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1

Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

Chapet, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)]. E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Mornex, Francoise [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Souquet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Gastroenterology, Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Favrel, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ardiet, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)

2005-04-01

2

Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Second Grade Students: A Study of the "Strong Start" Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The promotion of social and emotional learning (SEL) in schools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems of students. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start," on the social-emotional competence of 26 second grade students, using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Results revealed…

Caldarella, Paul; Christensen, Lynnette; Kramer, Thomas J.; Kronmiller, Kalli

2009-01-01

3

Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated…

Gunter, Leslie; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Byran B.; Young, K. Richard

2012-01-01

4

Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional

Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

2008-01-01

5

Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional

Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

2008-01-01

6

Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

Lamont, Alexandra

2012-01-01

7

Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2012-01-01

8

Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II,

Bee-Horng Lue; Tien-Shang Huang; Hsiu-Jung Chen

2008-01-01

9

Modulation of corticospinal activity by strong emotions evoked by pictures and classical music: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and skin conductance responses, we sought to clarify if, and to what extent, emotional experiences of diˇerent valences and intensity activate the hand^ motor system and the associated corticospinal tract. For that purpose, we applied a newly developed method to evoke strong emotional experiences by the simultaneous presentation of musi- calandpictorialstimuliofcongruentemotionalvalence.Weuncov- ered enhanced motor-evoked potentials, irrespective

Thomas Baumgartner; Matthias Willi

2007-01-01

10

Strong Teens--Grades 9-12: A Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social-emotional competence--it is a critical part of every child's school success, and just like any academic subject, children need instruction in it. Developed by a top expert, these proven curricula will help promote the social-emotional competence and resilience of children and adolescents. Divided into four age levels from kindergarten…

Merrell, Kenneth W.

2007-01-01

11

EMOTIONAL \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) model of organizational learning emphasizes the need for face-to-face communication to establish a channel for tacit-to-tacit knowledge exchange between individuals. Within any organization, new concepts are imparted during these tacit exchanges. This paper explores the relevance of emotional unawareness on learning by examining the association between alexithymia and undergraduate computing and business students' GPA. Alexithymia is

JOHN R. LANDRY

2007-01-01

12

Promoting Social Emotional Competency through Quality Teaching Practices: The Impact of Consultation on a Multidimensional Treatment Integrity Model of the "Strong Kids" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study investigated the impact of brief teacher consultation on teachers' implementation fidelity, quality of implementation, and student responsiveness during the "Strong Kids" social-emotional learning curriculum. Additional outcome measures included teachers' self-efficacy and teachers' perceptions of social validity of the…

Levitt, Verity Helaine

2009-01-01

13

Preschool Social-Emotional Skills Training: A Controlled Pilot Test of the Making Choices and Strong Families Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to pilot test a multicomponent program designed to prevent aggressive behavior in preschool children. The first program component was comprised of social-emotional skills training. It focused on improving the social information processing and emotional-regulation skills of children. The second component was…

Conner, Natalie W.; Fraser, Mark W.

2011-01-01

14

Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and\\/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline.MethodsRegression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level

Matthew C Farrelly; Kevin C Davis; James M Nonnemaker; Kian Kamyab; Christine Jackson

2011-01-01

15

Parents' Beliefs about Emotions and Children's Recognition of Parents' Emotions.  

PubMed

This study investigated parents' emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children's recognition of their parents' emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children's emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers' emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children's general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child's emotion socialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents' emotions. PMID:20160992

Dunsmore, Julie C; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G; Perez-Rivera, Marie B

2009-06-01

16

Music, memory and emotion  

PubMed Central

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Jancke, Lutz

2008-01-01

17

Music, memory and emotion.  

PubMed

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

Jäncke, Lutz

2008-08-08

18

Effects of Color on Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional reactions to color hue, saturation, and brightness (Munsell color system and color chips) were investigated using the Pleasure–Arousal–Dominance emotion model. Saturation (S) and brightness (B) evidenced strong and consistent effects on emotions. Regression equations for standardized variables were: Pleasure = .69B + .22S, Arousal = ? .31B + .60S, Dominance = ? .76B + .32S. Brightness effects were nearly

Patricia Valdez; Albert Mehrabian

1994-01-01

19

Emotional Intelligence: Giving Computers Effective Emotional Skills to Aid Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do computers need emotional intelligence? Science fiction often portrays emotional computers as dangerous and frightening,\\u000a and as a serious threat to human life. One of the most famous examples is HAL, the supercomputer onboard the spaceship Discovery,\\u000a in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could express, recognize and respond to human emotion, and generally had strong emotional skills

Chris Creed; Russell Beale

2008-01-01

20

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

21

Emotions as mind organs.  

PubMed

In matters of the mind, the opposition between what is mind-made or inside and natural or outside the mind is bound to misfire. Lindquist et al. build their analysis on a strong contrast between naturalism, which they reject, and psychologism, which they endorse. We challenge this opposition and indicate how adopting psychologism to combat a naturalistic view of emotional mind/brain areas is self-defeating. We briefly develop the alternative view of emotions as mental organs. PMID:22617656

de Gelder, Beatrice; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

2012-06-01

22

Emotion words shape emotion percepts.  

PubMed

People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-02-06

23

Emotional Pathfinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a study of the influence of emotions on the behaviour of an intelligent pathfinding agent. A model of\\u000a pathfinding is proposed that takes into account the emotional state of the agent. Results show that blindly following the\\u000a most urgent emotion can lead to degenerate behaviour, and that cross-exclusion can be used to effectively moderate emotional\\u000a influences. Applications

Toby Donaldson; Andrew Park; I-ling Lin

2004-01-01

24

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

25

Primary emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current names for emotional states in psychological literature are little more than literary circumlocutions. Something more than a statistical treatment of emotional stimulus-response situations must be given. Standardization of stimulus does not standardize response. The true receptors for emotions, which must be identically stimulated to produce comparable results, lie in the integrative mechanisms, not in the sense organs at the

W. Marston

1927-01-01

26

Emotion Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

27

Emotional Thought or Thoughtful Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical circuits for emotion are straightforward: prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. How- ever, neurophysiologists have not yet uncovered any robust neurophysiological differences among what we perceive to be as radically different emotions. Nevertheless, they be- lieve that someday, they will be able to discover local ana- tomical or physiological differences among our different emotional states. However, it

Valerie Gray Hardcastle

1998-01-01

28

Embodying emotion.  

PubMed

Recent theories of embodied cognition suggest new ways to look at how we process emotional information. The theories suggest that perceiving and thinking about emotion involve perceptual, somatovisceral, and motoric reexperiencing (collectively referred to as "embodiment") of the relevant emotion in one's self. The embodiment of emotion, when induced in human participants by manipulations of facial expression and posture in the laboratory, causally affects how emotional information is processed. Congruence between the recipient's bodily expression of emotion and the sender's emotional tone of language, for instance, facilitates comprehension of the communication, whereas incongruence can impair comprehension. Taken all together, recent findings provide a scientific account of the familiar contention that "when you're smiling, the whole world smiles with you." PMID:17510358

Niedenthal, Paula M

2007-05-18

29

Strong Libraries, Strong Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled Strong Libraries, Strong Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…

Gray, Carlyn

2006-01-01

30

Emotion in Sport across Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions make life worth living. They are essential to sporting life, whether experienced as a child or adult, player or spectator. Our sporting memories are dominated by strong emotion- al events. In the 2000 Olympics, many in the world rejoiced with Australia's Cathy Freeman as she captured gold in the 400 meters. At the other extreme, many Major League Baseball

Peter R. E. CrockerKent; C. KowalskiSharleen; D. Hoar; Meghan H. McDonough

31

Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience.  

PubMed

Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed. PMID:23668818

Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2013-05-13

32

Radiotherapy Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

Mckenzie, Alan

33

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

34

Age and Sex Effects for Emotional Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has shown that younger adults and females report greater average levels of both positive and negative affect over time. It was hypothesized that persons in these categories are higher in emotional intensity, that is, they react more strongly to the same level of emotional stimuli. In support of this hypothesis, women scored higher on measures reflecting emotional intensity

Ed Diener; Ed Sandvik; Randy J. Larsen

1985-01-01

35

Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure

Susann Eschrich; Thomas F Münte; Eckart O Altenmüller

2008-01-01

36

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

Cox, Edward P.

2009-01-01

37

[Synchroton radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is commonly used in the treatment of cancer. The normal tissue tolerance can be a limit to deliver enough dose to the tumor to be curative. The synchrotron beam presents some interesting physical properties, which could decrease this limitation. Synchrotron beam is a medium energy X-ray nearly parallel beam with high intensity. Three methods are under preclinical investigations: the microbeam, the minibeam and the stereotactic radiotherapy. The first two use a geometric irradiation effect called spatial fractioning. The last one use highly conformational irradiation geometry combined with a dose enhancement due to the presence of high-Z element in the target. Synchrotron radiotherapy preclinical experiments have shown some curative effect on rodent glioma models. Following these encouraging results a phase I/II clinical trial of iodinated enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiotherapy is currently being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. PMID:20537443

Deman, P; Edouard, M; Besse, S; Vautrin, M; Elleaume, H; Adam, J-F; Estčve, F

2010-08-01

38

Association between trait emotional awareness and dorsal anterior cingulate activity during emotion is arousal-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is commonly thought to subserve primarily cognitive functions, but has been strongly implicated in the allocation of attention to emotional information. In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study, we observed that women with higher emotional awareness as measured by the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) showed greater changes in regional cerebral blood

Kateri McRae; Eric M. Reiman; Carolyn L. Fort; Kewei Chen

2008-01-01

39

Emotional reactions to infidelity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify emotional reactions to a partner's sexual infidelity and emotional infidelity. In a preliminary study, 53 participants nominated emotional reactions to a partner's sexual and emotional infidelity. In a second study, 655 participants rated each emotion for how likely it was to occur following sexual and emotional infidelity. Principal components analysis revealed 15 emotion components, including Hostile\\/Vengeful,

Todd K. Shackelford; Gregory J. LeBlanc; Elizabeth Drass

2000-01-01

40

Obesity: Role of Emotions and Level of Reinforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The roles of emotional eating, and reinforcement level in obesity were studied. Results provide relatively strong support for the role of emotional eating, and relatively weak support for reinforcement level roles in development of obesity. The occurrence...

E. B. Fisher M. R. Lowe

1981-01-01

41

Beyond Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of emotion and perceptual and cognitive processes interact dynamically and continually. The concepts and techniques that promote emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and emotion utilization have proved effective in promoting favorable behavioral outcomes in both emotion-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions. In this paper, we suggest that current conceptualizations of emotion regulation need to be extended to take these interactions into account.

Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

2009-01-01

42

Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

2011-01-01

43

Emotional stress and reversible myocardial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of clinical and experimental literature supports a strong association between emotional stress and adverse\\u000a outcomes from CVD. Effects of emotional stress on coronary blood flow and cardiac arrhythmias provide only a partial explanation.\\u000a A direct impact of emotional stress on myocardial function has recently received attention as a result of reports of patients\\u000a presenting with new onset

Deepak Khanna; Hong Kan; Conard Failinger; Abnash C. Jain; Mitchell S. Finkel

2006-01-01

44

Emotional and Non-Emotional Persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relevant issue in the domain of natural argumentation and persuasion is the interaction (synergic or conflicting) between “rational” or “cognitive” modes of persuasion and “irrational” or “emotional” ones. This work provides a model of general persuasion and emotional persuasion. We examine two basic modes for appealing to emotions, arguing that emotional persuasion does not necessarily coincide with irrational persuasion,

Maria Miceli; Fiorella De Rosis; Isabella Poggi

2006-01-01

45

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

Parrish, Dominique

2011-01-01

46

Vocal emotion recognition with cochlear implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides conveying linguistic information, spoken language can also transmit important cues regarding the emotion of a talker. These prosodic cues are most strongly coded by changes in am- plitude, pitch, speech rate, voice quality and articulation. The present study investigated the ability of cochlear implant (CI) users to recognize vocal emotions, as well as the relative contributions of spectral and

Xin Luo; Qian-Jie Fu; John J. Galvin III

2006-01-01

47

Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion\\u000a complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in\\u000a age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation\\u000a and the co-occurrence

Elizabeth L. Hay; Manfred Diehl

48

[Update on "expressed emotions"].  

PubMed

The present article is meant to sum up the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to the concept of "Emotional Expression" and its very implementation in the clinical and therapeutical field which are well-known in anglo-saxon countries but very little applied and known in France. "Emotional Expression" (EE), which came out of research and studies undertaken by Brown (1959) and later on, Vaughn and Leff (1976), defines interaction between a schizophrenic patient and his close environment according to 3 criterium: judgmental comments and criticism, hostility, emotional over-involvement. Family surroundings are characterized by strong EE or weak EE according to the frequency and the quantity of the measures during a typical standard family-interview: the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). A strong EE is considered as being a non-specific factor. "Emotional Expression" proves to be a predictable indication for relapse in terms of psychiatric affluence (positive symptoms), hospitalization rate and psycho-social adjustment process. The possibilities of forecasting do not concern specifically schizophrenia as the relation between family climate and relapse can be observed in other mental pathology as well. The psycho-educational approach which is induced by this research trend is based on a concept of a partnership between the patients's family and the patient. The purpose in fact is to bring about changes within the relationship of the patient and his environment so as to reduce judgmental criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement (information programs concerning etiology, therapeutical strategies in view of improving understanding of the illness and to reorganize proper family relationship). The advantage of such a concept which is well-known lies in the fact that it helps to find out those family surroundings with strong EE who represent factors of relapse for psychiatric patients and to suggest therefore therapeutical treatment, the purpose of which should be defined together with all those concerned namely, the patient, the family, the therapeutist so as to intervene during the evolution of the illness. The literary bibliographical review which we have made lead us to find the existence of a wide field of research with results showing clearly the predictable aspects of EE in the illness process. In this way, new approaches in the "intake" of schizophrenic patients and their families are clearly defined. PMID:10951910

Abaoub, A; Vidon, G

49

Reported emotions and conventions of emotionality among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Study 1, 53 college students were asked to appraise their affective experiences in terms of typically and atypically experienced emotions. Results reveal a strong trend toward the delineation of positive affects as typical and negative affects as atypical. Studies 2 and 3, with 101 college students, examined forms of response set that might have contributed to the findings of

Shula Sommers

1984-01-01

50

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

51

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

52

Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

2010-01-01

53

The revised ABC's of rational-emotive therapy (RET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Although I was perceptive enough to realize, in my first paper on rational-emotive therapy (RET) in 1956, that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors almost always are not pure or disparate but significantly include each other, I have appreciably added to this concept and have stressed forceful emotive and educative, as well as strong behavioral, techniques of RET in recent years.

Albert Ellis

1991-01-01

54

Categorization and evaluation of emotional faces in psychopathic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathic individuals have been shown to respond less strongly than normal controls to emotional stimuli. Data about their ability to judge emotional facial expressions are inconsistent and limited to males. To measure categorical and dimensional evaluations of emotional facial expressions in psychopathic and non-psychopathic women, 13 female psychopathic forensic inpatients, 15 female non-psychopathic forensic inmates and 16 female healthy participants

Hedwig Eisenbarth; Georg W. Alpers; Dalia Segrč; Antonino Calogero; Alessandro Angrilli

2008-01-01

55

The Role of Emotions in Student Teachers' Professional Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents findings of a qualitative interview study of the role of emotions in the professional identity of student teachers. Strong positive and negative emotions (mostly related to pupils and supervisors) were expressed about personal teaching experiences. The results confirm that emotions play an important role in social learning…

Timostsuk, Inge; Ugaste, Aino

2012-01-01

56

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

57

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

58

Strong Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

2009-09-29

59

The emotionally intelligent decision maker: emotion-understanding ability reduces the effect of incidental anxiety on risk taking.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we examined how a core dimension of emotional intelligence, emotion-understanding ability, facilitates decision making. Individuals with higher levels of emotion-understanding ability can correctly identify which events caused their emotions and, in particular, whether their emotions stem from events that are unrelated to current decisions. We predicted that incidental feelings of anxiety, which are unrelated to current decisions, would reduce risk taking more strongly among individuals with lower rather than higher levels of emotion-understanding ability. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this prediction. In Experiment 2, the effect of incidental anxiety on risk taking among participants with lower emotion-understanding ability, relative to participants with higher emotion-understanding ability, was eliminated when we informed participants about the source of their anxiety. This finding reveals that emotion-understanding ability guards against the biasing effects of incidental anxiety by helping individuals determine that such anxiety is irrelevant to current decisions. PMID:23221020

Yip, Jeremy A; Côté, Stéphane

2012-12-06

60

Difficulties regulating emotions: Do binge eaters have fewer strategies to modulate and tolerate negative affect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study evaluated whether difficulties regulating emotions explained unique variance in binge eating and examined which types of emotion regulation difficulties are most strongly associated with binge eating. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were completed by 695 undergraduates. Hierarchical regression results indicated that difficulties regulating emotions accounted for a significant amount of

Ursula Whiteside; Eunice Chen; Clayton Neighbors; Dorian Hunter; Tracy Lo; Mary Larimer

2007-01-01

61

How Emotions Affect Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

Sylwester, Robert

1994-01-01

62

7?Emotion in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion has become one of the most popular—and popularized—areas within organizational scholarship. This chapter attempts to review and bring together within a single framework the wide and often disjointed literature on emotion in organizations. The integrated framework includes processes detailed by previous theorists who have defined emotion as a sequence that unfolds chronologically. The emotion process begins with a focal

Hillary Anger Elfenbein

2007-01-01

63

Workgroup emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3

Peter J. Jordan; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Charmine E. J. Härtel; Gregory S. Hooper

2002-01-01

64

Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accu- rate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find

John D. Mayer; Richard D. Roberts; Sigal G. Barsade

2008-01-01

65

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

66

REPELLENT CRIMES AND RATIONAL DELIBERATION: EMOTION AND THE DEATH PENALTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often assumed that the anger, outrage, and other strong emotions provoked by repellent crimes interfere with rational deliberation. There is some truth to the notion that heinous murders and other shocking crimes place an enormous strain on the criminal justice system and may exert a destructive influence on institutional process. Nevertheless, the argument that strong emotion interferes with

Susan A. Bandes

67

Reciprocal modulation and attenuation in the prefrontal cortex: An fMRI study on emotional-cognitive interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday and clinical experience demonstrate strong interactions between emotions and cognitions. Nevertheless the neural correlates underlying emotional- cognitive interaction remain unclear. Using event- related fMRI, we investigated BOLD-signal increases and decreases in medial and lateral prefrontal cortical regions during emotional and non-emotional judgment of photographs taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Emotional and non-emotional judgment conditions were compared

Georg Northoff; Alexander Heinzel; Felix Bermpohl; Robert Niese; Andrea Pfennig; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Gottfried Schlaug

2004-01-01

68

Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing.  

PubMed

How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed. PMID:16118974

Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C

2002-08-01

69

Heavy-ion radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

Kanai, Tatsuaki

2000-11-01

70

The theory of emotion: I: Emotional attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following pages I propose, assuming Darwin's principles as to the explanation of emotional attitudes, and the James-Lange theory of the nature of emotion, to bring these two into some organic connection with each other, indicating the modifications of statement demanded by such connection. This close dependence upon results already reached, together with the impossibility of an adequate discussion

John Dewey

1894-01-01

71

Emotion In Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On the Cognitive Theory of Emotion an emotion is a cognition (assessment or evaluation), which causes bodily feeling. Emotion\\u000a can be changed by changing the cognition. Negative emotions such as anger, revenge are due to faulty assessments such as failure\\u000a to accept reality, failure to understand that we can only do that, which is within our power and a misuse

Barbara Maier

72

Emotion in Behavioural Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

spectrum is emotion as a cognitive state,while for those working at the more physical end it is emotion as a bodily state. Note that by this we meanthe internal modelling of emotion, rather than its external expression. These two approaches reflect a longstandingdebate within psychology itself [Picard 97] and could be traced back as far as the separation ofbody and

Ruth Aylett

73

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in func- tional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

74

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

75

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning.

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

76

The amygdala and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala complex has long been known as part of the neural circuitry critical for emotion. Beyond its role in emotional reactivity, studies of animal models and patients with amygdala damage demonstrate its importance in emotional learning, whereby cues acquire significance through association with rewarding or aversive events. Although its function in associative learning has become well established, other recent

Michela Gallagher; Andrea A Chiba

1996-01-01

77

Teaching Emotional Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

Bump, Jerome

78

Up with Emotional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

Pool, Carolyn R.

1997-01-01

79

3.4 Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

80

On the relationship between emotional and external eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a strong relationship between emotional and external eating, separate subscales for these behaviors have been constructed in the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. This study tries to establish whether this distinction is justified. We studied relationships among self-reported 1.(1) degree of emotional and external eating behavior2.(2) problems with 2.1.(a) emotional distress and relationships,2.2.(b) stimulus-boundness (inappropriate amounts of either

W. Miles Cox

1995-01-01

81

Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense Than Previous Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies

Leaf Van Boven; Katherine White; Michaela Huber

2009-01-01

82

Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional

Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

2009-01-01

83

Emotions: form follows function.  

PubMed

Emotion research has been divided by debate as to whether emotions are universal in form or cognitively constructed. We review an emerging approach that focuses on function rather than form. Functional affective science suggests that the particular origin of an emotion is relatively unimportant; instead, emotions can be understood in terms of a rapidly deployed set of mechanisms that structure perception, cognition and behavior to facilitate goal fulfillment. Evidence from this approach suggests at least three major functions of emotion: sensory gating, embodying affect, and integrating knowledge toward goal resolution. These functions appear to be universal and automatically activated, yet also moderated by conscious representation and regulatory efforts. PMID:23375166

Farb, Norman A S; Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

2013-01-31

84

Thyroid dysfunction as a late effect in childhood medulloblastoma: a comparison of hyperfractionated versus conventionally fractionated craniospinal radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Primary hypothyroidism is a common sequela of craniospinal radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma. Due to the strong radiobiologic rationale, hyperfractionation can reduce the delayed effects of radiation injury.Methods and Materials: The authors compared the incidence of thyroid dysfunction after conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (Group A, n = 20 patients) vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Group B, n = 12 patients)

Umberto Ricardi; Andrea Corrias; Silvia Einaudi; Lorenzo Genitori; Alessandro Sandri; Luca Cordero Di Montezemolo; Luigi Besenzon; Enrico Madon; Alessandro Urgesi

2001-01-01

85

What Aspects of Emotional Functioning are Impaired in Schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

Disturbances in emotional functioning are a major cause of persistent functional disability in schizophrenia. However, it is not clear what specific aspects of emotional functioning are impaired. Some studies have indicated diminished experience of positive affect in individuals with schizophrenia, while others have not. The current study assessed emotional responses by 34 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 demographically matched healthy participants to 131 images sampling a wide range of emotional arousal and valence levels. Ratings of affective response elicited by individual images were highly correlated across the groups (r’s > .90), indicating similar emotional experiences at the moment of stimulus exposure. However, the data did not indicate strong relationships between ratings of the emotional impact of the images and most measures of day-to-day emotional processing. These results demonstrate that individuals with schizophrenia report “normal” emotional responses to emotional stimuli, and thus suggests that deficits in emotional functioning associated with the disorder are likely to occur further downstream, and involve the effective integration of emotion and cognition for adaptive functioning in areas such as goal-setting, motivation, and memory.

