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1

Adjuvant Whole Brain Radiotherapy: Strong Emotions Decide But Rational Studies Are Needed  

SciTech Connect

Brain metastases are common in cancer patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. For patients with limited disease and good performance status, treatment typically involves a combination of focal measures (e.g., surgical resection or radiosurgery) for the radiographically apparent disease, followed by adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to treat subclinical disease. Because of concerns regarding the toxicity of WBRT, especially neurocognitive deterioration, many have advocated withholding adjuvant WBRT. Recently published studies have shed more light on the efficacy of adjuvant WBRT and the neurocognitive effects of WBRT. However, the inclusion of neurocognitive and quality-of-life data in clinical trials are still required to better define the role of adjuvant WBRT. Currently, two Phase III trials are underway, one in Europe and one in North America, that will determine the effect of adjuvant WBRT on patients' quality of life, neurocognitive function, and survival.

Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Asher, Anthony L. [Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Programs, Carolinas Medical Center and Presbyterian Hospital, Charlotte, NC (United States); Farace, Elana [Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States)

2008-04-01

2

[Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].  

PubMed

While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions. PMID:25639033

Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

2014-12-01

3

Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

Chapet, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)]. E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Mornex, Francoise [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Souquet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Gastroenterology, Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Favrel, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ardiet, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)

2005-04-01

4

Understanding Implementation and Effectiveness of "Strong Start K-2" on Social-Emotional Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strong Start K-2" is a social-emotional learning curriculum, designed for use with children in kindergarten through grade 2. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and quality of "Strong Start" implementation. Additionally authors examined the effect of "Strong Start" on first grade students'…

Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

2012-01-01

5

Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

Lue, B.-H. [Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-S. [Department of Social Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-J. [Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsiujung@ntnu.edu.tw

2008-01-01

6

Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

2013-01-01

7

Social and Emotional Learning as a Universal Level of Student Support: Evaluating the Follow-up Effect of Strong Kids on Social and Emotional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the initial and follow-up effect of Strong Kids, a social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum, among a sample of 106 third- and fourth-grade students. Students were assigned to either the treatment or the wait-list condition and completed questionnaires on SEL knowledge and perceived use of SEL skills across 3 assessment periods (pretest, posttest, and follow-up). The classroom

Jason E. Harlacher; Kenneth W. Merrell

2010-01-01

8

Promoting Social Emotional Competency through Quality Teaching Practices: The Impact of Consultation on a Multidimensional Treatment Integrity Model of the "Strong Kids" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study investigated the impact of brief teacher consultation on teachers' implementation fidelity, quality of implementation, and student responsiveness during the "Strong Kids" social-emotional learning curriculum. Additional outcome measures included teachers' self-efficacy and teachers' perceptions of social validity of the…

Levitt, Verity Helaine

2009-01-01

9

Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To place the concept of emotion in perspective, various issues must be considered: the usefulness of emotion as a unitary concept; the measurement of emotions and the relations among diverse measures; developmental changes; the origins of individual differences in emotional behavior; and the relation between emotional and cognitive development.…

Yarrow, Leon J.

1979-01-01

10

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response parameters in ways that have increased fitness in adaptively challenging situations that recurred

Randolph M. Nesse; Phoebe C. Ellsworth

2009-01-01

11

Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.  

PubMed

This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

Tong, Eddie M W

2015-04-01

12

Emotional Issues  

MedlinePLUS

Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a variety of ways. Patience, consistency, understanding, and love are ... of your child. Parents of a child with Duchenne will find straight answers, vital information, and access ...

13

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

14

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... quality may actually make you reach for these foods again when feeling upset. Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, ...

15

Emotion and emotion regulation: from another perspective.  

PubMed

An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and pitfalls of emotion research and its potential for understanding child development. PMID:15056185

Langlois, Judith H

2004-01-01

16

Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice  

PubMed Central

In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

2014-01-01

17

Time course of anger and other emotions in women with borderline personality disorder: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation including strong emotional reactions to emotional stimuli and a slow return to baseline emotions. Difficulties controlling anger are particularly prominent in BPD. To experimentally test emotional dysregulation with a special focus on anger, we investigated whether a standardized anger induction by a short story caused stronger and prolonged anger reactions in

Gitta A. Jacob; Cindy Guenzler; Sabine Zimmermann; Corinna N. Scheel; Nicolas Rüsch; Rainer Leonhart; Josef Nerb; Klaus Lieb

2008-01-01

18

[Synchroton radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is commonly used in the treatment of cancer. The normal tissue tolerance can be a limit to deliver enough dose to the tumor to be curative. The synchrotron beam presents some interesting physical properties, which could decrease this limitation. Synchrotron beam is a medium energy X-ray nearly parallel beam with high intensity. Three methods are under preclinical investigations: the microbeam, the minibeam and the stereotactic radiotherapy. The first two use a geometric irradiation effect called spatial fractioning. The last one use highly conformational irradiation geometry combined with a dose enhancement due to the presence of high-Z element in the target. Synchrotron radiotherapy preclinical experiments have shown some curative effect on rodent glioma models. Following these encouraging results a phase I/II clinical trial of iodinated enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiotherapy is currently being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. PMID:20537443

Deman, P; Edouard, M; Besse, S; Vautrin, M; Elleaume, H; Adam, J-F; Estève, F

2010-08-01

19

Emotion and Emotion Regulation: From Another Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and…

Langlois, Judith H.

2004-01-01

20

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

Parrish, Dominique

2011-01-01

21

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

22

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

23

The revised ABC's of rational-emotive therapy (RET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Although I was perceptive enough to realize, in my first paper on rational-emotive therapy (RET) in 1956, that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors almost always are not pure or disparate but significantly include each other, I have appreciably added to this concept and have stressed forceful emotive and educative, as well as strong behavioral, techniques of RET in recent years.

Albert Ellis

1991-01-01

24

Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

2010-01-01

25

Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Classification and Classification Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the problem of human facial emotion and emo- tion intensity levels recognition and resulting classification accuracy evalua- tion. Final testing set classification accuracy value is usually taken as a quan- tifier of method quality. However, this value is often strongly affected by the testing set parameters such as number, age and gender of subjects or

Marian Beszédes; Phil F. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

26

Strong Arts, Strong Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the arts humanize the curriculum while affirming the interconnectedness of all things, they are a powerful means to improve general education. Schools that overlook the arts are creating a less civilized generation. The arts provide a more comprehensive, insightful education because they invite students to explore the emotional, intuitive,…

Fowler, Charles

1994-01-01

27

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

28

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

29

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

PubMed Central

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

30

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

31

Emotion and decision making.  

PubMed

A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models. PMID:25251484

Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

2015-01-01

32

Cognition and Emotion Lecture at the 2010 SPSP Emotion Preconference  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental distinctions in the field of emotion is the distinction between emotion generation and emotion regulation. This distinction fits comfortably with folk theories, which view emotions as passions that arise unbidden and then must be controlled. But is it really helpful to distinguish between emotion generation and emotion regulation? In this article, we begin by offering

James J. Gross; Gal Sheppes; Heather L. Urry

2011-01-01

33

Emotion, Social Function, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and

Dacher Keltner; Ann M. Kring

1998-01-01

34

How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?  

PubMed Central

Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N?=?2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative sample of the general population may become more pronounced in clinical samples. PMID:24637792

Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

2014-01-01

35

Studying the dynamics of autonomic activity during emotional experience.  

PubMed

Recent theories emphasize the dynamic aspects of emotions. However, the physiological measures and the methodological approaches that can capture the dynamics of emotions are underdeveloped. In the current study, we investigated whether moment-to-moment changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are reliably associated with the unfolding of emotional experience. We obtained cardiovascular and electrodermal signals from participants while they viewed emotional movies. We found that the ANS signals were temporally aligned across individuals, indicating a reliable stimulus-driven response. The degree of response reliability was associated with the emotional time line of the movie. Finally, individual differences in ANS response reliability were strongly correlated with the subjective emotional responses. The current research offers a methodological approach for studying physiological responses during dynamic emotional situations. PMID:25039415

Golland, Yulia; Keissar, Kobi; Levit-Binnun, Nava

2014-11-01

36

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in func- tional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

37

The laws of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

Nico H. Frijda

1988-01-01

38

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

39

Characterizing Student Experiences in Physics Competitions: The Power of Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low enrolment and motivation are key issues in physics education and recently the affective dimension of learning is being studied for evidence of its influence on student attitudes towards physics. Physics Olympics competitions are a novel context for stimulating intense emotional experiences. In this study, one team of students and their teacher were interviewed and observed prior to and during the event to characterize their emotions and determine the connections between their experiences and learning and attitudes/motivation towards physics. Results showed that certain types of events stimulated strong emotions of frustration and ownership, and that students’ attitudes were that physics is fun, diverse and relevant. Analysis of these themes indicated that the nature of emotions generated was connected to their attitudes towards physics. This finding points to the potential and value of informal and novel contexts in creating strong positive emotions, which have a strong influence on student attitudes towards physics.

