensity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiying; Xu, Min; Wang, Jinqiao; Rao, Tianrong; Burnett, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Saliency maps that integrate individual feature maps into a global measure of visual attention are widely used to estimate human gaze density. Most of the existing methods consider low-level visual features and locations of objects, and/or emphasize the spatial position with center prior. Recent psychology research suggests that emotions strongly influence human visual attention. In this paper, we explore the influence of emotional content on visual attention. On top of the traditional bottom-up saliency map generation, our saliency map is generated in cooperation with three emotion factors, i.e., general emotional content, facial expression intensity, and emotional object locations. Experiments, carried out on National University of Singapore Eye Fixation (a public eye tracking data set), demonstrate that incorporating emotion does improve the quality of visual saliency maps computed by bottom-up approaches for the gaze density estimation. Our method increases about 0.1 on an average of area under the curve of receiver operation characteristic curve, compared with the four baseline bottom-up approaches (Itti's, attention based on information maximization, saliency using natural, and graph-based vision saliency). PMID:27214350

  11. Replicable Facets of Positive Emotionality and Their Relations to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2015-12-01

    General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942

  12. Perceived gesture dynamics in nonverbal expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Goudbeek, Martijn; Scherer, K R

    2013-01-01

    Recent judgment studies have shown that people are able to fairly correctly attribute emotional states to others' bodily expressions. It is, however, not clear which movement qualities are salient, and how this applies to emotional gesture during speech-based interaction. In this study we investigated how the expression of emotions that vary on three major emotion dimensions-that is, arousal, valence, and potency-affects the perception of dynamic arm gestures. Ten professional actors enacted 12 emotions in a scenario-based social interaction setting. Participants (N = 43) rated all emotional expressions with muted sound and blurred faces on six spatiotemporal characteristics of gestural arm movement that were found to be related to emotion in previous research (amount of movement, movement speed, force, fluency, size, and height/vertical position). Arousal and potency were found to be strong determinants of the perception of gestural dynamics, whereas the differences between positive or negative emotions were less pronounced. These results confirm the importance of arm movement in communicating major emotion dimensions and show that gesture forms an integrated part of multimodal nonverbal emotion communication. PMID:24422246

  13. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed. PMID:27322885

  14. Integration of cognition and emotion in physical and mental actions in musical and other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Martin Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Integration of cognition and emotion, discussed by Pessoa in The Cognitive-Emotional Brain (2013), is further illustrated by music. In music, I argue, this integration begins during mental control of the actions by which musical sounds are produced. Many emotional reactions to the music we hear are also strongly related to the actions by which musical sounds are produced. Studies involving music can further illuminate the integration of emotion and control of action throughout behavior. PMID:26787218

  15. EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

    In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

  16. [Hepatic tumors and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Mornex, F; Peiffert, D; Huertas, A

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological developments led to develop the concept of focused liver radiation therapy. We must distinguish primary and secondary tumors as the indications are restricted and must be discussed as an alternative to surgical or medical treatments. For hepatocellular carcinoma 5 to 10cm (or more), a conformational radiation with or without intensity modulation is performed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being evaluated and is increasingly proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency ablative treatment for primary or secondary tumors (typically less than 5cm). Tumor (and liver) movements induced by respiratory motions must be taken into account. Strict dosimetric criteria must be met with particular attention to the dose-volume histograms to liver and the hollow organs, including cases of SBRT. PMID:27521035

  17. Radiotherapy planning using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Maria A.; Payne, Geoffrey S.

    2015-11-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimized, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT.

  18. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  19. [Action tendencies of respect-related emotions: Focus on emotion episodes in Japanese university students].

    PubMed

    Muto, Sera

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the action tendencies of respect-related emotions in Japanese university students. Participants (n = 405) randomly received a questionnaire about one of six respect-related emotions: (a) keiai (respect mingled with mild love); (b) shinsui (idolatry worship, and adoration); (c) ifu (awe mingled with fear); (d) kanshin (admiration); (e) kyotan (wonder); and (f) sonkei (respect proper) and were asked to recall a situation they felt the emotion. Next, they rated how much they felt like doing the respect-related (intrapersonal or interpersonal) actions in the situation. Statistical analysis revealed several action tendencies of respect-related emotions, however, the degree of each differed between the prototypical episodes of the emotions (a)-(e). The action tendency pattern of sonkei was most similar to that of keiai, therefore keiai could be considered as the prototypical feeling of sonkei in university students. Furthermore, almost all the respect-related emotions tended to strongly motivate willingness for self-correction and improvement. These findings suggest that respect-related emotions play an important role in self-improvement and building good relationships with superiors, at least in late adolescence. PMID:27476262

  20. Social and emotional self-efficacy at work.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. PMID:26882457

  1. Is urgency emotionality? Separating urgent behaviors from effects of emotional experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Coskunpinar, Ayca

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has supported the role of positive and negative maladaptive behaviors, but has not addressed the strong conceptual overlap of these traits with frequency/intensity of emotions and lack of premeditation. The current study empirically examined the differential effects of urgency, emotions, and lack of premeditation on risk-taking behavior in a sample of 520 U.S. undergraduate students. The results of the study indicate that (1) urgency is a significant predictor of risky behavior, independent of frequency/intensity of emotions, (2) urgency predicts above and beyond the additive and interactive effects of lack of premeditation and frequency/intensity of emotions, and (3) those who are high in both urgency and drinking motives are at greatest risk for drinking/drunkenness. PMID:20514352

  2. Indications for Salivary Gland Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David J; Slevin, Nick J; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-01-01

    There is an established role for post-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. For benign disease, the addition of radiotherapy improves local tumour control in cases with incomplete excision, involved surgical margins or multi-focal disease recurrence. After capsule rupture or spillage alone, surveillance should usually be advised. For malignant disease, post-operative radiotherapy is recommended for an advanced tumour stage, high-grade tumour, perineural or lympho-vascular invasion, close or positive resection margins, extra-parotid extension or lymph node involvement. The main benefit is increased loco-regional tumour control, although this may translate into a modest improvement in survival. The possible late side effects of parotid bed irradiation include skin changes, chronic otitis externa, sensorineural hearing loss, osteoradionecrosis and secondary malignancy. Severe complications are rare, but patients should be counselled carefully about the risks. Primary radiotherapy is unlikely to be curative and is reserved to cases in which resection would cause unacceptable functional or cosmetic morbidity or would likely result in subtotal resection (R2) or to patients with distant metastases to gain local tumour control. There are provisional data on the use of charged particle radiotherapy in this setting. Some patients may benefit from synchronous chemotherapy with radiotherapy, but this group is not defined, and data from comparative prospective studies are required before routine clinical use of this treatment. PMID:27093301

  3. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  4. Inspection and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

  5. Emotion Vocabulary in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2002-01-01

    Examines five factors that may impact the use of second language emotion vocabulary. Considers the impact of language proficiency, gender, and extroversion on the use of emotion words in the advanced French interlanguage of 29 native Dutch speakers, and examines influence of sociocultural competence, gender, and type of linguistic material on use…

  6. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  7. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  8. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  9. Rational Emotive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  10. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  11. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  12. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  13. It Is Tough and Tiring but It Works—Children’s Experiences of Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Engvall, Gunn; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 300 children ages 0 to 18 are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year, and 80 to 90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to describe children’s experiences of preparing for and undergoing radiotherapy, and furthermore to describe children’s suggestions for improvement. Thirteen children between the ages of 5 and 15 with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed five categories: positive and negative experiences with hospital stays and practical arrangements; age-appropriate information, communication, and guidance to various degrees; struggle with emotions; use of distraction and other suitable coping strategies; and children’s suggestions for improvement during radiotherapy. An overarching theme emerged: “It is tough and tiring but it works”. Some key areas were: explanatory visits, the need for information and communication, being afraid, discomfort and suffering, the need for media distraction, dealing with emotions, and the need for support. A systematic, family-centered preparation program could possible help families prepare and individualized distraction during radiotherapy could contribute to reducing distress. Further studies with interventions could clarify successful programs. PMID:27055258

  14. An Emotional Control Card for Inappropriate and Appropriate Emotions in Using Rational-Emotive Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1986-01-01

    Examines the emotional control card techniques developed by Sklare, Taylor, and Hyland (1985) to help clients more effectively use the rational-emotive imagery technique of Ellis (1974). Suggests a revision of the emotional control card technique. (NB)

  15. Crossmodal and incremental perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech.

    PubMed

    Barkhuysen, Pashiera; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In this article we report on two experiments about the perception of audiovisual cues to emotional speech. The article addresses two questions: 1) how do visual cues from a speaker's face to emotion relate to auditory cues, and (2) what is the recognition speed for various facial cues to emotion? Both experiments reported below are based on tests with video clips of emotional utterances collected via a variant of the well-known Velten method. More specifically, we recorded speakers who displayed positive or negative emotions, which were congruent or incongruent with the (emotional) lexical content of the uttered sentence. In order to test this, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment is a perception experiment in which Czech participants, who do not speak Dutch, rate the perceived emotional state of Dutch speakers in a bimodal (audiovisual) or a unimodal (audio- or vision-only) condition. It was found that incongruent emotional speech leads to significantly more extreme perceived emotion scores than congruent emotional speech, where the difference between congruent and incongruent emotional speech is larger for the negative than for the positive conditions. Interestingly, the largest overall differences between congruent and incongruent emotions were found for the audio-only condition, which suggests that posing an incongruent emotion has a particularly strong effect on the spoken realization of emotions. The second experiment uses a gating paradigm to test the recognition speed for various emotional expressions from a speaker's face. In this experiment participants were presented with the same clips as experiment I, but this time presented vision-only. The clips were shown in successive segments (gates) of increasing duration. Results show that participants are surprisingly accurate in their recognition of the various emotions, as they already reach high recognition scores in the first gate (after only 160 ms). Interestingly, the recognition scores

  16. Tactile-emotion synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S; Brang, David

    2008-01-01

    We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the valence of synesthetes' subjective reports, and SCR was significantly enhanced for negative synesthetic emotions. We suggest this effect arises from increased cross-activation between somatosensory cortex and insula for 'basic' emotions and fronto-limbic hyperactivation for more subtle emotions. It may represent an enhancement of pre-existing evolutionarily primitive interactions between touch and emotions. PMID:18821168

  17. Emotion Regulation in Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Wallace, Norah S.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation, defined as the capacity to influence one’s experience and expression of emotion, is a complex skill now recognized to evolve throughout the lifetime. Here we examine the role of emotion regulation in parenthood, and propose that regulatory function during this period is distinct from the emotion regulation skills acquired and implemented during other periods of life. In this review, we consider the unique demands of caring for a child and recognize that parents have to maintain a regulated state as well as facilitate regulation in their child, especially early in development. We examine neurobiological, hormonal and behavioral shifts during the transition to parenthood that may facilitate parental regulation in response to infant cues. Furthermore, we consider how parents shape emotion regulation in their child, and the clinical implications of regulatory functioning within the parent-child relationship. PMID:26085709

  18. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages. PMID:25596462

  19. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

    2011-01-01

    The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

  1. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. Methodology/Principal Findings The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder. PMID:26083383

  2. Self-Structure and Emotional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ditzfeld, Christopher P.; Showers, Carolin J.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examine individual differences in affective reactivity by linking emotional experience to cognitive self-structure. Consistent with the view that individuals with an evaluatively compartmentalized self-structure are emotionally reactive, we find that evaluative compartmentalization is associated with the experience of, and desire for, high-arousal positive affect, whereas evaluative integration is associated with the experience of low-arousal positive and negative affect and the desire for low-arousal positive affect. Although compartmentalized individuals are less granular in their tendency to report experiencing both high- and low-arousal affect (cf. Feldman Barrett, 2004), they are strongly differentiated in their perceptions of high-arousal states as positive and low-arousal states as negative. Thus, compartmentalized individuals’ reactivity may be explained by their preference for high-arousal positive states and the “breadth” of their emotionality (e.g., the tendency to experience sadness and nervousness at the same time). PMID:24125479

  3. Joint effects of emotion and color on memory.

    PubMed

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that memory is enhanced for emotionally negative and positive information relative to neutral information. We examined whether emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by low-level perceptual attributes such as color. Because in everyday life red is often used as a warning signal, whereas green signals security, we hypothesized that red might enhance memory for negative information and green memory for positive information. To capture the signaling function of colors, we measured memory for words standing out from the context by color, and manipulated the color and emotional significance of the outstanding words. Making words outstanding by color strongly enhanced memory, replicating the well-known von Restorff effect. Furthermore, memory for colored words was further increased by emotional significance, replicating the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. Most intriguingly, the effects of emotion on memory additionally depended on color type. Red strongly increased memory for negative words, whereas green strongly increased memory for positive words. These findings provide the first evidence that emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by color and demonstrate that different colors can have different functions in human memory. PMID:23527500

  4. Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobin, Christina Ann

    This study was undertaken to examine the acoustical encoding of fear, anger, sadness and joy in voice. Twenty emotion-induction stories were read by 31 subjects who produced a total of 620 emotion-laden standard sentences. Subjects rated their emotions, and the acoustics of each sentence were analyzed. Twelve judges were employed to rate the emotion of each sentence, and their ratings were used to select "prototype" sentences for each emotion. The acoustical characteristics distinguishing each emotion were calculated. Rate, amount of time spent talking and pausing, and number of gaps, in addition to amplitude, frequency and their variances, uniquely distinguished among fear, anger, sadness and joy. Results of past studies were confirmed, and additional differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Judges' confusion matrices were analyzed in order to assess the relationship of detectability and discriminability to acoustic characteristics. It was found that the detectability and/or discriminability of fear, anger, sadness and joy, to varying degrees, paralleled the amount of acoustical overlap among them. A further test of the acoustic findings suggested that mean values of acoustic variables may accurately describe the acoustic cues to sadness and joy, but perhaps not to fear and anger. Thus, additional acoustic parameters, such as the temporal pattern of the acoustic measures, may inform raters. It is suggested that time-based profiles of amplitude and frequency may offer a plausible addition to future research endeavors.

  5. Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict. PMID:23409084

  6. An English Word Database of EMOtional TErms (EMOTE).

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Research in the socio-emotional domain may require words for experimental settings rated on emotionally and socially relevant word characteristics (e.g., valence and desirability). In addition, cognitively relevant word characteristics (e.g., imagery) are important for research in the interface of emotion and cognition (e.g., emotional memory). To provide researchers with a corresponding word pool, the database of English EMOtional TErms (EMOTE) provides subjective ratings for 1287 nouns and 985 adjectives. Nouns and adjectives were rated on valence, arousal, emotionality, concreteness, imagery, familiarity, and clarity of meaning. In addition, adjectives were rated on control, desirability, and likeableness. EMOTE norms provide an easily accessible word pool for research in the socio-emotional domain. To illustrate the usefulness of this database, norms were linked to memorability scores from a word recognition task for EMOTE nouns. The database as well as future directions are discussed. PMID:27401069

  7. Family Emotion Expressiveness Mediates the Relations Between Maternal Emotion Regulation and Child Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Are, Funlola; Shaffer, Anne

    2016-10-01

    While there is a growing body of literature examining the influence of emotion socialization on children's emotional and social development, there is less research on what predicts emotion socialization behaviors among parents. The current study explores maternal emotion regulation difficulties as a predictor of emotion socialization practices, specifically, family emotion expressiveness. Further, the current study examines the role of family emotion expressiveness as a possible mediator of the relations between maternal and child emotion regulation in a community sample of 110 mother-child dyads with preschool-aged children. Analyses revealed that positive family expressiveness mediated the relations between maternal emotion dysregulation and child emotion regulation and thus presents important clinical implications for existing emotion socialization interventions. PMID:26573929

  8. [Postoperative radiotherapy of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Guérif, S; Latorzeff, I; Lagrange, J-L; Hennequin, C; Supiot, S; Garcia, A; François, P; Soulié, M; Richaud, P; Salomon, L

    2014-10-01

    Between 10 and 40% of patients who have undergone a radical prostatectomy may have a biologic recurrence. Local or distant failure represents the possible patterns of relapse. Patients at high-risk for local relapse have extraprostatic disease, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles infiltration or high Gleason score at pathology. Three phase-III randomized clinical trials have shown that, for these patients, adjuvant irradiation reduces the risk of tumoral progression without higher toxicity. Salvage radiotherapy for late relapse allows a disease control in 60-70% of the cases. Several research in order to improve the therapeutic ratio of the radiotherapy after prostatectomy are evaluate in the French Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Urogénitales (Gétug) and of the French association of urology (Afu). The Gétug-Afu 17 trial will provide answers to the question of the optimal moment for postoperative radiotherapy for pT3-4 R1 pN0 Nx patients, with the objective of comparing an immediate treatment to a differed early treatment initiated at biological recurrence. The Gétug-Afu 22 questions the place of a short hormonetherapy combined with image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in adjuvant situation for a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA). The implementation of a multicenter quality control within the Gétug-Afu in order to harmonize a modern postoperative radiotherapy will allow the development of a dose escalation IMRT after surgery. PMID:25195116