Herbener, Ellen S.; Song, Woojin; Khine, Tin T.; Sweeney, John A.

2008-01-01

86

Emotional Stimulation Alters Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions have a strong influence on the perception of visual and auditory stimuli. Only little is known about the relation between emotional stimulation and olfactory functions. The present study investigated the relationship between the presentation of affective pictures, olfactory functions, and sex. Olfactory performance was assessed in 32 subjects (16 male). Olfactory sensitivity was significantly reduced following unpleasant picture presentation

Olga Pollatos; Rainer Kopietz; Jennifer Linn; Jessica Albrecht; Vehbi Sakar; Andrea Anzinger; Rainer Schandry; Martin Wiesmann

2007-01-01

87

Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the…

Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

88

Image emotional semantic query based on color semantic description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describing images in semantic terms is an important and challenging problem in content-based image retrieval. According to the strong relationship between colors and human emotions, an emotional semantic query model based on image color semantic description is proposed in this study. First, images are segmented into regions through a new color image segmentation algorithm. Then, term sets are generated through

Wei-Ning Wang; Ying-Lin Yu

2005-01-01

89

Emotions: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

The present paper is an attempt to understand emotions and the affect from Indian traditional point of view. In the Indian philosophical texts’ detailed descriptions of emotions are not available nor are dealt with as a separate concept. This view of emotions lays emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals. They are seen as modification of desire and attachment. The desires are seen as arising from the contact and attachment of the ego or ahamkara with the external world and are caused by a sense of imperfection, incompleteness or non-fulfillment. Ego or ahamkara is differentiated from the true Self or atman. Emotions are viewed as springs of action and are bipolar in nature. According to Patanjali's Yoga Shastra, suffering is due to ignorance about one's true “self” (avidya). Hence, suffering or dukha arises from within and not from the outside world. Bhagvadgita traces all emotional experiences to the gunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. Works of Bharathmuni have contributed to the understanding of emotional experiences. Concept of rasa or aesthetic relish is central to this approach to understanding affective experiences as dealt with in the Natyashastra of Bharathamuni. These views underline the recommended path for self-transformation. Regulating emotions, both emotional experience and emotional expression, is an integral part of the recommended “principles of living.”

Ramaprasad, Dharitri

2013-01-01

90

[Neuroarchitecture of musical emotions].  

PubMed

The emotional response to music, or musical emotion, is a universal response that draws on diverse psychological processes implemented in a large array of neural structures and mechanisms. Studies using electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance, lesions and individuals with extent musical training have begun to elucidate some of these mechanisms. The objective of this article is reviewing the most relevant studies that have tried to identify the neural correlates of musical emotion from the more automatic to the more complex processes, and to understand how these correlates interact in the brain. The article describes how the presentation of music perceived as emotional is associated with a rapid autonomic response in thalamic and subthalamic structures, accompanied by changes in the electrodermal and endocrine responses. It also explains how musical emotion processing activates auditory cortex, as well as a series of limbic and paralimbic structures, such as the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex or the hippocampus, demonstrating the relevant contribution of the limbic system to musical emotion. Further, it is detailed how musical emotion depends to a great extent on semantic and syntactic process carried out in temporal and parietofrontal areas, respectively. Some of the recent works demonstrating that musical emotion highly relies on emotional simulation are also mentioned. Finally, a summary of these studies, their limitations, and suggestions for further research on the neuroarchitecture of musical emotion are given. PMID:23440757

Sel, Alejandra; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

2013-03-01

91

Embodiment of emotion concepts.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition hold that higher cognitive processes operate on perceptual symbols and that concept use involves partial reactivations of the sensory-motor states that occur during experience with the world. On this view, the processing of emotion knowledge involves a (partial) reexperience of an emotion, but only when access to the sensory basis of emotion knowledge is required by the task. In 2 experiments, participants judged emotional and neutral concepts corresponding to concrete objects (Experiment 1) and abstract states (Experiment 2) while facial electromyographic activity was recorded from the cheek, brow, eye, and nose regions. Results of both studies show embodiment of specific emotions in an emotion-focused but not a perceptual-focused processing task on the same words. A follow up in Experiment 3, which blocked selective facial expressions, suggests a causal, rather than simply a correlational, role for embodiment in emotion word processing. Experiment 4, using a property generation task, provided support for the conclusion that emotions embodied in conceptual tasks are context-dependent situated simulations rather than associated emotional reactions. Implications for theories of embodied simulation and for emotion theories are discussed. PMID:19469591

Niedenthal, Paula M; Winkielman, Piotr; Mondillon, Laurie; Vermeulen, Nicolas

2009-06-01

92

Emotions are real.  

PubMed

It is obvious that emotions are real, but the question is what kind of "real" are they? In this article, I outline a theoretical approach where emotions are a part of social reality. I propose that physical changes (in the face, voice, and body, or neural circuits for behavioral adaptations like freezing, fleeing, or fighting) transform into an emotion when those changes take on psychological functions that they cannot perform by their physical nature alone. This requires socially shared conceptual knowledge that perceivers use to create meaning from these physical changes (as well as the circuitry that supports this meaning making). My claim is that emotions are, at the same time, socially constructed and biologically evident. Only when we understand all the elements that construct emotional episodes, in social, psychological, and biological terms, will we understand the nature of emotion. PMID:22642358

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-06-01

93

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

94

Eight Ways Videogames Generate Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fields are interested in how videogames can generate emotion but most have a very limited conception of what emotional response includes. This paper presents a comprehensive model of emotional response to the single- player game based on two roles players occupy during gameplay and four different types of emotion. The emotion types are based on different ways players can

Jonathan Frome

2007-01-01

95

Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: external mood induction (positive vs. neutral emotions) and emotional design induction (positive vs. neutral emotions). A computer-based lesson on the topic of immunization

Eunjoon “Rachel” Um; Jan L. Plass; Elizabeth O. Hayward; Bruce D. Homer

2012-01-01

96

Rethinking emotions and educational leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of 'emotions'. Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misun- derstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a viable conception of emotions and educational leadership needs to understand

Diane Zorn; Megan Boler

2007-01-01

97

Emotional Robotics: Tug of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional communication skills are dominant in biological systems. Although the rules that govern creating and broadcasting emotional cues are inherently complex, their effectiveness makes them attractive for biological systems. Emotional communication requires very low bandwidth and is generally easy to interpret. Despite the ad- vantages of emotional communication, little or no research has explored which emotional cues are the most

David Grant Cooper; Dov Katz; Hava T. Siegelmann

98

Emotions in negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss the ways in which emotions influence the course of negotiation. Emotions play a role in the development\\u000a of relationships among negotiators; they also facilitate or hinder coordination of strategic exchanges. These functions highlight\\u000a an interplay between information-processing and emotional expressions: intentions are inferred from statements made and nonverbal\\u000a gestures sent. They are understood as part

Daniel Druckman; Mara Olekalns

2008-01-01

99

Affect, Emotions and Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotions and mood play a central role both in the outcome and the management of neurologic illness. The importance is magnified\\u000a when faced with differentiating between a primary emotional etiology for presenting complaints or neurocognitive symptoms\\u000a and the possibility of emotional symptoms being the result of a neurologic injury, or a process of dysfunction as a result\\u000a of an attempt

James G. Scott; Mike R. Schoenberg

100

Music and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a These two quotations reflect common attitudes about music. Tolstoy’s comment suggests that music conveys emotion, whereas Torke’s question implies that music influences listeners’ emotions. Section 5.2 of the present chapter includes a discussion of the various theoretical approaches that\\u000a are used to explain affective responses to music. Few scholars dispute the claim that listeners recognize emotions in music.\\u000a Some argue,

Patrick G. Hunter; E. Glenn Schellenberg

101

Disorders of emotional behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having stressed the distinction between general adaptive systems and specific functional systems, the author argues\\u000a that emotions constitute a general adaptive system distinct from, but interacting with, the cognitive system, considered as\\u000a the other (more evolved) adaptive system.\\u000a \\u000a The main characteristics of the emotional system are its componential nature and its hierarchical organization. These basic\\u000a features of the emotional

Guido Gainotti

2001-01-01

102

Gender and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we consider the relation between gender and emotion, particularly as that connection is expressed in stereotyping,\\u000a power relations, and sexuality. As we review pertinent research we strive to move beyond the conventional “gender differences”\\u000a model that has tended to dominate the study of gender and emotion. We propose two useful theoretical frameworks for investigating\\u000a the gender-emotion link.

Stephanie A. Shields; Dallas N. Garner; BROOKE DI LEONE; Alena M. Hadley

103

Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using

Kateri McRae; Kevin N. Ochsner; Iris B. Mauss; John J. D. Gabrieli; James J. Gross

2008-01-01

104

Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the nun study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion

Deborah D. Danner; David A. Snowdon; Wallace V. Friesen

2001-01-01

105

Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion

Christine Lćtitia Lisetti; Fatma Nasoz

2004-01-01

106

An fMRI Study of Personality Influences on Brain Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional imaging studies have examined which brain regions respond to emotional stimuli, but they have not determined how stable personality traits moderate such brain activation. Two personality traits, extraversion and neuroticism, are strongly associated with emotional experience and may thus moderate brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to directly test whether individual differences

Turhan Canli; Zuo Zhao; John E. Desmond; Eunjoo Kang; James Gross; John D. E. Gabrieli

2001-01-01

107

Pedagogies of strategic empathy: navigating through the emotional complexities of anti-racism in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion of strategic empathy in the context of students' emotional

Michalinos Zembylas

2011-01-01

108

Pedagogies of strategic empathy: navigating through the emotional complexities of anti-racism in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion of strategic empathy in the context of students' emotional

Michalinos Zembylas

2012-01-01

109

The Role of Positive and Negative Emotions in Life Satisfaction Judgment Across Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how the frequency of positive and negative emotions is related to life satisfaction across nations. Participants were 8,557 people from 46 counties who reported on their life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotions. Multilevel analyses showed that across nations, the experience of positive emotions was more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of

Peter Kuppens; Anu Realo; Ed Diener

2008-01-01

110

A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

111

Recruitment in Radiotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)|

Deeley, T. J.; And Others

1976-01-01

112

Recruitment in Radiotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

Deeley, T. J.; And Others

1976-01-01

113

Radiotherapy of glioblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumour in adults with dismal prognosis. The current standard therapy\\u000a includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by a combination of a concomitant radio\\/chemotherapy (temozolomide) and\\u000a a long time temozolomide therapy after completion of radiotherapy. The aim of modern radiotherapy is to improve the conformity\\u000a of the high-dose region with respect to the

K. U. Dieckmann

2010-01-01

114

Relationship between language competence and emotional competence in middle childhood.  

PubMed

Research on children's emotional competence has received considerable attention in the last decade, including the role of language. Language competence (LC) and emotional competence (EC) comprise multiple components. These components and their specific interrelations have not been studied sufficiently. In our study, we examined relations between multiple components of LC and EC in a sample of 210 school-age children. Five measures represented LC: receptive vocabulary, verbal fluency, literacy, narrative structure, and the narrative use of evaluative devices. Four measures represented EC: expressive emotion vocabulary, declarative emotion knowledge, awareness of mixed emotions, and facial emotion recognition. Results showed strong positive correlations between LC and EC ranging between r = .12 and r = .45. In particular, receptive vocabulary and literacy were closely related to emotion knowledge and awareness of mixed emotions. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that there is a common general ability factor for LC and EC. We discuss why receptive vocabulary and literacy might be so strongly related to emotion knowledge in school-age children. Our findings have implications for developmental psychologists, educational research, and speech-language pathologists. PMID:22148995

Beck, Luna; Kumschick, Irina R; Eid, Michael; Klann-Delius, Gisela

2011-12-12

115

Emotion-Related Visual Mismatch Responses in Schizophrenia: Impairments and Correlations with Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. Experimental Design The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Principal Observations Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250–360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Conclusions Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition.

Csukly, Gabor; Stefanics, Gabor; Komlosi, Sarolta; Czigler, Istvan; Czobor, Pal

2013-01-01

116

Increasing Organizational Productivity Through Heightened Emotional Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, a strong IQ can set the baseline for success but does not guarantee prosperity. Goleman believes that factors contributing to "emotional intelligence" (for example, self-control, zeal and persistence, and ability to motivate oneself) are key to success in the corporate world. Howard Gardner has identified…

Maulding, Wanda S.

117

Emotional and psychosocial problems after brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional and psychosocial disorders of brain-damaged patients have a strong impact upon the outcome of the rehabilitation. However, owing to methodological difficulties, and to the intrinsic complexity of such disorders, these issues have received only a limited amount of interest. The aim of this paper is to try to disentangle some of the major factors underlying these disturbances, making a

Guido Gainotti

1993-01-01

118

Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

Kennedy, Bebe C.

119

EMOTIONAL EFFECTS OF MUSIC: PRODUCTION RULES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an ancient, and very pervasive, idea that music expresses emotion. Apart from the copious literature to this effect contributed by composers, musicologists, and philoso- phers, there is also solid empirical evidence from psychological research, reviewed in chapters of this book (e.g. Gabrielsson & Lindström, this volume; Juslin, this volume), that listeners often agree rather strongly about what type

KLAUS R. SCHERER; MARCEL R. ZENTNER

2001-01-01

120

Emotion suppression reduces hippocampal activity during successful memory encoding.  

PubMed

People suppressing their emotions while facing an emotional event typically remember it less well. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the impairing effect of emotion suppression on successful memory encoding are not well understood. Because successful memory encoding relies on the hippocampus and the amygdala, we hypothesized that memory impairments due to emotion suppression are associated with down-regulated activity in these brain areas. 59 healthy females were instructed either to simply watch the pictures or to down-regulate their emotions by using a response-focused emotion suppression strategy. Brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and free recall of pictures was tested afterwards. As expected, suppressing one's emotions resulted in impaired recall of the pictures. On the neural level, the memory impairments were associated with reduced activity in the right hippocampus during successful encoding. No significant effects were observed in the amygdala. In addition, functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was strongly reduced during emotion suppression, and these reductions predicted free-recall performance. Our results indicate that emotion suppression interferes with memory encoding on the hippocampal level, possibly by decoupling hippocampal and prefrontal encoding processes, suggesting that response-focused emotion suppression might be an adaptive strategy for impairing hippocampal memory formation in highly arousing situations. PMID:22796982

Binder, Julia; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Friese, Malte; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Rasch, Björn

2012-07-14

121

Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is associated with a profound decline in social and emotional behavior; however, current understanding regarding the specific aspects of emotional functioning that are preserved and disrupted is limited. Objective To assess preservation of function and deficits in two aspects of emotional processing (emotional reactivity and emotion recognition) in FTLD. Methods Twenty-eight FTLD patients were compared with 16 controls in emotional reactivity (self-reported emotional experience, emotional facial behavior, and autonomic nervous system response to film stimuli) and emotion recognition (ability to identify a target emotion of fear, happy, or sad experienced by film characters). Additionally, the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion recognition were investigated. Results FTLD patients were comparable to controls in 1) emotional reactivity to the fear, happy, and sad film clips and 2) emotion recognition for the happy film clip. However, FTLD patients were significantly impaired compared with controls in emotion recognition for the fear and sad film clips. Volumetric analyses revealed that deficits in emotion recognition were associated with decreased lobar volumes in the frontal and temporal lobes. Conclusions The socioemotional decline typically seen in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients may result more from an inability to process certain emotions in other people than from deficits in emotional reactivity.

Werner, K.H.; Roberts, N.A.; Rosen, H.J.; Dean, D.L.; Kramer, J.H.; Weiner, M.W.; Miller, B.L.; Levenson, R.W.

2008-01-01

122

Emotional Circuits and Computational Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article, wesurvey some issues about the nature of emotion, describewhat is known about the neural basis of emotion, andconsider some efforts that have been made to developcomputer-based models of different aspects of emotion.

Jean-Marc Fellous; Jorge L. Armon; Joseph E. LeDoux

123

A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of 44 effect sizes based on the responses of 7898 participants found that higher emotional intelligence was associated with better health. Emotional intelligence had a weighted average association of r=.29 with mental health, r=.31 with psychosomatic health, and r=.22 with physical health. Emotional intelligence measured as a trait was more strongly associated with mental health than emotional intelligence

Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Einar B. Thorsteinsson; Navjot Bhullar; Sally E. Rooke

2007-01-01

124

Measuring the ability to perceive the emotional connotations of written language.  

PubMed

Emotionally laden writing is essential to our personal and professional lives. The purpose of this article was to design and evaluate a new test of the ability to decode the emotional connotations of written material. A series of 3 studies (totaling 457 participants) were used to demonstrate that the Metaphors Test measures a single construct, has strong internal consistency, has strong convergent validity with tests related to emotional and social intelligence, and has strong discriminant validity with vocabulary and personality. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the Metaphors Test is more closely associated with emotion perception than emotional understanding. Unlike most other tests that tap this skill, the stimuli for the Metaphors Test do not include any explicit emotion words; it is therefore a unique and valuable measure of emotion perception. PMID:23136950

Barchard, Kimberly A; Hensley, Spencer; Anderson, Emily D; Walker, Holly E

2012-11-08

125

Emotions in robot design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the role emotions might play in robot design. It is argued that if one wants to deal with this problem one first has to develop a profound understanding of the mechanisms underlying behaviors which are called emotional. To investigate the relation between behavior and mechanism the “New Fungus Eater” approach is proposed, which is a minimalist bottom-up approach. It

R. Pfeifer

1993-01-01

126

Beware Emotional Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals,…

King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

2011-01-01

127

EmoteMail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email has become a central communication channel for private and professional exchange. Its format remains equally neutral regardless of the relation to the recipient. While writing remains an excellent vehicle to communicate tone and emotion, this can sometimes be a painstaking and tedious process, and requires considerable skill.EmoteMail is an email client that is augmented to convey aspects of the

Jussi Ängeslevä; Carson Reynolds; Sile O'Modhrain

2004-01-01

128

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

129

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)|

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

130

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

131

Understanding emotional abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits

C A Rees

2010-01-01

132

Genuinely collective emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is received wisdom in philosophy and the cognitive sciences that individuals can be in emotional states but groups cannot. But why should we accept this view? In this paper, I argue that there is substantial philosophical and empirical support for the existence of collective emotions. Thus, while there i sg ood reason to be skeptical about many ascriptions of

Bryce Huebner

2011-01-01

133

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

134

Emotion and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The more neuroscientists explore how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information, the more evident is the connection between emotion and reason. Scientists have discovered that the same areas of the brain that are involved in processing emotion are involved in processing memory. (Author/JOW)

Weiss, Palumbo Ruth

2000-01-01

135

Color enhanced emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Color Enhanced Emotion system controls the human 'emotion' drastically. The system recognizes the facial expressions and controls skin pigment components using a real-time processor. By implementing the proposed system, an attendee can experience a system that will usher in a new era in communication and in movie editing systems.

Toshiya Nakaguchi; Norimichi Tsumura; Koichi Takase; Takao Makino; Saya Okaguchi; Ryoko Usuba; Nobutoshi Ojima; Yoichi Miyake

2005-01-01

136

Adding Emotions to Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of out-of-copyright children books are available online, but are not very attractive to children due to a lack of illustrations. Automatic text illustration may enhance the reading experience of these books, but inappropriate picture coloring may convey inappropriate emotions. Since already at a very early age, children can map colors to certain emotions, we propose an approach

Claudia Hauff; Dolf Trieschnigg; Giambattista Amati; Fabio Crestani

2011-01-01

137

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

138

Towards Emotionally Adapted Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

2004-01-01

139

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872\\/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This

Ursula Hess; Pascal Thibault

2009-01-01

140

Emotions and Golf Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

2006-01-01

141

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

142

Emotional intelligence skills training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times a significant amount of research has been undertaken in the area of emotions in organisations (Ashkanasy, Härtel, & Daus, 2002). In particular, the emotional intelligence construct has been widely researched and highlighted as a tool that organisations can harness to improve individual performance of organisational members at all levels (Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Härtel, 2002). This has led

Jane Murray

2003-01-01

143

Emotional Intelligence in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged in the past twenty five years as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, life success, and interpersonal relationships in different contexts of everyday life. This article provides a critical review of the research field of EI in the school context and analyzes its…

Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Ruiz, Desiree

2008-01-01

144

The theory of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the James-Lange, or discharge theory of the nature of emotion. Emotion is a mode of behavior which is purposive, or has an intellectual content. It reflects the subjective valuation of the objectively expressed idea or purpose. Certain movements, formerly useful, are reduced to tendencies to action or to attitudes, and when instinctively aroused into action, serve as means for

John Dewey

1895-01-01

145

Inspection and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted1 inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft?reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and control, and the

Jane Perryman

2007-01-01

146

SEMINAR: HISTORY OF EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

History of Emotions is a research seminar on one of the most profound features of our individual makeup and its development during the last five hundred years. We will explore what are emotions? How were they used and manipulated? Could a middle class man have ambitions? Or a middle class woman? What was love? What were the institutions of love?

Heikki Lempa

147

Emotionally Expressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

1999-01-01

148

Emotion regulation in psychopathy.  

PubMed

Emotion processing is known to be impaired in psychopathy, but less is known about the cognitive mechanisms that drive this. Our study examined experiencing and suppression of emotion processing in psychopathy. Participants, violent offenders with varying levels of psychopathy, viewed positive and negative images under conditions of passive viewing, experiencing and suppressing. Higher scoring psychopathics were more cardiovascularly responsive when processing negative information than positive, possibly reflecting an anomalously rewarding aspect of processing normally unpleasant material. When required to experience emotional response, by 'getting into the feeling' of the emotion conveyed by a negative image, higher factor 1 psychopathic individuals showed reduced responsiveness, suggesting that they were less able to do this. These data, together with the absence of corresponding differences in subjective self-report might be used to inform clinical strategies for normalising emotion processing in psychopathic offenders to improve treatment outcome, and reduce risk amongst this client group. PMID:23079384

Casey, Helen; Rogers, Robert D; Burns, Tom; Yiend, Jenny

2012-10-16

149

Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion  

PubMed Central

According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition.

Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

150

Radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas.  

PubMed

The optimal management of craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Although aggressive (i.e. attempted macroscopic complete/radical) primary surgery can be associated with significant morbidity and a noticeable recurrence rate, a conservative (limited) surgical approach followed by radiotherapy has increasingly been adopted after reports of excellent local control and a significant reduction in the incidence of complications by most multidisciplinary teams. A literature review from January 1990 to May 2012 was carried out identifying 43 studies with 1716 patients treated with irradiation for craniopharyngioma. The outcome and treatment-related toxicity were analysed in relation to the timing of radiotherapy, the target volume definition and radiotherapy dose and compared with the results of radical surgery. For patients undergoing limited surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, reported 10 year local control rates ranged between 77 and 100% and 20 year overall survival was reported as high as 66-92%. Comparable progression-free survival and overall survival were reported for radiotherapy delivered at first diagnosis or at progression. Long-term toxicity of combined limited surgery and irradiation seems to be less than that associated with radical surgery. The total recommended dose prescription to achieve long-term control while minimising adverse sequelae is 50-54 Gy delivered with conventional fractionation. Care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team in a specialised centre. However, national and international prospective co-operative trials are warranted to provide robust data to define an internationally multidisciplinary accepted risk-based management strategy. PMID:23910225

Iannalfi, A; Fragkandrea, I; Brock, J; Saran, F

2013-07-30

151

Emotions and Emotion Regulation Among Novice Military Parachutists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soldiers (N = 95) reported emotions and emotion regulation strategies experienced in their first parachute jump and other challenging situations. Results indicated an emotional profile characterized by feeling anxious, energetic, and happy before parachuting and playing sport. However, this pattern was not similar to the emotional responses experienced at work or in life in general. Participants reported greater use of

Gordon Bucknall; Paul A. Davis; Christopher J. Beedie

2012-01-01

152

Emotion Concepts and Emotional States in Social Judgment and Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objection to conclusions of research investigating effects of emotions on cognitive processes is that the effects are due to the activation of semantic concepts rather than to emotional feelings. A sentence unscrambling task was developed to prime concepts of happiness, sadness, or neutral ideas. Pilot studies demonstrated that unscrambling emotional sentences did not affect emotional state but did prime

Ĺse Innes-Ker; Paula M. Niedenthal

2002-01-01

153

Regulation of emotions by listening to music in emotional situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musical stimuli are among the most intensive stimuli trig- gering emotions. Therefore, we investigated in the present study whether subjects use music to regulate their emotions in everyday situations. We set out to examine whether dis- positional emotional regulation styles are determining the situation-dependent choice of music. In a pre-study (N = 72), 20 music stimuli and 16 emotionally laden

Mirjam Thoma; Stefan Ryf; Ulrike Ehlert; Urs Nater

2006-01-01

154

Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional

Bierema, Laura L.

2008-01-01

155

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

156

Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the study, students completed self-report and ability tests of emotional intelligence. The test results

Neal M. Ashkanasy; Marie T. Dasborough

2003-01-01

157

8 Strategic Emotion in Negotiation: Cognition, Emotion, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an overview of research on emotion in negotiation that integrates cognitive, affective, and cultural aspects of the field. We address the following issues: (1) the effects of mood and emotion on negotiator cognition and performance and the potential of emotion as a negotiation strategy; (2) individual differences in emotional expression and individual traits, such as self-monitoring and

Shu LI; Michael E. ROLOFF

158

[Bladder cancer radiotherapy margins].  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma, but conservative treatment is a serious option for selected patients. It comprises a transurethral resection, as complete as possible, before a radiation therapy of the whole bladder and pelvis, with a concomitant chemotherapy. Bladder wall movements during the treatment course lead to the use of wide margins to cover the clinical target volume. Planning target volume margins must be anisotropic to correspond to the mobility of each bladder zone: 10mm in the inferior portion, 15mm in lateral directions, and 20 to 25mm in anterior and superior directions. The development of image-guided radiotherapy and adaptative radiotherapy should lead to a reduction of these margins. Besides, partial bladder radiotherapy is showing encouraging results, by reducing the clinical target volume in well-selected patients. PMID:23969246

Régnier, E; Nguyen, T D; Beckendorf, V; Lagrange, J-L

2013-08-19

159

[The emotions of oncologists].  

PubMed

Emotions are parts of organizational reality to an ever increasing extent. Importantly, they are not just tools in the hand of healthcare workers to achieve better physician / healthcare professional-to-patient interactions but intrinsic processes and characteristics with psychic, cognitive and somatic actions. For a thorough investigation of the issue, a PANAS-X questionnaire was used to examine the emotions of 187 physicians and other healthcare professionals, all engaged in oncology, in 2009. The research succeeded in exploring the overall emotional state oncology professionals had assumed in relation with their job as well as enabled the authors of this study to draw the respondents' emotional map and assess their fundamental emotional attitudes. Furthermore, the authors managed to identify groups of respondents that had felt more intense positive, and/or less intense negative emotions that are socially accepted than others. They included those of senior experienced oncologists, males, individuals with families, childless individuals, ward workers, and skilled professionals. According to the findings, the range of emotions an oncologist experiences / feels intently during his everyday work is dependent upon a great number of factors. PMID:21918747

Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Bugán, Antal; Kiss, Csongor; Szántó, János; Gonda, Andrea; Tóth, Zoltán; Hernádi, Zoltán; Hadijev, Janaki; Remenyik, Eva; Damjanovich, László; Dinya, Tamás; Flaskó, Tibor; Bágyi, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

2011-02-17

160

Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict.

Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

2013-01-01

161

Radiotherapy and hepatocellular carcinoma: update and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Historically radiotherapy has always played a limited role for the treatment of HCC due to the low tolerance of the liver and the subsequent risk of radiation induced liver disease (RILD). Technologist advancements in radiation planning and treatment delivery such as Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) combined with Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) has allowed us to further increase tumor dose while maximally sparing the surrounding not involved liver. Furthermore, together with the growing knowledge of radiobiological models in liver disease, several mono-institutional retrospective and prospective series are reporting very encouraging results. Therefore, radiotherapy might play a significant role for the treatment of unresectable HCC, alone or combined with other locoregional treatment such as transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). The rationale for studying this technique is really strong and it should be tested in well designed prospective randomized clinical trials. PMID:23111978

Ursino, S; Greco, C; Cartei, F; Colosimo, C; Stefanelli, A; Cacopardo, B; Berretta, M; Fiorica, F

2012-10-01

162

Awareness and regulation of emotions in deaf children.  

PubMed

In this study, deaf children's understanding of their own emotions was compared with that of hearing peers. Twenty-six deaf children (mean age 11 years) and 26 hearing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with various tasks that tap into their emotion awareness and regulation (coping) regarding the four basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, and fear). The findings suggest that deaf children have no difficulties in identifying their own basic emotions and the elicitors, or multiple emotions of opposite valence (happy and sad). Yet, they did show an impaired capacity to differentiate between their own emotions within the negative spectrum, which suggests a more generic evaluation of the situation. Deaf children's emotion regulation strategies showed a strong preference for approaching the situation at hand, but almost no deaf child reported the use of an avoidant tactic in order to diminish the negative impact of the situation. Overall, deaf children's emotion regulation strategies seemed less effective than those of their hearing peers. The implications for deaf children's emotional development are discussed. PMID:23039328

Rieffe, Carolien

2011-08-19

163

Phases of Social–Emotional Development from Birth to School Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stages of social–emotional development are the subject of this chapter. Infants and toddlers live in a maelstrom of strong\\u000a emotions, most of which involve interactions with other people. But the social situations that induce strong emotions, and\\u000a the cognitive capacities children have for coping with them, change dramatically from one stage to the next. The timetable\\u000a of cognitive development helps

Marc D. Lewis; Isabela Granic

2010-01-01

164

Joint effects of emotion and color on memory.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that memory is enhanced for emotionally negative and positive information relative to neutral information. We examined whether emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by low-level perceptual attributes such as color. Because in everyday life red is often used as a warning signal, whereas green signals security, we hypothesized that red might enhance memory for negative information and green memory for positive information. To capture the signaling function of colors, we measured memory for words standing out from the context by color, and manipulated the color and emotional significance of the outstanding words. Making words outstanding by color strongly enhanced memory, replicating the well-known von Restorff effect. Furthermore, memory for colored words was further increased by emotional significance, replicating the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. Most intriguingly, the effects of emotion on memory additionally depended on color type. Red strongly increased memory for negative words, whereas green strongly increased memory for positive words. These findings provide the first evidence that emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by color and demonstrate that different colors can have different functions in human memory. PMID:23527500

Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

2013-03-25

165

Challenge and Hope in Radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most critical global health issues. With frequent association of viral liver disease, HCC is highly complex, harboring both cancer and chronic liver disease. The tumor stage and underlying liver function are both major determinants of the treatment selection as well as prognosis in HCC patients, thus allowing no more than a 20% chance for potentially curative therapies. Radiotherapy technology has been evolved remarkably during the past decade, and radiation can be precisely delivered, thereby permitting higher doses to the tumour and reduced doses to surrounding normal tissues. There has been increasing interest in the merits of radiotherapy in HCC over the past few years, as indicated by a Pub Med search. Radiotherapy has been used as the definitive therapy with curative intent in early stage tumours. It has been used also in combination with TACE for intermediate stage tumours. In locally advanced tumours, radiotherapy has been combined with systemic agents. Despite its efficacy, radiotherapy has not yet been incorporated into the standard management guidelines of HCC. The lack of high evidence level data, especially randomized controlled trials, has posed an obstacle in including radiotherapy into the routine treatment schema of HCC. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies are strongly recommended using developing technology for radiotherapy alone or combination therapies. Also, many issues such as the optimal dose-fractionation, intra- or extrahepatic metastasis after radiotherapy, and radiation-induced hepatic dysfunction remain to be solved. In this review, current status of radiotherapy for HCC will be discussed with regard to technical consideration and combination strategy. The limitation and future perspectives will also be discussed.

2009-01-01

166

Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

2001-01-01

167

Emotional Literacy Training for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A psychotherapist recounts her personal and professional development in concepts of self-esteem. The article considers core conditions for development of healthy self-esteem, the powerful effects wrought by teachers who create healthy emotional environments, emotional intelligence and emotional literacy, current initiatives to develop emotional

Morris, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

168

Emotions in Pervasive Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of an intelligent environment to connect and adapt to real internal sates, needs and behaviors' meaning of humans can be made possible by considering users' emotional states as contextual parameters. In this paper, we build on enactive psychology and investigate the incorporation of emotions in pervasive systems. We define emotions, and discuss the coding of emotional human markers

Nevin Vunka Jungum; Eric Laurent

2009-01-01

169

Emotion and the motivational brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits

Peter J. Lang; Margaret M. Bradley

2010-01-01

170

Narrating Emotional Events in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that schizophrenia patients report similar amounts of experienced emotion in response to emotional material compared with nonpatients. However, less is known about how schizophrenia patients describe and make sense of their emotional life events. We adopted a narrative approach to investigate schizophrenia patients' renderings of their emotional life experiences. In Study 1, patients' (n = 42) positive

June Gruber; Ann M. Kring

2008-01-01

171

Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.  

PubMed

Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy, and it supports the argument for optimal behaviour and social functioning in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PMID:23228163

Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

2012-12-10

172

Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

173

Beyond Reason: Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simo~Es da Fonseca, J.

2004-08-01

174

Difficulties regulating emotions: Do binge eaters have fewer strategies to modulate and tolerate negative affect?  

PubMed

The current study evaluated whether difficulties regulating emotions explained unique variance in binge eating and examined which types of emotion regulation difficulties are most strongly associated with binge eating. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were completed by 695 undergraduates. Hierarchical regression results indicated that difficulties regulating emotions accounted for a significant amount of the variance in binge eating over and above sex, food restriction, and over-evaluation of weight and shape. Results also indicated that greater difficulty identifying and making sense of emotional states, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were primarily responsible for the link between emotion regulation difficulties and binge eating. This supports a model of binge eating that includes emotional vulnerability and a deficit of skills to functionally modulate negative moods. PMID:17336786

Whiteside, Ursula; Chen, Eunice; Neighbors, Clayton; Hunter, Dorian; Lo, Tracy; Larimer, Mary

2006-05-22

175

"It's Been a Bit of a Rollercoaster": Special Educational Needs, Emotional Labour and Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an analysis of data collected--by semi-structured interviews and focus groups--from staff working with children with special educational needs (SEN) in England. The analysis highlighted the role of strong emotions, and how participants (unsurprisingly) experienced these differently, largely according to their position in…

Mackenzie, Suzanne

2012-01-01

176

How achievement emotions impact students' decisions for online learning, and what precedes those emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study investigates students' learning choices for mathematics and statistics in a blended learning environment, composed of both online and face-to-face learning components. The students (N=730) were university freshmen with a strong diversity in prior schooling and a wide range of proficiency in quantitative subjects. In this context, we investigated the impact that individual differences in achievement emotions (enjoyment,

Dirk T. Tempelaar; Alexandra Niculescu; Bart Rienties; Wim H. Gijselaers; Bas Giesbers

177

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in a speaker's emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

178

The Emotional Voter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It seems self-evident that political figures arouse passion and emotion in the electorate. Vivid examples can be found throughout\\u000a all of political history. In 1864, Harper’s Weekly described Abraham Lincoln as a “monster”, a characterization that is clearly\\u000a emotionally evocative (Jamieson, 1992). John F. Kennedy, the “Camelot” president, evoked feelings of tremendous pride and\\u000a patriotism in his eloquent speeches (e.g.,

Linda M. Isbell; Victor C. Ottati

179

Emotions and Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encounter between emotion research and agent-based technology is multifaceted. One the one hand, results from emotion\\u000a research start to serve as role model from nature, providing inspirations for technical design criteria for individual agents\\u000a at the micro level and agent groups and societies at the macro level as well as the sophisticated linkages in between them.\\u000a On the other

Paolo Petta; Robert Trappl

2001-01-01

180

Emotion work: disclosing cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused\\u000a on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer\\u000a survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically\\u000a diverse

Grace J. Yoo; Caryn Aviv; Ellen G. Levine; Cheryl Ewing; Alfred Au

2010-01-01

181

Texture affects color emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm–cool, masculine–feminine, hard–soft, and heavy–light. Three sample types of increasing visual complexity are used: UC,

M. P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

2011-01-01

182

From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System

Thomas Baumgartner; Michaela Esslen; Lutz Jäncke

2006-01-01

183

Radiotherapy for Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for the palliation of symptomatic bone metastases. Despite its widespread use and long history, there remains considerable debate over whether a single 8Gy fraction or multiple fraction schemes are more effective at alleviating bone pain. Recent meta-analyses have shown equal efficacy between the different treatment regimens. One of the reasons supporting

S. Culleton; S. Kwok; E. Chow

2011-01-01

184

Post-radiotherapy acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryShortly following mastectomy and radiotherapy 17 years ago for cancer of the breast, post-radiation brachial plexus neuralgia had developed, together with a weeping radiation ulcer along the scar. The lady also suffered from multiple sclerosis with peripheral sensation loss, such that she was unable to walk properly, often burnt her hands and arms, and could not manage fine movements of

Shanti Rajan

1999-01-01

185

Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pituitary adenomas represent about 12% of all in-tracranial tumors. The clinical classification intohormone-secreting and\\u000a nonsecreting tumors, defined on the basis of serum level, is widely used. Surgery, radiotherapy, and medication are the three\\u000a key elements of the treatment strategy.

Anca-Ligia Grosu; Martin Kocher; Michael Molls

186

Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2?×?2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively.

Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

2013-01-01

187

The emotions of professional writers.  

PubMed

In this study, 24 professional writers completed a short pencil-and-paper questionnaire on which they indicated how they felt before, at a pause, and after specific writing episodes. The intensity with which they experienced 20 emotions was assessed, as was the frequency with which these emotions were experienced when writing in general. Results indicated that the professionals experienced positive emotions significantly more often when writing in general than they experienced either negative-active or negative-passive emotions. Negative-passive emotions such as boredom, shame, and shyness were particularly rare and weak. During the actual writing process, positive emotions tended to intensify, whereas negative-passive and negative-active emotions resisted change. Sponsorship of writing had little impact on the quality of emotions experienced during the process. The professional poets, however, experienced negative-active emotions significantly more often when writing in general than did the prose writers. PMID:3204537

Brand, A G; Leckie, P A

1988-09-01

188

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation.

Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

2013-01-01

189

It's not what you play, it's how you play it: Timbre affects perception of emotion in music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the

Julia C. Hailstone; Rohani Omar; Susie M. D. Henley; Chris Frost; Michael G. Kenward; Jason D. Warren

2009-01-01

190

Reflecting upon Feelings: An fMRI Study of Neural Systems Supporting the Attribution of Emotion to Self and Other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding one's own and other individual's emotional states is essential for maintaining emotional equilibrium and strong social bonds. Although the neural substrates supporting reflection upon one's own feelings have been investigated, no studies have directly examined attributions about the internal emotional states of others to determine whether common or distinct neural systems support these abilities. The present study sought to

Kevin N. Ochsner; Kyle Knierim; David H. Ludlow; Josh Hanelin; Tara Ramachandran; Gary Glover; Sean C. Mackey

2004-01-01

191

Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.  

PubMed

Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes. PMID:22207009

Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

2011-12-21

192

Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution: Implications for Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. There continues to be strong interest regarding the emotional intelligence construct,primarily because of the construct’s potential as a predictor of workplace behavior in organizations. Little research has been conducted, however, that considers the implications of emotional intelligence for organizational change and human resource development in organizations.The study outlined in this article explores the connection between

Peter J. Jordan; Ashlea C. Troth

2002-01-01

193

Image Emotional Classification Based on Color Semantic Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describing images in semantic terms is an important and challenging problem in content-based image retrieval. According to\\u000a the strong relationship between colors and human emotions, an emotional image classification model based on color semantic\\u000a terms is proposed in this paper. First, combined with PSO, fuzzy c-means clustering is implemented for color segmentation,\\u000a and eight color clusters can be obtained to

Kaiping Wei; Bin He; Tao Zhang; Wenya He

2008-01-01

194

Emotional processing and its relationship to chronic low back pain: Results from a case-control study.  

PubMed

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common, yet challenging condition for both patients and clinicians. Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between CLBP and psychological factors such as anxiety, fear-avoidance, self-efficacy, catastrophizing and depression. These factors are closely linked with emotional states; however, it is unknown whether CLBP patients process their emotions differently from asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between CLBP and emotional processing. A sample of 110 participants comprising of 55 patients with chronic back pain and 55 individuals without a history of CLBP were assessed using the Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25). The EPS-25 generates an overall score, and also scores pertaining to five individual emotional processing factors - avoidance, suppression, unregulated emotion, impoverished emotional experience and signs of unprocessed emotion. Chronic back pain patients scored significantly higher in the overall EPS-25 score (p < 0.001) with an effect size of 0.33. In addition, there were significant differences in four factors - impoverished emotional experience, unregulated emotion, unprocessed emotion, and suppression, with effect sizes ranging from 0.20 to 0.44. The results suggest that dysfunctional emotional processing, particularly with regard to the suppression of emotions, is associated with CLBP. Clinicians should critically consider the role of emotional processing in their patients' evaluation and management. Future research using a prospective cohort should assess the role of emotional processing as a predictor in the development of chronic back pain. PMID:23756033

Esteves, Jorge E; Wheatley, Laura; Mayall, Clare; Abbey, Hilary

2013-06-01

195

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements.  

PubMed

According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F; Atkinson, Anthony P; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2013-04-04

196

Processing of emotional reactivity and emotional memory over sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep enhances memories, particularly emotional memories. As such, it has been suggested that sleep deprivation may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder. This presumes that emotional memory consolidation is paralleled by a reduction in emotional reactivity, an association that has not yet been examined. In the present experiment, we utilized an incidental memory task in humans and obtained valence and arousal ratings during two sessions separated either by 12 hours of daytime wake or 12 hours including overnight sleep. Recognition accuracy was greater following sleep relative to wake for both negative and neutral pictures. While emotional reactivity to negative pictures was greatly reduced over wake, the negative emotional response was relatively preserved over sleep. Moreover, protection of emotional reactivity was associated with greater time in REM sleep. Recognition accuracy, however, was not associated with REM. Thus, we provide the first evidence that sleep enhances emotional memory while preserving emotional reactivity.

Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Ericson, Callie; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

2012-01-01

197

Fractionated radiotherapy techniques.  

PubMed

A convergence of advances in patient immobilization and localization, patient imaging, beam shaping and delivery, and treatment planning has led to considerable improvement in the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation treatments by radiosurgical or fractionated radiotherapy techniques. The selection of the "best" treatment technique for any given patient needs to consider the morphology of the target and regional organs at risk as well as available technology and institutional expertise. PMID:16793502

Bauman, Glenn; Wong, Eugene; McDermott, Michael

2006-04-01

198

Postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluated the patterns of failure, survival rate, treatment-related toxicity and prognostic factors in postoperative radiotherapy of patients with ependymoma. Materials and Methods Thirty patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma between the period of June 1994 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age of patients ranged from 21 months to 66 years (median, 19 years). Seventeen patients had grade II ependymoma, and 13 had grade III anaplastic ependymoma according to the World Health Organization grading system. The postoperative irradiation was performed with 4 or 6 MV photon beam with median dose of 52.8 Gy (range, 45 to 63 Gy), and radiation field including 2 cm beyond the preoperative tumor volume. Median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 172 months). Results Fourteen out of 30 (46.7%) patients experienced recurrence, and 12 of those died. Among those 14 patients who experienced recurrence, 11 were in-field and 3 were out-of-field recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 66.7% and 56.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor grade was a statistically significant prognostic factor for OS and PFS. There were two complications after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, including short stature and facial palsy on the left side. Conclusion We observed good survival rates, and histologic grade was a prognostic factor affecting the OS and PFS. Almost all recurrence occurred in primary tumor site, thus we suggest further evaluation on intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotatic radiosurgery for high-risk patients such as who have anaplastic ependymoma.