Moll, Rachel F.; Nashon, S.; Anderson, D.

2006-12-01

40

[Managing emotions--emotions under control].  

PubMed

Emotion regulation processes are of central importance to mental and physical health. Based on this relationship we developed the group intervention "Managing Emotions: Emotions under control" (German: "Gefühle im Griff"), which systematically teaches participants specific emotion regulation strategies. Structure and content of the intervention program as well as preliminary results of efficacy are presented (n=18). Using the H-FERST, large effect sizes resulted for the increase of reappraisal and acceptance and for the reduction of rumination, a medium effect size could be shown for the reduction of avoidance, and a small effect size resulted for the increase of activity and social support. Overall psychopathology by means of the BSI was reduced with an effect size of d=0.63 in participants with more severe mental strain (GSI ? 0.6). PMID:24446184

Barnow, Sven; Löw, Christina Alexandra; Dodek, Anja; Stopsack, Malte

2014-07-01

41

What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

42

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

43

Embodiment of emotion concepts.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition hold that higher cognitive processes operate on perceptual symbols and that concept use involves partial reactivations of the sensory-motor states that occur during experience with the world. On this view, the processing of emotion knowledge involves a (partial) reexperience of an emotion, but only when access to the sensory basis of emotion knowledge is required by the task. In 2 experiments, participants judged emotional and neutral concepts corresponding to concrete objects (Experiment 1) and abstract states (Experiment 2) while facial electromyographic activity was recorded from the cheek, brow, eye, and nose regions. Results of both studies show embodiment of specific emotions in an emotion-focused but not a perceptual-focused processing task on the same words. A follow up in Experiment 3, which blocked selective facial expressions, suggests a causal, rather than simply a correlational, role for embodiment in emotion word processing. Experiment 4, using a property generation task, provided support for the conclusion that emotions embodied in conceptual tasks are context-dependent situated simulations rather than associated emotional reactions. Implications for theories of embodied simulation and for emotion theories are discussed. PMID:19469591

Niedenthal, Paula M; Winkielman, Piotr; Mondillon, Laurie; Vermeulen, Nicolas

2009-06-01

44

Supramodal representation of emotions.  

PubMed

Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

2011-09-21

45

Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

2009-01-01

46

Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

2013-01-01

47

Emotions: from brain to robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to improve human-computer interaction. In this article we analyze what it would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields a deepening understanding of inter- acting brain structures and

Michael A. Arbib; Jean-Marc Fellous

2004-01-01

48

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

49

Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors. PMID:24936284

Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

2014-01-01

50

Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our sense of self is strongly colored by emotions although at the same time we are well able to distinguish affect and self. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we here tested for the differen- tial effects of self-relatedness and emotion dimensions (valence, intensity) on parametric modulation of neural activity during perception of emotional stimuli. We observed opposite parametric modulation of

Georg Northoff; Felix Schneider; Michael Rotte; Christian Matthiae; Claus Tempelmann; Christina Wiebking; Felix Bermpohl; Alexander Heinzel; Peter Danos; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Bernhard Bogerts; Martin Walter; Jaak Panksepp

2009-01-01

51

Heavy-ion radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients

Tatsuaki Kanai

2000-01-01

52

Music–color associations are mediated by emotion  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations. PMID:23671106

Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R.

2013-01-01

53

The hidden emotions of tourism  

E-print Network

. A. , Trinity University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Charles R. Conrad To date, scholarship has presented us with three perspectives on organizational uses of emotion: Emotion as Work, Organizational Uses of Emotional Expression...

Carnegie, Margaret Simone

1996-01-01

54

Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

Kennedy, Bebe C.

55

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

56

Weather and emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in

Z. Spasova

2010-01-01

57

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

58

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

59

Neural Mechanisms of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views neural mechanisms of emotion from an evolutionary perspective, seeing them distributed across the brainstem, limbic, paralimbic, and neocortical regions. Discusses descending and ascending connections among these levels in relation to three types of emotional processes: peripheral effects on patterned bodily responses, central effects on…

Derryberry, Douglas; Tucker, Don M.

1992-01-01

60

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

61

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

62

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

63

Susceptibility to Emotional Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a psychometric evaluation of a measure of susceptibility to emotional contagion, designed to measure the degree to which a person is vulnerable to “catching” and sharing the emotion experienced by another. The scale was examined to test its application to depression, burnout, and impairment among practicing social workers. Data from a probability sample of 751 practicing social

Darcy Clay Siebert; Carl F. Siebert; Alicia Taylor-McLaughlin

2007-01-01

64

Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion  

PubMed Central

According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

65

3.4 Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

66

Planning national radiotherapy services.  

PubMed

Countries, states, and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centers are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries, the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment. This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centers, equipment, staff, education programs, quality assurance, and sustainability aspects. Realistic budgetary and cost considerations must also be part of the project proposal or business plan. PMID:25505730

Rosenblatt, Eduardo

2014-01-01

67

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

68

8 Strategic Emotion in Negotiation: Cognition, Emotion, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an overview of research on emotion in negotiation that integrates cognitive, affective, and cultural aspects of the field. We address the following issues: (1) the effects of mood and emotion on negotiator cognition and performance and the potential of emotion as a negotiation strategy; (2) individual differences in emotional expression and individual traits, such as self-monitoring and

Shu LI; Michael E. ROLOFF

69

Children's emotion processing: relations to emotionality and aggression.  

PubMed

We examined the relations between emotionality, emotion processing, and aggression in 182 first- and second-grade children. Consistent with Tomkins' and Izard's theoretical predictions, emotionality correlated with emotion processing. In particular, the happiness component of emotionality correlated with emotion attribution accuracy and empathy, the anger component correlated with anger attribution bias and empathy, and the fear component correlated with fear attribution bias. Multiple emotion processing deficits--including emotion attribution accuracy, anger attribution bias, and self-report of empathy--placed children at risk for heightened levels of teacher-reported aggression. Mediational analyses revealed that an emotion processing risk index fit a model of significant partial mediation between happiness and aggression but not between anger and aggression. The results suggest the multifaceted manner in which children's emotion experiences may influence the development of aggressive tendencies. PMID:15487601

Schultz, David; Izard, Carroll E; Bear, George

2004-01-01

70

What good are positive emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the

Barbara L. Fredrickson

1998-01-01

71

An Adaptive Emotion Reading Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on how capabilities to interpret somebody else's emotions can be modelled in an adaptive manner. First a cognitive model to generate emotional states is described. This model involves a recursive body loop: a converging positive feedback loop based on reciprocal causation between body states and emotions felt. By this model emotion reading can be modelled taking into

Tibor Bosse; Zulfiqar A. Memon

72

Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

2007-01-01

73

Social functionality of human emotion.  

PubMed

Answers to the question "What are human emotions for?" have stimulated highly productive programs of research on emotional phenomena in psychology and neuroscience in the past decade. Although a variety of functions have been proposed and examined at different levels of abstraction, what is undeniable is that when emotional processing is compromised, most things social go awry. In this review we survey the research findings documenting the functions of emotion and link these to new discoveries about how emotion is accurately processed and transmitted. We focus specifically on emotion processing in dyads and groups, which reflects the current scientific trend. Within dyads, emotional expressions and learning and understanding through vicarious emotion are the phenomena of interest. Behavioral and brain mechanisms supporting their successful occurrence are evaluated. At the group level, group emotions and group-based emotions, two very different phenomena, are discussed, and mechanistic accounts are reviewed. PMID:22017377

Niedenthal, Paula M; Brauer, Markus

2012-01-01

74

The development of emotion concepts: A story superiority effect in older children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Contrary to traditional assumptions, young children are more likely to correctly label someone's emotion from a story that describes the causes and consequences of the emotion than from the person's facial expression. This story superiority effect was examined in a sample of older children and adolescents (N=90, 8-20years) for the emotions of fear, disgust, shame, embarrassment, and pride. Participants freely labeled the emotion they inferred from a story describing a cause and consequence of each emotion and, separately, from the corresponding facial expression. In each of five age groups, the expected emotion label was used for the emotion story significantly more than for the corresponding facial expression (except for pride). The story superiority effect is strong from childhood to early adulthood and opens the door to new accounts of how emotion concepts develop. PMID:25516425