  9. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  10. Emotions and memory in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Memory processes such as encoding, storage, and retrieval of information are influenced by emotional content. Because patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are particularly susceptible to emotional information, it is relevant to understand whether such memory processes are altered in this patient group. This systematic literature review collects current evidence on this issue. Research suggests that emotional information interferes more strongly with information processing and learning in BPD patients than in healthy controls. In general, BPD patients do not seem to differ from healthy control subjects in their ability to memorize emotional information, but they tend to have specific difficulties forgetting negative information. Also, BPD patients seem to recall autobiographical, particularly negative events with stronger arousal than healthy controls, while BPD patients also show specific temporo-prefrontal alterations in neural correlates. No substantial evidence was found that the current affective state influences learning and memory in BPD patients any differently than in healthy control subjects. In general, a depressive mood seems to both deteriorate and negatively bias information processing and memories, while there is evidence that dissociative symptoms impair learning and memory independently of stimulus valence. This review discusses methodological challenges of studies on memory and emotions in BPD and makes suggestions for future research and clinical implications. PMID:24355827

  11. Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

  12. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

  13. "It's Been a Bit of a Rollercoaster": Special Educational Needs, Emotional Labour and Emotion Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of data collected--by semi-structured interviews and focus groups--from staff working with children with special educational needs (SEN) in England. The analysis highlighted the role of strong emotions, and how participants (unsurprisingly) experienced these differently, largely according to their position in…

  14. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. PMID:25288043

  15. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng . E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  16. [Role of radiotherapy in the management of non-Hodgkin lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Gastaud, L; Rossignol, B; Peyrade, F; Ré, D; Thariat, J; Thyss, A; Doyen, J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent data about lastest retrospective and prospective studies dealing with radiotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in order to precise the schedule and the role of this treatment. A systematic review was done by searching studies on the website http://www.pubmed.gov (Medline) using the following keywords: radiotherapy, radiation therapy, non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The management of non-Hodgkin lymphoma varies a lot according to the histological type and stage. The dose of radiotherapy has been studied in only one randomized trial, which concluded that there was no difference between the low dose and the high dose arms. Radiotherapy is a very good option in follicular, cutaneous, digestive or orbital non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A recent post hoc analysis of randomized trials on radiotherapy for high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma strongly suggested a benefit of additional radiotherapy after chemotherapy in some situations. Radiotherapy of low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a very good option, while its use on high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma is sometimes recommended but further randomized trials are ongoing to better understand its role. PMID:27133378

  17. Fractionated beam radiotherapy is a special case of continuous beam radiotherapy when irradiation time is small.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jayanta; Rajguru, Tapan K; Choudhury, Krishnangshu B; Dutta, Sumita; Sharma, Shyam; Sarkar, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    Fractionated beam radiotherapy, in other terms, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and continuous beam radiotherapy or Brachytherapy are two modes of radiotherapy techniques. Although in many ways, they appear to be different, radiobiologically, with the help of mathematics, it can be proved that the biological effective dose (BED) of EBRT is similar to BED of Brachytherapy, when irradiation time is small. Here an attempt is made to correlate these two predominant modes of radiotherapy techniques. PMID:24125964

  18. Variability and situatedness of human emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Marcos; Rosselló, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    We commend Koelsch and colleagues [14] for developing a broad and integrative explanation of the neurobiological foundations of emotions. We especially welcome this framework's emphasis on the interaction between language and emotion, and its focus on the characteristically human moral emotions. Emotions elicited by art and aesthetics also seem to be distinctively human, but comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding these. This is probably because they are usually viewed as atypical in several respects. William James [12], for instance, regarded emotional responses to artworks and aesthetic qualities as subtler emotions, because they lacked the strong bodily changes and adaptive value characteristic of coarser emotions, such as joy, anger, or fear. This view is still predominant today, and aesthetic emotions are often distinguished from everyday emotions [13]. However, the notion of a class of aesthetic emotions, separate from everyday emotions, rests on the questionable assumption that artistic and aesthetic experiences and activities are different in essence from everyday experiences and activities. The discontinuity between "aesthetic experience [and] normal processes of living" [9, p. 10], however, is the product of social and cultural developments in Europe during the 18th century [7,15,20]. Distinctions that oppose art to craft, or aesthetic to practical, in reference to objects, behaviors, experiences, and emotions, make little sense in a broader historic and geographic context [1,7,20], and hinder empirical research [7].

  19. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  20. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  1. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant. PMID:19440106

  2. Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Jonathan R.; Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception and emotion are traditionally considered separate domains of study. In this article, however, we review research showing them to be less separable that usually assumed. In fact, emotions routinely affect how and what we see. Fear, for example, can affect low-level visual processes, sad moods can alter susceptibility to visual illusions, and goal-directed desires can change the apparent size of goal-relevant objects. In addition, the layout of the physical environment, including the apparent steepness of a hill and the distance to the ground from a balcony can both be affected by emotional states. We propose that emotions provide embodied information about the costs and benefits of anticipated action, information that can be used automatically and immediately, circumventing the need for cogitating on the possible consequences of potential actions. Emotions thus provide a strong motivating influence on how the environment is perceived. PMID:22039565

  3. Beyond Reason: Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simões da Fonseca, J.

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

  4. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music. PMID:21761216

  5. Pain and your emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feelings and emotions can worsen your back pain. Mind-body Relationship The mind and body work together, they cannot be separated. The way your mind controls thoughts and attitudes affects the way your ...

  6. Changing time and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework. PMID:20026465

  7. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  8. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Emotional Side Effects In this section you can learn more about ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Children and Cancer ...

  9. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  10. Voice following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease. Data on mean speaking fundamental frequency seem to indicate a trend toward lower frequencies in irradiated patients as compared with normals. A trend was also noted in both irradidated and control groups for lower speaking fundamental frequencies in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers or previous smokers. These trends would indicate some vocal cord thickening or edema in irradiated patients and in heavy smokers. It is suggested that the study of irradiated patients' voices before, during and following treatments by means of audio, aerodynamic and acoustic instrumentation would yield additional information of diagnostic value on recovery of laryngeal function. It is also suggested that the voice pathologist could

  11. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-02-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  12. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-01-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  13. Teaching Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Doudin, Pierre-Andre

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess whether it is possible to help children develop their general understanding of emotions. Thirty-six nine-year-old children divided in two groups were examined using a pre-test/train/post-test design. The emotion understanding of the two groups was measured in the pre- and post-test phases using the Test…

  14. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  15. Successful Contextual Integration of Loose Mental Associations As Evidenced by Emotional Conflict-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Ulrike; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting). Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm). For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting “negative” emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures. PMID:24618674

  16. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. PMID:24780349

  17. Emotion and Implicit Timing

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of emotion on implicit timing. In the implicit timing task used, the participants did not receive any temporal instructions. Instead they were simply asked and trained to press a key as quickly as possible after a stimulus (response stimulus) that was separated from a preceding stimulus by a given temporal interval (reference interval duration). However, in the testing phase, the interval duration was the reference interval duration or a shorter or longer interval duration. In addition, the participants attended two sessions: a first baseline session in which no stimulus was presented during the inter-stimulus intervals, and a second emotional session in which emotional facial expressions (angry, neutral and sad facial expressions) were presented during these intervals. Results showed faster RTs for interval durations close to the reference duration in both the baseline and the emotional conditions and yielded a U-shaped curve. This suggests that implicit processing of time persists in emotional contexts. In addition, the RT was faster for the facial expressions of anger than for those of neutrality and sadness. However, the U-shaped RT curve did not peak clearly at a shorter interval duration for the angry than for the other facial expressions. This lack of time distortion in an implicit timing task in response to arousing emotional stimuli questions the idea of an automatic speeding-up of the interval clock system involved in the representation of time. PMID:27380409

  18. Implementing "Strong Kids" School-Wide to Reduce Internalizing Behaviors and Increase Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Thomas J.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Fischer, Lane; Warren, Jared S.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction and training in social and emotional learning (SEL) is an important component in addressing the emotional and behavioral needs of students. This study is the first to examine whether "Strong Kids", an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased…

  19. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively. PMID:23675363

  20. Radiotherapy. Gazing at the crystal ball of European radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is a key component of cancer treatment, provision of this modality is not immune to limits placed on health-care expenditure. Recent studies suggest European radiation oncology resources will generally be insufficient to meet future, and in some cases current, needs. This challenge and how it might be addressed is discussed herein. PMID:25421280

  1. [Which rules apply to hypofractionated radiotherapy?].

    PubMed

    Supiot, S; Clément-Colmou, K; Paris, F; Corre, I; Chiavassa, S; Delpon, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy is now more widely prescribed due to improved targeting techniques (intensity modulated radiotherapy, image-guided radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy). Low dose hypofractionated radiotherapy is routinely administered mostly for palliative purposes. High or very high dose hypofractionated irradiation must be delivered according to very strict procedures since every minor deviation can lead to major changes in dose delivery to the tumor volume and organs at risk. Thus, each stage of the processing must be carefully monitored starting from the limitations and the choice of the hypofractionation technique, tumour contouring and dose constraints prescription, planning and finally dose calculation and patient positioning verification. PMID:26321647

  2. Intraoperative radiotherapy: the Japanese experience. [Betatron

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Takahashi, M.

    1981-07-01

    Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IOR) which have been obtained since 1964 in Japan were reviewed. In this radiotherapy a cancerocidal dose can be delivered safely to the lesions, since critical organs are shifted from the field so that the lesions may be exposed directly to radiation. Intraoperative radiotherapy has spread in Japan and the number of institutions in which this radiotherapy is performed has continued to increase to a total of 26 in 1979. The total number of patients treated was 717. It has been demonstrated that intraoperative radiotherapy has definite effects on locally advanced abdominal neoplasms and unresectable radioresistant tumors.

  3. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  4. Emotional labour: how midwives manage emotion at work.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    Midwifery is inherently emotional work. Midwives care for women at one of the most emotionally intense periods of their lives: they work during moments of birth and death, of joy, sadness and both physical and emotional pain. Yet the emotional experiences of midwives at work are often not spoken about. Midwives often tend to 'get on with the job', but the process of dealing with others' emotions, managing their own and displaying different kinds of emotion can be a challenging part of midwives' work and one for which they're not always adequately supported. PMID:26349324

  5. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes. PMID:22207009

  6. Impaired emotion recognition in music in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van Tricht, Mirjam J; Smeding, Harriet M M; Speelman, Johannes D; Schmand, Ben A

    2010-10-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction and other disease characteristics in emotion recognition was also evaluated. We used 32 musical excerpts that expressed happiness, sadness, fear or anger. PD patients were impaired in recognizing fear and anger in music. Fear recognition was associated with executive functions in PD patients and in healthy controls, but the emotion recognition impairments of PD patients persisted after adjusting for executive functioning. We found no differences in the recognition of happy or sad music. Emotion recognition was not related to depressive symptoms, disease duration or severity of motor symptoms. We conclude that PD patients are impaired in recognizing complex emotions in music. Although this impairment is related to executive dysfunction, our findings most likely reflect an additional primary deficit in emotional processing. PMID:20633975

  7. Psychosocial effects of perceived emotional synchrony in collective gatherings.

    PubMed

    Páez, Dario; Rimé, Bernard; Basabe, Nekane; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Zumeta, Larraitz

    2015-05-01

    In a classic theory, Durkheim (1912) predicted that because of the social sharing of emotion they generate, collective gatherings bring participants to a stage of collective effervescence in which they experience a sense of union with others and a feeling of empowerment accompanied by positive affect. This would lead them to leave the collective situation with a renewed sense of confidence in life and in social institutions. A century after Durkheim's predictions of these effects, though, they remained untested as a whole. This article reports 4 studies, 2 correlational, 1 semilongitudinal, and 1 experimental, assessing the positive effects of participation in either positively valenced (folkloric marches) or negatively valenced (protest demonstrations) collective gatherings. Results confirmed that collective gatherings consistently strengthened collective identity, identity fusion, and social integration, as well as enhancing personal and collective self-esteem and efficacy, positive affect, and positive social beliefs among participants. In line with a central tenet of the theory, emotional communion, or perceived emotional synchrony with others mediated these effects. Higher perceived emotional synchrony was associated with stronger emotional reactions, stronger social support, and higher endorsement of social beliefs and values. Participation in symbolic collective gatherings also particularly reinforced identity fusion when perceived emotional synchrony was high. The respective contributions of perceived emotional synchrony and flow, or optimal experience, were also assessed. Whereas perceived emotional synchrony emerged as strongly related to the various social outcomes, flow was observed to be related first to collective efficacy and self-esteem, and thus, to encompass mainly empowerment effects. PMID:25822033

  8. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. PMID:26869846

  9. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  10. Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22540056

  11. Preoperative radiotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, G A; Conn, J H; Jordan, P H; Humphrey, E W; Roswit, B; Keehn, R J

    1975-01-01

    In a prospective randomized trial, 700 patients with a confirmed histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum or rectosigmoid were randomized to receive radiotherapy prior to operation (2000 to 2500 rads in two weeks) or surgery alone. Five year observed survival in the 453 patients on whom "curative" resection was possible was 48.5% in the X-ray treated group compared with 38.8% in controls, while in the 305 having low lying lesions requiring abdominoperineal resection, survival in the treated group was 46.9% compared with 34.3% in controls. Although suggestive of a treatment benefit, neither is considered statistically significant. Histologically positive lymph nodes were found in 41.2% of the control group and in only 27.8% of the patients receiving radiotherapy. Reveiw of all patients who died during the study shows a consistently lower death rate from cancer in the radiotherapy group. Although this study suggests a treatment benefit from preoperative radiotherapy, further studies now in progress by this group and others are necessary to determine the optimal dose regimen. PMID:805571

  12. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  13. Emotional processing and its relationship to chronic low back pain: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Jorge E; Wheatley, Laura; Mayall, Clare; Abbey, Hilary

    2013-12-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common, yet challenging condition for both patients and clinicians. Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between CLBP and psychological factors such as anxiety, fear-avoidance, self-efficacy, catastrophizing and depression. These factors are closely linked with emotional states; however, it is unknown whether CLBP patients process their emotions differently from asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between CLBP and emotional processing. A sample of 110 participants comprising of 55 patients with chronic back pain and 55 individuals without a history of CLBP were assessed using the Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25). The EPS-25 generates an overall score, and also scores pertaining to five individual emotional processing factors--avoidance, suppression, unregulated emotion, impoverished emotional experience and signs of unprocessed emotion. Chronic back pain patients scored significantly higher in the overall EPS-25 score (p < 0.001) with an effect size of 0.33. In addition, there were significant differences in four factors--impoverished emotional experience, unregulated emotion, unprocessed emotion, and suppression, with effect sizes ranging from 0.20 to 0.44. The results suggest that dysfunctional emotional processing, particularly with regard to the suppression of emotions, is associated with CLBP. Clinicians should critically consider the role of emotional processing in their patients' evaluation and management. Future research using a prospective cohort should assess the role of emotional processing as a predictor in the development of chronic back pain. PMID:23756033

  14. Cost-effectiveness of surgery plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Nosyk, Bohdan; Fisher, Charles G.; Dvorak, Marcel; Patchell, Roy A.; Regine, William F.; Loblaw, Andrew; Bansback, Nick; Guh, Daphne; Sun, Huiying; Anis, Aslam . E-mail: aslam.anis@ubc.ca

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A recent randomized clinical trial has demonstrated that direct decompressive surgery plus radiotherapy was superior to radiotherapy alone for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. The current study compared the cost-effectiveness of the two approaches. Methods and Materials: In the original clinical trial, clinical effectiveness was measured by ambulation and survival time until death. In this study, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Costs related to treatment and posttreatment care were estimated and extended to the lifetime of the cohort. Weibull regression was applied to extrapolate outcomes in the presence of censored clinical effectiveness data. Results: From a societal perspective, the baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was found to be $60 per additional day of ambulation (all costs in 2003 Canadian dollars). Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 50% of all generated ICERs were lower than $57, and 95% were lower than $242 per additional day of ambulation. This analysis had a 95% CI of -$72.74 to 309.44, meaning that this intervention ranged from a financial savings of $72.74 to a cost of $309.44 per additional day of ambulation. Using survival as the measure of effectiveness resulted in an ICER of $30,940 per life-year gained. Conclusions: We found strong evidence that treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression with surgery in addition to radiotherapy is cost-effective both in terms of cost per additional day of ambulation, and cost per life-year gained.