Jung, Jinhong; Choi, Wonsik; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Su Ssan; Kim, Young Seok; Yoon, Sang Min; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung

2012-01-01

199

Stereotactic synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly collimated synchrotron x-ray beams with high fluence rate may be used in stereotactic radiotherapy of brain tumours.\\u000a Several monochromatic x-ray beams having uniform microscopic thicknessie (microplanar beams) are directed to the center of the tumour from varying directions, delivering lethal dose to the target\\u000a volume while sparing normal cells. This proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism

2002-01-01

200

Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:  To determine the extent of target motion in postprostatectomy radiotherapy (RT) and the value of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).Patients and Methods:  20 patients underwent CT scans in supine position with both a full bladder (FB) and an empty bladder (EB) before RT and at three dates during the RT series. Displacements of the CTV (clinical target

Michael Pinkawa; Jaroslav Siluschek; Bernd Gagel; Marc D. Piroth; Cengiz Demirel; Branka Asadpour; Michael J. Eble

2007-01-01

201

Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In particular, the BOLD response within bilateral amygdala and

K. S. Blair; B. W. Smith; D. G. V. Mitchell; J. Morton; M. Vythilingam; L. Pessoa; D. Fridberg; A. Zametkin; E. E. Nelson; W. C. Drevets; D. S. Pine; A. Martin; R. J. R. Blair

2007-01-01

202

Abortion: Strong’s counterexamples fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis’s argument against abortion fail. Strong’s basic idea is that there are cases—for example, terminally ill patients—where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a “valuable future”. So

E Di Nucci

2009-01-01

203

Imaging in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy, more then any other treatment modality, relies heavily and often exclusively on medical imaging to determine the extent of disease and the spatial relation between target region and neighbouring healthy tissues. Radically new approaches to radiation delivery are inspired on CT scanning and treat patients in a slice-by-slice fashion using intensity modulated megavoltage fan beams. For quality assurance of complex 3-D dose distributions, MR based 3-D verificative dosimetry on irradiated phantoms has been described. As treatment delivery becomes increasingly refined, the need for accurate target definition increases as well and sophisticated imaging tools like image fusion and 3-D reconstruction are routinely used for treatment planning. While in the past patients were positioned on the treatment machines based exclusively on surface topography and the well-known skin marks, such approach is no longer sufficient for high-accuracy radiotherapy and special imaging tools like on-line portal imaging are used to verify and correct target positioning. Much of these applications rely on digital image processing, transmission and storage, and the development of standards, like DICOM and PACS have greatly contributed to these applications. Digital imaging plays an increasing role in many areas in radiotherapy and has been fundamental in new developments that have demonstrated impact on patient care. PMID:10996758

Van den Berge, D L; De Ridder, M; Storme, G A

2000-10-01

204

Motion compensation in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has helped to dramatically reduce safety margins compensating for positioning uncertainties in radiotherapy. A remaining issue posing problems for photon radiotherapy (RT), but even more so for particle RT, is target motion during treatment delivery. This review outlines the various strategies currently being developed or already in clinical use to compensate for organ motion, predominantly breathing-induced motion of liver and lung targets. Several motion compensation strategies have recently been introduced clinically. Among these are optimized margins encompassing the individual range of target motion, treatment under breath hold, gated treatments, and tumor tracking with a dedicated treatment device. A variety of surveillance strategies for gating and tracking, such as indirect tracking with external fiducial markers and surface scanning devices, direct tracking with implanted electromagnetic markers, fiducial markers, and fluoroscopy, and ultrasound-based tracking are already in clinical use or are under development. Tracked treatment with linear accelerators based on tumor-synchronous MLC- or treatment-table adaptation are moving toward clinical use. A multitude of strategies to reduce the impact of intrafractional target motion in RT have been developed and are increasingly being used clinically. The clinical introduction of advanced strategies currently under development is imminent. After IGRT minimized treatment margins for static tumors, the implementation of motion compensation strategies will achieve the same for targets being subject to intrafractional breathing-induced motion. PMID:22694199

Guckenberger, Matthias; Richter, Anne; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Lohr, Frank

2012-01-01

205

Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion.  

PubMed

Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

2013-09-24

206

When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

2012-02-06

207

Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the…

Ashkanasy, Neal M.; Dasborough, Marie T.

2003-01-01

208

Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

2012-01-01

209

Emotional memory and perception in temporal lobectomy patients with amygdala damage  

PubMed Central

Background: The human amygdala is implicated in the formation of emotional memories and the perception of emotional stimuli—particularly fear—across various modalities. Objectives: To discern the extent to which these functions are related. Methods: 28 patients who had anterior temporal lobectomy (13 left and 15 right) for intractable epilepsy were recruited. Structural magnetic resonance imaging showed that three of them had atrophy of their remaining amygdala. All participants were given tests of affect perception from facial and vocal expressions and of emotional memory, using a standard narrative test and a novel test of word recognition. The results were standardised against matched healthy controls. Results: Performance on all emotion tasks in patients with unilateral lobectomy ranged from unimpaired to moderately impaired. Perception of emotions in faces and voices was (with exceptions) significantly positively correlated, indicating multimodal emotional processing. However, there was no correlation between the subjects' performance on tests of emotional memory and perception. Several subjects showed strong emotional memory enhancement but poor fear perception. Patients with bilateral amygdala damage had greater impairment, particularly on the narrative test of emotional memory, one showing superior fear recognition but absent memory enhancement. Conclusions: Bilateral amygdala damage is particularly disruptive of emotional memory processes in comparison with unilateral temporal lobectomy. On a cognitive level, the pattern of results implies that perception of emotional expressions and emotional memory are supported by separate processing systems or streams.

Brierley, B; Medford, N; Shaw, P; David, A

2004-01-01

210

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

211

Risk-adaptive radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is great interest in integrating biological information into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning with the aim of boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes. Selective boosting of tumor subvolumes can be accomplished without violating normal tissue complication constraints using information from functional imaging. In this work we have developed a risk-adaptive optimization-framework that utilizes a nonlinear biological objective function. Employing risk-adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, it is possible to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing normal tissue complications. Subsequently, we have studied the impact of functional imaging accuracy, and found on the one hand that loss in sensitivity had a large impact on expected local tumor control, which was maximal when a low-risk classification for the remaining low risk PTV was chosen. While on the other hand loss in specificity appeared to have a minimal impact on normal tissue sparing. Therefore, it appears that in order to improve the therapeutic ratio a functional imaging technique with a high sensitivity, rather than specificity, is needed. Last but not least a comparison study between selective boosting IMRT strategies and uniform-boosting IMRT strategies yielding the same EUD to the overall PTV was carried out, and found that selective boosting IMRT considerably improves expected TCP compared to uniform-boosting IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolumes is the cause of expected therapy failure. Furthermore, while selective boosting IMRT, using physical dose-volume objectives, did yield similar rectal and bladder sparing when compared its equivalent uniform-boosting IMRT plan, risk-adaptive radiotherapy, utilizing biological objective functions, did yield a 5.3% reduction in NTCP for the rectum. Hence, in risk-adaptive radiotherapy the therapeutic ratio can be increased over that which can be achieved with conventional selective boosting IMRT using physical dose-volume objectives. In conclusion, a novel risk-adaptive radiotherapy strategy is proposed and promises increased expected local control for locoregionally advanced tumors with equivalent or better normal tissue sparing.

Kim, Yusung

212

Emotional processing in personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of personality disorders, borderline and antisocial types are associated with emotional dysfunctioning. In borderline\\u000a personality disorder (BPD), the hypothesis of emotional hyperresponsiveness can be supported by several experimental studies\\u000a that suggest highly intensive and slowly subsiding emotions to primed and non-primed stimuli, as well as by data showing biased\\u000a information, which processes in the context of emotions.

Sabine C. Herpertz

2003-01-01

213

The Analysis of Emotional Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this issue discuss the emotional experience, including shame, guilt, exaltation, how it feels to be criminally victimized, how people experience nuclear weapons, emotional links with the environment, psychological closeness, ways of being alone, emerging from depression, and collective emotion. (RM)

De Rivera, Joseph, Ed.

1984-01-01

214

The research on emotional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, designers are keeping more attention to the emotional experience when people use the product. In this article, the authors focus on innovation of product design which is based on humanżs emotional demand. First, the authors have studied the theory of Normanżs emotional design and the situation awareness theory of cognitive psychology, and then indicate that the basic attribute of

Wei Sun; Ping Sun

2008-01-01

215

Emotions in nondirected text learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the influence of emotions on nondirected learning. Nondirected learning is conceptualized as learning which occurs in the absence of external prompts, reinforcements, or specific instruction. In Study 1, one of two expository texts was given to ninety-two undergraduate subjects for the ostensible purpose of obtaining attitudinal and emotional ratings. Two separate measures of motivational and emotional factors

RICHARD M. RYAN; JAMES P. CONNELL; ROBERT W. PLANT

1990-01-01

216

Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

Argaman, Osnat

2010-01-01

217

Emotion, desire, and interest: Descriptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the nature and inter-relation of emotion, desire, and interest. Both emotion and desire consist of 4 elements. Content of emotions and desires refers to the intellectual interpretation of stimuli. Once the stimulus is interpreted, an attitude develops, either toward or against it. Feeling is the direct and immediate answer to the stimulus as it is being interpreted. Finally, the

S. F. MLennan

1895-01-01

218

Modeling the Experience of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computing has proven to be a viable field of research comprised of a large number of multidisciplinary researchers resulting in work that is widely published. The majority of this work consists of emotion recognition technology, computational modeling of causal factors of emotion and emotion expression in virtual characters and robots. A smaller part is concerned with modeling the effects

Joost Broekens

2009-01-01

219

Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made

María Ruz; Pío Tudela

2011-01-01

220

Neural network modeling of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not

Daniel S. Levine

2007-01-01

221

Emotional Facial Expressions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review empirical evidence regarding the relationship between facial expression and emotion during infancy. We focus on differential emotions theory’s view of this relationship because of its theoretical and methodological prominence. We conclude that current evidence fails to support its proposal regarding a set of pre-specified facial expressions that invariably reflect a corresponding set of discrete emotions

Linda A. Camras; Jennifer M. Shutter

2010-01-01

222

The role of leaders' emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western cultures support the notion that the ideal 'professional' behaviour for a leader is primarily rational and carefully controlled emotionally. The relationship of reason and emotion is often played out as one of mutual exclusion, and moreover as one representing hierarchy of leaders and followers. Power positions in most organizations are ritually emphasized through strict emotional control\\/suppression. Thus this display

Kornélia Lazányi

223

Service dimensions for consumer emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes important factors in service dimensions for consumer emotions and conducts a survey by questionnaire. We present three findings. (1) The orders of the survey results in the percentage of sample number with “hue angle” of beverage packaging, emotions, and impulse buying desire all showing “analogous?>?contrasting?>?complementary.” (2) In the questionnaire survey of emotions and impulse buying desire, “medium

Regina W. Y. Wang; Ying-Chun Chen

2011-01-01

224

Classifying emotion: a developmental account  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic classification of emotions which can also characterize their nature. The first challenge we address is the submis- sionofclearcriteriaforatheoryofemotionsthatdeterminewhichmentalphenomena are emotions and which are not. We suggest that emotions as a subclass of mental states are determined by their functional roles. The second and main challenge is the presentation of a

Alexandra Zinck; Albert Newen

2008-01-01

225

The Physical Basis of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the theories of C. Lange and William James on emotional consciousness, affirming it to be the effect of organic changes which express emotion. The name emotion might be considered to connote organic excitement as the distinctive feature of the state. (SLD)|

James, William

1994-01-01

226

Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

Ghosn, Irma K.

2001-01-01

227

The Analysis of Emotional Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this issue discuss the emotional experience, including shame, guilt, exaltation, how it feels to be criminally victimized, how people experience nuclear weapons, emotional links with the environment, psychological closeness, ways of being alone, emerging from depression, and collective emotion. (RM)|

De Rivera, Joseph, Ed.

1984-01-01

228

Research on culture differences in emotional designing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dredges up the origin of emotional design through analyzing the phenomena and causes of emotion consumption and proposes that cultural difference is the key to emotional design. Designing pursues differences, and emotional feelings stem from culture. This research draws in the emotional relevance of cultural factors on the emotional design in the design process, carries out the practical

Shence Wang; Han Wu

2009-01-01

229

Emotion Cause Events: Corpus Construction and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion processing has always been a great challenge. Given the fact that an emotion is triggered by cause events and that cause events are an integral part of emotion, this paper constructs a Chinese emotion cause corpus as a first step towards automatic inference of cause-emotion correlation. The corpus focuses on five primary emotions, namely happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and

Sophia Yat Mei Lee; Ying Chen; Shoushan Li; Chu-Ren Huang

2010-01-01

230

Précis of The brain and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics treated in The Brain and Emotion include the definition, nature and functions of emotion (Chapter 3), the neural bases of emotion (Chapter 4), reward, punishment and emotion in brain design (Chapter 10), a theory of consciousness and its application to under- standing emotion and pleasure (Chapter 9), and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that

Edmund T. Rolls

2000-01-01

231

Emotional Development and School Readiness. Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes research on the contribution of young children's emotional competence to their school readiness. Describes ways early childhood teachers can support young children's emotional competence by creating a secure emotional environment, helping children understand emotions, modeling genuine appropriate emotions, supporting children's emotion

Hyson, Marilou

2002-01-01

232

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

233

Drug Design and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid.'' The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central

Gerd Folkers; Amrei Wittwer

2007-01-01

234

Emotional requirements engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini tutorial reviews application of psychological theories in requirements engineering. Theories from psychology of emotion and motivation are introduced and applied in a scenario-based process to analyse affective situations which might be produced by user-oriented RE. Use of agent technology in storyboards and scenario analysis of affective situations is described and illustrated with case studies in health informatics for

Alistair Sutcliffe

2011-01-01

235

Emotional Subjects for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

Micciche, Laura R.

236

Emotional memory is perceptual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two

Arnoud Arntz; Corlijn de Groot; Merel Kindt

2005-01-01

237

The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

238

Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

239

Robots that have emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals have many different motivations and they must decide which of their different motivations they should try at any given time to satisfy with their behavior. Emotions are states of an individual’s body and brain that allow the motivational decision mechanism of the individual to function more properly, that is, in ways that increase the individual’s survival and reproductive chances.

Domenico Parisi; Giancarlo Petrosino

2010-01-01

240

Interaction on Emotions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the addition of an emotion dialogue to the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) system. The goal of the MRE system is to provide an immersive learning environment for army officer recruits. The user can engage in conversation with severa...

A. Hartholt T. J. Muller

2004-01-01

241

Emotions and calls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Birds use different calls to understand each other. Birds can give distress calls and other calls to let other birds know how they feel. Similarly, humans can detect how other humans feel by the tone of voice they use. They can use their hearing abilities to assess the emotions and moods of others.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-10-08

242

Emotional Images in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ideas for future research that explore non-diagnostic uses of images in medicine. The dynamics are studied from a subjective and emotional perspective, a standpoint common in art and design but rarely considered relevant in academic medicine and science. The fundamental aim of the project is to study how images can influence and alter the afflicted individuals' experiences

Henrik Enquist

243

Emotion locomotion: promoting the emotional health of elementary school children by recognizing emotions.  

PubMed

Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed Emotion Locomotion, a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school. Emotion Locomotion used an analogy that the "engine" of a train represents the "individual" and the train "cars" represent various emotions, such as happiness, sadness, calmness, and anger. Analysis of pre- and posttest scores showed an increase in appropriate student responses that involved identifying emotions from photographs and in recognition of vocabulary words representing emotions. Students' role playing during puppet shows demonstrated increased appropriate expression of emotions and healthy ways to deal with feelings during scenarios. Programs such as Emotion Locomotion present opportunities to expand the outreach of school nurses and colleges of nursing through community partnerships to provide critical life skills for student populations. PMID:19592675

McLachlan, Debra A; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K; Linam, Eve H; Moneymaker, Laura D; Rathke, Meghan K

2009-07-10

244

Sad music induces pleasant emotion.  

PubMed

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-06-13

245

Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma.  

PubMed

Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors of the Schwann cells of the eighth (VIII) cranial nerve. Precision radiotherapy techniques used to manage these tumors include stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), which can be delivered with either a conventional or hypofractionated regimen. The radio-biologic rationale and reported clinical outcomes of patients treated with SRT are reviewed. PMID:19751870

Sweeney, Patrick; Yajnik, Santosh; Hartsell, William; Bovis, George; Venkatesan, Jagannath

2009-08-01

246

Expression Animation of Interactive Virtual Humans Based on HMM Emotion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotion plays an essential role in adaptation and social communication in organism. Similarly, appropriately timed and clearly\\u000a expressed emotion is a central required for believable interactive virtual humans. Presently, incorporating emotion into virtual\\u000a humans is gain increasing attention in academia and industry. This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising\\u000a applications in many areas such as virtual

Guojiang Wang; Zhiliang Wang; Xiuyan Meng; Shaodong Teng; Yinggang Xie

2006-01-01

247

Emotion model of interactive virtual humans on the basis of MDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion plays an essential role in the adaptation and social communication of organisms. Similarly, an appropriately timed\\u000a and clearly expressed emotion is a central requirement for believable interactive virtual humans. Presently, incorporating\\u000a emotion into virtual humans has gained increasing attention in the academia and industry. This strong interest is driven by\\u000a a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas

Guojiang Wang; Zhiliang Wang; Shaodong Teng; Yinggang Xie; Yujie Wang

2007-01-01

248

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and Adaptation Among 5- to 8YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated relations between emotionality, emotion regulation, and children's behavioral adaptation in a longitudinal design. Mothers rated emotionality and emotion regulation related to anger, fear, and positive emotions–exuberance for 151 children at age 5 and later at age 6 years 6 months. Emotionality and emotion regulation measures were modestly related. Preschool ratings at age 6 (n = 125), maternal

Ann-Margret Rydell; Lisa Berlin; Gunilla Bohlin

2003-01-01

249

Integrating the emotional intelligence construct: the relationship between emotional ability and emotional competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper posits that the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has not advanced as quickly and adroitly as it could have because of a lack of validity studies that combine the two most prevalent models, emotionality ability (EA) and emotional competency (EC). Although prior EI validations studies exist, none have examined the relationship between the primary EA and EC measurement

Craig R Seal; Mary D Sass; James R Bailey; Matthew Liao-Troth

2009-01-01

250

Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.

Bert, C.; Durante, M.

2011-08-01

251

Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

Mitrovi?, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadi?, Bosiljka

2011-02-01

252

Affective and sensorimotor components of emotional prosody generation.  

PubMed

Although advances have been made regarding how the brain perceives emotional prosody, the neural bases involved in the generation of affective prosody remain unclear and debated. Two models have been forged on the basis of clinical observations: a first model proposes that the right hemisphere sustains production and comprehension of emotional prosody, while a second model proposes that emotional prosody relies heavily on basal ganglia. Here, we tested their predictions in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that used a cue-target paradigm, which allows distinguishing affective from sensorimotor aspects of emotional prosody generation. Both experiments show that when participants prepare for emotional prosody, bilateral ventral striatum is specifically activated and connected to temporal poles and anterior insula, regions in which lesions frequently cause dysprosody. The bilateral dorsal striatum is more sensitive to cognitive and motor aspects of emotional prosody preparation and production and is more strongly connected to the sensorimotor speech network compared with the ventral striatum. Right lateralization during increased prosodic processing is confined to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, a region previously associated with perception of emotional prosody. Our data thus provide physiological evidence supporting both models and suggest that bilateral basal ganglia are involved in modulating motor behavior as a function of affective state. Right lateralization of cortical regions mobilized for prosody control could point to efficient processing of slowly changing acoustic speech parameters in the ventral stream and thus identify sensorimotor processing as an important factor contributing to right lateralization of prosody. PMID:23345236

Pichon, Swann; Kell, Christian A

2013-01-23

253

Evaluation of oxygenation status during fractionated radiotherapy in human nonsmall cell lung cancers using [F-18]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Recent clinical investigations have shown a strong correlation between pretreatment tumor hypoxia and poor response to radiotherapy. These observations raise questions about standard assumptions of tumor reoxygenation during radiotherapy, which has been poorly studies in human cancers. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [F-18]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) uptake allows noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia, and is amenable for repeated studies during

Wui-Jin Koh; Kenneth S. Bergman; Janet S. Rasey; Lanell M. Peterson; Margaret L. Evans; Michael M. Graham; John R. Grierson; Karen L. Lindsley; Thomas K. Lewellen; Kenneth A. Krohn; Thomas W. Griffin

1995-01-01

254

Neural network modeling of emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

Levine, Daniel S.

2007-03-01

255

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortińas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

256

Pleasant emotional induction broadens the visual world of young children.  

PubMed

These experiments aimed at studying the influence of emotional context on global/local visual processing in children. Children 5 years old, known to present an immature global visual bias, and 8 years old, known to pay attention predominantly to global information, were placed in either a neutral or pleasant emotional context and subsequently presented with a global/local visual judgement task. As with previous findings for adults, both age groups presented a pronounced perceptual bias toward global information following exposure to emotionally pleasant pictures. Interestingly, younger children, who do not present a global bias during the neutral exposure, presented the same preference for global information as older children when exposed to the pleasant context. These findings indicate that emotion may strongly affect visual perception in children, with important implications for educational practice and models of cognition. PMID:21824012

Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu; Beaucousin, Virginie; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

2011-08-09

257

Vection modulates emotional valence of autobiographical episodic memories.  

PubMed

We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ('vection') induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving grating or a static grating that produced little or no vection, no modulation of emotional valence was observed. We propose that modulation of emotional valence by vection is caused by the mood congruency effect. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether vection direction affected participants' mood. Consequently, upward vection had a strongly positive effect on mood. The results indicate a close relationship between perceived self-motion direction and the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories, and that the change in participant's mood with vection direction may underlie the modulation of the valence of recollected memories. PMID:23063264

Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

2012-10-11

258

Universal Emotional Health Screening at the Middle School Transition  

PubMed Central

This article describes the implementation of the Developmental Pathways Screening Program (DPSP) and an evaluation of program feasibility, acceptability, and yield. Using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and externalizing questions from the Youth Self Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001), universal classroom-based emotional health screening was implemented with students as they began middle school. Of all sixth graders enrolled in four participating Seattle schools, 861 (83%) were screened. Students who screened positive for emotional distress (15% of students screened) received onsite structured clinical evaluations with children's mental health professionals. Seventy-one percent of students who were evaluated were found to be experiencing significant emotional distress, with 59% warranting referral to academic tutoring, school counselor, and/or community mental health services. Successful implementation of in-class screening was facilitated by strong collaboration between DPSP and school staff. Limitations of emotional health screening and the DPSP are discussed, and future steps are outlined.

Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kelly A.; Herting, Jerald R.; Kuo, Elena S.; Stewart, David G.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Kushner, Siri

2011-01-01

259

Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.  

PubMed

For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. PMID:23910779

Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

2013-06-28

260

The emotional power of music: how music enhances the feeling of affective pictures.  