Widen, Sherri C; Pochedly, Joseph T; Russell, James A

2015-03-01

75

RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN  

PubMed Central

I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

LeDoux, Joseph

2013-01-01

76

Paying attention to emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigated the degree to which brain systems involved in ignoring emotionally salient information differ\\u000a from those involved in ignoring nonemotional information. The design allowed examination of regional brain activity, using\\u000a fMRI during color-word and emotional Stroop tasks. Twelve participants indicated the color of words while ignoring word meaning\\u000a in conditions in which neutral words were contrasted

Rebecca J. Compton; Marie T. Banich; Aprajita Mohanty; Michael P. Milham; John Herrington; Gregory A. Miller; Paige E. Scalf; Andrew Webb; Wendy Heller

2003-01-01

77

Successful Contextual Integration of Loose Mental Associations As Evidenced by Emotional Conflict-Processing  

PubMed Central

Often we cannot resist emotional distraction, because emotions capture our attention. For example, in TV-commercials, tempting emotional voices add an emotional expression to a formerly neutral product. Here, we used a Stroop-like conflict paradigm as a tool to investigate whether emotional capture results in contextual integration of loose mental associations. Specifically, we tested whether the associatively connected meaning of an ignored auditory emotion with a non-emotional neutral visual target would yield a modulation of activation sensitive to emotional conflict in the brain. In an fMRI-study, nineteen participants detected the presence or absence of a little worm hidden in the picture of an apple, while ignoring a voice with an emotional sound of taste (delicious/disgusting). Our results indicate a modulation due to emotional conflict, pronounced most strongly when processing conflict in the context of disgust (conflict: disgust/no-worm vs. no conflict: disgust/worm). For conflict in the context of disgust, insula activity was increased, with activity correlating positively with reaction time in the conflict case. Conflict in the context of deliciousness resulted in increased amygdala activation, possibly due to the resulting “negative” emotion in incongruent versus congruent combinations. These results indicate that our associative stimulus-combinations showed a conflict-dependent modulation of activity in emotional brain areas. This shows that the emotional sounds were successfully contextually integrated with the loosely associated neutral pictures. PMID:24618674

Zimmer, Ulrike; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz; Ischebeck, Anja

2014-01-01

78

Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven are in the USA, three are in Germany, two are in France, and there is one institute in India. Research interests including urology and nephrology, clinical neurology, as well as rehabilitation are involved in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors studies. CONCLUSION: Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors remains a highly active area of research and development.

Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying

2012-01-01

79

Feeding your feelings: emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating.  

PubMed

The process by which emotions affect eating behavior emerges as one of the central unresolved questions in the field of emotional eating. The present studies address the hypothesis that the regulation strategies people use to deal with these emotions are responsible for increased eating. Negative emotions were induced and intake of comfort food and non-comfort food was measured by means of taste tests. Emotion induction was preceded by measuring individual differences in emotion regulation strategies (Study 1) or by instructions to regulate emotions in either an adaptive (reappraisal) or maladaptive (suppression) manner (Study 2). Study 3 also entailed a control condition without any regulation instructions. Relative to reappraisal and spontaneous expression, suppression led to increased food intake, but only of the comfort foods. Emotions themselves were not responsible for this effect. These findings provide new evidence that the way in which emotions are regulated affects eating behavior. PMID:20460650

Evers, Catharine; Marijn Stok, F; de Ridder, Denise T D

2010-06-01

80

Endowing Emotional Agents with Coping Strategies: From Emotions to Emotional Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion takes an increasingly important place in the design of intelligent virtual agents. Designers of emotional agents build\\u000a on theories from cognitive psychology, that describe the cognitive functioning of emotions with two indivisible processes\\u000a [1,2]: the appraisal process triggers emotions, in particular intense negative emotions to point out threatening stimuli, and the coping process modifies the behaviour to manage these

Carole Adam; Dominique Longin

2007-01-01

81

Recruitment in Radiotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

Deeley, T. J.; And Others

1976-01-01

82

"It's Been a Bit of a Rollercoaster": Special Educational Needs, Emotional Labour and Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an analysis of data collected--by semi-structured interviews and focus groups--from staff working with children with special educational needs (SEN) in England. The analysis highlighted the role of strong emotions, and how participants (unsurprisingly) experienced these differently, largely according to their position in…

Mackenzie, Suzanne

2012-01-01

83

Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: inter- and intranational differences.  

PubMed

Within- and between-nations differences in norms for experiencing emotions were analyzed in a cross-cultural study with 1,846 respondents from 2 individualistic (United States, Australia) and 2 collectivistic (China, Taiwan) countries. A multigroup latent class analysis revealed that there were both universal and culture-specific types of norms for experiencing emotions. Moreover, strong intranational variability in norms for affect could be detected, particularly for collectivistic nations. Unexpectedly, individualistic nations were most uniform in norms, particularly with regard to pleasant affect. Individualistic and collectivistic nations differed most strongly in norms for self-reflective emotions (e.g., pride and guilt). Norms for emotions were related to emotional experiences within nations. Furthermore, there were strong national differences in reported emotional experiences, even when norms were held constant. PMID:11708563

Eid, M; Diener, E

2001-11-01

84

Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions  

PubMed Central

The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

Braniecka, Anna; Trzebi?ska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

2014-01-01

85

Ability-versus skill-based assessment of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

Emotional intelligence has received an intense amount of attention in leadership circles during the last decade and continuing debate exists concerning the best method for measuring this construct. This study analyzed leader emotional intelligence scores, measured via skill and ability methodologies, against leader job performance. Two hundred twelve employees from three organizations participated in this study. Scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, a skill-based assessment, were positively, though not significantly, correlated with scores on the MSCEIT, an ability-based assessment of emotional intelligence. Scores on the MSCEIT did not have a significant relationship with job performance in this study, whereas, scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal had a strong link to leader job performance. The four subcomponents of the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal were examined against job performance. Relationship management was a stronger predictor of leader job performance than the other three subcomponents. Social awareness was the single emotional intelligence skill that did not have a significant link to leader job performance. Factor analyses yielded a two-component model of emotional intelligence encompassing personal and social competence, rather than confirmation of a four-part taxonomy. PMID:17295959

Bradberry, Travis R; Su, Lac D

2006-01-01

86

What Good Are Positive Emotions?  

PubMed Central

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

Fredrickson, Barbara L.

2011-01-01

87

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements  

PubMed Central

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-01-01

88

Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution: Implications for Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. There continues to be strong interest regarding the emotional intelligence construct,primarily because of the construct’s potential as a predictor of workplace behavior in organizations. Little research has been conducted, however, that considers the implications of emotional intelligence for organizational change and human resource development in organizations.The study outlined in this article explores the connection between

Peter J. Jordan; Ashlea C. Troth

2002-01-01

89

The Ethiopian Lyre bagana : an instrument for emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagana is a ten-stringed box-lyre of the Amhara of Ethiopia. Paraliturgical and solo instrument played only for religious and meditative purposes, it often creates immedi- ate and intense emotions for both players and listeners. Based on informations collected during four fieldworks held in Ethiopia (2002-2005), multidisciplinary analyses have showed that these strong emotional reactions are cre- ated by sonorous

Stéphanie Weisser

2006-01-01

90

Vascular Disruptive Agents in Combination with Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite early promise, clinical trials of single agent VDAs have not demonstrated the ability to consistently produce significant\\u000a tumour shrinkage or durable remissions. Contributing to this effect is the persistence of viable residual tumour rim following\\u000a treatment with a VDA and this provides a strong rationale for combining them with other anti-cancer strategies, including\\u000a radiotherapy. With evidence suggesting that the

Henry C. Mandeville; Peter J. Hoskin

91

Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In particular, the BOLD response within bilateral amygdala and

K. S. Blair; B. W. Smith; D. G. V. Mitchell; J. Morton; M. Vythilingam; L. Pessoa; D. Fridberg; A. Zametkin; E. E. Nelson; W. C. Drevets; D. S. Pine; A. Martin; R. J. R. Blair

2007-01-01

92

Modeling Emotion Expression and Perception Behavior in Auditive Emotion Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider both speaker dependent and listener dependent aspects in the assessment of emotions in speech. We model the speaker dependencies in emotional speech produc- tion by two parameters which describe the individual's emo- tional expression behavior. Similarly, we model the listener's emotion perception behavior by a simple parametric model. These models form a basis for improving

Michael Grimm; Kristian Kroschel; Shrikanth Narayanan

2006-01-01

93

Resilience and Positive Emotions: Examining the Role of Emotional Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emo- tions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psy- chological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present re-

Frederick L. Philippe; Serge Lecours; Geneviève Beaulieu-Pelletier

2009-01-01

94

Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2007-01-01

95

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

96

[Radiotherapy of penis carcinoma].  