  15. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  16. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  17. On Strong Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086

  18. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

  19. Processing of emotional reactivity and emotional memory over sleep

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Ericson, Callie; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memories, particularly emotional memories. As such, it has been suggested that sleep deprivation may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder. This presumes that emotional memory consolidation is paralleled by a reduction in emotional reactivity, an association that has not yet been examined. In the present experiment, we utilized an incidental memory task in humans and obtained valence and arousal ratings during two sessions separated either by 12 hours of daytime wake or 12 hours including overnight sleep. Recognition accuracy was greater following sleep relative to wake for both negative and neutral pictures. While emotional reactivity to negative pictures was greatly reduced over wake, the negative emotional response was relatively preserved over sleep. Moreover, protection of emotional reactivity was associated with greater time in REM sleep. Recognition accuracy, however, was not associated with REM. Thus, we provide the first evidence that sleep enhances emotional memory while preserving emotional reactivity. PMID:22262901

  20. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Junor, E J; Paul, J; Reed, N S

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dysphagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. PMID:1582515

  1. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  2. Mining emotional profiles using e-mail messages for earlier warnings of potential terrorist activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitsky, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2006-04-01

    We develop a software system Text Scanner for Emotional Distress (TSED) for helping to detect email messages which are suspicious of coming from people under strong emotional distress. It has been confirmed by multiple studies that terrorist attackers have experienced a substantial emotional distress at some points before committing a terrorist attack. Therefore, if an individual in emotional distress can be detected on the basis of email texts, some preventive measures can be taken. The proposed detection machinery is based on extraction and classification of emotional profiles from emails. An emotional profile is a formal representation of a sequence of emotional states through a textual discourse where communicative actions are attached to these emotional states. The issues of extraction of emotional profiles from text and reasoning about it are discussed and illustrated. We then develop an inductive machine learning and reasoning framework to relate an emotional profile to the class "Emotional distress" or "No emotional distress", given a training dataset where the class is assigned by an expert. TSED's machine learning is evaluated using the database of structured customer complaints.

  3. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  4. Pain emotion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2011-05-01

    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate. PMID:21533708

  5. Breathing rhythms and emotions.

    PubMed

    Homma, Ikuo; Masaoka, Yuri

    2008-09-01

    Respiration is primarily regulated for metabolic and homeostatic purposes in the brainstem. However, breathing can also change in response to changes in emotions, such as sadness, happiness, anxiety or fear. Final respiratory output is influenced by a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centres, including the limbic system and cortical structures. Respiration is important in maintaining physiological homeostasis and co-exists with emotions. In this review, we focus on the relationship between respiration and emotions by discussing previous animal and human studies, including studies of olfactory function in relation to respiration and the piriform-amygdala in relation to respiration. In particular, we discuss oscillations of piriform-amygdala complex activity and respiratory rhythm. PMID:18487316

  6. Break the Bonds of Emotional Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you eat food to cope with difficult emotions. Because emotional eating has nothing to do with ... emotional eater. If you have trouble managing your emotions, you may be more likely to use food ...

  7. Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2008-01-01

    Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional…

  8. How Children Use Emotional Prosody: Crossmodal Emotional Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Sandrine; Hattouti, Jamila; Laval, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    A crossmodal effect has been observed in the processing of facial and vocal emotion in adults and infants. For the first time, we assessed whether this effect is present in childhood by administering a crossmodal task similar to those used in seminal studies featuring emotional faces (i.e., a continuum of emotional expressions running from…

  9. Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.; Dasborough, Marie T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the study,…

  10. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

  11. Palliative radiotherapy: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonam; Hertan, Lauren; Jones, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    For nearly 100 years, palliative radiotherapy has been a time-efficient, effective treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced cancer in any area where local tumors are causing symptoms. Short courses including a single fraction of radiotherapy may be effective for symptom relief with minimal side effects and maximization of convenience for patient and family. With recent advances in imaging, surgery, and other local therapies as well as systemic cancer therapies, palliative radiotherapy has been used frequently in patients who may not yet have symptoms of advanced or metastatic cancer. In this setting, more prolonged radiotherapy courses and advanced radiotherapy techniques including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) may be useful in obtaining local control and durable palliative responses. This review will explore the use of radiotherapy across the spectrum of patients with advanced and metastatic cancer and delineate an updated, rational approach for the use of palliative radiotherapy that incorporates symptoms, prognosis, and other factors into the delivery of palliative radiotherapy. PMID:25499634

  12. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  13. Strong Little Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  14. A strong comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.

    1992-03-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders.

  15. Emotional dysfunctions in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Leonie A K; Radke, Sina; Morawetz, Carmen; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized primarily by motor signs but are also accompanied by emotional disturbances. Because of the limited knowledge about these dysfunctions, this Review provides an overview of emotional competencies in Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), with a focus on emotion recognition, emotion regulation, and depression. Most studies indicate facial emotion recognition deficits in HD and PD, whereas data for MS are inconsistent. On a neural level, dysfunctions of amygdala and striatum, among others, have been linked to these impairments. These dysfunctions also tap brain regions that are part of the emotion regulation network, suggesting problems in this competency, too. Research points to dysfunctional emotion regulation in MS, whereas findings for PD and HD are missing. The high prevalence of depression in all three disorders emphasizes the need for effective therapies. Research on emotional disturbances might improve treatment, thereby increasing patients' and caregivers' well-being. PMID:26011035

  16. Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.

    PubMed

    Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them. PMID:25204682

  17. Time course of anger and other emotions in women with borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Gitta A; Guenzler, Cindy; Zimmermann, Sabine; Scheel, Corinna N; Rüsch, Nicolas; Leonhart, Rainer; Nerb, Josef; Lieb, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation including strong emotional reactions to emotional stimuli and a slow return to baseline emotions. Difficulties controlling anger are particularly prominent in BPD. To experimentally test emotional dysregulation with a special focus on anger, we investigated whether a standardized anger induction by a short story caused stronger and prolonged anger reactions in women with BPD (n=27) as compared to female healthy controls (n=26) and whether other emotions were affected by the anger induction. Although the anger reaction was not stronger in the BPD group, it was significantly prolonged. The BPD group showed also stronger negative emotions over the whole experiment. The study is the first to demonstrate prolonged anger reactions in BPD patients in an experimental setting. PMID:18171575

  18. Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisetti, Christine Lætitia; Nasoz, Fatma

    2004-12-01

    We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature) and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement). We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.

  19. Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Maren; Leahy, Robert L; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated whether self-compassion and emotional invalidation (perceiving others as indifferent to one's emotions) may explain the relationship of childhood exposure to adverse parenting and adult psychopathology in psychiatric outpatients (N=326). Path analysis was used to investigate associations between exposure to adverse parenting (abuse and indifference), self-compassion, emotional invalidation, and mental health when controlling for gender and age. Self-compassion was strongly inversely associated with emotional invalidation, suggesting that a schema that others will be unsympathetic or indifferent toward one's emotions may affect self-compassion and vice versa. Both self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediated the relationship between parental indifference and mental health outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest the potential utility of self-compassion and emotional schemas as transdiagnostic treatment targets. PMID:27288737

  20. Affective norms of 875 Spanish words for five discrete emotional categories and two emotional dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J A; Martínez-García, N; Villalba-García, C; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Sánchez-Carmona, A; Pozo, M A; Montoro, P R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we introduce affective norms for a new set of Spanish words, the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS), that were scored on two emotional dimensions (valence and arousal) and on five discrete emotional categories (happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust), as well as on concreteness, by 660 Spanish native speakers. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables-grammatical class, word frequency, number of letters, and number of syllables-for the words are also included. We observed high split-half reliabilities for every emotional variable and a strong quadratic relationship between valence and arousal. Additional analyses revealed several associations between the affective dimensions and discrete emotions, as well as with some psycholinguistic variables. This new corpus complements and extends prior databases in Spanish and allows for designing new experiments investigating the influence of affective content in language processing under both dimensional and discrete theoretical conceptions of emotion. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from www.dropbox.com/s/o6dpw3irk6utfhy/Hinojosa%20et%20al_Supplementary%20materials.xlsx?dl=0 . PMID:25740761

  1. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and PMID:26339950

  2. The abscopal effect of local radiotherapy: using immunotherapy to make a rare event clinically relevant

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Kobe; Illidge, Tim; Siva, Shankar; Chang, Joe Y.; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, immunologic responses to localized irradiation are proposed as mediator of systemic effects after localized radiotherapy (called the abscopal effect). Here, we give an overview of both preclinical and clinical data about the abscopal effect in particular and link them with the immunogenic properties of radiotherapy. Methods We searched Medline and Embase with the search term “abscopal” from 1960 until July, 2014. Only papers that cover radiotherapy in an oncological setting were selected and only if no concurrent cytotoxic treatment was given. Targeted immune therapy was allowed. Results Twenty-three case reports, one retrospective study and 13 preclinical papers were selected. Eleven preclinical papers used a combination of immune modification and radiotherapy to achieve abscopal effects. Patient age range (28 to 83 years) and radiation dose (median total dose 32 Gy) varied. Fractionation size ranged from 1,2 Gy to 26 Gy. Time to documented abscopal response ranged between less than one and 24 months, with a median reported time of 5 months. Once an abscopal response was achieved, a median time of 13 months went by before disease progression occurred or the reported follow-up ended (range 3–39 months). Conclusion Preclinical data points heavily towards a strong synergy between radiotherapy and immune treatments. Recent case reports already illustrate that such a systemic effect of radiotherapy is possible when enhanced by targeted immune treatments. However, several issues concerning dosage, timing, patient selection and toxicity need to be resolved before the abscopal effect can become clinically relevant. PMID:25872878

  3. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  4. Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

    2003-01-01

    Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of…

  5. Chemically enhanced radiotherapy: visions for the future

    PubMed Central

    Susheela, Sridhar P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important part of cancer management, with more than a third of all cancer cures being attributable to RT. Despite the advances in RT over the past century, the overall outcomes in a majority of malignancies are still unsatisfactory. There has been a constant endeavor to enhance the outcome of RT, and this has been in the form of altered fractionation, oxymimetic radiosensitizers, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and anti-growth factor receptor targeted therapies. This article presents a vision for the future, with emphasis upon emerging prospects which could enhance RT outcomes. Positive speculations regarding the use of immunological aspects, the use of nanoscale technology and the adoption of metronomic concurrent chemotherapy have been presented. Also, the potential with the use of low dose hyperradiosensitivity in enhancing chemotherapy outcomes too has been discussed. In this era of evidence based clinical practise, there exists a strong obsession towards the ‘present’ with ‘contempt towards the future’. Accepting the shortcomings of the existing modalities, there must be a strong zeal towards discovering better methodologies to enhance radiotherapeutic outcomes for the sake of a better future. PMID:26904574

  6. Emotional Literacy Training for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A psychotherapist recounts her personal and professional development in concepts of self-esteem. The article considers core conditions for development of healthy self-esteem, the powerful effects wrought by teachers who create healthy emotional environments, emotional intelligence and emotional literacy, current initiatives to develop emotional…

  7. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. PMID:26473695

  8. Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

  9. Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

  10. Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaman, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

  11. Moral Education and the Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1980-01-01

    This paper argues that the emotions have a central place in moral education. Two types of emotions involved in moral judgment are defined: constitutive and regulative. Fear and guilt are used as paradigms to explain how emotions are learned. A model for education in conscientiousness, compassion, and benevolence is outlined. (Author/SJL)

  12. Building Emotional Competence in Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Hen, Meirav; Nov, Adi Sharabi

    2013-01-01

    The importance of emotion in the process of learning interpersonal communication in educational settings has been well documented. We administered the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (Schutte et al., 1998), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980), and the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (Kirk et al., 2008) to 50…

  13. Humans are ultrasocial and emotional.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lisa A; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    Given the highly social nature of the human emotion system, it is likely that it subserved the evolution of ultrasociality. We review how the experience and functions of human emotions enable social processes that promote ultrasociality (e.g., cooperation). We also point out that emotion may represent one route to redress one of the negative consequences of ultrasociality: ecosystem domination. PMID:27562726

  14. Emotion Education without Ontological Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion education is enjoying new-found popularity. This paper explores the "cosy consensus" that seems to have developed in education circles, according to which approaches to emotion education are immune from metaethical considerations such as contrasting rationalist and sentimentalist views about the moral ontology of emotions. I spell out five…

  15. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  16. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA

  17. Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2005-01-01

    Emotional quality of university students is a major concern for university authorities, parents and the society in general. In the recent past many unethical and violent incidences have happened in our universities. Students selected to Universities are intellectually smarter than the students admitted a decade ago, yet performance, behavior and…

  18. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  19. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  20. Emotional Subjects for Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

  1. Mentoring and the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough Jr., Robert V.; Draper, Roni Jo

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine secondary school mentor teachers, the authors explore the emotional aspects of mentoring. Embracing a view of 'cool' professionalism, the mentors hid from their interns the intensity and complexity of their work as mentors. The authors argue that to maximize the value of mentoring neophyte teachers should be given a…

  2. Strong subadditivity and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    We study in detail the relationship between strong subadditivity for a boundary field theory and energy conditions for its bulk dual in 2 +1 dimensions. We provide a discussion of known facts and new results organized from the simplest case of a static system with collinear intervals to a time-dependent one in a generic configuration, with particular focus on the holographic geometric description.

  3. Assessment of Emotional Experience and Emotional Recognition in Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Pérez-Marfil, M. N.; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of bias in the processing of emotion in people with complicated grief (CG). Previous studies have tended to assess the expression of emotion in CG, but other aspects of emotion (mainly emotion recognition, and the subjective aspects of emotion) have not been addressed, despite their importance for practicing clinicians. A quasi-experimental design with two matched groups (Complicated Grief, N = 24 and Non-Complicated Grief, N = 20) was carried out. The Facial Expression of Emotion Test (emotion recognition), a set of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (subjective experience of emotion) and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (psychopathology) were employed. The CG group showed lower scores on the dimension of valence for specific conditions on the IAPS, related to the subjective experience of emotion. In addition, they presented higher values of psychopathology. In contrast, statistically significant results were not found for the recognition of emotion. In conclusion, from a neuropsychological point of view, the subjective aspects of emotion and psychopathology seem central in explaining the experience of those with CG. These results are clinically significant for psychotherapists and psychoanalysts working in the field of grief and loss. PMID:26903928

  4. Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice. PMID:24611625

  5. Emotional Resilience Mediates the Relationship Between Mindfulness and Emotion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzheng; Xu, Wei; Luo, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness promotes positive mood states and reduces negative ones; however, the underlying mechanisms are still controversial. This study assessed the role of emotional resilience as a mediator between mindfulness and emotional regulation. A total of 421 college students (M age = 20.0 year, SD = 2.0; males/females/missing are 152/248/4) completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States, and Adolescents' Emotional Resilience Questionnaire (AERQ). The ability to generate positive emotion (GP) and the ability to recover from negative emotion (RN) are two subscales of the AERQ. A Structural Equation Modeling analysis indicated that emotional resilience mediated the connection between mindfulness and emotion. Specifically, GP mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative emotions while RN mainly mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative emotions. These findings suggest that mindfulness may play a role in regulating positive and negative emotions through the two different aspects of emotional resilience. PMID:27199154

  6. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-10-15

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T{sub c} superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  8. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  9. The role of emotion expectancies in adolescents' moral decision making.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Jia, Fanli; Mosleh, Maureen

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of emotion expectancies on adolescents' moral decision making in hypothetical situations. The sample consisted of 160 participants from three different grade levels (mean age=15.79 years, SD=2.96). Participants were confronted with a set of scenarios that described various emotional outcomes of (im)moral actions and needed to decide what they would do if they were in the protagonist's shoes. Findings demonstrate that emotion expectancies differentially influenced adolescents' hypothetical decision making in antisocial versus prosocial behavioral contexts. Whereas negatively charged self-evaluative emotions over failing to act morally (e.g., guilt) were the strongest predictor for moral choice in antisocial behavioral contexts, positively charged self-evaluative emotions over acting morally (e.g., pride) most strongly predicted moral choice in prosocial contexts. Older adolescents paid greater attention to outcome-oriented emotions that make the decision to act morally less attractive (e.g., regret). Overall, the study suggests that emotion expectancies influence moral decision making in unique and meaningful ways. PMID:20961560

  10. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  11. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  12. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life

  13. [Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases].