PubMed

Music is an intriguing stimulus widely used in movies to increase the emotional experience. However, no brain imaging study has to date examined this enhancement effect using emotional pictures (the modality mostly used in emotion research) and musical excerpts. Therefore, we designed this functional magnetic resonance imaging study to explore how musical stimuli enhance the feeling of affective pictures. In a classical block design carefully controlling for habituation and order effects, we presented fearful and sad pictures (mostly taken from the IAPS) either alone or combined with congruent emotional musical excerpts (classical pieces). Subjective ratings clearly indicated that the emotional experience was markedly increased in the combined relative to the picture condition. Furthermore, using a second-level analysis and regions of interest approach, we observed a clear functional and structural dissociation between the combined and the picture condition. Besides increased activation in brain areas known to be involved in auditory as well as in neutral and emotional visual-auditory integration processes, the combined condition showed increased activation in many structures known to be involved in emotion processing (including for example amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, insula, striatum, medial ventral frontal cortex, cerebellum, fusiform gyrus). In contrast, the picture condition only showed an activation increase in the cognitive part of the prefrontal cortex, mainly in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Based on these findings, we suggest that emotional pictures evoke a more cognitive mode of emotion perception, whereas congruent presentations of emotional visual and musical stimuli rather automatically evoke strong emotional feelings and experiences. PMID:16458860

Baumgartner, Thomas; Lutz, Kai; Schmidt, Conny F; Jäncke, Lutz

2006-02-03

261

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy of brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authors have reviewed the results, the indications and the controversies regarding radiotherapy and chemotherapy of patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent brain metastases. Whole-brain radiotherapy, radiosurgery, hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy are the available options. New radiosensitizers and cytotoxic or cytostatic agents are being investigated. Adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, either after surgery or radiosurgery, and prophylactic cranial

R. Soffietti; A. Costanza; E. Laguzzi; M. Nobile; R. Rudŕ

2005-01-01

262

[Complications of the treatment of cervix neoplasms by radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Of 939 patients treated by radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix at the hôpital Notre-Dame in Montreal, between 1979 and 1981, 275 (29.3%) had digestive, urologic, gynecologic, vascular, osseous and cutaneous complications. Surgery was necessary to treat 73 complications in 55 patients (5.9%): 42 digestive (25 occlusions, 13 fistulas and 4 perforations); 22 urologic (16 occlusions, 5 fistulas, 1 hemorrhage); 6 gynecologic (3 hemorrhage and 3 uterine necrosis); 1 cutaneous, 1 vascular and 1 osseous necrosis. No direct correlation was found between the incidence of the complications and certain predisposing factors such as the type of radiotherapy, patients' age, stage of the disease and gynecologic surgery before radiotherapy. However, there was a strong correlation between the incidence of complications and the dose of radiotherapy and the need for gynecologic surgery after radiotherapy. High morbidity was observed in the 55 patients treated surgically: they had to undergo a mean of 2.36 operations each, 2.98 general anesthetics, 1.81 hospitalizations (mean duration 75.7 days); 21 had one or more definitive stomas. The death rate was 5.45%. Surgical treatment was individualized. Limited resections were performed for occlusions, fistulas and perforations whenever it was technically feasible to treat digestive and urologic complications. A bypass procedure was used when resection would have been too extensive or dangerous. The majority of rectal lesions were treated by colostomy and a Hartmann procedure. PMID:3730971

De Muylder, X; Corman, J; Giroux, L; Methot, Y; Poljicak, M; Péloquin, A; Audet-Lapointe, P; Smeesters, C; Beland, G; Falardeau, M

1986-07-01

263

Culture, attention, and emotion.  

PubMed

This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research. PMID:21639670

Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

2011-05-30

264

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

265

A Social Functional Approach to Emotions in Bargaining: When Communicating Anger Pays and When It Backfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on the communication of emotions has suggested that bargainers obtain higher outcomes if they communicate anger than if they communicate happiness because anger signals higher limits, which in turn leads opponents to give in. Building on a social functional account of communicated emotions, the authors demonstrate that the behavioral consequences of communicated anger strongly depend on structural characteristics

Eric van Dijk; Gerben A. van Kleef; Wolfgang Steinel; Ilja van Beest

2008-01-01

266

The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of emotions versus normative beliefs for life satisfaction judgments was compared among individualist and collectivist nations in 2 large sets of international data (in total, 61 nations, N = 62,446). Among nations, emotions and life satisfaction correlated significantly more strongly in more individualistic nations (r = .52 in Study 1; r = .48 in Study 2). At

Eunkook Suh; Ed Diener; Shigehiro Oishi; Harry C. Triandis

1998-01-01

267

Emotional and Behavior Problems in Urban and Rural Adjudicated Males: Differences in Risk and Protective Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional and behavior problems in rural adjudicated youth have received scant research attention. The association of risk and protective factors with emotional and behavioral problems were examined in samples of urban and rural adjudicated youth. Urban youth had higher levels of personal and peer risk. For both samples, family and community risk were strong risk factors. The effects of family

D. Margo Nelson; Daniel Coleman; Kevin Corcoran

2010-01-01

268

Child Negative Emotionality and Parenting From Infancy to Preschool: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analytic review (k = 62 studies; N = 7,613 mother–child dyads) shows that effect sizes for the association between child negative emotionality and parenting were generally small and were moderated by sample and measurement characteristics. The association between more child negative emotionality and less supportive parenting was relatively strong in lower socioeconomic status families, reversed in higher socioeconomic status

Marja C. Paulussen-Hoogeboom; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Jo M. A. Hermanns; Thea T. D. Peetsma

2007-01-01

269

Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei

2012-01-01

270

Passion Work: The Joint Production of Emotional Labor in Professional Wrestling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case of jointly produced passion work. Passion work is emotional labor designed to elicit a strong response from subjects through an impression of extreme states such as pain, agony, or suffering. Based on an ethnographic investigation of professional wrestling participants, this study analyzes the backstage emotion teamwork…

Smith, R. Tyson

2008-01-01

271

Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

Alegre, Albert

2012-01-01

272

Pedagogies of Strategic Empathy: Navigating through the Emotional Complexities of Anti-Racism in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

273

Emotion in Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contemporary research on negotiation and group decision support systems (see the chapter by Lewis, this volume) pays a special\\u000a attention on emotion as a factor in restructuring and reframing of problem representation and solution (Barry, Group Decis\\u000a Negotiation 17:97–105, 2008; Druckman and Olekalns, Group Decis Negotiation 17:1–11, 2008). It involves multi-disciplinary\\u000a approaches and reaches beyond sociology and behavioral research (see

Bilyana Martinovski

274

Consciousness Emotion and Imagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper proposes a brain-inspired cognitive architecture that incorporates approximations,to the concepts of consciousness, emotion, and imagination. To emulate the empirically established cog- nitive efficacy of conscious as opposed,to unconscious,information processing in the mammalian brain, the architecture adopts a model of information flow from global workspace theory. Cognitive functions such as anticipation and planning are realised through internal simulation

Murray Shanahan

275

Bimodal Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When interacting with robots we show a plethora of affective reactions typical of natural communications. Indeed, emotions\\u000a are embedded on our communications and represent a predominant communication channel to convey relevant, high impact, information.\\u000a In recent years more and more researchers have tried to exploit this channel for human robot (HRI) and human computer interactions\\u000a (HCI). Two key abilities are

Marco Paleari; Ryad Chellali; Benoit Huet

2010-01-01

276

Tactile-emotion synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test\\/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the

V. S. Ramachandran; David Brang

2008-01-01

277

Risk Factors for Emotional and Relationship Problems in Peyronie's Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Peyronie’s disease (PD) occurs in 3–9% of all men. Little is known regarding the specific psychological or emotional disruptions to sexuality associated with PD. Aim Our primary aim was to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial difficulties in men with PD. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. Detailed medical histories, physical examinations, and a PD-specific questionnaire were used to define clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were used as a measure of association. Main Outcome Measures Emotional and relationship problems were determined by “yes” or “no” answers to two specific questions. Results The mean age of all PD patients (N = 245) was 54.4 years (range 19.4–75.6); 62% were married, and 59% presented within 2 years of disease onset. The overall prevalence of emotional and relationship problems attributable to PD was 81% and 54%, respectively. Among men who had relationship problems, the prevalence of emotional problems was 93%. In men with emotional problems due to PD, relationship issues were observed in 62%. Multivariable analysis revealed that emotional difficulties (OR 6.9, P < 0.001) and ability to have intercourse (OR 0.4, P = 0.004) were independently associated with relationship problems. Relationship problems (OR 8.0, P < 0.001) and loss of penile length (OR 2.7, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of emotional problems after adjustment for the ability to maintain erections, low libido, and penile pain. Conclusions Among men with PD, there is a very high prevalence of emotional and relationship problems. Loss of penile length and inability to have intercourse are strong predictors of these problems and as such make ideal targets for intervention. Medical and surgical therapies may enhance quality of life through their ability to improve sexual function. Further research will characterize the ways in which individual symptoms affect emotional and psychological well-being.

Smith, James F.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Conti, Simon L.; Turek, Paul; Lue, Tom

2010-01-01

278

Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Postoperative radiotherapy, which forms part of breast-conserving therapy, may not need to encompass the whole breast. Apart from the consumption of huge resources and patients' time, postoperative radiotherapy deters many women from receiving the benefits of breast-conserving surgery, forcing them to choose a mastectomy instead. If radiotherapy could be given in the operating theatre immediately after surgery, many of these disadvantages could be overcome. One striking fact about local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is that most occurs in the area of breast immediately next to the primary tumour; this is despite the finding that two-thirds of mastectomy samples have microscopic tumours distributed throughout the breast, even when radiotherapy is omitted. Thus, only the area adjacent to the tumour may need treatment with radiotherapy. On the basis of this premise, clinical scientists have used new technology to administer radiotherapy to the area at greatest risk of local recurrence, with the aim of completing the whole local treatment in one sitting. In this review, we have elaborated on the rationale and different methods of delivery of intraoperative radiotherapy. If this approach is validated by the results of current randomised trials, it could save time, money, and breasts. PMID:15003199

Vaidya, Jayant S; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Baum, Michael; Keshtgar, Mohammed; Joseph, David; Wenz, Frederik; Houghton, Joan; Saunders, Christobel; Corica, Tammy; D'Souza, Derek; Sainsbury, Richard; Massarut, Samuele; Taylor, Irving; Hilaris, Basil

2004-03-01

279

[External radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

For a long time radiotherapy has been excluded from the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, given its significant toxicity on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma. Conformal radiation is a recent advance in the field of radiotherapy, allowing dose escalation and combination with other therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma, including trans-arterial chemo-embolization. Conformal radiotherapy is associated with interesting features, especially in cirrhotic patients: wide availability, non-invasiveness, possibility to target multiple localizations anywhere within the liver parenchyma, and favorable tolerance profile even in patients with cirrhosis and/or in a poor medical condition. Recently, radiation delivery has been optimized through several technical developments: respiratory gating and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which allow a better focalization of the ballistics, stereotactic techniques and proton-beam radiotherapy, whose availability is currently limited in Europe. Given the high response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation, conformal radiotherapy may be regarded as a curative-intent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to surgery and per-cutaneous techniques. Yet the impact of radiotherapy has to be evaluated in randomized trials to better integrate in the complex therapeutic algorithm of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:21237691

Girard, N; Mornex, F

2011-01-14

280

Interpersonal emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes-response-dependent and response-independent-that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24098929

Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

2013-10-01

281

Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.  

PubMed

Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: (1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young; (3) even in the absence of pregnancy prolactin secretion responds to environmental stimuli under specific conditions. Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the case of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; (4) the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose to prolactinomas; (5) dealing with individual cases requires the perception that the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.e., prolactin affects the brain and mood but, on the other hand, personality traits and environmental factors may stimulate the secretion of prolactin and may play a role in the genesis of the disease. PMID:9667060

Sobrinho, L G

1998-01-01

282

Drug Design and Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid.'' The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of ``rationality'' in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

2007-11-01

283

Appraisals, emotions and emotion regulation: An integrative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to investigate the relation between appraisals, emotions, and emotion regulation strategies by creating\\u000a a structural equation model which integrates these three aspects of the emotion process. To reach this aim, Italian students\\u000a (N = 610) confronted with their high school diploma examination completed a questionnaire 3 weeks before the beginning of the\\u000a exam. Results showed that they experienced primarily

Susanna Schmidt; Carla Tinti; Linda J. Levine; Silvia Testa

2010-01-01

284

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and School Performance in Middle School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the connections of middle school students' emotional dispositions and academic-related affect with their school performance. One hundred three 6th–8th grade students completed three self-rated assessments regarding: (a) their academic competency; (b) affective tendencies (both mood and emotion regulation); and (c) negative emotions experienced during school-related tasks. Teachers assessed students' positive and negative moods, and schools provided achievement

Gail Gumora; William F Arsenio

2002-01-01

285

The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation

Sander L. Koole

2009-01-01

286

[Task sharing with radiotherapy technicians in image-guided radiotherapy].  

PubMed

The development of accelerators with on-board imaging systems now allows better target volumes reset at the time of irradiation (image-guided radiotherapy [IGRT]). However, these technological advances in the control of repositioning led to a multiplication of tasks for each actor in radiotherapy and increase the time available for the treatment, whether for radiotherapy technicians or radiation oncologists. As there is currently no explicit regulatory framework governing the use of IGRT, some institutional experiments show that a transfer is possible between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians for on-line verification of image positioning. Initial training for every technical and drafting procedures within institutions will improve audit quality by reducing interindividual variability. PMID:24007955

Diaz, O; Lorchel, F; Revault, C; Mornex, F

2013-09-03

287

Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Children's Emotional Expression Discrimination and Their Developing Hemispheric Lateralization.  

PubMed

Strength of lateralization for processing facial emotion becomes more right hemisphere lateralized throughout childhood, but sex differences in this development are not currently understood. This study examines patterns of lateralization for emotion discrimination in 185 6-10-year-olds. Strength of right hemisphere lateralization was stronger in the older children, and right hemisphere dominance emerged at around age 8. Children who were more strongly lateralized performed with greater accuracy on a behavioral test of emotion discrimination and this relationship was significant for boys but not girls, demonstrating that there is a relationship between lateralization and performance (particularly, the discrimination of emotions). PMID:24138218

Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

2013-10-01

288

Processing orientation and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

There is evidence that some emotional expressions are characterized by diagnostic cues from individual face features. For example, an upturned mouth is indicative of happiness, whereas a furrowed brow is associated with anger. The current investigation explored whether motivating people to perceive stimuli in a local (i.e., feature-based) rather than global (i.e., holistic) processing orientation was advantageous for recognizing emotional facial expressions. Participants classified emotional faces while primed with local and global processing orientations, via a Navon letter task. Contrary to previous findings for identity recognition, the current findings are indicative of a modest advantage for face emotion recognition under conditions of local processing orientation. When primed with a local processing orientation, participants performed both significantly faster and more accurately on an emotion recognition task than when they were primed with a global processing orientation. The impacts of this finding for theories of emotion recognition and face processing are considered. PMID:21842989

Martin, Douglas; Slessor, Gillian; Allen, Roy; Phillips, Louise H; Darling, Stephen

2011-08-15

289

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

290

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

291

Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility—the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: (a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli and (b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of

Christian E. Waugh; Renee J. Thompson; Ian H. Gotlib

2011-01-01

292

Automatic emotion regulation during anger provocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals frequently have to regulate their emotions, especially negative ones, to function successfully. However, deliberate emotion regulation can have significant costs for the individual. Are there less costly ways to achieve emotion regulatory goals? In two studies, we test the hypothesis that more automatic types of emotion regulation might provide the benefits of deliberate emotion regulation without the costs. Study

Iris B. Mauss; Crystal L. Cook; James J. Gross

2007-01-01

293

TEAM EMOTION RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady

294

Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

295

Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Moral emotions,represent a key element of our human,moral appa- ratus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral be- havior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced,“self- conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previ- ous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review

June Price Tangney; Jeff Stuewig; Debra J. Mashek

2007-01-01

296

Attentional Biases for Emotional Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated emotion-related biases in selective attention for pictorial stimuli in nonclinical subjects; the stimuli included threatening, happy and neutral facial expressions. The combined results showed evi- dence of an emotion-related attentional bias for facial expressions (i.e. an interaction effect of dysphoria and the emotional valence of the facial expression on attentional bias). In particular, nondysphoric subjects (i.e. those

Claire Bonham-Carter; Emma Fergusson; Jane Jenkins; Michelle Parr

1997-01-01

297

Emotional Eating: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional eating is part of the eating disorder spectrum. It requires specific, scientifically-valid treatments that address its biological, psychological, social\\/cultural, and spiritual aspects. Remuda's Emotional Eating Program offers this package for those who eat emotionally, whether overweight or not. Patients participate in a Biblically-based program that promotes healthy eating and a balanced lifestyle. The program integrates portions of Dialectical Behavior

Darcy Tucker

298

Meaningful Parameters in Emotion Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expressive speech synthesis some method of mimicking the way one specific speaker express emotions is needed. In this work\\u000a we have studied the suitability of long term prosodic parameters and short term spectral parameters to reflect emotions in\\u000a speech, by means of the analysis of the results of two automatic emotion classification systems. Those systems have been trained\\u000a with

Eva Navas; Inmaculada Hernáez; Iker Luengo; Ińaki Sainz; Ibon Saratxaga; Jon Sánchez

2007-01-01

299

Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examines emotional experiences as potential mediators between exposure to workplace bullying and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization, respectively. A total of 5,520 respondents participated in the study. Drawing upon affective events theory (AET), the results show that emotions partly mediate these relationships and, hence, support the notion that emotions play a central part in the relationship between bullying and essential occupational outcomes. PMID:22852437

Glasř, Lars; Notelaers, Guy

2012-01-01

300

Children acquire emotion categories gradually  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2–5 years) first labeled facial expressions of six emotions and were then shown a

Sherri C. Widen; James A. Russell

2008-01-01

301

Emotion and self-control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biology-based model of choice is used to examine time-inconsistent preferences and the problem of self-control. Emotion is shown to be the biological substrate of choice, in that emotional systems assign value to ‘goods’ in the environment and also facilitate the learning of expectations regarding alternative options for acquiring those goods. A third major function of the emotional choice systems

Adam Gifford Jr.

2002-01-01

302

Representing Emotions with Linguistic Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a robot to make effective and friendly interaction with human users, it is important to keep track of emotional changes\\u000a in utterance properly. Emotions have traditionally been characterized by intuitive but atomic categories or as points in evaluation-activity\\u000a dimensions. However, this characterization falls short of capturing subtle emotional changes either in narration or in text,\\u000a where the vast majority

Hye-jin Min; Jong C. Park

2007-01-01

303

Relationship Between Facial Expressiveness and Sympathetic Activation in Emotion: A Critical Review, With Emphasis on Modeling Underlying Mechanisms and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important questions bearing on personality processes and individual differences are how do facial expressiveness and sympathetic activation vary as a function of the intensity of an emotional stimulus, and what is the functional mechanism underlying facial expressiveness and sympathetic activation in emotion? A formulation is proposed that is based on 2 propositions: (a) All strong emotions result in some

John T. Cacioppo; Bert N. Uchino; Stephen L. Crites; Mary A. Snydersmith; Gregory Smith; Gary G. Berntson; Peter J. Lang

1992-01-01

304

Processing Words with Emotional Connotation: An fMRI Study of Time Course and Laterality in Rostral Frontal and Retrosplenial Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of rostral frontal and retrosplenial cortices to the emotional significance of words were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-six strongly righthanded participants engaged in a language task that alternated between silent word generation to categories with positive, negative, or neutral emotional connotation and a baseline task of silent repetition of emotionally neutral words. Activation uniquely associated with

M. Allison Cato; Bruce Crosson; Didem Gökçay; David Soltysik; Christina Wierenga; Kaundinya Gopinath; Nathan Himes; Heather Belanger; Russell M. Bauer; Ira S. Fischler; Leslie Gonzalez-Rothi; Richard W. Briggs

2004-01-01

305

Informational need of emotional stress.  

PubMed

According to the informational theory of emotions, emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need satisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed. PMID:11543094

Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V

306

Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.  

PubMed

Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. PMID:20736070

Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

2010-08-22

307

On the relationship between emotional and external eating behavior.  

PubMed

Although there is a strong relationship between emotional and external eating, separate subscales for these behaviors have been constructed in the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. This study tries to establish whether this distinction is justified. We studied relationships among self-reported ( 1) degree of emotional and external eating behavior and (2) problems with (a) emotional distress and relationships, (b) stimulus-boundness (inappropriate amounts of either too much or too little exercise, work, leisure activities, and spending money), and (c) problems with substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs, nicotine, or caffeine) in a sample of female students. No relationships were found between either type of eating behavior and problems with substance use. Furthermore, the significant relationship between emotional and external eating behavior and stimulus-boundness disappeared in the subsample who had problems with overeating. The fact that in all samples emotional eating was significantly related to problems with emotional distress and relationships (anxiety, depression, phobias, suicidal acts or ideations, intimate relations, and sexual contacts) but external eating was not, suggests that the two types of eating behaviors refer to independent constructs. Thus, the use of separate scales to measure these theoretically different aspects of overeating seems warranted. PMID:8712056

Van Strien, T; Schippers, G M; Cox, W M

308

A Neuroanatomical Dissociation for Emotion Induced by Music  

PubMed Central

Does feeling an emotion require changes in autonomic responses, as William James proposed? Can feelings and autonomic responses be dissociated? Findings from cognitive neuroscience have identified brain structures that subserve feelings and autonomic response, including those induced by emotional music. In the study reported here, we explored whether feelings and autonomic responses can be dissociated by using music, a stimulus that has a strong capacity to induce emotional experiences. We tested two brain regions predicted to be differentially involved in autonomic responsivity (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and feeling (the right somatosensory cortex). Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were impaired in their ability to generate skin conductance responses to music, but generated normal judgments of their subjective feelings in response to music. Conversely, patients with damage to the right somatosensory cortex were impaired in their self-rated feelings in response to music, but generated normal skin conductance responses to music. Control tasks suggested that neither impairment was due to basic defects in hearing the music or in cognitively recognizing the intended emotion of the music. The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli.