PubMed

Penile cancer is rare. Thus, there are no therapeutic recommendations fulfilling the requirements of evidence-based medicine. The empirically based therapeutic approach consists of local excision, laser therapy, or radiotherapy with comparable local control rates. Radiation is delivered by external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy. After radiotherapy, 5-year survival rates of 66-92% and organ preservation in 55-84% are reported. Serious long-term sequelae are necrosis (3-23%) and urethral stenosis (6-45%) requiring surgery. In the adjuvant treatment of the locoregional lymph nodes, lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy of both inguinal regions are therapeutic options. Inguinal lymph node metastases may be irradiated pre- or postoperatively to reduce the local recurrence rates. In addition, palliative radiotherapy of the primary tumor, lymph node, or distant metastases is of use for incurable patients. New combined therapies, e.g., radiochemothermotherapy, are currently under clinical evaluation and may offer a curative and organ-preserving therapeutic option to patients with locally advanced tumors. PMID:11490865

Mahlmann, B; Doehn, C; Feyerabend, T

2001-07-01

97

[Particle beam radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Recently, particle beam radiotherapy with protons or carbon ions has been used in cancer treatment. Energy deposition with particle beams increases as depth increases. Furthermore, carbon ion beams have stronger biological effects than X-rays or proton beams, because carbon beams generate denser ionization along the pathway of the particles. In Japan, clinical study with carbon ions for cancer therapy was initiated in 1994 at the National Institute of Radiological Science(NIRS). Four treatment facilities are now in operation, including Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center. The experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at NIRS has demonstrated advantages for the following types of cancer. In terms of histological type, adenocarcinomas, sarcomas, and melanomas that are relatively radioresistant to conventional X-ray radiotherapy may be sensitive to carbon ion radiotherapy. Primary sites that may be sensitive include the head and neck region, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissue, and pelvis(for recurrence of rectal cancer). Combined with surgery, cytotoxic drugs, molecular targeted drugs, and immunotherapy, carbon ion radiotherapy promises to be an important modality in the future. PMID:25596047

Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

2014-12-01

98

Radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas.  

PubMed

The optimal management of craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Although aggressive (i.e. attempted macroscopic complete/radical) primary surgery can be associated with significant morbidity and a noticeable recurrence rate, a conservative (limited) surgical approach followed by radiotherapy has increasingly been adopted after reports of excellent local control and a significant reduction in the incidence of complications by most multidisciplinary teams. A literature review from January 1990 to May 2012 was carried out identifying 43 studies with 1716 patients treated with irradiation for craniopharyngioma. The outcome and treatment-related toxicity were analysed in relation to the timing of radiotherapy, the target volume definition and radiotherapy dose and compared with the results of radical surgery. For patients undergoing limited surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, reported 10 year local control rates ranged between 77 and 100% and 20 year overall survival was reported as high as 66-92%. Comparable progression-free survival and overall survival were reported for radiotherapy delivered at first diagnosis or at progression. Long-term toxicity of combined limited surgery and irradiation seems to be less than that associated with radical surgery. The total recommended dose prescription to achieve long-term control while minimising adverse sequelae is 50-54 Gy delivered with conventional fractionation. Care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team in a specialised centre. However, national and international prospective co-operative trials are warranted to provide robust data to define an internationally multidisciplinary accepted risk-based management strategy. PMID:23910225

Iannalfi, A; Fragkandrea, I; Brock, J; Saran, F

2013-11-01

99

Social and Emotional Aging  

PubMed Central

The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

2014-01-01

100

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

101

A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

Liu, Zhen

2008-11-01

102

Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of…

Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

2003-01-01

103

Impacts of facial identity and type of emotion on responses of amygdala neurons.  

PubMed

The amygdala has been implicated in the processing of emotional expressions. Who makes the emotion and the type of emotion are important in producing appropriate responses. How amygdala neurons are affected by facial identity and type of emotion, however, has not yet been systematically examined. We examined the activity of amygdala neurons using nine monkey stimuli: 3 monkeys x 3 types of emotion. Of the 227 neurons tested, 77 responded to the monkey stimuli. The effects of facial identity and type of emotion on the response magnitude were significant in 48 and 57 neurons, respectively. Both effects were significant in 38 neurons. These results indicate that both facial identity and type of emotion have strong impacts on amygdala functions. PMID:16361941

Kuraoka, Koji; Nakamura, Katsuki

2006-01-23

104

Arrested emotions in reality television  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Arrested emotions” references the capitalist firm’s conscious mobilization of prosumers’ emotions and their associated expressions as amenable input for production within corporate confines. We draw on reality TV – The Bachelor and Extreme Makeover (Home Edition) – to suggest the centrality of emotional recruitment in the contemporary economy. Reality TV is driven almost entirely by the work of audiences and

Samuel K. Bonsu; Aron Darmody

2010-01-01

105

Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

2012-01-01

106

Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

Hesse, Petra

107

Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.  

PubMed

Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them. PMID:25204682

Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

2015-01-01

108

Accelerated carotid artery disease after high-dose head and neck radiotherapy: Is there a role for routine carotid duplex surveillance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: High-dose external radiotherapy used in the treatment of head and neck carcinoma has been implicated as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerotic disease of the carotid arteries. However, how radiotherapy affects atherosclerotic disease is controversial, and little data exist to demonstrate a strong relationship between radiotherapy and progressive carotid disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 69

Brennan J. Carmody; Subodh Arora; Ricardo Avena; Kathleen M. Curry; James Simpkins; Kenyatta Cosby; Anton N. Sidawy

1999-01-01

109

Challenge and Hope in Radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most critical global health issues. With frequent association of viral liver disease, HCC is highly complex, harboring both cancer and chronic liver disease. The tumor stage and underlying liver function are both major determinants of the treatment selection as well as prognosis in HCC patients, thus allowing no more than a 20% chance for potentially curative therapies. Radiotherapy technology has been evolved remarkably during the past decade, and radiation can be precisely delivered, thereby permitting higher doses to the tumour and reduced doses to surrounding normal tissues. There has been increasing interest in the merits of radiotherapy in HCC over the past few years, as indicated by a Pub Med search. Radiotherapy has been used as the definitive therapy with curative intent in early stage tumours. It has been used also in combination with TACE for intermediate stage tumours. In locally advanced tumours, radiotherapy has been combined with systemic agents. Despite its efficacy, radiotherapy has not yet been incorporated into the standard management guidelines of HCC. The lack of high evidence level data, especially randomized controlled trials, has posed an obstacle in including radiotherapy into the routine treatment schema of HCC. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies are strongly recommended using developing technology for radiotherapy alone or combination therapies. Also, many issues such as the optimal dose-fractionation, intra- or extrahepatic metastasis after radiotherapy, and radiation-induced hepatic dysfunction remain to be solved. In this review, current status of radiotherapy for HCC will be discussed with regard to technical consideration and combination strategy. The limitation and future perspectives will also be discussed. PMID:19881961

2009-01-01

110

Resilience and positive emotions: examining the role of emotional memories.  

PubMed

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emotions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psychological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present research examined this hypothesis in two studies. Study 1 provided initial data on the validity and reliability of a measure of emotional memories networks (EMN) and showed that it had a predictive value for broad emotion regulation constructs and outcomes. In addition, Study 1 showed that positive EMN mediated the relationship between psychological resilience and the experience of positive emotions in a context of sadness, even after controlling for pre-experimental positive mood. Study 2 replicated results of Study 1 in a context of anxiety and after controlling for positive affectivity trait. PMID:19077002

Philippe, Frederick L; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Geneviève

2009-02-01

111

Radiobiology in radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This book is designed to provide a synthesis of current radiobiological knowledge as it related to modern radiotherapy practice. A radiobiologist working in a specific area provides the biological background and a clinician then reviews the up-to-date practical implications of this scientific basis. All topical aspects of radiobiology as applied to radiotherapy are covered, including the effects of radiation on cells, normal tissue and tumor, the important features of fractionation, and dose rate. Alternative treatment modalities, such as particle therapy hyperthermia radiation sensitizers and other oxygen modifiers and the interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, are discussed from both the clinical and radiobiological points of view.