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Hisayasu

    2015-11-01

    Bone metastasis is associated with many symptoms such as bone pain, pathological fracture, and spinal cord compression. Especially, pain secondary to bone metastases is a serious problem in many patients with metastatic cancer. Radiotherapy can provide remarkable pain relief, reduce the requirement for analgesic drugs, and prevent pathological fracture or spinal cord compression with few complications in most patients. Many randomized controlled trials have shown equivalent extent of pain relief between single-fraction and multiple-fraction regimens. Reirradiation of painful bone metastases is effective for palliation of pain in non-responders or patients with recurrent pain after an initial satisfactory response to a previous radiation therapy. Systemic administration of radioisotopes is an important palliative care option for painful multifocal bone metastases detected on nuclear imaging; however, the application of this option depends on the histologic features of the tumor and distribution of the metastases. Metastatic spinal cord compression is the most frequent oncologic emergency and necessitates timely and appropriate treatment. External beam radiotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression. Surgical decompression and stabilization should be considered for metastatic spinal cord compression or pathological fracture in select patients. Postoperative radiotherapy should be administered to patients who have undergone surgical intervention for bone metastases. For patients at a high risk for oncologic emergency, optimal prophylactic management is highly recommended. PMID:26602393

  14. Emotions, Cognitions, and Well-Being: The Role of Perfectionism, Emotional Overexcitability, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…

  15. Laser Doppler flowmetry: an early diagnosis instrument in detecting the soft tissue changes that occur during radiotherapy to the head and neck area, clinical case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, L. C.; Miron, M. I.; Ianes, E.

    2016-03-01

    <strong>Aim of the studystrong>: Our goal was to monitor soft tissue changes occurring during radiotherapy - both through clinical examination and using LDF - in order to establish Laser Doppler as an early diagnosis instrument in this situation, and also to assess what kind of dental procedures could be provided during radiotherapy, in order to increase patients' quality of life. <strong>Material and Methodstrong>: Our study included two male patients, who received head and neck radiotherapy. Patient A, 68 years old, underwent 31 radiotherapy exposures. Patient B, 52 years old, underwent 24 exposures. They received a thorough clinical examination, and a LDF evaluation of gingival blood flow in areas close to the irradiated site, after the first, the 18th, and the last radiotherapy exposure. <strong>Results>: Patient A presented radiotherapy induced mucositis, after the 18th radiotherapy exposure. After the last exposure the mucositis worsened, additionally, radiodermitis appeared on the neck. LDF showed an increase in blood flow of the irradiated area, even after the first exposure, and it persisted throughout treatment. Patient B showed no clinical changes, besides a hyperkeratinisation of the gingiva in the irradiated area, after the last exposure. LDF showed an overall increase in vascularity of the area throughout treatment. <strong>Discussion>: Even after the first radiotherapy exposure, and also when clinical changes were not apparent, LDF measurements revealed an increase in blood flow in the gingiva of irradiated patients. LDF might allow us to establish the most appropriate moment in time for each dental treatment, in order to increase the quality of life.

  16. Goal direction and effectiveness, emotional maturity, and nuclear family functioning.

    PubMed

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-07-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and effectiveness and emotional maturity. A qualitative analysis of participants' goals demonstrated that couples with higher functioning developing nuclear families, when compared with couples with lower functioning families, placed more emphasis on family goals, had more balance between family and personal goals, and pursued more goals over the 5 years. The quantitative analysis supported the hypothesis that goal effectiveness and emotional maturity influenced variation in nuclear family functioning. In addition, couple goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with nuclear family functioning more strongly than individual goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with individual functioning. PMID:19522784

  17. When is emotional contagion adaptive?

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Empathy plays an important role in animal social behavior. Since emotional contagion forms one of the bases of empathy, here we study conditions for emotional contagion to be adaptive, compared with other behavioral rules such as behavioral mimicry. We consider the situation where the focal individual (=observer) reacts to a behavior of another individual (=demonstrator). By emotional contagion one spontaneously copies the emotional state of the demonstrator and takes a behavior driven by that emotion. By behavioral mimicry, in contrast, one copies the behavior of the demonstrator itself. Through mathematical models we show that emotional contagion is adaptive when the environmental similarity between the demonstrator and the observer is intermediate. The advantage of adopting emotional contagion over behavioral mimicry increases when observing others' behavior is difficult or cognitively demanding. We show that emotional contagion is often a more flexible strategy than behavioral mimicry in order to cope with the living environment. In other words, emotional contagion often works as a better social learning strategy. These results suggest some ecological conditions that would favor the evolution of emotional contagion, and give a part of the explanations of why emotional contagion is frequently observed in group-living animals. PMID:26113192

  18. Neural network modeling of emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

  19. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  20. Does language do more than communicate emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Gendron, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Language can certainly communicate emotions, but growing research suggests that language also helps constitute emotion by cohering sensations into specific perceptions of “anger,” “disgust,” “fear,” etc. The powerful role of language in emotion is predicted by a constructionist approach, which suggests that emotions occur when sensations are categorized using emotion category knowledge supported by language. We discuss the accumulating evidence from social cognitive, neuropsychological, cross-cultural, and neuroimaging studies that emotion words go beyond communication to help constitute emotional perceptions, and perhaps even emotional experiences. We look forward to current directions in research on emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, and psychotherapy. PMID:25983400

  1. The cognitive-emotional amalgam.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In the précis to The Cognitive-Emotional Brain, I summarize a framework for understanding the organization of cognition and emotion in the brain. Here, I address six major themes that emerged in the commentaries: (1) emotional perception and automaticity; (2) the status of cognition and emotion: together or separate? (3) evolutionary implications for the understanding of emotion and cognition; (4) the diverse forms of cognitive-emotional integration; (5) dual process theories; and (6) functional diversity of brain regions/networks and cognitive ontologies. The central argument is, again, that cognition and emotion are so highly interactive, and indeed integrated, that these two elements blend into a new amalgam. PMID:26815655

  2. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  3. Emotion-induced loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling in low-anxious individuals

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; Martino, Benedetto De; Sim, Alena L.; Sharot, Tali; Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Adapting behavior to changes in the environment is a crucial ability for survival but such adaptation varies widely across individuals. Here, we asked how humans alter their economic decision-making in response to emotional cues, and whether this is related to trait anxiety. Developing an emotional decision-making task for functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which gambling decisions were preceded by emotional and non-emotional primes, we assessed emotional influences on loss aversion, the tendency to overweigh potential monetary losses relative to gains. Our behavioral results revealed that only low-anxious individuals exhibited increased loss aversion under emotional conditions. This emotional modulation of decision-making was accompanied by a corresponding emotion-elicited increase in amygdala-striatal functional connectivity, which correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Consistent with prior reports of ‘neural loss aversion’, both amygdala and ventral striatum tracked losses more strongly than gains, and amygdala loss aversion signals were exaggerated by emotion, suggesting a potential role for this structure in integrating value and emotion cues. Increased loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling induced by emotional cues may reflect the engagement of adaptive harm-avoidance mechanisms in low-anxious individuals, possibly promoting resilience to psychopathology. PMID:26589451

  4. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Results Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD. PMID:27247593

  5. Students' ratings of teacher support and academic and social-emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jaclyn E; Demaray, Michelle K; Malecki, Christine K; Terry, Melissa N; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, Second Edition, Adolescent Version, (BASC-2 SRP-A; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The purpose of the current study was to examine possible gender differences in perceptions of the frequency and importance of different types of teacher support and the related academic and social-emotional outcomes. Girls rated Emotional and Appraisal Support as more important than did boys. Teacher Emotional Support was significantly and positively related to grade point average (GPA) for boys and girls. For girls only, Emotional and Informational Support were significantly related to ITBS Reading scores, and Emotional, Informational, and Instrumental Support were significantly related to ITBS Math scores. Regarding social-emotional variables, Emotional Support was significantly and negatively related to School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, and overall Emotional Symptoms and positively related to Personal Adjustment for both boys and girls. Furthermore, Emotional Support from teachers was more strongly related to Inattention/Hyperactivity for girls than boys. These results emphasize the importance of providing teacher social support, especially emotional support, to students in early adolescence and recognizing gender differences in the function of specific types of teacher support. PMID:25528592

  6. Beyond arousal and valence: The importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention; memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that: a) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than socially emotional images, b) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but c) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images’ subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between amygdala and MPFC than biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity. PMID:21964552

  7. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the

  8. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  9. Passion Work: The Joint Production of Emotional Labor in Professional Wrestling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Tyson

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case of jointly produced passion work. Passion work is emotional labor designed to elicit a strong response from subjects through an impression of extreme states such as pain, agony, or suffering. Based on an ethnographic investigation of professional wrestling participants, this study analyzes the backstage emotion teamwork…

  10. Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

  11. Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

  12. Program Development and Outcomes Assessment of Social Emotional Curriculum Utilized with High School Special Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedam, Allison

    2012-01-01

    The present study will assess the effectiveness of a social emotional learning curriculum implemented in a Midwestern high school with special education students. The specific social emotional curriculum utilized at this particular school was organized and delivered by the school psychologists at the high school, based on the Strong Teens…

  13. Pedagogies of Strategic Empathy: Navigating through the Emotional Complexities of Anti-Racism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion…

  14. Emotional reactions to standardized stimuli in women with borderline personality disorder: stronger negative affect, but no differences in reactivity.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Gitta A; Hellstern, Kathrin; Ower, Nicole; Pillmann, Mona; Scheel, Corinna N; Rüsch, Nicolas; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-11-01

    Emotional dysregulation is hypothesized to be a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, we investigated the course of emotions in response to standardized emotion inductions in BPD. A total of 26 female BPD patients, 28 matched healthy control subjects, and 15 female patients with major depressive disorder listened to short stories inducing an angry, joyful, or neutral mood. Before and immediately after each story as well as 3 and 6 minutes later, participants rated their current anger, joy, anxiety, shame, and sadness. All 3 groups showed the same increase and decrease of emotions. However, strong group differences in the general level of all negative emotions occurred. While sadness was stronger both in BPD and major depressive disorder as compared with healthy controls, all other negative emotions were significantly increased in BPD only independent of comorbid depression. Extreme negative affectivity may be a more appropriate description of BPD-related emotional problems than emotional hyperreactivity. PMID:19996718

  15. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examininggroup-based emotion regulationthat integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. PMID:25870386

  16. Strongly correlated electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.; Albers, R.; Balatsky, A.; Bishop, A.; Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gulasci, M.; Silver, R.; Trugman, S.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. Novel electronic materials characterized by strong electronic correlations display a number of unexpected, often extraordinary, properties. These are likely to play a major role in purpose-specific high-technology electronic materials of the future developed for electronic, magnetic, and optical applications. This project sought to develop predictive control of the novel properties by formulating, solving and applying many-body models for the underlying microscopic physics. This predictive control required the development of new analytical and numerical many-body techniques and strategies for materials of varying strengths of interactions, dimensionality and geometry. Results are compared with experiment on classes of novel materials, and the robust techniques are used to predict additional properties and motivate key additional experiments.

  17. Strongly-correlated heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic phase behavior in correlated-electron systems is a fundamental problem of condensed matter physics. The change in the phase behavior near surfaces and interfaces, i.e., {\\em electronic reconstruction}, is therefore the fundamental issue of the correlated-electron surface or interface science. In addition to basic science, understanding of such a phase behavior is of crucial importance for potential devices exploiting the novel properties of the correlated systems. In this article, we present a general overview of the field, and then discuss the recent theoretical progress mainly focusing on the correlation effects. We illustrate the general concept of {\\em electronic reconstruction} by studying model heterostructures consisting of strongly-correlated systems. Future directions for research are also discussed.

  18. Strong, Lightweight, Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, James C.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Ulvi

    2007-01-01

    A new class of strong, lightweight, porous materials has been invented as an outgrowth of an effort to develop reinforced silica aerogels. The new material, called X-Aerogel is less hygroscopic, but no less porous and of similar density to the corresponding unmodified aerogels. However, the property that sets X-Aerogels apart is their mechanical strength, which can be as much as two and a half orders of magnitude stronger that the unmodified aerogels. X-Aerogels are envisioned to be useful for making extremely lightweight, thermally insulating, structural components, but they may also have applications as electrical insulators, components of laminates, catalyst supports, templates for electrode materials, fuel-cell components, and filter membranes.

  19. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

  20. Intact Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Complex Predicts Good Response to Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlund, Karin . E-mail: karin.soderlund@ibk.liu.se; Stal, Olle; Skoog, Lambert; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression and predictive role of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) for the outcome of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The protein expression of ATM and the DNA repair proteins in the MRN complex were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 224 women with early breast cancer, who were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Compared with normal breast tissue, the staining intensity of Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1, and ATM was reduced in a majority of the tumors. Weak expression of the MRN complex was correlated with high histologic grade and estrogen receptor negativity (p = 0.01 and p 0.0001, respectively). Radiotherapy significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence as compared with chemotherapy (p = 0.04). The greatest benefit of radiotherapy was seen in patients with moderate/strong expression of the MRN complex (relative risk = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.098-0.72, p 0.009), whereas patients with negative/weak MRN expression had no benefit of radiotherapy compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that an intact MRN complex is important for the tumor cell eradicating effect of radiotherapy. Conclusions: Reduced expression of the MRN complex predicts a poor effect of radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer.

  1. Drug Design and Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  2. Innovative radiotherapy of sarcoma: Proton beam radiation.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F; Haas, Rick L M

    2016-07-01

    This review on proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) focusses on an historical overview, cost-effectiveness, techniques, acute and late toxicities and clinical results of PBT for sarcoma patients. PBT has gained its place among the armamentarium of modern radiotherapy techniques. For selected patients, it can be cost-effective. PMID:27258968

  3. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.; Tsur, H. )

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  4. The Construct of Emotion in the Study of Nonverbal Communication: A Need for Definition and Greater Consideration for the Influences of Socialization and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ed

    Nonverbal communicative behaviors are a primary channel for emotional expression. Emotions, in turn, strongly influence nonverbal communication displays. Thus, the role of emotions should be a central consideration in nonverbal communication studies. A study examined 34 articles, published in the "Journal of Nonverbal Behavior" between 1976 and…

  5. Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shyh-An

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for patients with head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiotherapy is employed as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to surgery. Each specific subsite dictates the appropriate radiotherapy techniques, fields, dose, and fractionation scheme. Quality of life is also an important issue in the management of head and neck cancer. The radiation-related complications have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Modern radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy, can offer precise radiation delivery and reduce the dose to the surrounding normal tissues without compromise of target coverage. In the future, efforts should be made in the exploration of novel strategies to improve treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:22550433

  6. Emotional salience, emotional awareness, peculiar beliefs, and magical thinking.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Boden, M Tyler; Baker, John P

    2009-04-01

    Two studies with college student participants (Ns = 271 and 185) tested whether peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with (a) the emotional salience of the stimuli about which individuals may have peculiar beliefs or magical thinking, (b) attention to emotion, and (c) clarity of emotion. Study 1 examined belief that a baseball team was cursed. Study 2 measured magical thinking using a procedure developed by P. Rozin and C. Nemeroff (2002). In both studies, peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with Salience x Attention x Clarity interactions. Among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were highly emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with increased peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. In contrast, among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were not emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with diminished peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. PMID:19348532

  7. Emotional Distress and Compassionate Responses in Palliative Care Decision-Making Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, David; Davis, J. Kelly; Metzger, Maureen; DeLuca, Jane; Gramling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Seriously ill hospitalized patients and their loved ones are frequently faced with complex treatment decisions laden with expressions of emotional distress during palliative care (PC) consultations. Little is known about these emotional expressions or the compassionate responses providers make and how common these are in PC decision-making conversations. Objectives: To describe the types and frequency of emotional distress that patients and loved ones express and how providers respond to these emotions during PC decision-making consultations with seriously ill hospitalized patients. Methods: We used a quantitative descriptive approach to analyze 71 audio-recorded inpatient PC decision-making consultations for emotional distress and clinicians' responses to those emotions using reliable and established methods. Results: A total of 69% of conversations contained at least one expression of emotional distress. The per-conversation frequency of expressions of emotional distress ranged from 1 to 10. Anxiety/fear were the most frequently encountered emotions (48.4%) followed by sadness (35.5%) and anger/frustration (16.1%). More than half of the emotions related to the patient's feelings (53.6%) and 41.9% were related to the loved ones' own emotions. The majority of emotions were moderate in intensity (65.8%) followed by strong (20.7%) and mild (13.5%). Clinicians responded to a majority of emotions with a compassionate response (75.7%) followed by those with medical content (21.9%) and very few were ignored (1.3%). Conclusions: Expressions of emotional distress are common during PC consultations and are usually met with compassionate responses by the clinician. PMID:24588656

  8. Successful radiotherapy of facial angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gkalpakiotis, S; Arenberger, P; Vohradnikova, O; Arenbergerova, M

    2008-11-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the face and scalp is a rare malignant vascular tumor that affects mostly Caucasian elderly males. At present, connections concerning the etiology of this neoplasm with radiation therapy, exposure to environmental carcinogens and chronic lymphedema have been described. Due to the difficult histologic evaluation, high local recurrence and tendency to early metastasing, angiosarcoma poses generally a very poor prognosis. We report the case of an 80-year-old patient who experienced successful removal of large, exophytic growing angiosarcoma of the face achieved with radiotherapy with long-term relapse-free survival. PMID:18986458

  9. Strongly correlated surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Victor A.

    Everything has an edge. However trivial, this phrase has dominated theoretical condensed matter in the past half a decade. Prior to that, questions involving the edge considered to be more of an engineering problem rather than a one of fundamental science: it seemed self-evident that every edge is different. However, recent advances proved that many surface properties enjoy a certain universality, and moreover, are 'topologically' protected. In this thesis I discuss a selected range of problems that bring together topological properties of surface states and strong interactions. Strong interactions alone can lead to a wide spectrum of emergent phenomena: from high temperature superconductivity to unconventional magnetic ordering; interactions can change the properties of particles, from heavy electrons to fractional charges. It is a unique challenge to bring these two topics together. The thesis begins by describing a family of methods and models with interactions so high that electrons effectively disappear as particles and new bound states arise. By invoking the AdS/CFT correspondence we can mimic the physical systems of interest as living on the surface of a higher dimensional universe with a black hole. In a specific example we investigate the properties of the surface states and find helical spin structure of emerged particles. The thesis proceeds from helical particles on the surface of black hole to a surface of samarium hexaboride: an f-electron material with localized magnetic moments at every site. Interactions between electrons in the bulk lead to insulating behavior, but the surfaces found to be conducting. This observation motivated an extensive research: weather the origin of conduction is of a topological nature. Among our main results, we confirm theoretically the topological properties of SmB6; introduce a new framework to address similar questions for this type of insulators, called Kondo insulators. Most notably we introduce the idea of Kondo

  10. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  11. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    SciTech Connect

    Volkas, R. R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G. C.