Johnsen, Erica L.; Tranel, Daniel; Lutgendorf, Susan; Adolphs, Ralph

2008-01-01

309

Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain. PMID:23057507

Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

2012-10-12

310

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs About Emotions, Mother–Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother–child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value\\/danger of children's emotions and parent\\/child roles in emotion socialization. Mother–child emotion talk was observed during a Lego storytelling task. Children's emotion understanding was

Marie Belle Perez Rivera; Julie C. Dunsmore

2011-01-01

311

Getting the Cue: Sensory Contributions to Auditory Emotion Recognition Impairments in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Individuals with schizophrenia show reliable deficits in the ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions. Here, we examined emotion recognition ability in 23 schizophrenia patients relative to 17 healthy controls using a stimulus battery with well-characterized acoustic features. We further evaluated performance deficits relative to ancillary assessments of underlying pitch perception abilities. As predicted, patients showed reduced emotion recognition ability across a range of emotions, which correlated with impaired basic tone matching abilities. Emotion identification deficits were strongly related to pitch-based acoustic cues such as mean and variability of fundamental frequency. Whereas healthy subjects’ performance varied as a function of the relative presence or absence of these cues, with higher cue levels leading to enhanced performance, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less variation in performance as a function of cue level. In contrast to pitch-based cues, both groups showed equivalent variation in performance as a function of intensity-based cues. Finally, patients were less able than controls to differentiate between expressions with high and low emotion intensity, and this deficit was also correlated with impaired tone matching ability. Both emotion identification and intensity rating deficits were unrelated to valence of intended emotions. Deficits in both auditory emotion identification and more basic perceptual abilities correlated with impaired functional outcome. Overall, these findings support the concept that auditory emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia reflect, at least in part, a relative inability to process critical acoustic characteristics of prosodic stimuli and that such deficits contribute to poor global outcome.

Leitman, David I.; Laukka, Petri; Juslin, Patrik N.; Saccente, Erica; Butler, Pamela; Javitt, Daniel C.

2010-01-01

312

Emotional influences on singing  

Microsoft Academic Search

national grants in 9 years. She is the author of over 50 research papers, abstracts, chapters and edited books, and has presented research results at 43 conferences and been,keynote,or invited speaker,at 13 international,conferences.,Her research,interests include the neural control of voice and breathing, respiratory and laryngeal control during speech,and,singing,and,emotional,influences,on voice. She has,supervised,several,PhD and Masters,research,students,and,is currently supervising,a number,of postgraduate,students at the National,Voice

Pamela Davis

313

Emotional abilities and cortical activation during emotional information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the physiological study of cognitive intelligence there is sound evidence of a more efficient use of the brain in brighter individuals (the neural efficiency hypothesis). However, scarcely anything is known with respect to physiological correlates of emotional abilities. To overcome this limitation, we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal emotional management abilities (EMA) and the extent of event-related desynchronization (ERD)

H. Harald Freudenthaler; Andreas Fink; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2006-01-01

314

Prospective Effects of Emotion-Regulation Skills on Emotional Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in emotion-regulation skills have widely been shown to be associated with poor emotional adjustment. However, it is still unclear whether these deficits are a cause or a consequence of poor adjustment. The purpose of the present research was to clarify the reciprocal effects between these 2 concepts. In 2 studies (Ns = 446 and 635),…

Berking, Matthias; Orth, Ulrich; Wupperman, Peggilee; Meier, Laurenz L.; Caspar, Franz

2008-01-01

315

Emotion in voice matters: Neural correlates of emotional prosody perception.  

PubMed

The ability to perceive emotions is imperative for successful interpersonal functioning. The present study examined the neural characteristics of emotional prosody perception with an exploratory event-related potential analysis. Participants were 59 healthy individuals who completed a discrimination task presenting 120 semantically neutral word pairs from five prosody conditions (happy/happy, angry/angry, neutral/neutral, angry/happy, happy/angry). The task required participants to determine whether words in the pair were spoken in same or different emotional prosody. Reflective of an initial processing stage, the word 1 N1 component was found to have greatest amplitude in parietal regions of the hemispheres, and was largest for emotional compared to neutral stimuli, indicating detection of emotion features. A second processing stage, represented by word 1 P2, showed similar topographic effects; however, amplitude was largest for happy in the left hemisphere while angry was largest in the right, illustrating differentiation of emotions. At the third processing stage, word 1 N3 amplitude was largest in frontal regions, indicating later cognitive processing occurs in the frontal cortex. N3 was largest for happy, which had lowest accuracy compared to angry and neutral. The present results support Schirmer and Kotz's (2006) model of vocal emotion perception because they elucidated the function and ERP components by reflecting three primary stages of emotional prosody perception, controlling for semantic influence. PMID:23830881

Iredale, Jaimi Marie; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye; Dimoska-Di Marco, Aneta; Swift, Joshua

2013-07-04

316

Regional brain function, emotion and disorders of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the neural substrates of emotion and its disorders. Neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize the circuitry underlying disorders of emotion. Particular emphasis has been placed on the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and the amygdala as critical components of the circuitry that may be dysfunctional in both depression and

Richard J Davidson; Heather Abercrombie; Jack B Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

1999-01-01

317

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) figures prominently in emotional responding, but its exact role remains unclear. The present study tests two hypotheses: (1) Between-person differences in resting RSA are related to emotional reactivity, and (2) within-person changes in RSA are related to regulatory efforts. Pairs of women watched an upsetting film and discussed it. One woman in each of the experimental

Emily A. Butler; Frank H. Wilhelm; JAMES J. GROSSc

2006-01-01

318

Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion  

PubMed Central

For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory for emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects’ similarity/dissimilarity judgments were transformed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) into a 2-D description of the faces’ perceptual representations. Distances among stimuli in the MDS representation, which showed a strong linkage of emotional expression and facial identity, were good predictors of correct and false recognitions obtained previously in Experiment 1. The convergence of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggests that the overall structure and configuration of faces’ perceptual representations may parallel their representation in short-term memory and that facial identity modulates the representation of facial emotion, both in perception and in memory. The stimuli from this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

2010-01-01

319

Strong Navajo marriages.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths: (1) maintain communication, (2) nurture your relationship, (3) learn about marriage, (4) be prepared for marriage, and (5) have a strong foundation. PMID:19085828

Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenband, Reva

2008-01-01

320

Emotional event-related potentials are larger to figures than scenes but are similarly reduced by inattention  

PubMed Central

Background In research on event-related potentials (ERP) to emotional pictures, greater attention to emotional than neutral stimuli (i.e., motivated attention) is commonly indexed by two difference waves between emotional and neutral stimuli: the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). Evidence suggests that if attention is directed away from the pictures, then the emotional effects on EPN and LPP are eliminated. However, a few studies have found residual, emotional effects on EPN and LPP. In these studies, pictures were shown at fixation, and picture composition was that of simple figures rather than that of complex scenes. Because figures elicit larger LPP than do scenes, figures might capture and hold attention more strongly than do scenes. Here, we showed negative and neutral pictures of figures and scenes and tested first, whether emotional effects are larger to figures than scenes for both EPN and LPP, and second, whether emotional effects on EPN and LPP are reduced less for unattended figures than scenes. Results Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes. When pictures were unattended, emotional effects on EPN increased for scenes but tended to decrease for figures, whereas emotional effects on LPP decreased similarly for figures and scenes. Conclusions Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes, but these effects did not resist manipulations of attention more strongly for figures than scenes. These findings imply that the emotional content captures attention more strongly for figures than scenes, but that the emotional content does not hold attention more strongly for figures than scenes.

2012-01-01

321

The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

Baldwin, Carol May

322

Culture and the Categorization of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some writers assume—and others deny—that all human beings distinguish emotions from nonemotions and divide the emotions into happiness, anger, fear, and so on. A review of ethnographic and cross-cultural studies on (a) emotion lexicons, (b) the emotions inferred from facial expressions, and (c) dimensions implicit in comparative judgments of emotions indicated both similarities and differences in how the emotions are

James A. Russell

1991-01-01

323

Networks of Emotion Concepts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/).

Toivonen, Riitta; Kivela, Mikko; Saramaki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

324

Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. (Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. (Hahnemann Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-07-15

325

Emotion and sociable humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

Cynthia Breazeal

2003-01-01

326

The Automaticity of Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary accounts of emotion typically assume that humans evolved to quickly and efficiently recognize emotion expressions because these expressions convey fitness-enhancing messages. The present research tested this assumption in 2 studies. Specifically, the authors examined (a) how quickly perceivers could recognize expressions of anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, shame, and surprise; (b) whether accuracy is improved when

Jessica L. Tracy; Richard W. Robins

2008-01-01

327

EMOTIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS: A NEUROCOMPUTATIONAL THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a theory of how conscious emotional experience is produced by the brain as the result of many interacting brain areas coordinated in working memory. These brain areas integrate perceptions of bodily states of an organism with cognitive appraisals of its current situation. Emotions are neural processes that represent the overall cognitive and somatic state of the organism.

Paul Thagard

328

Modelling human attention and emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a previously developed engineering control approach to attention, presenting detailed attention control function assignments to the wealth of brain modules experimentally observed. A proposed mechanism for attention amplification through acetylcholine is analysed by use of neural field theory. The control system is extended to include biasing by emotional valence, with qualitative analysis given of a range of emotion

J. G. Taylor; N. Fragopanagos

2004-01-01

329

Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between managerial emotional intelligence (EI) levels and a rating of leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study involved administering the Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) EI test to 38 supervisors within a large manufacturing organisation. Ratings of supervisory leadership effectiveness were assessed via subordinate ratings on an attitude survey detailing

Robert Kerr; John Garvin; Norma Heaton; Emily Boyle

2006-01-01

330

Does leadership need emotional intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in emotional intelligence has bloomed over the last few years. That it has become a standard concept in general and applied psychology, as well as in applied business settings, is indubitable. Is this popularity warranted? Casting a shadow over the concept of emotional intelligence are concerns about its meaningfulness and the construct and predictive validity of its various measures.

John Antonakis; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Marie T. Dasborough

2009-01-01

331

Memory, emotion, and REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored the manner in which REM sleep deprivation might affect various aspects of memory processing. A series of tests, including S. Sternberg's test of scanning of immediate memory, past personal and nonpersonal memory, and past emotional memories, was administered to 8 college students after baseline, control-awakening, and REM-deprivation nights. Results show that only past, emotionally important memories may have been

Ramon Greenberg; Chester Pearlman; Wynn R. Schwartz; Hildreth Y. Grossman

1983-01-01

332

Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

2008-01-01

333

Artificial emotions as emergent phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some researchers claim that emotion is unique to mammals, this paper describes a notion of artificial emotion as a phenomenon resulting from a series of modifications to emergent behaviors generated by a behavior-based artificial intelligence (AI) approach. Such modifications to behaviors are caused by stimuli (including those from humans) which a robot receives from its environment. The paper describes

Takashi Gomi; Joseph Ulvr

1993-01-01

334

Emotive Qualities in Robot Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the expression of emotion in synthesized speech for an anthropomorphic robot. We have adapted several key emotional correlates of human speech to the robot's speech synthesizer to allow the robot to speak in either an angry, calm, disg...

C. Breazeal

2000-01-01

335

Emotional Intelligence: Components and Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is no accepted definition and no adequate measure for the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Some of the myriad issues surrounding EI are discussed here. One problem in the consideration of EI is the confusion between the terms "feelings" and "emotions." Differences between the two are examined and a working definition of feelings is…

Bernet, Michael

336

Emotional entrainment in music performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at defining a computational model of human emotional entrainment. Music, as a non-verbal language to express emotions, is chosen as an ideal test bed for these aims. We start from multimodal gesture and motion signals, recorded in a real world collaborative condition in an ecological setting. Four violin players were asked to play, alone or in duo,

Giovanna Varni; Antonio Camurri; Paolo Coletta; Gualtiero Volpe

2008-01-01

337

Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

Pickover, Sheri

2010-01-01

338

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

339

Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while maintaining a consistent personality. For short-term interactions in restricted environments, scripting and state machine techniques can create agents with emotion and personality, but these methods are labor intensive, hard to extend, and brittle in new environments. Fortunately, research

Anthony G. Francis; Manish Mehta; Ashwin Ram

2010-01-01

340

Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions  

PubMed Central

Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types.

Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

2013-01-01

341

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

342

Strongly correlated electron systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August–3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and

Siddharth S Saxena; P B Littlewood

2012-01-01

343

Measures of emotion: A review  

PubMed Central

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems. Across response systems, the bulk of the available evidence favours the idea that measures of emotional responding reflect dimensions rather than discrete states. In addition, experiential, physiological, and behavioural response systems are associated with unique sources of variance, which in turn limits the magnitude of convergence across measures. Accordingly, the authors suggest that there is no “gold standard” measure of emotional responding. Rather, experiential, physiological, and behavioural measures are all relevant to understanding emotion and cannot be assumed to be interchangeable.

Mauss, Iris B.; Robinson, Michael D.

2009-01-01

344

Bowel distress and emotional conflict.  

PubMed Central

A psychodynamic assessment of 60 women with functional bowel disorder seen at St Mark's, a specialist hospital for disorders of the colon and rectum, has shown that most were trapped in severe emotional conflicts with which they were unable to cope. In many the bodily illnesses appeared to be an expression of these conflicts as well as a defence against experiencing them. The illnesses were then partly, or entirely, emotional conflicts that had become medicalized--emotional conflicts in illnesses clothing. The illnesses, usually precipitated by significant life events, often had their roots in emotional conflicts in infancy or childhood at which time a high proportion of the women had experienced a severe life trauma. The study also indicated that the conflicts that appeared to contribute to the illnesses were associated with emotional difficulties in fulfilling themselves as women.

Brook, A

1991-01-01

345

DEALING WITH ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: CAN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ENHANCE ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisational learning is a method of successfully dealing with continuous change. Emotional aspects of change, however, are not addressed in any detail. In this article, I explore the four branches of emotional intelligence, emotional awareness, emotional facilitation, emotional knowledge and emotional regulation to identify the links between organisational learning and emotional intelligence that contribute to successful organisational change. Although emotional

Peter J. Jordan

346

Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale.  

PubMed

The authors explored the utility of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in assessing adolescents' emotion regulation. Adolescents (11-17 years; N = 870) completed the DERS and measures of externalizing and internalizing problems. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a similar factor structure in the adolescent sample of the authors as demonstrated previously among adults. Furthermore, results indicated no gender bias in ratings of DERS factors on three scales (as evidenced by strong factorial gender invariance) and limited gender bias on the other three scales (as evidenced by metric invariance). Female adolescents scored higher on four of six DERS factors than male adolescents. DERS factors were meaningfully related to adolescents' externalizing and internalizing problems. Results suggest that scores on the DERS show promising internal consistency and validity in a community sample of adolescents. PMID:19915198

Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A C; Gratz, Kim L; Koot, Hans M

2009-11-14

347

Emotion to emotion speech conversion in phoneme level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having an ability to synthesize emotional speech can make human-machine interaction more natural in spoken dialogue management. This study investigates the effectiveness of prosodic and spectral modification in phoneme level on emotion-to-emotion speech conversion. The prosody modification is performed with the TD-PSOLA algorithm (Moulines and Charpentier, 1990). We also transform the spectral envelopes of source phonemes to match those of target phonemes using LPC-based spectral transformation approach (Kain, 2001). Prosodic speech parameters (F0, duration, and energy) for target phonemes are estimated from the statistics obtained from the analysis of an emotional speech database of happy, angry, sad, and neutral utterances collected from actors. Listening experiments conducted with native American English speakers indicate that the modification of prosody only or spectrum only is not sufficient to elicit targeted emotions. The simultaneous modification of both prosody and spectrum results in higher acceptance rates of target emotions, suggesting that not only modeling speech prosody but also modeling spectral patterns that reflect underlying speech articulations are equally important to synthesize emotional speech with good quality. We are investigating suprasegmental level modifications for further improvement in speech quality and expressiveness.

Bulut, Murtaza; Yildirim, Serdar; Busso, Carlos; Lee, Chul Min; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

2004-10-01

348

Emotion recognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury: longitudinal analysis of emotional prosody and facial emotion recognition.  

PubMed

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was to examine if children sustaining a TBI exhibit difficulties with emotion recognition in terms of emotional prosody and face emotion recognition and to determine (1) how these abilities change over time and (2) what, if any, additional factors such as sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) affected the findings. Results provide general support for the idea that children sustaining a TBI exhibit deficits in emotional prosody and face emotion recognition performance. Further, although some gains were noted in the TBI group over the two-years following injury, factors such as SES and age at injury influenced the trajectory of recovery. The current findings indicate the relationship between TBI and emotion recognition is complex and may be influenced by a number of developmental and environmental factors. Results are discussed in terms of their similarity to previous investigations demonstrating the influence of environmental factors on behavioral recovery following pediatric TBI, and with regard to future investigations that can further explore the link between emotion recognition deficits and long-term behavioral and psychosocial recovery. PMID:20678980

Schmidt, Adam T; Hanten, Gerri R; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D; Levin, Harvey S

2010-05-26

349

Processing emotional category congruency between emotional facial expressions and emotional words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are critical for effective social communication, and as such may be processed by the visual system even when it might be advantageous to ignore them. Previous research has shown that categorising emotional words was impaired when faces of a conflicting valence were simultaneously presented. In the present study, we examined whether emotional word categorisation would also be impaired

Samantha Baggott; Romina Palermo; Allison M. Fox

2011-01-01

350

Showing and telling about emotions: Interrelations between facets of emotional competence and associations with classroom adjustment in Head Start preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of low income preschoolers (N?=? 60), we examined relations between three facets of emotional competence: emotion knowledge, level of negative emotion expression, and emotion regulation; and their associations with indicators of classroom adjustment. Emotion knowledge was positively related to positive emotion regulation but was not related to negative emotion expression or negative dysregulation. Negative emotion expression related

Alison L. Miller; Sarah E. Fine; Kathleen Kiely Gouley; Ronald Seifer; Susan Dickstein; Ann Shields

2006-01-01

351

Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

Pachkoria, Ketevan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Zhang Hong [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Jarlsfelt, Ingvar [Department of Pathology and Cytology, Joenkoeping Hospital, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

2005-11-01

352

Loneliness and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The possible associations of loneliness with Emotional Intelligence (EI), 2 of its correlates (life satisfaction and a sense of meaning), and several background variables were tested on a sample of 134 young adults attending college in northern Israel. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis provided support for the model, suggesting that the presence of meaning, EI, and size and availability of an individual's social network are the strongest correlates of loneliness. EI therefore emerges as a potentially important factor in our understanding of loneliness, and the model provides a framework for future studies. The results are discussed vis-ŕ-vis existing findings in the literature and possible directions for approaching loneliness as a theoretical concept and a social phenomenon. PMID:22303611

Zysberg, Leehu

353

Comparison of the Emotional Effects of a Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agent and a Tranquilizer under Different Situational Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the emotional effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking agent oxprenolol (40 mg, p.o.) and the tranquilizing agent diazepam (5 mg, p.o.) in healthy subjects under three situational conditions:an emotionally neutral control situation and two situations designed to arouse different levels of anxiety. Both oxprenolol and diazepam induced positive emotional changes only in the more strongly anxiety-arousing situation. Significant

Gisela Erdmann; Wilhelm Janke; Sigrid Köchers; Brunhild Terschlüsen

1984-01-01

354

Are specific emotions narrated differently?  

PubMed

Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120

Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

2009-12-01

355

[Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. PMID:23972828

Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

2013-08-22

356

Impaired recognition of prosody and subtle emotional facial expressions in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Accurately recognizing the emotional states of others is crucial for successful social interactions and social relationships. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have shown deficits in emotional recognition abilities although findings have been inconsistent. This study examined recognition of emotions from prosody and from facial emotional expressions with three levels of subtlety, in 30 individuals with PD (without dementia) and 30 control participants. The PD group were impaired on the prosody task, with no differential impairments in specific emotions. PD participants were also impaired at recognizing facial expressions of emotion, with a significant association between how well they could recognize emotions in the two modalities, even after controlling for disease severity. When recognizing facial expressions, the PD group had no difficulty identifying prototypical Ekman and Friesen (1976) emotional faces, but were poorer than controls at recognizing the moderate and difficult levels of subtle expressions. They were differentially impaired at recognizing moderately subtle expressions of disgust and sad expressions at the difficult level. Notably, however, they were impaired at recognizing happy expressions at both levels of subtlety. Furthermore how well PD participants identified happy expressions conveyed by either face or voice was strongly related to accuracy in the other modality. This suggests dysfunction of overlapping components of the circuitry processing happy expressions in PD. This study demonstrates the usefulness of including subtle expressions of emotion, likely to be encountered in everyday life, when assessing recognition of facial expressions. PMID:23565934

Buxton, Sharon L; MacDonald, Lorraine; Tippett, Lynette J

2013-04-01

357

Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection  

PubMed Central

Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched.

Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

2011-01-01

358

Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.  

PubMed

Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness. PMID:22931014

Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

2012-01-01

359

Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions. PMID:20230076

Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

2010-03-01

360

Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards.

2012-01-01

361

Emotional conflict and social context  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur.