Bleehen, N.M.

1988-01-01

112

Radiotherapy for lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The role of radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer was reviewed at a workshop held in Cambridge, England, in June 1984. It was concluded that there was a continuing role for radiation therapy in the primary management of small cell lung cancer, including the loco-regional treatment for patients with limited disease. Radical radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell carcinoma could be curative for a proportion of patients with limited disease. Careful planning and quality control was essential. Palliative radiotherapy provided useful treatment for many other patients. Other related aspects of treatment are also presented.

Bleehen, N.M.; Cox, J.D.

1985-05-01

113

Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

114

The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

115

Emotions and Acne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Acne is a very common and disfiguring disease that more or less severely affects the majority of adolescents and, to some extent, also adults. The importance of emotional stress in the onset or worsening particularly of skin diseases has long been a subject of study and debate, and it has been shown that stress stimuli may lead to

M. M. Polenghi; S. Zizak; E. Molinari

2002-01-01

116

Sad music induces pleasant emotion  

PubMed Central

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

117

How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.  

PubMed

Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

2014-10-01

118

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

119

Is emotional intelligence worthwhile?: Assessing incremental validity and adverse impact  

E-print Network

Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive emotion, understand emotion, facilitate thought with emotion, and regulate emotion. Considerable debate exists as to whether emotional intelligence adds incremental validity above more...

Rhodes, Dana Lanay

2009-05-15

120

Strong Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1995-01-01

121

Strong decoherence  

E-print Network

We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

1997-01-01

122

The effects of voluntary regulation of positive and negative emotion on psychophysiological responsiveness.  

PubMed

The acoustic startle reflex can be modulated by positive and negative emotion. There is evidence that this modulation can be influenced by voluntary attempts to regulate emotion, and that startle modulation during emotion regulation is more reflective of changes in arousal than valence. However, whether valence and arousal play similar roles in emotion regulation across different psychophysiological indices is unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize further the relative contributions of valence and arousal to changes in psychophysiological responsiveness during voluntary emotion regulation, using multiple psychophysiological measures including eyeblink startle, skin conductance, and heart rate. We studied 10 healthy adults, and found that voluntary attempts to down-regulate positive and negative emotion resulted in decreased eyeblink startle magnitude, skin conductance responses, and heart rate, relative to attempts to up-regulate emotion. These findings indicate that the volitional regulation of emotion had systematic effects on psychophysiological parameters which were similar for positive and negative emotion, suggesting that psychophysiological responsiveness during emotion regulation is more strongly influenced by the modulation of arousal than by the valence of the regulated emotion. PMID:18845192

Driscoll, David; Tranel, Daniel; Anderson, Steven W

2009-04-01

123

Impact of surgery and radiotherapy in women with uterine malignancies.  

PubMed

According to the National Health and Social Life Survey, sexual dysfunction affects about 43% of perimenopausal women. A diagnosis of cancer has a profound physical, emotional, and social impact, influencing the relationship with the body, the perception of illness and death, family, social and professional relationships, and the relationship with the partner and, consequently, sexuality. Loss of desire, dyspareunia, orgasmic disorder, difficulties in emotional and physical closeness to the partner, feelings of shame, and inadequacy commonly occur after treatment for uterine cancer; however, if these problems are associated with surgery or with radiotherapy, still remains unclear. According to this study, the authors may conclude that the experience of cancer could lead patients to a rediscovery of. their own sexuality and to an improvement in the relationship with their partner, showing that, sometimes, the relational and psychological factors assume greater importance than physical effects on sexuality, and they can somewhere compensate the morphofunctional failure. PMID:25556271

Carta, G; D'Alfonso, A; Di Nicola, M; Di Nicola, L; Mastrocola, N; Carta, A; Necozione, S; Di Cesare, E; Patacchiola, F

2014-01-01

124

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

125

Emotion in Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contemporary research on negotiation and group decision support systems (see the chapter by Lewis, this volume) pays a special\\u000a attention on emotion as a factor in restructuring and reframing of problem representation and solution (Barry, Group Decis\\u000a Negotiation 17:97–105, 2008; Druckman and Olekalns, Group Decis Negotiation 17:1–11, 2008). It involves multi-disciplinary\\u000a approaches and reaches beyond sociology and behavioral research (see

Bilyana Martinovski

126

Bimodal Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When interacting with robots we show a plethora of affective reactions typical of natural communications. Indeed, emotions\\u000a are embedded on our communications and represent a predominant communication channel to convey relevant, high impact, information.\\u000a In recent years more and more researchers have tried to exploit this channel for human robot (HRI) and human computer interactions\\u000a (HCI). Two key abilities are

Marco Paleari; Ryad Chellali; Benoit Huet

2010-01-01

127

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

128

Tactile-emotion synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test\\/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the

V. S. Ramachandran; David Brang

2008-01-01

129

New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

2012-01-01

130

Program Development and Outcomes Assessment of Social Emotional Curriculum Utilized with High School Special Education Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study will assess the effectiveness of a social emotional learning curriculum implemented in a Midwestern high school with special education students. The specific social emotional curriculum utilized at this particular school was organized and delivered by the school psychologists at the high school, based on the Strong Teens…

Wedam, Allison

2012-01-01

131

Is There a Relation between Mothers' Parenting Styles and Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been proposed as a human faculty that may have a strong impact on a variety of children's developmental outcomes such as: school achievement, peer acceptance, and behavioral adjustment. It has also been proposed that parenting may influence children's development of emotional intelligence. However, very…

Alegre, Albert

2012-01-01

132

Pedagogies of Strategic Empathy: Navigating through the Emotional Complexities of Anti-Racism in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper constructs an argument about the emotionally complicated and compromised learning spaces of teaching about anti-racism in higher education. These are spaces steeped in complex structures of feeling that evoke strong and often discomforting emotions on the part of both teachers and students. In particular, the author theorizes the notion…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

133

Emotional memory and psychopathology.  

PubMed Central

A leading model for studying how the brain forms memories about unpleasant experiences is fear conditioning. A cumulative body of work has identified major components of the neural system mediating this form of learning. The pathways involve transmission of sensory information from processing areas in the thalamus and cortex to the amygdala. The amygdala's lateral nucleus receives and integrates the sensory inputs from the thalamic and cortical areas, and the central nucleus provides the interface with motor systems controlling specific fear responses in various modalities (behavioural, autonomic, endocrine). Internal connections within the amygdala allow the lateral and central nuclei to communicate. Recent studies have begun to identify some sites of plasticity in the circuitry and the cellular mechanisms involved in fear conditioning. Through studies of fear conditioning, our understanding of emotional memory is being taken to the level of cells and synapses in the brain. Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved. PMID:9415924

Ledoux, J E; Muller, J

1997-01-01

134

Drug Design and Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

2007-11-01

135

Emotion Management and Strategies for Social Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion scripts provide children with culturally meaningful emotional experiences and plans of action for managing feelings and the circumstances surrounding emotional experiences. In an effort to understand how developing children acquire these emotion scripts, two studies described here investigated how children deploy emotion scripts to manage…

Saarni, Carolyn

136

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

137

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent attention has been given to the role of emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Gross (1998) provided a framework from which to understand emotion regulation processes, and it is within this framework that the literature on emotion regulation/dysregulation in the anxiety disorder population is reviewed, with a focus on possible deficiencies that lead to or maintain the disorders. The present paper aims to (1) briefly introduce emotion regulation strategies of suppression and reappraisal; (2) summarize the empirical studies of emotion regulation within anxiety disorders; (3) discuss the neurobiological markers of emotion regulation within these disorders; (4) provide future directions for research; and (5) summarize possible treatment implications resulting from this important area of research. PMID:17349775

Amstadter, Ananda B.

2009-01-01

138

Categorical Perception for Emotional Faces  

PubMed Central

Categorical perception (CP) refers to how similar things look different depending on whether they are classified as the same category. Many studies demonstrate that adult humans show CP for human emotional faces. It is widely debated whether the effect can be accounted for solely by perceptual differences (structural differences among emotional faces) or whether additional perceiver-based conceptual knowledge is required. In this review, I discuss the phenomenon of CP and key studies showing CP for emotional faces. I then discuss a new model of emotion which highlights how perceptual and conceptual knowledge interact to explain how people see discrete emotions in others’ faces. In doing so, I discuss how language (emotion words included in the paradigm) contribute to CP.

Fugate, Jennifer M. B.