    1989-07-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3)/sub 1//direct product/SU(3)/sub 2//direct product/SU(3)/sub 3/ gauge theory, where quarks of the /ital i/th generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub /ital i// and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements.

  12. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  13. Attention modulates emotional expression processing.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

  14. Social and Emotional Learning Policies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jenn; Wright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a current push to broaden the educational agenda by integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies into the academic curriculum. This article describes how physical education (PE) provides a strong platform for integrating SEL standards into the curriculum. The alignment between SEL and the affective learning objectives of…

  15. Relations between Fantasy Orientation and Emotion Regulation in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Ansley T.; Brown, Melissa M.; Pierucci, Jillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotion regulation is a strong predictor of both short- and long-term peer relationships and social competence and is often targeted in preschool curricula and interventions. Pretense is a natural activity of childhood that is thought to facilitate the development of socialization, perspective taking, language, and possibly…

  16. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  17. Emotion Management and Strategies for Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Emotion scripts provide children with culturally meaningful emotional experiences and plans of action for managing feelings and the circumstances surrounding emotional experiences. In an effort to understand how developing children acquire these emotion scripts, two studies described here investigated how children deploy emotion scripts to manage…

  18. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  19. Visual search and emotion: how children with autism spectrum disorders scan emotional scenes.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Lisa; Pasini, Augusto; Caroli, Emanuela; Rosa, Caterina; Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Casagrande, Maria

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed visual search abilities, tested through the flicker task, in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Twenty-two children diagnosed with ASD and 22 matched typically developing (TD) children were told to detect changes in objects of central interest or objects of marginal interest (MI) embedded in either emotion-laden (positive or negative) or neutral real-world pictures. The results showed that emotion-laden pictures equally interfered with performance of both ASD and TD children, slowing down reaction times compared with neutral pictures. Children with ASD were faster than TD children, particularly in detecting changes in MI objects, the most difficult condition. However, their performance was less accurate than performance of TD children just when the pictures were negative. These findings suggest that children with ASD have better visual search abilities than TD children only when the search is particularly difficult and requires strong serial search strategies. The emotional-social impairment that is usually considered as a typical feature of ASD seems to be limited to processing of negative emotional information. PMID:24898908

  20. Forgetting feelings: Opposite biases in reports of the intensity of past emotion and mood.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robin L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Safer, Martin A

    2016-04-01

    Memory for feelings is subject to fading and bias over time. In 2 studies, the authors examined whether the magnitude and direction of bias depend on the type of feeling being recalled: emotion or mood. A few days after the U.S. Presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, participants reported how they felt about the election outcome (emotion) and how they felt in general (mood). A month after the elections, participants recalled their feelings. The intensity of past emotion was recalled more accurately than the intensity of past mood. Participants underestimated the intensity of emotion but overestimated the intensity of mood. Participants' appraisals of the importance of the election, which diminished over time, contributed to underestimating the intensity of emotion. In contrast, participants' strong emotional response to the election contributed to overestimating the intensity of mood. These opposing biases have important implications for decision making and clinical assessment. PMID:26501929

  1. Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Notelaers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines emotional experiences as potential mediators between exposure to workplace bullying and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization, respectively. A total of 5,520 respondents participated in the study. Drawing upon affective events theory (AET), the results show that emotions partly mediate these relationships and, hence, support the notion that emotions play a central part in the relationship between bullying and essential occupational outcomes. PMID:22852437

  2. Art therapy using famous painting appreciation maintains fatigue levels during radiotherapy in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Koom, Woong Sub; Choi, Mi Yeon; Lee, Jeongshim; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Materials and Methods: Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Conclusion: Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy. PMID:27306778

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. PMID:26461486

  4. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  5. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  6. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  7. Informational need of emotional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, P. V.; Frolov, M. V.

    According to the informational theory of emotions[1], emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need staisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.

  8. A Neuroanatomical Dissociation for Emotion Induced by Music

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Erica L.; Tranel, Daniel; Lutgendorf, Susan; Adolphs, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Does feeling an emotion require changes in autonomic responses, as William James proposed? Can feelings and autonomic responses be dissociated? Findings from cognitive neuroscience have identified brain structures that subserve feelings and autonomic response, including those induced by emotional music. In the study reported here, we explored whether feelings and autonomic responses can be dissociated by using music, a stimulus that has a strong capacity to induce emotional experiences. We tested two brain regions predicted to be differentially involved in autonomic responsivity (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and feeling (the right somatosensory cortex). Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were impaired in their ability to generate skin conductance responses to music, but generated normal judgments of their subjective feelings in response to music. Conversely, patients with damage to the right somatosensory cortex were impaired in their self-rated feelings in response to music, but generated normal skin conductance responses to music. Control tasks suggested that neither impairment was due to basic defects in hearing the music or in cognitively recognizing the intended emotion of the music. The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli. PMID:18824047

  9. A neuroanatomical dissociation for emotion induced by music.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Erica L; Tranel, Daniel; Lutgendorf, Susan; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-04-01

    Does feeling an emotion require changes in autonomic responses, as William James proposed? Can feelings and autonomic responses be dissociated? Findings from cognitive neuroscience have identified brain structures that subserve feelings and autonomic response, including those induced by emotional music. In the study reported here, we explored whether feelings and autonomic responses can be dissociated by using music, a stimulus that has a strong capacity to induce emotional experiences. We tested two brain regions predicted to be differentially involved in autonomic responsivity (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and feeling (the right somatosensory cortex). Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were impaired in their ability to generate skin-conductance responses to music, but generated normal judgments of their subjective feelings in response to music. Conversely, patients with damage to the right somatosensory cortex were impaired in their self-rated feelings in response to music, but generated normal skin-conductance responses to music. Control tasks suggested that neither impairment was due to basic defects in hearing the music or in cognitively recognizing the intended emotion of the music. The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli. PMID:18824047

  10. Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain. PMID:23057507

  11. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample.

    PubMed

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  12. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  13. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  14. The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

  15. Preschoolers' Understanding of Parents' Emotions: Implications for Emotional Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    This study investigated preschoolers' understanding of three parental emotions: happiness, sadness, and anger. The study also examined relationships of these understandings to preschoolers' emotional competence. Subjects, 70 children with a mean age of 55 months, were presented with a dollhouse and were encouraged to imagine that the dollhouse…

  16. Emotion Metaphors and Emotional Labor in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the importance of metaphors and beliefs in the development of teachers' practical knowledge has already been explored in science education research. However, the significance of "emotion metaphors" and the consequences of "emotional labor" as part of being a science teacher have been little addressed. This study describes the…

  17. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  18. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    PubMed Central

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  19. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state.

    PubMed

    Limonero, Joaquín T; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  20. Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery. PMID:26210976

  2. Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

  3. Emotion at work: identifying the emotional climate of night nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Reva Berman; Brooks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the emotional climate of the workplace and explores how it both shapes and is shaped by the emotions experienced, expressed and redefined by nurses. It extracts emotional aspects of an organizational climate framework developed by Litwin and Stringer and examines these with respect to nurse's experiences. The primary research was carried out at a general hospital NHS Trust in the East Midlands of the UK using a grounded theory methodology. The research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. The themes identified include many of those found by Litwin and Stringer, others which represent variations upon these, and a new set, which, when combined, identify the emotional climate of the organization. The findings have confirmed that the "experiment" of using a 33-year-old positivistic framework to investigate aspects of qualitative research has enabled a robust contribution to the conceptual area of emotional climate. PMID:12463648

  4. The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Carol May

    Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

  5. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    PubMed

    Talamini, Lucia M; Bringmann, Laura F; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  6. Cross-Cultural Patterns in Dynamic Ratings of Positive and Negative Natural Emotional Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, Ian; McKeown, Gary; McRorie, Margaret; Vukicevic, Tijana

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both ‘in-group advantage’ and ‘display rules’ approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion. PMID:21364739

  7. Radiotherapy in patients with cardiac pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Last, A

    1998-01-01

    Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. Modern pacemakers, using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, differ from older bipolar semiconductor devices both in their sensitivity to damage and the types of malfunction observed. The mechanisms and types of radiotherapy-induced pacemaker malfunction are described and in vitro and in vivo studies of pacemaker irradiation are reviewed. Some simple precautions are recommended during the planning and administration of radiotherapy to minimize the risk of harm to patients with pacemakers. PMID:9534692

  8. Negotiating with emotion.

    PubMed

    Leary, Kimberlyn; Pillemer, Julianna; Wheeler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some people are practically phobic about going to the bargaining table. If their minimum needs are met, they'll sign on the dotted line just to end the stress of dealing with people who have different agendas and styles. But that can be an expensive aversion, the authors write. When you're facing an important negotiation, rigorous preparation--running the numbers, scouting the marketplace, developing a plan B--is essential. But it's only half the story. The truth is that your passions matter in real-life deal making and dispute resolution. You need to understand, channel, and learn from your emotions in order to adapt to the situation at hand and engage others successfully. The authors studied 20 seasoned negotiators to explore their thoughts and feelings about the process. They invited their participants to find and combine pictures that metaphorically depicted those feelings and to describe in in-depth interviews the collages they'd created. Three reasons for the stressfulness of the negotiation experience emerged: lack of control, unpredictability, and the absence of feedback. This article includes a six-step warm-up exercise to help you prepare emotionally to negotiate effectively. PMID:23390744

  9. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  10. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  11. Emotional Intelligence: Components and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernet, Michael

    There is no accepted definition and no adequate measure for the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Some of the myriad issues surrounding EI are discussed here. One problem in the consideration of EI is the confusion between the terms "feelings" and "emotions." Differences between the two are examined and a working definition of feelings is…

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  13. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  14. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  15. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  16. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  17. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  18. Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

  19. On the Nature of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

  20. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  1. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  2. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks.

    PubMed

    Meijnders, A L; Midden, C J; Wilke, H A

    2001-10-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration likelihood model and the related heuristic systematic model of attitude formation. The results indicated that inducing fear of CO2 risks leads to systematic processing of information about energy conservation as a risk-reducing strategy. In turn, this results in more favorable attitudes toward energy conservation if strong arguments are provided. Individual differences in concern seem to have similar effects. PMID:11798129

  3. Importance of Emotional Competence in Designing an Antidrug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Lee, Tak Yan

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

  4. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

  5. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  6. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  7. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  8. Bowel distress and emotional conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A

    1991-01-01

    A psychodynamic assessment of 60 women with functional bowel disorder seen at St Mark's, a specialist hospital for disorders of the colon and rectum, has shown that most were trapped in severe emotional conflicts with which they were unable to cope. In many the bodily illnesses appeared to be an expression of these conflicts as well as a defence against experiencing them. The illnesses were then partly, or entirely, emotional conflicts that had become medicalized--emotional conflicts in illnesses clothing. The illnesses, usually precipitated by significant life events, often had their roots in emotional conflicts in infancy or childhood at which time a high proportion of the women had experienced a severe life trauma. The study also indicated that the conflicts that appeared to contribute to the illnesses were associated with emotional difficulties in fulfilling themselves as women. PMID:1994012

  9. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  10. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  11. Relationship Between Emotions, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being of Professional Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S

    2016-05-01

    So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. PMID:26092207

  12. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  13. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W.; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher’s face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers’ facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  14. The attraction of emotions: Irrelevant emotional information modulates motor actions.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Foroni, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Emotional expressions are important cues that capture our attention automatically. Although a wide range of work has explored the role and influence of emotions on cognition and behavior, little is known about the way that emotions influence motor actions. Moreover, considering how critical detecting emotional facial expressions in the environment can be, it is important to understand their impact even when they are not directly relevant to the task being performed. Our novel approach was to explore this issue from the attention-and-action perspective, using a task-irrelevant distractor paradigm in which participants are asked to reach for a target while a nontarget stimulus is also presented. We tested whether the movement trajectory would be influenced by irrelevant stimuli-faces with or without emotional expressions. The results showed that reaching paths veered toward faces with emotional expressions, in particular happiness, but not toward neutral expressions. This reinforces the view of emotions as attention-capturing stimuli that are, however, also potential sources of distraction for motor actions. PMID:25471046

  15. Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques for Precision Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Katia; Parodi, Katia; Thieke, Christian; Thieke, Christian

    Over the last decade, several technological advances have considerably improved the achievable precision of dose delivery in radiation therapy. Clinical exploitation of the superior tumor-dose conformality offered by modern radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy and ion beam therapy requires morphological and functional assessment of the tumor during the entire therapy chain from treatment planning to beam application and treatment response evaluation. This chapter will address the main rationale and role of imaging in state-of-the-art external beam radiotherapy. Moreover, it will present the status of novel imaging instrumentation and techniques being nowadays introduced in clinical use or still under development for image guidance and, ultimately, dose guidance of precision radiotherapy.

  16. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  17. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  18. Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Childhood Malignant Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sohail R.; Haddy, Theresa B.; Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Goldson, Alfred L.

    1984-01-01

    A 12-year-old black male patient with glioblastoma multiforme was treated with intraoperative radiotherapy followed by conventional external beam radiation and chemotherapy. The authors' clinical experience with these therapeutic measures is discussed. PMID:6330375

  19. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  20. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    PubMed Central

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval. PMID:18505596

  1. Consumer segmentation as a means to investigate emotional associations to meals.

    PubMed

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R

    2016-10-01

    Consumers naturally associate emotions to meal occasions and understanding these can advance knowledge of food-related behaviours and attitudes. The present study used an online survey to investigate the emotional associations that people have with recalled meals: 'memorable' (MM) and 'routine' evening (RM). Heterogeneity in the studied consumer population (UK adults, n = 576 and 571, respectively) was accounted for using a data-driven approach to establish emotion-based segments. Two groups of people were identified with very different emotional response patterns to recalled meals. For 'memorable' and 'routine' meals the majority of people (Cluster 1) held strong positive and weak negative emotional associations. In Cluster 2, positive emotions remained more strongly associated than negative emotions, but much less so. In accordance with findings based on other response variables (e.g., preference, attitudes), psychographic variables accounted better for the heterogeneity found in the emotion associations than socio-demographic variables. Participants' level of meal engagement and difficulty in describing feelings (DDF scale) were the two most important predictors of cluster membership. PMID:27245572

  2. Blisters - an unusual effect during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Höller, U; Schubert, T; Budach, V; Trefzer, U; Beyer, M

    2013-11-01

    The skin reaction to radiation is regularly monitored in order to detect enhanced radiosensitivity of the patient, unexpected interactions (e.g. with drugs) or any inadvertent overdosage. It is important to distinguish secondary disease from radiation reaction to provide adequate treatment and to avoid unnecessary discontinuation of radiotherapy. A case of bullous eruption or blisters during radiotherapy of the breast is presented. Differential diagnoses bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and bullous impetigo are discussed and treatment described. PMID:24158604

  3. Experimental chemotherapy and radiotherapy to paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, T.; Watanabe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental chemotherapy and radiotherapy were tried in transplanted tumors derived from a paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. There was no significant difference on the therapeutic effect between a combination chemotherapy composed of vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide, so-called VAC regimen, and a single therapy of radiation. However, morphologic analyses suggest that VAC is effective in embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas in which undifferentiated rhabdomyoblasts predominate, while radiotherapy is preferable for those containing variously differentiated rhabdomyoblasts.