FitzGerald, Chloe

2011-01-01

362

An Integrated Approach to Emotion Recognition for Advanced Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion identification is beginning to be considered as an essential feature in human-computer interaction. However, most\\u000a of the studies are mainly focused on facial expression classifications and speech recognition and not much attention has been\\u000a paid until recently to physiological pattern recognition. In this paper, an integrative approach is proposed to emotional\\u000a interaction by fusing multi-modal signals. Subjects are exposed

Panagiotis D. Bamidis; Christos A. Frantzidis; Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; Andrej Luneski; Chrysa D. Lithari; Manousos A. Klados; Charalampos Bratsas; Christos L. Papadelis; Costas Pappas

2009-01-01

363

Adding emotional factors to synthesized voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with how to add emotional factors to synthesized voices by applying essentic forms of emotion which reflect the timewise response of muscle reaction to each kind of emotions. We modulate the magnitude and fundamental frequency of given series of voice with no emotional factor by the essentic standard forms obtained by fingertip pressure. Psychological evaluation of these

Fumio Hara

1997-01-01

364

Emotion: Appraisal-coping model for the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling emotion has become a challenge nowadays. Therefore, several models have been produced in order to express human emotional activity. However, only a few of them are currently able to express the close re- lationship existing between emotion and cognition. An appraisal-coping model is presented here, with the aim to simulate the emotional impact caused by the eval- uation of

Karim Mahboub; Evelyne Clément; Cyrille Bertelle; Véronique Jay

2009-01-01

365

Theories of emotion causation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present an overview of emotion theories, organised around the question of emotion causation. I argue that theories of emotion causation should ideally address the problems of elicitation, intensity, and differentiation. Each of these problems can be divided into a subquestion that asks about the relation between stimuli and emotions (i.e., the functional level of process description, cf. Marr, 1982)

Agnes Moors

2009-01-01

366

Product relevant emotions in the Spanish language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a five-stage study to identify what emotions are product relevant in Mexican culture, and to cross-compare these with the emotions identified in a prior study carried out in the Netherlands. 34 emotion terms in the Spanish language were identified as product relevant, 17 of which were related to product appearance. 21 emotion terms that were identified in

Juan Carlos Ortíz Nicolás; Irma Hernández

367

Emotions: A Means of Studying Human Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions affect people's perceptions of reality, with the emotions that we experience on a daily basis appearing to be in response to external stimulus such as a stressor of some kind resulting in responses which ultimately result in some emotion being expressed, be it anger, fear, love, hate, disgust, pleasure, and so on. Therefore, Meyer's (1933) contention that emotions are

William L. Smith

368

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

369

Magda B. Arnold's contributions to emotions research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview to the special issue of Cognition and Emotion devoted to Magda B. Arnold's (1903–2002) contributions to the psychology of human emotion. Contributors provide insight into the intellectual forebears and theoretical scope of Arnold's emotion theory, and the interconnections of Arnold's theories and contemporary trends in research on emotion, motivation, and social neuroscience. A biography of

Stephanie A. Shields; Arvid Kappas

2006-01-01

370

The function of emotional intelligence in leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of emotional intelligence in leadership activities attracts more and more attention of researchers and practitioners. Based on the introduction of the concept and the ability model of emotional intelligence, the roles of leader's emotional intelligence in leadership activities are discussed in detail. Keywords-emotional intelligence; leader; leadership effectiveness

Shuhong Wang; Shengxu Xiong

2011-01-01

371

Neural Response to Emotional Salience in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging probes of brain regions implicated in emotion represent an important research strategy for understanding emotional dysfunction in schizophrenia. Anterior limbic structures, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the generation of emotional responses, although few studies to date have used emotion probes to target these areas in schizophrenia. With

Stephan F Taylor; K Luan Phan; Jennifer C Britton; Israel Liberzon

2005-01-01

372

Beyond Cognition: Modeling Emotion in Cognitive Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in psychology and neuroscience has identified both the critical role of emotion in decision-making and social interaction, and some of the mechanisms mediating the functioning of emotion. Yet the majority of cognitive architectures do not include models of emotion. In this paper I first motivate the need for including emotion in cognitive architectures, and then describe a generic

Eva Hudlicka

2004-01-01

373

Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary…

Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

2012-01-01

374

Modeling Emotion-Based Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computational a pproach to Emotion- Based Decision-Making that models important aspects of emotional processing and integrates these with other models of per ception, motivation, behavior, and motor control. A particular emphasis is placed on using some of the mec ha- nisms of emotions as building blocks for the acquisition of emotional memories that serve as biasing

Juan D. Velásquez

375

Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a

Michaela Rohr; Juliane Degner; Dirk Wentura

2011-01-01

376

Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a

Michaela Rohr; Juliane Degner; Dirk Wentura

2012-01-01

377

Gender and Preschoolers’ Perception of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person’s gender plays a role in the emotion children attribute to that person, even given unambiguous cues to a basic emotion. Eighty preschoolers (4 or 5 years of age) were asked to name the emotion of either a boy (Judd) or a girl (Suzy) in otherwise identical stories about prototypical emotional events and, separately, as shown with identical prototypical

Sherri C. Widen; James A. Russell

2002-01-01

378

Emotional Intelligence in Christian Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement? Does emotional intelligence provide tools that enable students to conquer

Sudi Kate Gliebe

2012-01-01

379

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same,

Joseph J. Campos; Carl B. Frankel; Linda Camras

2004-01-01

380

Facial color control to represent character emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a facial color change technique, which is a combination of emotional models based on human cultural theory, emotional expression pattern using colors, and emotional reaction speed function, as opposed to previous methods that express emotions through blood flow, pulse, or skin temperature.

Kyu Ho Park; Tae Yong Kim

2009-01-01

381

Emotion Deficits in Schizophrenia: Timing Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past two decades of research on emotional response in schizophrenia has demonstrated that people with schizophrenia do not have a marked deficit in reported emotional experience in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli. However, the extent to which people with schizophrenia maintain their emotional state to guide future behavior remains a largely unexplored area of investigation. In the present

Ann M. Kring; Marja Germans Gard; David E. Gard

2011-01-01

382

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and…

Campos, Joseph J.; Frankel, Carl B.; Camras, Linda

2004-01-01

383

Emotion, Attention, and the Startle Reflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical model of emotion is based on research using the startle-probe methodology. It explains inconsistencies in probe studies of attention and fear conditioning and provides a new approach to emotional perception, imagery, and memory. Emotions are organized biphasically, as appetitive or aversive (defensive). Reflexes with the same valence as an ongoing emotional state are augmented; mismatched reflexes are inhibited.

Peter J. Lang; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert

1990-01-01

384

Using Mindfulness Practice to Work with Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important point to understand is that working with and understanding our own emotional reactions is an essential prerequisite to working skillfully with emotionally charged individuals in disputes. Training in “mediation techniques” designed to help us recognize and work with emotions in the mediation and negotiation context will not work unless we have practiced working with our own emotions

Deborah Calloway

2010-01-01

385

Adult attachment, emotional control, and marital satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research into the relations among attachment style, emotional experience, and emotional control. Questionnaire measures of these variables were completed by a broad sample of 238 married couples. Continuous measures of attachment showed that insecure attachment (low Comfort with closeness; high Anxiety over relationships) was related to greater control of emotion, regardless of whether the emotion was

JUDITH A. FEENEY

1999-01-01

386

Towards emotion recognition from electroencephalographic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, information about the emotional state of users has become more and more important in human-computer interaction. Automatic emotion recognition enables the computer to recognize a user's emotional state and thus allows for appropriate reaction, which may pave the way for computers to act emotionally in the future. In the current study, we investigate different feature sets

Kristina Schaaff; Tanja Schultz

2009-01-01

387

Modeling the Emotional State of Computer Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure of a Bayesian network designed to monitor the behavior of a user interacting with a conversational computer and use that information to estimate the user's emotional state. Our model of emotional state uses two discrete dimensions, valence (bad to good) and arousal (calm to excited), to capture the dominant aspects of physical emotional response. Emotion is

J. Eugene Ball; Jack Breese

1999-01-01

388

Emotions in human and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence and emotions differentiate humans from animals. Emotion is part of a persons behaviour and certain feelings can affect his\\/her performance, emotions can even prevent a person from producing an intelligent outcome. Therefore, when a computer aims to emulate human behaviour, not only should this computer think and reason, but it should also be able to show emotions. This paper

Juan Mart??nez-Miranda; Arantza Aldea

2005-01-01

389

Dimensions of Emotion in Expressive Musical Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dimensions of emotion conveyed by music. Participants rated emotion terms after seeing and\\/or hearing recordings of clarinet performances that varied in expressive content. A factor analysis re- vealed four independent dimensions of emotion. Changes to the clarinetists' ex- pressive intentions did not significantly affect emotions conveyed by sound. It was largely through the visual modality that

BRADLEY W. VINES; CAROL L. KRUMHANSL; MARCELO M. WANDERLEY; IOANA DALCA

2005-01-01

390

Disambiguating the Components of Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Affective neuroscience and cognitive science approaches are useful for understanding the components of emotion regulation; several examples from current research are provided. Individual differences in emotion regulation and a focus on the context of emotion experience and expression provide additional tools to study emotion regulation, and its…

Goldsmith, H. H.; Davidson, Richard J.

2004-01-01

391

Sex Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability Emotional Intelligence is a cognitive ability that includes the perception, understanding, and management of your own emotions and those of other people, and can be distinguished from Trait Emotional Intelligence, which includes a variety of personality dimensions related to emotions (Petrides & Furnham, 2001). Past research has shown that men obtain lower scores than women, on average, on measures

Monica Beisecker; A. Barchard

392

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs About Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was

Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch

2012-01-01

393

Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.  

PubMed

This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

2010-09-01

394

Emotional conflict occurs at an early stage: Evidence from the emotional face–word Stroop task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptual processing of emotional conflict was studied using electrophysiological techniques to measure event-related potentials (ERPs). The emotional face–word Stroop task in which emotion words are written in prominent red color across a face was use to study emotional conflict. In each trial, the emotion word and facial expression were either congruent or incongruent (in conflict). When subjects were asked

Xiang-ru Zhu; Hui-jun Zhang; Ting-ting Wu; Wen-bo Luo; Yue-jia Luo

2010-01-01

395

The experience of positive emotion is associated with the automatic processing of positive emotional words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines the relationship between attention bias for positive emotional words and self-reported emotional experience. Previous research suggests that the experience of positive emotion momentarily broadens cognitive processes, potentially allowing individuals to build an array of enduring personal resources. However, it is unknown whether the experience of positive emotion also broadens emotional information processing. Participants included 60 healthy

Gregory P. Strauss; Daniel N. Allen

2006-01-01

396

Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and

Matthias Spörrle; Isabell M. Welpe; Friedrich Försterling

2006-01-01

397

Emotional Intelligence and Emotion Work: Examining Constructs From an Interdisciplinary Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence and emotion work are two research areas traditionally presented as distinct. This article reviews their definitions, examines their intersections, and illustrates the advantage of approaching emotion research from an interdisciplinary framework. Conclusions address the following: (a) An employee’s emotional intelligence or cognitive abilities cannot be assessed or developed without an understanding of the context or emotion work rules;

Rose Opengart

2005-01-01

398

Emotional Intelligence and Emotions Associated with Optimal and Dysfunctional Athletic Performance  

PubMed Central

This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key points Athletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions. Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions. Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance.

Lane, Andrew M.; Devonport, Tracey J.; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

2010-01-01

399

Psychometric assessment of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K) to measure Korean children's emotional reaction to hospitalization.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test psychometric properties of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K). A convenience sample of 170 hospitalized Korean children was recruited. Each child was asked to describe how she or he felt during hospitalization, through the ERI-K and the Facial Affective Scale. Surprisingly, children reported lower levels of negative emotions and physical discomfort and a moderate level of positive emotion (Happy, Good). Internal consistency reliability of .88 for the 14-item scale provides strong support for reliability. Construct validity was supported by item-to-total correlations ranging between .42 and .65. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors that explained 54% of the variance. Further testing of the ERI-K is recommended to provide additional evidence of psychometric adequacy across Korean populations. PMID:21191034

Kim, Jin-Sun; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Foster, Roxie L; Cheng, Sufen

2011-01-01

400

On Strong Anticipation  

PubMed Central

We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”.

Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

2009-01-01

401

Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.  

PubMed

We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport. PMID:23113574

McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

2012-10-31

402

Implicit emotional processing in peripheral vision: behavioral and neural evidence.  

PubMed

Emotional facial expressions (EFE) are efficiently processed when both attention and gaze are focused on them. However, what kind of processing persists when EFE are neither the target of attention nor of gaze remains largely unknown. Consequently, in this experiment we investigated whether the implicit processing of faces displayed in far periphery could still be modulated by their emotional expression. Happy, fearful and neutral faces appeared randomly for 300 ms at four peripheral locations of a panoramic screen (15 and 30° in the right and left visual fields). Reaction times and electrophysiological responses were recorded from 32 participants who had to categorize these faces according to their gender. A decrease of behavioral performance was specifically found for happy and fearful faces, probably because emotional content was automatically processed and interfered with information necessary to the task. A spatio-temporal principal component analysis of electrophysiological data confirmed an enhancement of early activity in occipito-temporal areas for emotional faces in comparison with neutral ones. Overall, these data show an implicit processing of EFE despite the strong decrease of visual performance with eccentricity. Therefore, the present research suggests that EFE could be automatically detected in peripheral vision, confirming the abilities of humans to process emotional saliency in very impoverished conditions of vision. PMID:22944003

Rigoulot, Simon; D'Hondt, Fabien; Honoré, Jacques; Sequeira, Henrique

2012-08-28

403

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music – an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life – can arouse emotions – biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework – referred to as BRECVEMA – includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

404

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-05-29

405

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Back Pain and Emotional Distress Common Reactions to Back Pain Four out of five adults will experience an episode of significant back pain sometime during ...

406

Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... frustration, possibly with a temper tantrum or sullen rage. He may even strike back by hitting, biting, ... emotions, be prepared for everything from delight to rage. However, you should consult your pediatrician if your ...

407

Is boundary extension emotionally selective?  

PubMed

When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions. PMID:23445174

Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

2013-02-28

408

Multiple emotional contagions in service encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the dynamic impact of multiple sequential emotional displays by employees on customers’ negative emotions.\\u000a Using video-based stimuli to manipulate emotional displays by employees, this study shows the sequential occurrences of negative\\u000a and positive emotional contagions in service failure and recovery encounters. The results suggest that higher levels of employees’\\u000a negative emotional displays lead to a greater increase

Jiangang Du; Xiucheng Fan; Tianjun Feng

2011-01-01

409

Sentimentalism and Self-Directed Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is a long-standing philosophical debate about the role of emotions in moral judgment. Some argue that emotions are inessential;\\u000a we can make moral judgments without having an emotional response. Others, so-called sentimentalists, argue that emotions play\\u000a an essential role. Philosophers have debated these positions for ages with no resolution. Intuitions vary as to whether emotions\\u000a are essential to morality.

Jesse Prinz

410

Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

{Excerpt} Emotional intelligence describes an ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature and has had successful applications in many domains.\\u000aThe intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests to

Olivier Serrat

2009-01-01

411

Brain imaging, genetics and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the published evidence on genetically driven variation in neurotransmitter function and brain circuits involved in emotion. Several studies point to a role of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in amygdala activation during emotion perception. We also discuss other polymorphisms (e.g. the COMT val158met polymorphism, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 ?703 G\\/T) and putative effects on affective processing in cortical and

André Aleman; Marte Swart; Sophie van Rijn

2008-01-01

412

Emotional organization of autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical\\u000a retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative\\u000a valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal\\u000a did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal

Matthew D. Schulkind; Gillian M. Woldorf

2005-01-01

413

Toddlers’ Understanding of Peers’ Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants’ ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their own behavior with the toys. They found

Sara R. Nichols; Margarita Svetlova; Celia A. Brownell

2010-01-01

414

Examining emotional intelligence and leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying theories have been presented about the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership. The present study examines the extent to which a self report measure of emotional intelligence, based upon an ability model, can predict each of the four components of transformational leadership. This study further considers the extent to which the quality of a leader-follower dyaÄŹs Leader-Member Exchange

Shannon Webb

2005-01-01

415

Is tenderness a basic emotion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the case to consider tenderness a basic emotion, using the criteria proposed by Ekman (in Handbook of\\u000a cognition and emotion, Wiley, England, 1999). The first part of the article reviews the relationship between tenderness and the related concepts of love and empathy.\\u000a The next section reviews evidence concerning whether tenderness meets some of Ekman’s criteria. The last

Juan Pablo Kalawski

2010-01-01

416

Elderly people's experiences of housing renewal and forced relocation: Social theories and contextual analysis in explanations of emotional experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of the urban environment, forcing people to leave their homes either temporarily or permanently, is a widespread phenomenon in the Western world. To those whose homes are affected, the process often has a strong emotional meaning. This article shows how various contributions to a sociology of emotions together can deepen our knowledge of the socio?psychological mechanisms that lie behind

Mats Ekström

1994-01-01

417

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-01-01

418

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-01-01

419

Rat infant isolation vocalizations and their modulation by social cues as a model of expression of infantile emotionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social bonds are an important element of mammalian lives. Here we review the pharmacology and functional neuroanatomy of structures controlling infant rat isolation-induced vocalizations. There is strong evidence that these vocalizations reflect an emotional process, because emotion-linked brain regions participate in the infant vocalizations, and anxiolytics reduce the vocalizations. Selective breeding for rate of infant isolation vocalization produces high and

Jeff Muller; Susan Brunelli; Harry Shair

2009-01-01

420

An audiovisual emotion recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

2007-12-01

421

Emotion and the motivational brain.  

PubMed

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain's motivational circuits that determine human emotion. PMID:19879918

Lang, Peter J; Bradley, Margaret M

2009-10-30

422

Quality assurance for radiotherapy equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality assurance of the radiotherapy equipment comprises all organized procedures which are needed to ensure the reliable operation of the equipment on point of view of radiation safety as well as of the required accuracy of dose to the patient. Qual...

1993-01-01

423

Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer.

Andren-Sandberg, Ake

2011-01-01

424

Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12 have been alive and well without tumor for periods ranging from three and a half to 16 years and 3 of these are alive and well for 15 years or more following radiotherapy. The other 6 patients responded or desease stabilized following radiotherapy for periods ranging from 16 months to eight years. One poorly differentiated tumor was radically irradiated and did not respond. Eleven patients were irradiated palliatively, generally with low doses of irradiation, and only 4 responded transiently for periods ranging from three to 12 months. Seven patients with mesenchymal and dedifferentiated tumors were radically irradiated. Four responded or disease stabilized, and 1 of these patients was alive and well at 3 years; 3 did not respond. Six died with distant metastasis. It is concluded that chondrosarcoma of bone is a radioresponsive tumor and the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease and the reason for its being labelled a radioresistant tumor are discussed. The problems of assessing response of chondrosarcoma to therapy are also discussed. It is suggested that chemotherapy may have a role in the management of mesenchymal and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.

Harwood, A.R.; Krajbich, J.I.; Fornasier, V.L.

1980-06-01

425

External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally,

Maurice Tubiana; Elias Haddad; Martin Schlumberger; Catherine Hill; Philippe Rougier; Daničle Sarrazin

1985-01-01

426

Radiotherapy and head neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values.

V. K. Jenkins; C. M. Griffiths; P. Ray; R. R. Perry; M. H. Olson

1980-01-01

427

External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers  

SciTech Connect

Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally, in those patients, the neoplastic tissue involves the larynx, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels or mediastinum. Of 539 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Villejuif, France, until 1976, 97 were treated by external radiotherapy after an incomplete surgical excision. Fifteen years after irradiation, the survival rate is 57% and is approximately 40% at 25 years. The relapse-free survival is lower (39% at 15 years). In patients irradiated with an adequate dose (greater than or equal to 50 Gy) to residual neoplastic tissue after incomplete surgery, the incidence of local recurrence is low (actuarial probability of local recurrence 11% at 15 years versus 23% for patients treated by surgery alone, although the irradiated patients had larger and more extensive tumors). This demonstrates the efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy on a residual tumor can be monitored by a serum thyroglobulin assay. With regard to local control of tumors, the effectiveness of radioiodine administration is clearly lower. However, since radioiodine facilitates early detection of distant metastases, a combination of external RT and radioiodine is indicated and is well-tolerated.

Tubiana, M.; Haddad, E.; Schlumberger, M.; Hill, C.; Rougier, P.; Sarrazin, D.

1985-05-01

428

Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients,

Joseph N. Contessa; Kent A. Griffith; Elizabeth Wolff; William Ensminger; Mark Zalupski; Theodore S. Lawrence; Edgar Ben-Josef

2009-01-01

429

Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

430

The fusiform response to faces: explicit versus implicit processing of emotion.  

PubMed

Regions of the fusiform gyrus (FG) respond preferentially to faces over other classes of visual stimuli. It remains unclear whether emotional face information modulates FG activity. In the present study, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was obtained from fifteen healthy adults who viewed emotionally expressive faces and made button responses based upon emotion (explicit condition) or age (implicit condition). Dipole source modeling produced source waveforms for left and right primary visual and left and right fusiform areas. Stronger left FG activity (M170) to fearful than happy or neutral faces was observed only in the explicit task, suggesting that directed attention to the emotional content of faces facilitates observation of M170 valence modulation. A strong association between M170 FG activity and reaction times in the explicit task provided additional evidence for a role of the fusiform gyrus in processing emotional information. PMID:21932258

Monroe, Justin F; Griffin, Mark; Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Roberts, Timothy P L; Christopher Edgar, J

2011-09-20

431

Strong Little Magnets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.|

Moloney, Michael J.

2007-01-01

432

Continued strong overall performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ability Group (AGR) experienced continued high level of activity in three of its four business areas during the third quarter. Petroleum Services again saw strong demand for its drilling management services. The Petroleum Services operation is currently working with a prospect list of 180 wells, 60 per cent of which relate to 2007. The anticipated challenge will be rig

Sverre Skogen

433

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

Bakr, W.; Cheuk, L. W.; Ku, M. J.-H.; Park, J. W.; Sommer, A. T.; Will, S.; Wu, C.-H.; Yefsah, T.; Zwierlein, M. W.

2013-08-01

434

Psychometric properties of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to broaden the alexithymia concept, we identified six aspects in a newly developed questionnaire for children which aims to measure emotion awareness: Differentiating Emotions, Verbal Sharing of Emotions, Bodily Awareness, Acting Out Emotions, Analyses of Emotions, and Others’ Emotions. First, the six-factor structure of this Emotion Awareness Questionnaire was identified in children (692 children, 9–16 years old), although

Carolien Rieffe; Mark Meerum Terwogt; K. V. Petrides; Richard Cowan; Anne C. Miers; Abigail Tolland

2007-01-01

435

Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective processes as they relate to cognition, motivation, and social functioning. Ecological and individual interventions for influencing learning and social

John Pellitteri; Michael Dealy; Charles Fasano; John Kugler

2006-01-01

436

[Stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy: dose prescription].  