2014-01-01

139

Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

140

Emotion and self-control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biology-based model of choice is used to examine time-inconsistent preferences and the problem of self-control. Emotion is shown to be the biological substrate of choice, in that emotional systems assign value to ‘goods’ in the environment and also facilitate the learning of expectations regarding alternative options for acquiring those goods. A third major function of the emotional choice systems

Adam Gifford Jr.

2002-01-01

141

Radiotherapy in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The treatment of malignancies with radiotherapy and intracavitary techniques at the Tanzanian Tumor Center in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, during an eight-month period in 1979 is reported. Cancer of the uterine cervix was the tumor most frequently treated by radiation, as well as breast, esophagus, skin, and bladder cancers. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:6854664

Alexander, George A.

1983-01-01

142

Emotions in teaching environmental science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

Quigley, Cassie

2015-01-01

143

Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders  

PubMed Central

Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-01-01

144

The role of cognitive versus emotional intelligence in Iowa Gambling Task performance: What’s emotion got to do with it?  

PubMed Central

Debate persists regarding the relative role of cognitive versus emotional processes in driving successful performance on the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). From the time of its initial development, patterns of IGT performance were commonly interpreted as primarily reflecting implicit, emotion-based processes. Surprisingly, little research has tried to directly compare the extent to which measures tapping relevant cognitive versus emotional competencies predict IGT performance in the same study. The current investigation attempts to address this question by comparing patterns of associations between IGT performance, cognitive intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WASI) and three commonly employed measures of emotional intelligence (EI; Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, EQ-i; Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, SREIS). Results indicated that IGT performance was more strongly associated with cognitive, than emotional, intelligence. To the extent that the IGT indeed mimics “real-world” decision-making, our findings, coupled with the results of existing research, may highlight the role of deliberate, cognitive capacities over implicit, emotional processes in contributing to at least some domains of decision-making relevant to everyday life.

Webb, Christian A.; DelDonno, Sophie; Killgore, William D.S.

2014-01-01

145

Radiotherapy of skin tumors.  

PubMed

The incidence of cancers of the skin is increasing, as is life expectancy among most of the population. Besides surgery, all skin cancers can be treated with radiotherapy, with excellent results. Unfortunately, both less training and less equipment are available than earlier, which means that dermatologists also have less experience in this field. We would like to propose radiotherapy for medium-sized or larger lesions, especially on the face in elderly people. Good indications are keratoacanthomas, extensive actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease including erythroplasia of Queyrat, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, but also lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanomas. These tumors can be treated in a curative way. Excellent results of palliative X-ray therapy are achieved in Kaposi's sarcoma and in lymphomas, and also in Merkel cell tumors. After 100 years of treatment of skin cancers by radiotherapy, dermatologists should not forget that if appropriate principles are followed and precautions are taken, X-ray treatment is still a safe and effective method. PMID:12079218

Panizzon, R G

2002-01-01

146

Nonconscious emotional activation colors first impressions: a regulatory role for conscious awareness.  

PubMed

Emotions can color people's attitudes toward unrelated objects in the environment. Existing evidence suggests that such emotional coloring is particularly strong when emotion-triggering information escapes conscious awareness. But is emotional reactivity stronger after nonconscious emotional provocation than after conscious emotional provocation, or does conscious processing specifically change the association between emotional reactivity and evaluations of unrelated objects? In this study, we independently indexed emotional reactivity and coloring as a function of emotional-stimulus awareness to disentangle these accounts. Specifically, we recorded skin-conductance responses to spiders and fearful faces, along with subsequent preferences for novel neutral faces during visually aware and unaware states. Fearful faces increased skin-conductance responses comparably in both stimulus-aware and stimulus-unaware conditions. Yet only when visual awareness was precluded did skin-conductance responses to fearful faces predict decreased likability of neutral faces. These findings suggest a regulatory role for conscious awareness in breaking otherwise automatic associations between physiological reactivity and evaluative emotional responses. PMID:24317420

Lapate, Regina C; Rokers, Bas; Li, Tianyi; Davidson, Richard J

2014-02-01

147

PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample.  

PubMed

Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

2015-02-01

148

Time window for cognitive activity involved in emotional processing  

PubMed Central

Background From previous studies it is becoming evident that the processing of unpleasant stimuli occurs early (0 to 300 ms); however, it is not clear how cognitive processing related to pleasant/unpleasant emotions occurs at later time windows (?300 ms). On the other hand, as evident from the previous reports, BIS and BAS personality traits are strongly associated with unpleasant and pleasant responses, respectively. Therefore, in the present study, we aim to identify the time window involved in human pleasant/unpleasant emotional processing by investigating ERP components correlated with BIS/BAS personality traits. Methods Twenty-nine men took part in the study and recording ERP during presented sounds. BIS/BAS score was calculated using the Japanese edition of the BIS/BAS questionnaire. Results Significant correlation was not observed between BIS and BAS scores. A significant and positive correlation was observed between N100 amplitude and BIS score. A positive correlation was found between BAS fun seeking subscale score and LPP amplitude. Our findings did not contradict previous study results. Conclusions Our results suggest that the processing of unpleasant emotions takes place early on, since N100 response was larger in high BIS subjects who are known to be sensitive to unpleasant emotions. LPP was larger in high BAS subjects who are known to be sensitive to pleasant emotions. The LPP was considered to be augmented because the ACC activity level during pleasant emotions reflected on LPP. PMID:25056735

2014-01-01

149

Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain. PMID:23057507

Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

2013-01-01

150

Emotion socialization in formerly homeless families.  

E-print Network

??Emotional competence in children is increasingly understood as an outcome of parents? adaptive socialization behaviors. Parent?s socialization of children?s emotions and children?s emotion competence were… (more)

Davis, Karen Laurel

2012-01-01

151

Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

2012-03-01

152

Voyages of Discovery: Experiencing the Emotion of History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guiding students through a dramatic exploration of an historical event can elicit strong emotional reactions that can deepen student understanding and interest in the subject matter. This article describes an integrated third grade lesson plan that focuses on Henry Hudson's voyages in the early 1600s. The students take on the roles of Hudson's…

Kelin, Daniel A., II

2005-01-01

153

Contextually appropriate emotional word use predicts adaptive health behavior: Emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence.  

PubMed

Emotion context sensitivity is the ability to respond emotionally in a manner that is functionally appropriate for the context in which the emotion arises. This study examined the relationship between emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence in adults with the chronic illness Thalassemia. Emotional responses were measured by examining the frequency of positive and negative emotional words used to answer two interview questions that created two different emotional contexts. Consistent with previous research on adaptive and contextually appropriate emotions, negative emotion words were related to adherence in the context of the disease itself, while positive emotion words were related to adherence in the context of coping. PMID:24801328

Harvey, Meredith M; Coifman, Karin G; Ross, Gail; Kleinert, Dorothy; Giardina, Patricia

2014-05-01

154

Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions  

PubMed Central

Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

2013-01-01

155

Measures of emotion: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

2009-01-01

156

Emotional intelligence and educational reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This reform aims primarily on the maximization of performance

Lefkios Neophytou

2012-01-01

157

Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

2012-01-01

158

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

159

Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

2002-01-01

160

The importance of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

Clancy, Cheri

2014-11-27

161

Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

Nelson, Dean R.

2012-01-01

162

Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

2013-01-01

163

On the Nature of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

Kagan, Jerome

1994-01-01

164

Examining Emotions in Identity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study I develop theoretically the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals' emotional reactions to identity nonverification (in a positive and a negative direction) and identity verification, which occurs once versus repeatedly, and which is perpetrated by a familiar other compared with an unfamiliar other. Predictions…

Stets, Jan E.