  4. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  5. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  6. The Relationship Between Family Functioning and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Emotional Clarity.

    PubMed

    Freed, Rachel D; Rubenstein, Liza M; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-03-01

    Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one's emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 14-17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescents' and mothers' reports of family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescents' reports of family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mothers' reports of family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescents' or mothers' reports of family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit. PMID:26832726

  7. Meta-emotions as predictors of drinking to cope: a comparison of competing models.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Jennifer A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Ham, Lindsay S

    2013-12-01

    To further elucidate how individual differences in the frequency with which people get upset about having negative emotions (i.e., meta-emotions) and how often they experience negative emotions (i.e., trait emotions) are related to drinking to cope, we tested direct and mediated path models predicting drinking to cope in a sample of emerging adult drinkers. We hypothesized that the mediated model would find more support, such that anxiety sensitivity and non-acceptance (meta-emotions) would be indirectly related to drinking to cope via associations with trait anxiety and trait nonanxious negative affect (trait emotions), respectively. Both models were tested with bootstrapping using concurrently measured self-report data from 544 college-enrolled emerging adults. Although both the mediated and direct models yielded acceptable fit indices, only the predictions of the mediated model were supported and findings suggest that non-acceptance might be more strongly related than anxiety sensitivity to drinking to cope. If replicated using better controlled idiographic paradigms, the present results would support a novel model of the relation between secondary negative emotions and emotion-focused coping and might suggest that interventions that target meta-emotion could be effective among emerging adult alcohol misusers. PMID:24364688

  8. Emotion and Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia-Investigating the Role of the Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Omar; Knee-Zaska, Charlotte; Donohoe, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Social cognitive dysfunction, including deficits in facial emotion recognition and theory of mind, is a core feature of schizophrenia and more strongly predicts functional outcome than neurocognition alone. Although traditionally considered to play an important role in motor coordination, the cerebellum has been suggested to play a role in emotion processing and theory of mind, and also shows structural and functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the specific role of the cerebellum in emotion and theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia using previously published functional neuroimaging studies. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to search for all functional neuroimaging studies reporting altered cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients during emotion processing or theory of mind tasks, published until December 2014. Overall, 14 functional neuroimaging studies were retrieved. Most emotion studies reported lower cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. In contrast, the theory of mind studies reported mixed findings. Altered activity was observed across several posterior cerebellar regions involved in emotion and cognition. Weaker cerebellum activity in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls during emotion processing may contribute to blunted affect and reduced ability to recognise emotion in others. This research could be expanded by examining the relationship between cerebellum function, symptomatology and behaviour, and examining cerebellum functional connectivity in patients during emotion and theory of mind tasks. PMID:26155761

  9. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. PMID:26237053

  10. Investigating the moderating role of emotional awareness in the association between urgency and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Manjrekar, Eishita; Berenbaum, Howard; Bhayani, Natasha

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating has been found to be associated with urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect) and emotional awareness (i.e., attention to emotions, clarity of emotions). The present study tested the hypothesis that the relation between binge eating and urgency would be moderated by emotional awareness, over and above negative affect. Participants were 249 female college students. Items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), the Urgency subscale of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Bulimia (B) subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3) were administered. As predicted, emotional awareness moderated the link between urgency and binge eating. Both Urgency×Attention to emotions and Urgency×Clarity of emotions significantly predicted binge eating scores, even after taking into account negative affect. Consistent with past research, higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of binge eating, even after taking negative affect into account. However, the associations were particularly strong among individuals with low levels of attention to emotions and low levels of clarity of emotions. The findings from this study have implications for future research examining binge eating. PMID:25679369

  11. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  12. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers’ harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers’ harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. PMID:14640808

  13. Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.

    PubMed

    Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness. PMID:22931014

  14. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  15. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Holt, Bronno van der; Braat, Cora; Klaveren, Robertus J. van; Pattynama, Peter M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

  16. The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

  17. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  18. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  19. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    PubMed

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. PMID:25799160

  20. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  1. Development of emotional stability scale

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, M.; Chander, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges’ opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest ‘t’ values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach's alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability. PMID:21694789

  2. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120

  3. Selecting radiotherapy dose distributions by means of constrained optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, J C L; Buttazzo, G; García-Archilla, B; Herrero, M A; Núñez, L

    2014-05-01

    The main steps in planning radiotherapy consist in selecting for any patient diagnosed with a solid tumor (i) a prescribed radiation dose on the tumor, (ii) bounds on the radiation side effects on nearby organs at risk and (iii) a fractionation scheme specifying the number and frequency of therapeutic sessions during treatment. The goal of any radiotherapy treatment is to deliver on the tumor a radiation dose as close as possible to that selected in (i), while at the same time conforming to the constraints prescribed in (ii). To this day, considerable uncertainties remain concerning the best manner in which such issues should be addressed. In particular, the choice of a prescription radiation dose is mostly based on clinical experience accumulated on the particular type of tumor considered, without any direct reference to quantitative radiobiological assessment. Interestingly, mathematical models for the effect of radiation on biological matter have existed for quite some time, and are widely acknowledged by clinicians. However, the difficulty to obtain accurate in vivo measurements of the radiobiological parameters involved has severely restricted their direct application in current clinical practice.In this work, we first propose a mathematical model to select radiation dose distributions as solutions (minimizers) of suitable variational problems, under the assumption that key radiobiological parameters for tumors and organs at risk involved are known. Second, by analyzing the dependence of such solutions on the parameters involved, we then discuss the manner in which the use of those minimizers can improve current decision-making processes to select clinical dosimetries when (as is generally the case) only partial information on model radiosensitivity parameters is available. A comparison of the proposed radiation dose distributions with those actually delivered in a number of clinical cases strongly suggests that solutions of our mathematical model can be

  4. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. PMID:27490515

  5. Recognition of emotional prosody is altered after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Le Jeune, Florence; Sauleau, Paul; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Vérin, Marc

    2010-03-01

    The recognition of facial emotions is impaired following subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). These changes have been linked to a disturbance in the STN's limbic territory, which is thought to be involved in emotional processing. This was confirmed by a recent PET study where these emotional modifications were correlated with changes in glucose metabolism in different brain regions, including the amygdala and the orbitofrontal regions that are well known for their involvement in emotional processing. Nevertheless, the question as to whether these emotional changes induced by STN DBS in PD are modality-specific has yet to be answered. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the effects of STN DBS in PD on the recognition of emotional prosody. An original emotional prosody paradigm was administered to twenty-one post-operative PD patients, twenty-one pre-operative PD patients and twenty-one matched controls. Results showed that both the pre- and post-operative groups differed from the healthy controls. There was also a significant difference between the pre and post groups. More specifically, an analysis of their continuous judgments revealed that the performance of the post-operative group compared with that of the other two groups was characterized by a systematic emotional bias whereby they perceived emotions more strongly. These results suggest that the impaired recognition of emotions may not be specific to the visual modality but may also be present when emotions are expressed through the human voice, implying the involvement of the STN in the brain network underlying the recognition of emotional prosody. PMID:20005239

  6. Effects of empathic social responses on the emotions of the recipient.

    PubMed

    Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Prehn, Kristin

    2016-03-01

    Empathy is highly relevant for social behavior and can be verbally expressed by voicing sympathy and concern (emotional empathy) as well as by paraphrasing or stating that one can mentally reconstruct and understand another person's thoughts and feelings (cognitive empathy). In this study, we investigated the emotional effects and neural correlates of receiving empathic social responses after negative performance feedback and compared the effects of emotionally vs. cognitively empathic comments. 20 participants (10 male) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while receiving negative performance feedback for a cognitive task. Performance feedback was followed by verbal comments either expressing cognitive and emotional empathy or demonstrating a lack of empathy. Empathic comments in general led to less negative self-reported feelings and calmer breathing. At the neural level, empathic comments induced activity in regions associated with social cognition and emotion processing, specifically in right postcentral gyrus and left cerebellum (cognitively empathic comments), right precentral gyrus, the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (emotionally empathic comments), as well as the orbital part of the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus (emotionally empathic vs. unempathic comments). The study shows that cognitively and emotionally empathic comments appear to be processed in partially separable neural systems. Furthermore, confirming and expanding on another study on the same subject, the present results demonstrate that the social display of cognitive empathy exerts almost as positive effects on the recipient's feelings and emotions in states of distress as emotionally empathic response does. This can be relevant for professional settings in which strong negative emotions need to be de-escalated while maintaining professional impartiality, which may allow the display of cognitive but not

  7. Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions. PMID:20230076

  8. A study of emotional processing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Benke, T; Bösch, S; Andree, B

    1998-10-01

    This study investigated three aspects of processing materials with emotional content in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD): the ability to produce affective prosody, to discriminate affectively loaded speech, and to detect the surprise element in humorous sketches. Study aims were the characterization of an emotional processing deficit, and to test whether impaired emotional processing is mental state dependent. Forty-eight nondemented PD patients were divided according to neuropsychological criteria into a sample with intact mental functions and a sample with mild to moderate cognitive deterioration, particularly memory impairment. PD patients with intact cognitive functions were solely impaired at producing affectively loaded sentences, but otherwise displayed normal emotional processing abilities as compared to a clinical control group. PD patients with mental impairment were significantly disabled on all three tasks. The observed emo tional processing deficit was not related to variables like age, disease duration, de gree of functional impairment, motor disability or depression. Active and receptive emotional prosody were significantly correlated. Further strong positive correlations were found between the ability to disclose pictorial humour and tasks of visuoconceptual knowledge, as well as between the ability to produce affectively loaded speech and years of schooling. These results were interpreted as indicating that not only the production of emotional prosody, but also its recognition and the discovery of pictorial humour are reduced in a subgroup of PD patients with mental impairment. Impaired emotional processing skills are mental state dependent findings in PD which seem to be independent from demographic or disease variables and may indicate beginning dementia. PMID:9735177

  9. Emotional conflict and social context

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Chloë

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur. PMID:22661905

  10. Emotional regulation strategies and negotiation.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between profit achievement and emotional regulation strategies, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure profit achievement. The game involves bargaining for the prices of three products. Emotional Regulation Strategies were measured by The Emotional Regulation Questionnaire. Scores were obtained from 104 lower level managers of a bank in Turkey. Their average age was 32.0 yr. (SD=3.7), (39 women and 65 men). A correlation of .65 (p<.01) was obtained between scores on profit achievement with scores on Cognitive Reappraisal strategy and -.50 (p<.01) with scores on Suppression strategy. PMID:15666907

  11. Neural evidence for moral intuition and the temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional processes and moral cognition.

    PubMed

    Gui, Dan-Yang; Gan, Tian; Liu, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral and neurological studies have revealed that emotions influence moral cognition. Although moral stimuli are emotionally charged, the time course of interactions between emotions and moral judgments remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the interaction between emotional processes and moral cognition. The results revealed that when making moral judgments, the time course of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform was significantly different between high emotional arousal and low emotional arousal contexts. Different stages of processing were distinguished, showing distinctive interactions between emotional processes and moral reasoning. The precise time course of moral intuition and moral reasoning sheds new light on theoretical models of moral psychology. Specifically, the N1 component (interpreted as representing moral intuition) did not appear to be influenced by emotional arousal. However, the N2 component and late positive potential were strongly affected by emotional arousal; the slow wave was influenced by both emotional arousal and morality, suggesting distinct moral processing at different emotional arousal levels. PMID:26286634

  12. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers’ emotion coaching and children’s emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children’s adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment. When children were high in emotion lability/negativity, mothers’ emotion coaching was associated with lower mother and child reports of externalizing behavior. Results suggest the role of emotion regulation and emotion lability in child awareness of socio-emotional problems and support the potential of maternal emotion coaching as a protective factor for children with ODD, especially for those high in emotion lability. PMID:24187441

  13. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  14. Promoting Peaceful Coexistence in Conflict-Ridden Cyprus: Teachers' Difficulties and Emotions towards a New Policy Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2011-01-01

    The present paper looks at teachers' perceptions of difficulties and emotions about a recent policy initiative in the Greek-Cypriot educational system to promote peaceful coexistence. This policy initiative by the government sparked strong emotional reactions. This paper provides an in-depth understanding of the intersection between tensions at…

  15. "Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

  16. The Relative Power of an Emotion's Facial Expression, Label, and Behavioral Consequence to Evoke Preschoolers' Knowledge of Its Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Lay people and scientists alike assume that, especially for young children, facial expressions are a strong cue to another's emotion. We report a study in which children (N=120; 3-4 years) described events that would cause basic emotions (surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness) presented as its facial expression, as its label, or as its…

  17. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, K. G.; Quintin, E. M.; South, M.

    2016-01-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older…

  18. Teaching Methods and Strategies Used in a Christian High School for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Leslie Williams

    2013-01-01

    The findings from the case study research demonstrated that the high school students at the Christian academy who have emotional and behavioral disorders are successful in teaching, retaining, and graduating this population of students. Their teaching methods and strategies included a strong biblical foundation to develop emotional and behavioral…

  19. The role of emotion regulation in auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C; Paulik, Georgie; Maybery, Murray T

    2011-02-28

    Emotion regulation involves the use of strategies to influence the experience and expression of emotions. Anxiety and depression are strongly associated with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations (AHs). Individuals usually try to down-regulate (decrease) such emotions, consequently abnormal or maladaptive use of one or more of these down-regulatory processes (e.g. increased use of expressive suppression or maladaptive attentional deployment, i.e. rumination/worry) may play an important role in AHs (e.g. increasing AH severity and distress). This study examined the self-reported use of a range of emotion regulation strategies in individuals with schizophrenia and current AHs (SZ AH; N=34) and healthy controls (N=34). Two separable dimensions of hallucinatory experiences (severity and distress) were assessed together with measures of anxiety, depression and happiness. Within the SZ AH group, greater use of expressive suppression was associated with an increase in severity of AHs and greater disruption in daily life. In addition, rumination was significantly positively correlated with the distress (but not with the severity) associated with AHs. Within the control group, expressive suppression, rumination and worry were associated with more anxiety/depression and less happiness, as predicted. The implications of different emotion regulation strategies for the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and AHs are discussed. PMID:20678808

  20. The automaticity of emotional Stroop: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Phaf, R Hans; Kan, Kees-Jan

    2007-06-01

    An automatic bias to threat is often invoked to account for colour-naming interference in emotional Stroop. Recent findings by McKenna and Sharma [(2004). Reversing the emotional Stroop effect reveals that it is not what it seems: The role of fast and slow components. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 382-392], however, cast doubt on the fast and non-conscious nature of emotional Stroop. Interference by threat words only occurred with colour naming in the trial subsequent to the threat trial (i.e., a "slow" effect), but not immediately (i.e., a "fast" effect, as would be predicted by the bias hypothesis). In a meta-analysis of 70 published emotional Stroop studies the largest effects occurred when presentation of threat words was blocked, suggesting a strong contribution by slow interference. We did not find evidence; moreover, for interference in suboptimal (less conscious) presentation conditions and the only significant effects were observed in optimal (fully conscious) conditions with high-anxious non-clinical participants and patients. The emotional Stroop effect seems to rely more on a slow disengagement process than on a fast, automatic, bias. PMID:17112461

  1. Implicit emotional processing in peripheral vision: behavioral and neural evidence.

    PubMed

    Rigoulot, Simon; D'Hondt, Fabien; Honoré, Jacques; Sequeira, Henrique

    2012-10-01

    Emotional facial expressions (EFE) are efficiently processed when both attention and gaze are focused on them. However, what kind of processing persists when EFE are neither the target of attention nor of gaze remains largely unknown. Consequently, in this experiment we investigated whether the implicit processing of faces displayed in far periphery could still be modulated by their emotional expression. Happy, fearful and neutral faces appeared randomly for 300 ms at four peripheral locations of a panoramic screen (15 and 30° in the right and left visual fields). Reaction times and electrophysiological responses were recorded from 32 participants who had to categorize these faces according to their gender. A decrease of behavioral performance was specifically found for happy and fearful faces, probably because emotional content was automatically processed and interfered with information necessary to the task. A spatio-temporal principal component analysis of electrophysiological data confirmed an enhancement of early activity in occipito-temporal areas for emotional faces in comparison with neutral ones. Overall, these data show an implicit processing of EFE despite the strong decrease of visual performance with eccentricity. Therefore, the present research suggests that EFE could be automatically detected in peripheral vision, confirming the abilities of humans to process emotional saliency in very impoverished conditions of vision. PMID:22944003

  2. The effects of conformity on recognition judgements for emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charity; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to another's account of a shared event can influence the content of an individual's memory report. We examine whether the emotionality of the to-be-remembered information influences the likelihood that socially encountered post-event information is accepted into memory. Participants were exposed to positive, negative or neutral emotional pictures. Subsequently, they had to discriminate these pictures from new pictures in a 'yes/no' recognition decision either before or subsequent to a confederate providing misinformation, accurate or no information. Post-event information influenced participants' responding in the recognition test. Effects were larger for participants viewing neutral items and persisted for these items on a subsequent private source monitoring test. These findings indicate that people rely more on information from others when encountering non-emotional compared to emotional items. We suggest that increased memory strength in conjunction with access to strong retrieval cues in the recognition test serves to shield emotional items from vulnerability to effects of memory conformity. PMID:19782336

  3. [Recognition of vocal expression of emotion and its acoustic attributes].