PubMed

The aim of this article was the study of the successive steps permitting the prescription of dose in stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy, which includes radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The successive steps studied are: the choice of stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy among the therapeutic options, based on curative or palliative treatment intent, then the selection of lesions according to size/volume, pathological type and their number permitting the choice between radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, which have the same methodological basis. Clinical experience has determined the level of dose to treat the lesions and limit the irradiation of healthy adjacent tissues and organs at risk structures. The last step is the optimization of the different parameters to obtain a safe compromise between the lesion dose and healthy adjacent structures. Study of dose-volume histograms, coverage indices and 3D imaging permit the optimization of irradiation. For lesions close to or included in a critical area, the prescribed dose is planned using the inverse planification method. Implementation of the successively described steps is mandatory to insure the prescription of an optimized dose. The whole procedure is based on the delineation of the lesion and adjacent healthy tissues. There are sometimes difficulties to assess the delineation and the volume of the target, however improvement of local control rates and reduction of secondary effects are the proof that the totality of the successive procedures are progressively improved. In practice, stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy is a continually improved treatment method, which constantly benefits from improvements in the choice of indications, imaging, techniques of irradiation, planification/optimization methodology and irradiation technique and from data collected from prolonged follow-up. PMID:22622226

Schlienger, M; Lartigau, E; Nataf, F; Mornex, F; Latorzeff, I; Lisbona, A; Mahé, M

2012-05-22

437

Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Recently, ion beam radiotherapy (including protons as well as heavier ions) gained considerable interest. Although ion beam radiotherapy requires dose prescription in terms of iso-effective dose (referring to an iso-effective photon dose), absorbed dose is still required as an operative quantity to control beam delivery, to characterize the beam dosimetrically and to verify dose delivery. This paper reviews current methods and standards to determine absorbed dose to water in ion beam radiotherapy, including (i) the detectors used to measure absorbed dose, (ii) dosimetry under reference conditions and (iii) dosimetry under non-reference conditions. Due to the LET dependence of the response of films and solid-state detectors, dosimetric measurements are mostly based on ion chambers. While a primary standard for ion beam radiotherapy still remains to be established, ion chamber dosimetry under reference conditions is based on similar protocols as for photons and electrons although the involved uncertainty is larger than for photon beams. For non-reference conditions, dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials may also be necessary. Regarding the atomic numbers of the composites of tissue-equivalent phantoms, special requirements have to be fulfilled for ion beams. Methods for calibrating the beam monitor depend on whether passive or active beam delivery techniques are used. QA measurements are comparable to conventional radiotherapy; however, dose verification is usually single field rather than treatment plan based. Dose verification for active beam delivery techniques requires the use of multi-channel dosimetry systems to check the compliance of measured and calculated dose for a representative sample of measurement points. Although methods for ion beam dosimetry have been established, there is still room for developments. This includes improvement of the dosimetric accuracy as well as development of more efficient measurement techniques. PMID:20952816

Karger, Christian P; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Kanai, Tatsuaki

2010-10-15

438

Living Emotions, Avoiding Emotions: Behavioral Investigation of the Regulation of Socially Driven Emotions  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation is important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions more positively when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behavior. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (with a human partner) or the meaning of the situation (with a computer partner). Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner, as compared to a computer partner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions.

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

439

When Emotion Blinds: A Spatiotemporal Competition Account of Emotion-Induced Blindness  

PubMed Central

Emotional visual scenes are such powerful attractors of attention that they can disrupt perception of other stimuli that appear soon afterward, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness. What mechanisms underlie this impact of emotion on perception? Evidence suggests that emotion-induced blindness may be distinguishable from closely related phenomena such as the orienting of spatial attention to emotional stimuli or the central resource bottlenecks commonly associated with the attentional blink. Instead, we suggest that emotion-induced blindness reflects relatively early competition between targets and emotional distractors, where spontaneous prioritization of emotional stimuli leads to suppression of competing perceptual representations potentially linked to an overlapping point in time and space.

Wang, Lingling; Kennedy, Briana L.; Most, Steven B.

2012-01-01

440

Detecting hemifacial asymmetries in emotional expression with three-dimensional computerized image analysis.  

PubMed Central

Emotions are expressed more clearly on the left side of the face than the right: an asymmetry that probably stems from right hemisphere dominance for emotional expression (right hemisphere model). More controversially, it has been suggested that the left hemiface bias is stronger for negative emotions and weaker or reversed for positive emotions (valence model). We examined the veracity of the right hemisphere and valence models by measuring asymmetries in: (i) movement of the face; and (ii) observer's rating of emotionality. The study uses a precise three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to measure facial movement and to provide images that simultaneously capture the left or right hemifaces. Models (n = 16) with happy, sad and neutral expressions were digitally captured and manipulated. Comparison of the neutral and happy or sad images revealed greater movement of the left hemiface, regardless of the valence of the emotion, supporting the right hemisphere model. There was a trend, however, for left-sided movement to be more pronounced for negative than positive emotions. Participants (n = 357) reported that portraits rotated so that the left hemiface was featured, were more expressive of negative emotions whereas right hemiface portraits were more expressive for positive emotions, supporting the valence model. The effect of valence was moderated when the images were mirror-reversed. The data demonstrate that relatively small rotations of the head have a dramatic effect on the expression of positive and negative emotions. The fact that the effect of valence was not captured by the movement analysis demonstrates that subtle movements can have a strong effect on the expression of emotion.

Nicholls, Michael E R; Ellis, Brooke E; Clement, John G; Yoshino, Mineo

2004-01-01

441

Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions.  

PubMed

The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful) as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs) than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children. PMID:23847560

Schel, Margot A; Crone, Eveline A

2013-07-02

442

Plasmons in strong superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T{sub c} superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

Baldo, M., E-mail: baldo@ct.infn.it [Sezione di Catania, INFN (Italy); Ducoin, C. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics (Portugal)

2011-10-15

443

Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail.  

PubMed

This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong's scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims. PMID:19407035

Di Nucci, E

2009-05-01

444

Mediators of the Relation Between Beliefs in a Just World and Emotional Responses to Negative Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that strong believers in a just world respond with less negative and more positive emotion to their own negative outcomes than do weak believers. The present study investigated mediators of this relation. We proposed that strong believers in a just world (versus weak believers) would make stronger internal and weaker external attributions for their negative outcomes, leading to

Carolyn L. Hafer; Brenda L. Correy

1999-01-01

445

Forgetting of emotional information is hard: an fMRI study of directed forgetting.  

PubMed

Strong evidence suggests that memory for emotional information is much better than for neutral one. Thus, one may expect that forgetting of emotional information is difficult and requires considerable effort. The aim of this item-method directed forgetting functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate this hypothesis both at behavioral and neural levels. Directed forgetting effects were observed for both neutral and emotionally negative International Affective Picture System images. Moreover, recognition rate of negative to-be-forgotten images was higher than in case of neutral ones. In the study phase, intention to forget and successful forgetting of emotionally negative images were associated with widespread activations extending from the anterior to posterior regions mainly in the right hemisphere, whereas in the case of neutral images, they were associated with just one cluster of activation in the right lingual gyrus. Therefore, forgetting of emotional information seems to be a demanding process that strongly activates a distributed neural network in the right hemisphere. In the test phase, in turn, successfully forgotten images--either neutral or emotionally negative--were associated with virtually no activation, even at the lowered P value threshold. These results suggest that intentional inhibition during encoding may be an efficient strategy to cope with emotionally negative memories. PMID:20584747

Nowicka, Anna; Marchewka, Artur; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Tacikowski, Pawel; Brechmann, André

2010-06-27

446

Body Regard as a Moderator of the Relation between Emotion Dysregulation and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.  

PubMed

Despite research documenting a strong association between emotion dysregulation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the moderators of this association have received little attention. Thus, it remains unclear why some individuals with heightened emotion dysregulation engage in NSSI and others do not. Body regard (i.e., how one perceives, experiences, and cares for the body) may be one such moderator, explaining the risk for NSSI among some individuals with emotion dysregulation. The current study used structural equation modeling within a sample of 398 undergraduates (26% reporting NSSI, mean frequency = 25.16, SD = 40.5) to test the interactive effect of emotion dysregulation and body regard on NSSI frequency when controlling for negative affect and borderline personality disorder symptoms. The interaction model provided a strong fit to the data and showed that emotion regulation was associated with NSSI only when low levels of body regard were present. Results suggest that body regard may be important to understanding who engages in NSSI within the context of emotion dysregulation. Possible mechanisms underlying the interaction between body regard and emotion dysregulation are discussed along with treatment and prevention implications. PMID:23611413

Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Bagge, Courtney L; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

2013-04-24

447

Radiotherapy and TRAIL for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

The use of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy substantially improved cure rates in patients with different malignant tumours. However, it is unlikely that further improvements based on conventional chemotherapy may be achieved in the future since increased rates of acute side effects already limit the value of these approaches. Additionally, the increased local control rates are counterweighted by still high rates of distant failures resulting in low net gains for the patients. Thus, there is a currently unmet need for the integration of target-specific drugs improving local control as well distant control into radiation based treatment protocols. In this regard, the death-receptor ligand TNF-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) and TRAIL-receptor agonistic antibodies were shown to display a high selectivity for tumour cells and act synergistically with conventional chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Up to now it has been shown that radiation strongly sensitises malignant cells to TRAIL and TRAIL-agonistic antibodies. Synergistic induction of apoptosis was demonstrated in a majority of malignant cell types and xenograft models. Especially in those cells types displaying only weak responses to either treatment alone, strong sensitising effects were described. Moreover, in merely all normal cells and tissues no synergistic effects were found. Depending on cell type and experimental setting, the efficacy of combined treatment is determined by the p53-status, the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and modulation of TRAIL-receptor signal transduction. PMID:21824725

Niemoeller, Olivier M; Belka, Claus

2011-07-12

448

The emotion reactivity scale: development, evaluation, and relation to self-injurious thoughts and behaviors.  

PubMed

Prior research has examined the relations between various facets of emotion and psychopathology, with a great deal of recent work highlighting the importance of emotion regulation strategies. Much less attention has been given to the examination of emotion reactivity. This study reports on the development and evaluation of the Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), a 21-item self-report measure of emotion sensitivity, intensity, and persistence, among a sample of 87 adolescents and young adults. Factor analysis revealed a single factor of emotion reactivity best characterized the data. The ERS showed strong internal consistency (alpha=.94), convergent and divergent validity via relations with behavioral inhibition/activation and temperament, and criterion-related validity as measured by associations with specific types of psychopathology and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB). Moreover, emotion reactivity statistically mediated the relation between psychopathology and SITB. These findings provide preliminary support for the ERS and suggest that increased emotion reactivity may help explain the association between psychopathology and SITB. PMID:18502244

Nock, Matthew K; Wedig, Michelle M; Holmberg, Elizabeth B; Hooley, Jill M

2007-10-29

449

Depersonalization Disorder: Disconnection of Cognitive Evaluation from Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. Methods 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). Results DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E.; Gamer, Matthias

2013-01-01

450

Similar patterns of age-related differences in emotion recognition from speech and music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young and old adults’ ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions and music performances was compared. The stimuli\\u000a consisted of (a) acted speech (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; each posed with both weak and strong emotion\\u000a intensity), (b) synthesized speech (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness), and (c) short melodies played on the electric guitar\\u000a (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness;

Petri Laukka; Patrik N. Juslin

2007-01-01

451

Peripherally Presented Emotional Scenes: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Early ERP Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings from event-related potentials (ERPs) studies provided strong evidence that cen-\\u0009trally presented emotional\\u000a pictures could be used to assess affective processing. Moreover, several studies showed that emotionally charged stimuli may\\u000a automatically attract attention even if these are not consciously identified. Indeed, such perceptive conditions can be compared\\u000a to those typical of the peripheral vision, particularly known to have

Simon Rigoulot; Sylvain Delplanque; Pascal Despretz; Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes; Jacques Honoré; Henrique Sequeira

2008-01-01

452

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

453

Anger, Emotion, and Arrhythmias: from Brain to Heart  

PubMed Central

Strong emotion and mental stress are now recognized as playing a significant role in severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanisms, although incompletely understood, include central processing at the cortical and brain stem level, the autonomic nerves and the electrophysiology of the myocardium. Each of these is usually studied separately by investigators from different disciplines. However, many are regulatory processes which incorporate interactive feedforward and feedback mechanisms. In this review we consider the whole as an integrated interactive brain–heart system.

Taggart, Peter; Boyett, Mark R.; Logantha, Sunil Jit R. J.; Lambiase, Pier D.

2011-01-01

454

Emotions and actions associated with norm-breaking events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms have a strong influence on human social interactions, but the emotions and actions associated with norm-breaking events\\u000a have not been systematically studied. We asked subjects to imagine themselves in a conflict situation and then to report how\\u000a they would feel, how they would act, and how they would imagine the feelings and actions of their opponent. By altering the

David Sloan Wilson; Rick O’Gorman

2003-01-01

455

The relationship of case managers’ expressed emotion to clients’ outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Expressed emotion (EE) has been studied in families of a relative with schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders;\\u000a and high EE (hostile, critical, and overinvolved) families have been found to be strongly related to relapse among their relatives.\\u000a EE has been assessed on a limited basis among non-familial care providers and determined that providers can also have high\\u000a EE

Phyllis Solomon; Leslie Alexander; Stacey Uhl

2010-01-01

456

Building Emotional Resilience to Promote Health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked positive emotional health with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of negative emotion. Several potential mechanisms have been posited to account for these associations, including improved health behavior, direct physiological benefits, and enhanced resistance to and recovery from stress among individuals with high versus low positive emotional resources. Links between positive emotion and health have implications for targeted interventions, but no empirical investigations to date have tested the impact of efforts to enhance positive emotion on cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, some existing data point to the potential value of strategies to increase emotional resources for individuals' functional health and capacity to manage stress.

Davis, Mary C.

2009-01-01

457

Circadian preference is associated with emotional and affective temperaments.  

PubMed

Chronotype has long been associated with mental disorders and temperamental features. This study aims to investigate the association of circadian preference with a new model for emotional and affective temperament. In this Web survey, 6436 subjects (27.2% males) answered the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), and questions on subjective sleep parameters for a sleep-based chronotype measure. Temperament was more strongly correlated with daily energy score than with chronotype. For emotional dimensions, Volition, Coping, and Control positively correlated with high and stable daily energy, contrary to Sensitivity. Evening types showed a less adaptive emotional profile than morning and intermediate types, who showed a relatively similar emotional pattern. Focus and order (facets of Control), energy (facet of Volition), caution (facet of Inhibition), and problem facing (facet of Coping) were distinctive for the three circadian types, being particularly low in evening types and high in morning types. Differences between affective temperaments were more pronounced for morning and afternoon than for evening scores. Cyclothymic and euphoric temperaments, which relate to bipolar disorders, and apathetic, volatile, and disinhibited temperaments, which relate to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed the latest chronotype (i.e., evening preference). In conclusion, temperament was more associated with absolute energy levels than with chronotype. Evening types had less emotional control, coping, volition, and caution, and more affective instability and externalization. The circadian daily energy profile can be very informative about human temperament and vice versa, and their combined assessment may be useful in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. PMID:22734579

Ottoni, Gustavo L; Antoniolli, Eduardo; Lara, Diogo R

2012-07-01

458

Electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The first large-scale simulations of continuously driven, two-dimensional electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are performed, for electron thermal speeds 0.01c{<=}v{<=}0.57c, by integrating the Zakharov equations for coupled Langmuir and transverse (T) waves near the plasma frequency. Turbulence scalings and wave number spectra are calculated, a transition is found from a mix of trapped and free T eigenstates for v{>=}0.1c to just free eigenstates for v{<=}0.1c, and wave energy densities are observed to undergo slow quasiperiodic oscillations.

Melatos, A.; Jenet, F. A.; Robinson, P. A. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, Texas 78520 (United States); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2007-02-15

459

Dealing with Feelings: Characterization of Trait Alexithymia on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Cognitive-Emotional Processing  

PubMed Central

Background Alexithymia, or “no words for feelings”, is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. Method Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing). Results The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. Conclusion Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

Swart, Marte; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, Andre

2009-01-01

460

Emotions and eating in everyday life.  

PubMed

This field study assessed emotional states experienced in everyday life and examined the subjective motivation to eat associated with these emotional states. Twenty-three female subjects rated their momentary emotional state and motivation to eat on 6 consecutive days at 11:00a.m., 2:00p.m., 5:00p.m., 8:00p.m. and 11:00p.m. A cluster analysis of the resulting 634 emotion profiles revealed three types of emotional states characterized by the labels "Anger-dominance", "Tension/Fear" and "Relaxation/Joy". A fourth cluster showing generally low levels of emotions was labelled "Unemotional state". Most of the self-rated motivations to eat were increased during periods of negative emotions. During negative emotions a heightened tendency to cope with these emotions through eating and more intense bodily symptoms of hunger were also reported. No differences in motivations to eat were found between the two negative emotion clusters or between relaxation/joy and the unemotional state. Results indicate the presence of "emotionally instrumental eating" in a non-clinical population under real life conditions. Physiological correlates of negative emotional states may be involved in emotionally instrumental eating. PMID:10896762

Macht, M; Simons, G

2000-08-01

461

Having few positive emotions, or too many negative feelings? Emotions as moderating variables of authoritarianism effects on racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation tests in a Polish student (N=175) and adult sample (N=197) the relationship between submissive authoritarianism (Right-Wing Authoritarianism; RWA) and dominant authoritarianism (Social Dominance Orientation; SDO), and measures of positive and negative affect (i.e., chronic accessibility, intensity, and expression). Two results were especially noteworthy. First, it was revealed that RWA was strongly and negatively related to positive emotions,

A. Van Hiel; M. Kossowska

2006-01-01

462

Penumbral Distributions for High-Energy Radiotherapy Photon Beams: Experimental and Theoretical Determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A penumbral model is adopted which considers that two distributions exist in the penumbral region of high -energy radiotherapy units namely, the photon-fluence and the dose distributions. The difference between these two distributions is associated with the lateral spread of the second electrons and is strongly dependent on the beam energy and electron density of the medium of interaction. Specially-designed

Ayoola Clement Akinradewo

1987-01-01

463

Strongly correlated materials.  

PubMed

Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO? and Fe?O?, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials. PMID:22893361

Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

2012-08-15

464

Appraisal of Emotions in Media Use: Toward a Process Model of Meta-Emotion and Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition and operationalization of this construct. We propose a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation to

Anne Bartsch; Peter Vorderer; Roland Mangold; Reinhold Viehoff

2008-01-01

465

Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6–8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and

Glade L. Topham; Laura Hubbs-Tait; Julie M. Rutledge; Melanie C. Page; Tay S. Kennedy; Lenka H. Shriver; Amanda W. Harrist

2011-01-01

466

Emotional Intelligence as a Moderator of Affectivity\\/Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor\\/Psychological Distress Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional labor refers to effort, planning, and control required to display organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal\\u000a transactions and performed by individuals either through deep acting or surface acting. Deep acting refers to the modification\\u000a of inner feeling in order to express the organizationally desired emotions, whereas surface acting refers to the change of\\u000a emotional expression without facilitating the change of

Jahanvash Karim; Robert Weisz

467

Radical Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of prostate cancer is rising worldwide due to the ageing of the population and the increasing availability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Prostate-specific antigen testing has led specifically to an increase in the proportion of patients diagnosed with early-stage (localized) prostate cancer. Radical radiotherapy is one of the curative treatment options for localized prostate cancer and it also

Mererid Evans; Malcolm D. Mason

468

Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

2013-09-03

469

Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

470

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

471

Metacognition of emotional face recognition.  

PubMed

While humans are adept at recognizing emotional states conveyed by facial expressions, the current literature suggests that they lack accurate metacognitions about their performance in this domain. This finding comes from global trait-based questionnaires that assess the extent to which an individual perceives him or herself as empathic, as compared to other people. Those who rate themselves as empathically accurate are no better than others at recognizing emotions. Metacognition of emotion recognition can also be assessed using relative measures that evaluate how well a person thinks s/he has understood the emotion in a particular facial display as compared to other displays. While this is the most common method of metacognitive assessment of people's judgments of learning or their feelings of knowing, this kind of metacognition--"relative meta-accuracy"--has not been studied within the domain of emotion. As well as asking for global metacognitive judgments, we asked people to provide relative, trial-by-trial prospective and retrospective judgments concerning whether they would be right or wrong in recognizing the expressions conveyed in particular facial displays. Our question was: Do people know when they will be correct in knowing what expression is conveyed, and do they know when they do not know? Although we, like others, found that global meta-accuracy was unpredictive of performance, relative meta-accuracy, given by the correlation between participants' trial-by-trial metacognitive judgments and performance on each item, were highly accurate both on the Mind in the Eyes task (Experiment 1) and on the Ekman Emotional Expression Multimorph task (in Experiment 2). PMID:21859205

Kelly, Karen J; Metcalfe, Janet

2011-08-01

472

Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

473

[Hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer].  

PubMed

Radiotherapy plays a central role in the management of localized prostate cancer, but the total duration of treatment of nearly 2months poses not only problems of fatigue related to repetitive transports, especially for older patients, but also increases the overall cost of treatment including linear accelerators occupancy and patient transportation. To address this problem, various teams have developed hypofractionated radiotherapy protocols seeking to maintain the same efficacy and toxicity while reducing the total duration of treatment. These hypofractionated protocols require recent techniques such as image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Single centre series have validated the feasibility of "light" hypofractionation schemes at doses per fraction less than 6Gy Similarly, different teams have shown the possibility of stereotactic irradiation for delivering "severe" hypofractionation schemes at doses greater than 6Gy per fraction. Whatever the dose per fraction, the current clinical data support the conclusion that hypofractionated radiotherapy does not increase mid-term toxicity and could even improve biochemical control. Studies with the objective of demonstrating non-inferiority are expected to definitively validate the role of hypofractionated irradiation in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23973460

Supiot, S; Créhange, G; Latorzeff, I; Pommier, P; Paumier, A; Rio, E; Delaroche, G; Guérif, S; Catton, C; Martin, J; Lisbona, A

2013-08-20

474

Emotional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to motor symptomatology, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by emotional dysfunction. Depression affects some 30 to 40 percent of Parkinson patients and other psychiatric co-morbidities include anxiety and apathy. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional dysfunction in Parkinson patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. There is also evidence suggesting that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems is important in the understanding and treatment of mood disorders in Parkinson's disease. In this review we discuss the neuropsychiatric abnormalities that accompany Parkinson's disease and describe their neuropsychological, neuropharmacologic, and neuroimaging concomitants.

Blonder, Lee X.; Slevin, John T.

2011-01-01

475

Influence of children's emotional states on the recognition of emotion in peers and social motives to change another's emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment addressed the question of whether children's own emotional states influence their accuracy in recognizing emotional states in peers and any motives they may have to intervene in order to change their peers' emotional states. Happiness, sadness, anger, or a neutral state were induced in preschool children, who then viewed slides of other 4-year-old children who were actually experiencing

Charles R. Carlson; Elyse Schwartz Felleman; John C. Masters

1983-01-01

476

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

477

The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

2012-01-01

478

Emotional Development Across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differen- tially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socio- emotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate emotions across adulthood. The present data support a view of differential age-related

Matthias Kliegel; Theodor Jäger; LOUISE H. PHILLIPS

2007-01-01

479

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

480

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

481

Bodies of emotion: rethinking culture and emotion through Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

motion has represented a tantalizing subject for social scientific inquiry because it appears to tell us about our true selves; the self that, after all the thinking and interacting are done, feels the welling-up of rage, the tender pangs of love, the black emptiness of despair. Invoking methodological individualism, our phrasing here frames emotions as the property of persons, and

Tom Boellstorff; Johan Lindquist

2004-01-01

482

Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)|

Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

2001-01-01

483

Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

Gabrielsson, Alf

1999-01-01

484

Are emotional intelligent workers also more empathic?  

PubMed

This paper analyzes whether emotional intelligence and self-monitoring are related to empathy among a sample of workers in both the public and private employment sectors. Two hundred and forty-two employees (42.5% men and