2005-01-01

165

Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization  

PubMed Central

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2011-01-01

166

Contradictions of emotion in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers contradictory features of emotional or affective experience and expression in schizophrenia in light of the “Kretschmerian paradox”—the fact that schizophrenia-spectrum patients can simultaneously experience both exaggerated and diminished levels of affective response. An attempt is made to explain the paradox and explore its implications. Recent research on emotion in schizophrenia is reviewed, including subjective reports, psychophysiological measures

Louis Sass

2007-01-01

167

Networks of Emotion Concepts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

168

Particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Recent advances in external beam radiotherapy have allowed us to deliver higher doses to the tumors while decreasing doses to the surrounding tissues. Dose escalation using high-precision radiotherapy has improved the treatment outcomes of prostate cancer. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy has been widely used throughout the world as the most advanced form of photon radiotherapy. In contrast, particle radiotherapy has also been under development, and has been used as an effective and non-invasive radiation modality for prostate and other cancers. Among the particles used in such treatments, protons and carbon ions have the physical advantage that the dose can be focused on the tumor with only minimal exposure of the surrounding normal tissues. Furthermore, carbon ions also have radiobiological advantages that include higher killing effects on intrinsic radio-resistant tumors, hypoxic tumor cells and tumor cells in the G0 or S phase. However, the degree of clinical benefit derived from these theoretical advantages in the treatment of prostate cancer has not been adequately determined. The present article reviews the available literature on the use of particle radiotherapy for prostate cancer as well as the literature on the physical and radiobiological properties of this treatment, and discusses the role and the relative merits of particle radiotherapy compared with current photon-based radiotherapy, with a focus on proton beam therapy and carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:25308767

Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Sinoto, Makoto; Matsunobu, Akira; Toyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Kudo, Sho

2015-01-01

169

Stereotype associations and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Study 2) expression displays. Stereotype consistent expressions were more quickly decoded than stereotype inconsistent expression on Moroccan and White male faces. Importantly, we found consistent and novel evidence that participants' associations between ethnicities and emotions, as measured with a newly developed emotion Implicit Association Test (eIAT), predicted the strength of their ethnicity-based stereotype biases in expression recognition. In both studies, as perceivers' level of Moroccan-anger and Dutch-sadness associations (compared with the opposite) increased, so did perceivers' tendency to decode anger more readily on Moroccan faces and sadness on White faces. The observed stereotype effect seemed to be independent of implicit prejudice (Study 2), suggesting dissociable effects of prejudices and stereotypes in expression perception. PMID:24523297

Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

2014-05-01

170

The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition  

PubMed Central

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-01-01

171

Importance of Emotional Competence in Designing an Antidrug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Adolescent substance abuse is a serious problem in Hong Kong. Antidrug education campaigns should aim at enhancing students' understanding of the effects of illegal drugs to themselves. Moreover, life skill training is important in helping adolescents face life's challenges without attempting to do drugs. A major component of life skill training is the promotion of emotional competence. The present study outlines the importance of emotional competence and adolescent development. For an antidrug education campaign to be effective, adolescents should be able to identify their emotions and understand their own emotion regulation mechanism. Likewise, they should be made aware of the consequences of their emotions and emotion-driven behaviors. Finally, the use of an inspirational story with a strong message against substance abuse to trigger emotions is recommended for designing an antidrug education curriculum. All these components are integrated in the newly developed curriculum of the P.A.T.H.S. Project in Hong Kong. PMID:22125472

Law, Ben M. F.; Lee, Tak Yan

2011-01-01

172

On the nature of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same, rendering the value of the distinction largely for the benefit of analysis. There is an extensive discussion of how the same processes can generate emotions (i.e., are constitutive of emotion) and account for variability of manifestation of emotion in context (i.e., regulate them). Following an extensive review of many of the principles involved in emotion and emotion regulation, the paper presents implications for developmental study of infants and children, includes several methodological recommendations, and concludes with an analysis of the extent to which contemporary affective neuroscience contributes to the study of emotion and emotion regulation. PMID:15056194

Campos, Joseph J; Frankel, Carl B; Camras, Linda

2004-01-01

173

Bystander effects and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy. PMID:25535579

Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

2015-01-01

174

Emotion to emotion speech conversion in phoneme level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having an ability to synthesize emotional speech can make human-machine interaction more natural in spoken dialogue management. This study investigates the effectiveness of prosodic and spectral modification in phoneme level on emotion-to-emotion speech conversion. The prosody modification is performed with the TD-PSOLA algorithm (Moulines and Charpentier, 1990). We also transform the spectral envelopes of source phonemes to match those of target phonemes using LPC-based spectral transformation approach (Kain, 2001). Prosodic speech parameters (F0, duration, and energy) for target phonemes are estimated from the statistics obtained from the analysis of an emotional speech database of happy, angry, sad, and neutral utterances collected from actors. Listening experiments conducted with native American English speakers indicate that the modification of prosody only or spectrum only is not sufficient to elicit targeted emotions. The simultaneous modification of both prosody and spectrum results in higher acceptance rates of target emotions, suggesting that not only modeling speech prosody but also modeling spectral patterns that reflect underlying speech articulations are equally important to synthesize emotional speech with good quality. We are investigating suprasegmental level modifications for further improvement in speech quality and expressiveness.

Bulut, Murtaza; Yildirim, Serdar; Busso, Carlos; Lee, Chul Min; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

2004-10-01

175

Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.

Bert, C.; Durante, M.

2011-08-01

176

Evaluation of oxygenation status during fractionated radiotherapy in human nonsmall cell lung cancers using [F-18]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Recent clinical investigations have shown a strong correlation between pretreatment tumor hypoxia and poor response to radiotherapy. These observations raise questions about standard assumptions of tumor reoxygenation during radiotherapy, which has been poorly studies in human cancers. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [F-18]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) uptake allows noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia, and is amenable for repeated studies during

Wui-Jin Koh; Kenneth S. Bergman; Janet S. Rasey; Lanell M. Peterson; Margaret L. Evans; Michael M. Graham; John R. Grierson; Karen L. Lindsley; Thomas K. Lewellen; Kenneth A. Krohn; Thomas W. Griffin

1995-01-01

177

Radiotherapy for Thymic Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of thymoma and thymic carcinoma has been evaluated by many investigators over the past two decades. The low incidence of these neoplasms has limited most published studies to small series spanning long time intervals or extant population-based studies. The exact indications and protocols for the use of RT as a part of the multidisciplinary approach to thymoma and thymic carcinoma are still unclear. However, a review of recent literature shows potential benefits for certain patients based on stage and grade of disease as well as the extent of surgical resection. PMID:20859128

Fuller, Clifton D.; Ramahi, Emma H.; Aherne, Noel; Eng, Tony Y.; Thomas, Charles R.

2012-01-01

178

Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?  

PubMed

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

2013-08-01

179

Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?  

PubMed Central

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

180

Perceptions of efficacy, expressed emotion, and the course of schizophrenia: the case of emotional overinvolvement.  

PubMed

Although it is clear that expressed emotion (EE) is associated with the course of schizophrenia, proposed models for this association have struggled to account for the relationship between the EE index of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) and relapse. To expand our understanding of the EOI-relapse association, we first attempted to replicate the finding that the EOI-relapse association is curvilinear among 55 Mexican-Americans with schizophrenia and their caregiving relatives. Second, we evaluated whether the caregivers' perception of their ill relative's efficacy may account for the EOI-relapse association. Our results comport with past findings with regard to the curvilinear nature of the EOI-relapse association among Mexican-Americans and suggest that EOI may only seem to be a risk factor of relapse because of its strong association with a true risk factor for relapse (i.e., caregivers' perception of their ill relative's efficacy). PMID:24080669

Breitborde, Nicholas J K; López, Steven R; Aguilera, Adrian; Kopelowicz, Alex

2013-10-01

181

Emotion Detection in Suicide Notes using Maximum Entropy Classification  

PubMed Central

An ensemble of supervised maximum entropy classifiers can accurately detect and identify sentiments expressed in suicide notes. Using lexical and syntactic features extracted from a training set of externally annotated suicide notes, we trained separate classifiers for each of fifteen pre-specified emotions. This formed part of the 2011 i2b2 NLP Shared Task, Track 2. The precision and recall of these classifiers related strongly with the number of occurrences of each emotion in the training data. Evaluating on previously unseen test data, our best system achieved an F1 score of 0.534. PMID:22879760

Wicentowski, Richard; Sydes, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

182

Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Post-Radiotherapy Xerostomia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy. Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. FDG-PET/CT is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive radiotherapy underwent baseline and post-radiotherapy FDG-PET/CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled onto a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre/post-RT SUVs for all voxels contained within parotid gland regions-of-interest were deformably registered. Results Average whole gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid DMet (defined as the pre-treatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted post-treatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g. fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by post-treatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and RTOG/EORTC xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake strongly associates with acute clinical post-radiotherapy parotid toxicity. DMet may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET/CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing. PMID:22658215

Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L.; Dong, Lei

2011-01-01

183

Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.  

PubMed

One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. PMID:24603024

Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

2015-02-01

184

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

185

[The nurse opposite emotions].  