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Sumi

    2004-02-01

    The vocal expression of emotion was examined with both an auditory experiment and objective acoustic analyses. In the auditory experiment the stimuli were words or short sentences with six basic emotions expressed by two actors. Forty-five undergraduate and graduate students participated in the experiment. The results showed that the vocal expression of emotion was strongly identified, except in the case of fear, and that the six basic emotions could be plotted in a psychological space with two dimensions calculated from multidimensional scaling. The plot formed a roughly circular surface, with locations very similar to those of the facial expressions. One dimension was considered to represent the element of pleasantness-unpleasantness. The actors voices were then acoustically analyzed. The results suggested that the mean fundamental frequency (F0), the standard deviation (SD) of F0, and the SD of the energy are the important factors that define the characteristics of the vocal expression of emotions. To determine the most important parameter(s) and explain the two dimensions of the psychological space, canonical correlation analysis was conducted. The analysis indicated that F0 was correlated with the pleasantness-unpleasantness dimension. PMID:15112509

  4. Enhanced emotional responses during social coordination with a virtual partner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengsen; Dumas, Guillaume; Kelso, J A Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Emotion and motion, though seldom studied in tandem, are complementary aspects of social experience. This study investigates variations in emotional responses during movement coordination between a human and a Virtual Partner (VP), an agent whose virtual finger movements are driven by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) equations of Coordination Dynamics. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to coordinate finger movements with the VP in either inphase or antiphase patterns. By adjusting model parameters, we manipulated the 'intention' of VP as cooperative or competitive with the human's instructed goal. Skin potential responses (SPR) were recorded to quantify the intensity of emotional response. At the end of each trial, subjects rated the VP's intention and whether they thought their partner was another human being or a machine. We found greater emotional responses when subjects reported that their partner was human and when coordination was stable. That emotional responses are strongly influenced by dynamic features of the VP's behavior, has implications for mental health, brain disorders and the design of socially cooperative machines. PMID:27094374

  5. Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students

    PubMed Central

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

  6. Emotional Coherence in Primary School Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on emotion and leadership. It views emotions as the language of relationships, because it is through the language and experience of emotion that we contextualize not only our individuality but also our sense of belonging in a group. The article argues that emotion is inherent to the practice of leadership rather than separate…

  7. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

  8. Building Emotional Literacy: Groundwork to Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa-Sanchez, Magali

    2008-01-01

    Part of social and emotional development is a child's emotional literacy. Numerous strategies exist for the development of children's emotional and social development, and for their emotional readiness for school. Teachers might arrange a classroom environment that is not overly structured or regimented. The environment should reflect who the…

  9. Disambiguating the Components of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Affective neuroscience and cognitive science approaches are useful for understanding the components of emotion regulation; several examples from current research are provided. Individual differences in emotion regulation and a focus on the context of emotion experience and expression provide additional tools to study emotion regulation, and its…

  10. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

  11. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

  12. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  13. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  14. Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders.

    PubMed

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M

    2002-04-01

    Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed. PMID:11984256

  15. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  16. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Emotions Associated with Optimal and Dysfunctional Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Devonport, Tracey J.; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key points Athletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions. Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions. Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

  18. Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

  19. How children use emotional prosody: Crossmodal emotional integration?

    PubMed

    Gil, Sandrine; Hattouti, Jamila; Laval, Virginie

    2016-07-01

    A crossmodal effect has been observed in the processing of facial and vocal emotion in adults and infants. For the first time, we assessed whether this effect is present in childhood by administering a crossmodal task similar to those used in seminal studies featuring emotional faces (i.e., a continuum of emotional expressions running from happiness to sadness: 90% happy, 60% happy, 30% happy, neutral, 30% sad, 60% sad, 90% sad) and emotional prosody (i.e., sad vs. happy). Participants were 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children and a control group of adult students. The children had a different pattern of results from the adults, with only the 9-year-olds exhibiting the crossmodal effect whatever the emotional condition. These results advance our understanding of emotional prosody processing and the efficiency of crossmodal integration in children and are discussed in terms of a developmental trajectory and factors that may modulate the efficiency of this effect in children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337513

  20. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  1. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. PMID:25291087

  2. Discrete Neural Signatures of Basic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Saarimäki, Heini; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Lampinen, Jouko; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-06-01

    Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions. We tested this assumption by using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to classify brain activity patterns of 6 basic emotions (disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, anger, and surprise) in 3 experiments. Emotions were induced with short movies or mental imagery during functional magnetic resonance imaging. MVPA accurately classified emotions induced by both methods, and the classification generalized from one induction condition to another and across individuals. Brain regions contributing most to the classification accuracy included medial and inferior lateral prefrontal cortices, frontal pole, precentral and postcentral gyri, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex. Thus, specific neural signatures across these regions hold representations of different emotional states in multimodal fashion, independently of how the emotions are induced. Similarity of subjective experiences between emotions was associated with similarity of neural patterns for the same emotions, suggesting a direct link between activity in these brain regions and the subjective emotional experience. PMID:25924952

  3. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

  4. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  5. Psychosocial working conditions: an analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388

  6. Polish Version of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS): Psychometric Properties and Validation.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Konrad S; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Styła, Rafał; Zajenkowska, Anna; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Linke, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion skills (Poor skills), and use of diversion to enhance another's mood (Divert). The results showed that among MEOS dimensions, Enhance was the most strongly related to performance-based emotional intelligence. Among the Dark Triad, Narcissism was related to the greatest number of MEOS subscales-all except Poor skills. The results indicated that the MEOS has a similar factor structure, reliability, and pattern of correlations with personality and emotional intelligence in Poland as in previous studies. PMID:27154378

  7. Emotional regulation and bodily sensation: interoceptive awareness is intact in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nova; McGowan, John; Minati, Ludovico; Critchley, Hugo D

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Theoretical models suggest that deficits in labeling physiological sensations of emotion contribute to affective instability in BPD. Interoceptive awareness refers to the ability to perceive changes in internal bodily states, and is linked to the subjective experience and control of emotions. The authors tested whether differences in interoceptive awareness accounted for emotional instability in BPD. Patients diagnosed with BPD (n = 24) were compared to healthy controls (n = 30) on two established measures of interoceptive awareness, a heartbeat perception task and a heartbeat monitoring task. Contrary to their hypothesis, the authors observed no significant differences in objective measures of interoceptive awareness. Their findings provide strong evidence against the notion that difficulties in emotional regulation in BPD are connected to differences in interoceptive awareness. PMID:22928847

  8. Are effects of emotion expression on trait impressions mediated by babyfaceness? Evidence from connectionist modeling.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2007-05-01

    Two studies provided evidence that bolsters the Marsh, Adams, and Kleck hypothesis that the morphology of certain emotion expressions reflects an evolved adaptation to mimic babies or mature adults. Study 1 found differences in emotion expressions' resemblance to babies using objective indices of babyfaceness provided by connectionist models that are impervious to overlapping cultural stereotypes about babies and the emotions. Study 2 not only replicated parallels between impressions of certain emotions and babies versus adults but also showed that objective indices of babyfaceness partially mediated impressions of the emotion expressions. babyface effects were independent of strong effects of attractiveness, and babyfaceness did not mediate impressions of happy expressions, to which the evolutionary hypothesis would not apply. PMID:17440203

  9. The need to nurse the nurse: emotional labor in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    In this 14-month ethnographic study, I examined the emotional labor and coping strategies of 114, level-4, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses. Emotional labor was an underrecognized component in the care of vulnerable infants and families. The nature of this labor was contextualized within complex personal, professional, and organizational layers of demand on the emotions of NICU nurses. Coping strategies included talking with the sisterhood of nurses, being a super nurse, using social talk and humor, taking breaks, offering flexible aid, withdrawing from emotional pain, transferring out of the NICU, attending memorial services, and reframing loss to find meaning in work. The organization had strong staffing, but emotional labor was not recognized, supported, or rewarded. The findings can contribute to the development of interventions to nurse the nurse, and to ultimately facilitate NICU nurses' nurturance of stressed families. These have implications for staff retention, job satisfaction, and delivery of care. PMID:24675967

  10. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  11. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  12. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  13. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Throughout her ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

  14. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping Tips & Strategies Are You Severely Depressed? Dystonia & Depression Dystonia & Anxiety Finding a Mental Health Professional When a Child is Diagnosed Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is ...

  15. Emodiversity and the emotional ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Gruber, June; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Kogan, Alexsandr; Kotsou, Ilios; Norton, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 143(6) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2014-49316-001). There is a color coding error in Figure 2. The correct color coding is explained in the erratum.] Bridging psychological research exploring emotional complexity and research in the natural sciences on the measurement of biodiversity, we introduce--and demonstrate the benefits of--emodiversity: the variety and relative abundance of the emotions that humans experience. Two cross-sectional studies across more than 37,000 respondents demonstrate that emodiversity is an independent predictor of mental and physical health--such as decreased depression and doctor's visits--over and above mean levels of positive and negative emotion. These results remained robust after controlling for gender, age, and the 5 main dimensions of personality. Emodiversity is a practically important and previously unidentified metric for assessing the health of the human emotional ecosystem. PMID:25285428

  16. Sleep and Emotional Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes, and most recently, the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. In this article, we survey an array of diverse findings across basic and clinical research domains, resulting in a convergent view of sleep-dependent emotional brain processing. Based on the unique neurobiology of sleep, we outline a model describing the overnight modulation of affective neural systems and the (re)processing of recent emotional experiences, both of which appear to redress the appropriate next-day reactivity of limbic and associated autonomic networks. Furthermore, a REM sleep hypothesis of emotional-memory processing is proposed, the implications of which may provide brain-based insights into the association between sleep abnormalities and the initiation and maintenance of mood disturbances. PMID:25285060

  17. Stress, affiliation, and emotional contagion.

    PubMed

    Gump, B B; Kulik, J A

    1997-02-01

    Female participants were exposed to high or low threat in the presence of another person believed to be facing either the same or a different situation. In Study 1, each dyad consisted of 2 actual participants, whereas in Study 2, each dyad consisted of 1 participant and 1 confederate, trained to convey either a calm or a nervous reaction to the situation. Affiliation patterns in both studies, defined in terms of the amount of time spent looking at the affiliate, were consistent with S. Schachter's (1959) "emotional similarity hypothesis"; threat increased affiliation and did so particularly with affiliates believed to be facing the same situation. The authors also found evidence of behavioral mimicry, in terms of facial expressions, and emotional contagion, in terms of self-reported anxiety. The behavioral mimicry and emotional contagion results are considered from both primitive emotional contagion and social comparison theory perspectives. PMID:9107002

  18. Modelling and simulation of radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Norman F.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, models are described which have been developed to model both the way in which a population of cells respond to radiation and the way in which a population of patients respond to radiotherapy to assist the conduct of clinical trials in silico. Population balance techniques have been used to simulate the age distribution of tumour cells in the cell cycle. Sensitivity to radiation is not constant round the cell cycle and a single fraction of radiation changes the age distribution. Careful timing of further fractions of radiation can be used to maximize the damage delivered to the tumour while minimizing damage to normal tissue. However, tumour modelling does not necessarily predict patient outcome. A separate model has been established to predict the course of a brain cancer called glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The model considers the growth of the tumour and its effect on the normal brain. A simple representation is included of the health status of the patient and hence the type of treatment offered. It is concluded that although these and similar models have a long way yet to be developed, they are beginning to have an impact on the development of clinical practice.

  19. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

  20. Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellitteri, John; Dealy, Michael; Fasano, Charles; Kugler, John

    2006-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective…

  1. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roopashri, G; Baig, Muqeet

    2013-12-01

    Necessity is the mother of all inventions. This is also true in case of cancer therapy. With increasing incidence of head and neck malignancies, remarkable developments have been made towards cancer development and treatment which continues to be a major challenge. Approximately fifty percent of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy which contributes towards forty percent of curative treatment for cancer. New developments in radiation oncology have helped to improve outlook for patients and find more effective treatment. With the advent of new technologies, radiotherapy seems to be promising in patients with head and neck malignancies these advancements include Altered fractionation, Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Image Guided Radiotherapy, Stereotactic radiation, Charged-particle radiotherapy, and Intraoperative radiotherapy. How to cite this article: Roopashri G, Baig M. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):119-23 . PMID:24453456

  2. Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zheng; Liang, Rui; Wang, Cheng-qiong; Xu, Shaofeng; Li, Nana; He, Yuejuan; Tang, Fushan; Chen, Ling; Ma, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background/Introduction: Aidi injection plus radiotherapy is widely used for lung cancer in China. Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer? Has Aidi injection the attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy? There is lack of strong evidence to prove it. Objectives: To reveal its real attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy and provide sufficient evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy strategies to lung cancer, we systematically evaluated all related studies. Data Sources: We collected all studies about Aidi injection plus radiotherapy for lung cancer in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, China national knowledge infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese scientific journals full-text database (VIP), Wanfang database, China biological medicine database (CBM) (established to June 2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (June 2015), evaluated their quality according to the Cochrane evaluation handbook of randomized controlled trials (5.1.0), extracted data following the PICO principles and synthesized the data by Meta analysis. Results: Sixteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 1192 lung cancer patients were included, with general methodological quality in most trials. The merged relative risk (RR) values and their 95% CI of meta-analysis for objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and quality of life (QOL) were as follows: 1.54, (1.39,1.70), 1.10 (1.02, 1.19), and 2.13 (1.68, 2.68). The merged RR values and their 95% CI of meta-analysis for myelosuppression and neutropenia, radiation pneumonitis, and radiation esophagitis were as follows: 0.51 (0.38, 0.69), 0.53 (0.42, 0.65), 0.52 (0.41, 0.67), and 0.52 (0.40, 0.68). All were statistically significant. The possibility of publication bias was small which objectively reported the results. Conclusions: The evidence available indicates that Aidi injection plus radiotherapy can significantly

  3. Taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral word norms.

    PubMed

    Janschewitz, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    Although taboo words are used to study emotional memory and attention, no easily accessible normative data are available that compare taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral words on the same scales. Frequency, inappropriateness, valence, arousal, and imageability ratings for taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral words were made by 78 native-English-speaking college students from a large metropolitan university. The valenced set comprised both positive and negative words, and the emotionally neutral set comprised category-related and category-unrelated words. To account for influences of demand characteristics and personality factors on the ratings, frequency and inappropriateness measures were decomposed into raters' personal reactions to the words versus raters' perceptions of societal reactions to the words (personal use vs. familiarity and offensiveness vs. tabooness, respectively). Although all word sets were rated higher in familiarity and tabooness than in personal use and offensiveness, these differences were most pronounced for the taboo set. In terms of valence, the taboo set was most similar to the negative set, although it yielded higher arousal ratings than did either valenced set. Imageability for the taboo set was comparable to that of both valenced sets. The ratings of each word are presented for all participants as well as for single-sex groups. The inadequacies of the application of normative data to research that uses emotional words and the conceptualization of taboo words as a coherent category are discussed. Materials associated with this article may be accessed at the Psychonomic Society's Archive of Norms, Stimuli, and Data, www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:19001397

  4. A new look at emotion perception: Concepts speed and shape facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Lindquist, Kristen A; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-10-01

    Decades ago, the "New Look" movement challenged how scientists thought about vision by suggesting that conceptual processes shape visual perceptions. Currently, affective scientists are likewise debating the role of concepts in emotion perception. Here, we utilized a repetition-priming paradigm in conjunction with signal detection and individual difference analyses to examine how providing emotion labels-which correspond to discrete emotion concepts-affects emotion recognition. In Study 1, pairing emotional faces with emotion labels (e.g., "sad") increased individuals' speed and sensitivity in recognizing emotions. Additionally, individuals with alexithymia-who have difficulty labeling their own emotions-struggled to recognize emotions based on visual cues alone, but not when emotion labels were provided. Study 2 replicated these findings and further demonstrated that emotion concepts can shape perceptions of facial expressions. Together, these results suggest that emotion perception involves conceptual processing. We discuss the implications of these findings for affective, social, and clinical psychology. PMID:25938612

  5. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  6. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  7. A dose comparison of proton radiotherapy and photon radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of photon radiotherapy and to compare the dose of treatment planning between proton radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for pediatric brain tumor patients. This study was conducted in five pediatric brain tumor patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation treatment from October 2013 to April 2014 in the hospital. The study compared organs at risk (OARs) by assessing the dose distribution of normal tissue from the proton plan and 3D-CRT. Furthermore, this study assessed the treatment plans by looking at the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI). As a result, the study revealed OARs due to the small volume proton radiotherapy dose distribution in the normal tissue. Also, by comparing HI and CI between the 3D-CRT and proton radiotherapy plan, the study found that the dose of proton radiotherapy plan was homogenized. When conducting 3D-CRT and proton radiotherapy in a dose-volume histogram comparison, the dose of distribution turned out to be low. Consequently, proton radiotherapy is used for protecting the normal tissue, and is used in tumor tissue as a homogenized dose for effective treatment.

  8. [Image-guided radiotherapy and partial delegation to radiotherapy technicians: Clermont-Ferrand experience].

    PubMed

    Loos, G; Moreau, J; Miroir, J; Benhaïm, C; Biau, J; Caillé, C; Bellière, A; Lapeyre, M

    2013-10-01

    The various image-guided radiotherapy techniques raise the question of how to achieve the control of patient positioning before irradiation session and sharing of tasks between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians. We have put in place procedures and operating methods to make a partial delegation of tasks to radiotherapy technicians and secure the process in three situations: control by orthogonal kV imaging (kV-kV) of bony landmarks, control by kV-kV imaging of intraprostatic fiducial goldmarkers and control by cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging for prostate cancer. Significant medical overtime is required to control these three IGRT techniques. Because of their competence in imaging, these daily controls can be delegated to radiotherapy technicians. However, to secure the process, initial training and regular evaluation are essential. The analysis of the comparison of the use of kV/kV on bone structures allowed us to achieve a partial delegation of control to radiotherapy technicians. Controlling the positioning of the prostate through the use and automatic registration of fiducial goldmarkers allows better tracking of the prostate and can be easily delegated to radiotherapy technicians. The analysis of the use of daily cone beam CT for patients treated with intensity modulated irradiation is underway, and a comparison of practices between radiotherapy technicians and radiation oncologists is ongoing to know if a partial delegation of this control is possible. PMID:24011600

  9. Charged particle radiotherapy at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center: Characteristics, technology and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center was constructed in 2001 as the world’s first charged particle radiotherapy center where both proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy can be performed. From April 2001 to February 2007, more than 1,400 patients with a variety of cancers were treated. Most of the tumors except for prostate cancer were considered hard to cure with standard treatments such as surgery or conventional x-ray radiotherapy. The clinical results obtained so far are very encouraging, mainly due to the excellent dose localization to the tumor and strong cell killing effects of protons and carbon-ions. The good indications are localized tumors including skull base tumors, head and neck tumors, cancers of the lung, the liver, and the prostate, and bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Charged particle radiotherapy will significantly improve the quality of life of cancer patients and promote their speedy return to normal lives or work if it is used for early stage cancer. PMID:24367141

  10. Strong-back safety latch

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  11. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566

  12. Trauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood

    PubMed Central

    Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël; Hearn, Melissa; Fürst, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. PMID:25317255

  13. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  14. An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

  15. Recent advances of strong-strong beam-beam simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Ohmi,Kazuhito

    2004-09-15

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in strong-strong beam-beam simulation. Numerical methods used in the calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. A new computational method to solve the Poisson equation on nonuniform grid is presented. This method reduces the computational cost by a half compared with the standard FFT based method on uniform grid. It is also more accurate than the standard method for a colliding beam with low transverse aspect ratio. In applications, we present the study of coherent modes with multi-bunch, multi-collision beam-beam interactions at RHIC. We also present the strong-strong simulation of the luminosity evolution at KEKB with and without finite crossing angle.

  16. Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation is a process linked to lapses of attention, history of abuse or trauma, compromised emotional memory, and a disintegrated sense of self. It is theorized that dissociation stems from avoiding emotional information, especially negative emotion, to protect a fragile psyche. The present study tested whether or not dissociaters do actually avoid processing emotion by asking groups scoring high or low on the Dissociative Experiences Scale to judge the affective valence of several types of emotional stimuli. Manipulations of valence, modality (pictures or words), task complexity, and personal relevance lead to results suggesting that dissociation is linked to facilitated rather than deficient emotional processing. Our results are consistent with a theory that sensitivity to emotional material may be a contributing factor in subsequent dissociation to avoid further elaboration of upsetting emotion in these individuals. The findings for dissociation further exemplify the influence of individual differences in the link between cognition and emotion. PMID:18837615

  17. Experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäkel, O.; Schulz-Ertner, D.; Karger, C. P.; Heeg, P.; Debus, J.

    2005-12-01

    At GSI, a radiotherapy facility was established using beam scanning and active energy variation. Between December 1997 and April 2004, 220 patients have been treated at this facility with carbon ions. Most patients are treated for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull, using a dose of 60 Gye (Gray equivalent) in 20 fractions. Carbon ion therapy is also offered in a combination with conventional radiotherapy for a number of other tumors (adenoidcystic carcinoma, chordoma of the cervical spine and sacrum, atypical menningeoma). The patients treated for skull base tumors showed an overall local control rate after two years of 90%. The overall treatment toxicity was mild. This shows that carbon ion radiotherapy can safely be applied using a scanned beam and encouraged the Heidelberg university hospital to build a hospital based facility for ion therapy.

  18. Respiration gated radiotherapy treatment: a technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hideo D.; Hill, Bruce C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimize external-beam conformal radiotherapy, patient movement during treatment must be minimized. For treatment on the upper torso, the target organs are known to move substantially due to patient respiration. This paper deals with the technical aspects of gating the radiotherapy beam synchronously with respiration: the optimal respiration monitoring system, measurements of organ displacement and linear accelerator gating. Several respiration sensors including a thermistor, a thermocouple, a strain gauge and a pneumotachograph were examined to find the optimal sensor. The magnitude of breast, chest wall and lung motion were determined using playback of fluoroscopic x-ray images recorded on a VCR during routine radiotherapy simulation. Total dose, beam symmetry and beam uniformity were examined to determine any effects on the Varian 2100C linear accelerator due to gating.

  19. Differences in breast tissue oxygenation following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dornfeld, Ken; Gessert, Charles E; Renier, Colleen M; McNaney, David D; Urias, Rodolfo E; Knowles, Denise M; Beauduy, Jean L; Widell, Sherry L; McDonald, Bonita L

    2011-08-01

    Tissue perfusion and oxygenation changes following radiotherapy may result from and/or contribute to the toxicity of treatment. Breast tissue oxygenation levels were determined in the treated and non-treated breast 1 year after radiotherapy for breast conserving treatment. Transcutaneous oxygenation varied between subjects in both treated and non-treated breast. Subjects without diabetes mellitus (n=16) had an average oxygenation level of 64.8 ± 19.9mmHg in the irradiated breast and an average of 72.3 ± 18.1mmHg (p=0.018) at the corresponding location in the control breast. Patients with diabetes (n=4) showed a different oxygenation pattern, with lower oxygenation levels in control tissue and no decrease in the irradiated breast. This study suggests oxygenation levels in normal tissues vary between patients and may respond differently after radiotherapy. PMID:21356563

  20. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer After 76 Gy Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy vs. 70 Gy Conformal Radiotherapy in a Prospective and Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene Dehnad, Human; Kruger, Arto Boeken; Moorselaar, Jeroen van; Heide, Uulke van; Battermann, Jan; Vulpen, Marco van

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QoL) after 70 Gy conformal radiotherapy with QoL after 76 Gy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were treated with 70 Gy three-field conformal radiotherapy, and 92 patients received 76 Gy IMRT with fiducial markers for position verification. Quality of life was measured by RAND-36, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30(+3)), and the prostate-specific EORTC QLQ-PR25, before radiotherapy (baseline) and 1 month and 6 months after treatment. Quality of life changes in time (baseline vs. 1 month and baseline vs. 6 months) of {>=}10 points were considered clinically relevant. Results: Differences between the treatment groups for QoL changes over time occurred in several QoL domains. The 76-Gy group revealed no significant deterioration in QoL compared with the 70-Gy group. The IMRT 76-Gy group even demonstrated a significantly better change in QoL from baseline to 1 month in several domains. The conformal 70-Gy group revealed temporary deterioration in pain, role functioning, and urinary symptoms; for the IMRT 76-Gy group a better QoL in terms of change in health existed after 1 month, which persisted after 6 months. For both treatment groups temporary deterioration in physical role restriction occurred after 1 month, and an improvement in emotional role restriction occurred after 6 months. Sexual activity was reduced after treatment for both groups and remained decreased after 6 months. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and accurate position verification seem to provide a possibility to increase the radiation dose for prostate cancer without deterioration in QoL.

  2. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    PubMed Central

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  3. Circadian preference is associated with emotional and affective temperaments.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Gustavo L; Antoniolli, Eduardo; Lara, Diogo R

    2012-07-01

    Chronotype has long been associated with mental disorders and temperamental features. This study aims to investigate the association of circadian preference with a new model for emotional and affective temperament. In this Web survey, 6436 subjects (27.2% males) answered the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), and questions on subjective sleep parameters for a sleep-based chronotype measure. Temperament was more strongly correlated with daily energy score than with chronotype. For emotional dimensions, Volition, Coping, and Control positively correlated with high and stable daily energy, contrary to Sensitivity. Evening types showed a less adaptive emotional profile than morning and intermediate types, who showed a relatively similar emotional pattern. Focus and order (facets of Control), energy (facet of Volition), caution (facet of Inhibition), and problem facing (facet of Coping) were distinctive for the three circadian types, being particularly low in evening types and high in morning types. Differences between affective temperaments were more pronounced for morning and afternoon than for evening scores. Cyclothymic and euphoric temperaments, which relate to bipolar disorders, and apathetic, volatile, and disinhibited temperaments, which relate to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed the latest chronotype (i.e., evening preference). In conclusion, temperament was more associated with absolute energy levels than with chronotype. Evening types had less emotional control, coping, volition, and caution, and more affective instability and externalization. The circadian daily energy profile can be very informative about human temperament and vice versa, and their combined assessment may be useful in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. PMID:22734579

  4. Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition

    PubMed Central

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Methods: Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the “old” or the “new” button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very

  5. Mixed emotional appeals in emotional and danger control processes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo

    2010-12-01

    Negative emotional appeals do not always help to reduce risk behaviors. We report two studies about a new strategy based on the presentation of appeals with mixed sequential emotions (e.g., sadness/fear-joy/relief). Study 1 shows that a mixed message generates lower post-message discomfort than an exclusively negative message; moreover, in this first study, reported probability of performing the risk behavior, binge drinking, in the future is also lower in the mixed condition. Study 2 replicates these results and relates them to the extended parallel process model (EPPM) (Witte, 1992). Here, the mixed emotional message again generates lower post-message discomfort than the negative one, and participants are motivated to control the danger (response efficacy is evaluated more positively in the mixed condition). PMID:21153989

  6. Rationale for intraoperative radiotherapy in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Frank A; Wenz, Frederik; Petrecca, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive adult primary brain cancer. Despite multimodal therapy, it is associated with a survival of less than two years. Greater than 85% of recurrences occur within the original area of surgery and radiotherapy, suggesting a potential for improved local treatments. In addition to cancer cell invasion beyond surgical margins, a plethora of postinjury pro-proliferative stimuli are released from local healing brain, which both protect and nourish remaining cancer cells. This review compiles preclinical and clinical evidence for a dedicated treatment of both residual cancer cells and regional microenvironment using intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). PMID:26824195

  7. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kolm, I.; Pawlik, E.; Eggmann, N.; Kamarachev, J.; Kerl, K.; French, L.E.; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE) following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance. PMID:24019776

  8. Remote delayed recurrence of craniopharyngioma after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Mohan, Santosh Rao; Subramaniam, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to present a rare case of recurrent craniopharyngioma remote from the primary site of origin. A young girl was operated for sellar region craniopharyngioma. For a small residual tumor, she underwent radiotherapy. Follow-up imaging did not reveal any residual tumor or recurrence. Surveillance magnetic resonance imaging after 5 years revealed a recurrence in the right Sylvian fissure. This tumor was totally excised. Recurrence of craniopharyngioma is well-known, but recurrence at a site remote from the original site after radiotherapy is extremely rare. One such case is being presented. PMID:25878741

  9. Remote delayed recurrence of craniopharyngioma after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Mohan, Santosh Rao; Subramaniam, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to present a rare case of recurrent craniopharyngioma remote from the primary site of origin. A young girl was operated for sellar region craniopharyngioma. For a small residual tumor, she underwent radiotherapy. Follow-up imaging did not reveal any residual tumor or recurrence. Surveillance magnetic resonance imaging after 5 years revealed a recurrence in the right Sylvian fissure. This tumor was totally excised. Recurrence of craniopharyngioma is well-known, but recurrence at a site remote from the original site after radiotherapy is extremely rare. One such case is being presented. PMID:25878741

  10. Time to demand dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Guy, M J

    2015-01-01

    Molecular radiotherapy (MRT) has been used clinically for around 75 years. Despite this long history of clinical use, there is no established dosimetry practice for calculating the absorbed dose delivered to tumour targets or to organs at risk. As a result, treatment protocols have often evolved based on experience with relatively small numbers of patients, each receiving a similar administered activity but, potentially, widely varying doses. This is in stark contrast to modern external-beam radiotherapy practice. This commentary describes some of the barriers to MRT dosimetry and gives some opinions on the way forward. PMID:25571916

  11. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  12. Emotion knowledge in young neglected children.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632

  13. Do emergency nurses have enough emotional intelligence?

    PubMed

    Codier, Estelle; Codier, David

    2015-06-01

    A significant body of research suggests there is a correlation between measured emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and performance in nursing. The four critical elements of EI, namely the abilities to identify emotions correctly in self and others, using emotions to support reasoning, understanding emotions and managing emotions, apply to emergency care settings and are important for safe patient care, teamwork, retention and burnout prevention. This article describes 'emotional labour' and the importance of EI abilities for emergency nurses, and suggests that such abilities should be considered core competencies for the profession. PMID:26050781

  14. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  15. Emotional arousal predicts intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Lempert, Karolina M; Johnson, Eli; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it. Here the authors use an objective measure of arousal-pupil dilation-to investigate if emotional arousal mediates the influence of delayed reward concreteness on choice. They recorded pupil dilation responses while participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards. They manipulated concreteness through time interval framing: delayed rewards were presented either with the date on which they would be received (e.g., "$30, May 3"; DATE condition, more concrete) or in terms of delay to receipt (e.g., "$30, 7 days; DAYS condition, less concrete). Contrary to prior work, participants were not overall more patient in the DATE condition. However, there was individual variability in response to time framing, and this variability was predicted by differences in pupil dilation between conditions. Emotional arousal increased as the subjective value of delayed rewards increased, and predicted choice of the delayed reward on each trial. This study advances our understanding of the role of emotion in temporal discounting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882337

  16. Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.

    2011-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

  17. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  18. The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

  19. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-15

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies that underpin our current practice are discussed briefly.

  20. [Current situation and future prospects of radiotherapy for malignant gliomas].

    PubMed

    Terahara, Atsuro

    2013-10-01

    Prognosis of malignant gliomas remains poor, although adjuvant radiotherapy increases survival time. To improve treatment outcomes, high-precision radiotherapy techniques such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, stereotactic irradiation, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and charged particle radiotherapy have been developed for dose distribution optimization and dose escalation. Improvements in clinical outcomes with these new treatment strategies have been reported; however, the efficacy of these treatment strategies has not yet been verified in randomized trials. Further development of radiation delivery techniques, including boron neutron capture therapy, and ways of achieving more adequate target volume delineation using modern multimodality imaging technology are currently being intensively investigated to further improve patient outcomes. PMID:24105051