PubMed

When one approaches a work of classical literature best thing can do is shut up and let that speak for itself "La señorita Cora" doubly deserves the title of classic. First, because it still extraordinary tales of Cortázar, some like this reach the condition of anthological parts. Secondly, because within the literature starring nurses, it is difficult to find a work that explore the emotional world of nursing care with such lucidity. Therefore, much more interesting that read this comment is read and reread the story. And I say back to read because the classical works are characterized by the more return on them, far from tired, offer us new perspectives which we had not seen until then. PMID:24245414

Bellver Capella, Vicente

2013-09-01

186

Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

2012-01-01

187

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

188

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same,

Joseph J. Campos; Carl B. Frankel; Linda Camras

2004-01-01

189

Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

2012-01-01

190

Emotions as Natural and Normative Kinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier work I have claimed that emotion and some emotions are not 'natural kinds'. Here I clarify what I mean by 'natural kind', suggest a new and more accurate term, and discuss the objection that emotion and emotions are not descriptive categories at all, but fundamentally normative categories. 1. Introduction. It is unlikely that all the psychological states and

Paul E. Griffiths

2004-01-01

191

IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION  

E-print Network

-reported effortful emotion regulation, and an adaptive pattern of cardiovascular responding. These findings suggest on deliberate, response-focused emotion regulation, as predicted by participants' explicit reports of emotionIMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION

Gross, James J.

192

Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

Oplatka, Izhar

2007-01-01

193

The emotional feeling as a combination of two qualia: A neurophilosophical-based emotion theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the emotional feeling comprises the following two emotional qualia. (1) A nucleus feeling or primary emotional quale, which is the phenomenological counterpart of the end product of appraisal by the central nervous system. (2) The experience of being urged to emotion-related reflection or secondary emotional quale, which is the phenomenological counterpart of the brain's decision to

Bob Bermond

2008-01-01

194

Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection  

PubMed Central

Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

2011-01-01

195

Bias and discriminability during emotional signal detection in melancholic depression  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive disturbances in depression are pernicious and so contribute strongly to the burden of the disorder. Cognitive function has been traditionally studied by challenging subjects with modality-specific psychometric tasks and analysing performance using standard analysis of variance. Whilst informative, such an approach may miss deeper perceptual and inferential mechanisms that potentially unify apparently divergent emotional and cognitive deficits. Here, we sought to elucidate basic psychophysical processes underlying the detection of emotionally salient signals across individuals with melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Methods Sixty participants completed an Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) task across negative, positive and neutral target stimuli blocks. We employed hierarchical Bayesian signal detection theory (SDT) to model psychometric performance across three equal groups of those with melancholic depression, those with a non-melancholic depression and healthy controls. This approach estimated likely response profiles (bias) and perceptual sensitivity (discriminability). Differences in the means of these measures speak to differences in the emotional signal detection between individuals across the groups, while differences in the variance reflect the heterogeneity of the groups themselves. Results Melancholic participants showed significantly decreased sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli compared to those in the non-melancholic group, and also had a significantly lower discriminability than healthy controls during the detection of neutral signals. The melancholic group also showed significantly higher variability in bias to both positive and negative emotionally salient material. Conclusions Disturbances of emotional signal detection in melancholic depression appear dependent on emotional context, being biased during the detection of positive stimuli, consistent with a noisier representation of neutral stimuli. The greater heterogeneity of the bias across the melancholic group is consistent with a more labile disorder (i.e. variable across the day). Future work will aim to understand how these findings reflect specific individual differences (e.g. prior cognitive biases) and clarify whether such biases change dynamically during cognitive tasks as internal models of the sensorium are refined and updated in response to experience. PMID:24766992

2014-01-01

196

Expression of emotion in the kinematics of locomotion.  

PubMed

Here, we examine how different emotions-happiness, fear, sadness and anger-affect the kinematics of locomotion. We focus on a compact representation of locomotion properties using the intersegmental law of coordination (Borghese et al. in J Physiol 494(3):863-879, 1996), which states that, during the gait cycle of human locomotion, the elevation angles of the thigh, shank and foot do not evolve independently of each other but form a planar pattern of co-variation. This phenomenon is highly robust and has been extensively studied. The orientation of the plane has been correlated with changes in the speed of locomotion and with reduction in energy expenditure as speed increases. An analytical model explaining the conditions underlying the emergence of this plane and predicting its orientation reveals that it suffices to examine the amplitudes of the elevation angles of the different segments along with the phase shifts between them (Barliya et al. in Exp Brain Res 193:371-385, 2009). We thus investigated the influence of different emotions on the parameters directly determining the orientation of the intersegmental plane and on the angular rotation profiles of the leg segments, examining both the effect of changes in walking speed and effects independent of speed. Subjects were professional actors and naïve subjects with no training in acting. As expected, emotions were found to strongly affect the kinematics of locomotion, particularly walking speed. The intersegmental coordination patterns revealed that emotional expression caused additional modifications to the locomotion patterns that could not be explained solely by a change in speed. For all emotions except sadness, the amplitude of thigh elevation angles changed from those in neutral locomotion. The intersegmental plane was also differently oriented, especially during anger. We suggest that, while speed is the dominant variable allowing discrimination between different emotional gaits, emotion can be reliably recognized in locomotion only when speed is considered together with these kinematic changes. PMID:23250443

Barliya, Avi; Omlor, Lars; Giese, Martin A; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

2013-03-01

197

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

198

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-09-01

199

Operating theatre nurses: emotional labour and the hostess role.  

PubMed

Emotional labour has been established as a significant factor in nursing work, although no studies have been done looking at emotional labour specifically in an operating theatre nursing context. Theatre staff (17 nurses and three Operating Department Practitioners (technicians) were observed in practice over a period of nine months by one of the authors. Each of the staff was subsequently interviewed. The transcriptions of the observation fieldwork notes and the semistructured interviews were analysed for themes and content. The (predominantly female) nurses perceived that one of their responsibilities was 'looking after the surgeons'. We have described this as the 'hostess' role. This role consisted of two major areas of activity: 'keeping the surgeons happy' and 'not upsetting the surgeons'. Examples are given of how this was accomplished through talk and actions. The (predominantly male) operating department practitioners did not see this as part of their work. This 'hostess' role is a kind of emotional labour, but performed with coworkers rather than patients. Like other forms of emotional labour, it is strongly gendered. The emotional labour performed by the theatre nurses was necessary to maintain what has been called elsewhere the 'sentimental order'. PMID:15752323

Timmons, Stephen; Tanner, Judith

2005-04-01

200

Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students  

PubMed Central

Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

2014-01-01

201

The emotional economy of housing   

E-print Network

This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

2008-10-01

202

Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception   

E-print Network

The present study had the chief aim of validating the new Social Perception Test (SPT) as a veridically scored, pragmatic measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). To this end the SPT was compared to three similarly visually based tests – picture...

Teale, Cassandra

2010-06-30

203

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Back Pain and Emotional Distress Common Reactions to Back Pain Four out of five adults will experience an episode of significant back pain sometime during ...

204

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

205

Cognition and Motivation in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cognition—and to some extent motivation—in emotion, the ways meaning is generated, unconscious appraising, and the implications of this way of thinking for life-span development are addressed. It is argued that appraisal is a necessary as well as sufficient cause of emotion and that knowledge is necessary but not sufficient. This position is examined in light of what

Richard S. Lazarus

1991-01-01

206

Medical Applications: Proton Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton therapy is a highly advanced and precise form of radiation treatment for cancer. Due to the characteristic Bragg peak associated with ion energy deposition, proton therapy provides the radiation oncologist with an improved method of treatment localization within a patient, as compared with conventional radiation therapy using X-rays or electrons. Controlling disease and minimizing side effects are the twin aims of radiation treatment. Proton beams enhance the opportunity for both by facilitating maximal dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding tissue. In the United States, five proton radiotherapy centers currently treat cancer patients, with more in the construction phase. New facilities and enabling technologies abound. An overview of the treatment modality generally, as well as of the capabilities and research planned for the field and for the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute in particular, will be presented.

Keppel, Cynthia

2009-05-01

207

The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench,  

E-print Network

about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, is that emotions must be inventions (i.e., constructions) of the human mind. This is not a claim that emotions

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

208

The interplay between the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli as measured by pupillary dilatation: the role of cognitive reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Emotions can occur during an emotion-eliciting event, but they can also arise when anticipating the event. We used pupillary responses, as a measure of effortful cognitive processing, to test whether the anticipation of an emotional stimulus (positive and negative) influences the subsequent online processing of that emotional stimulus. Moreover, we tested whether individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies are associated with pupillary responses during the anticipation and/or online processing of this emotional stimulus. Our results show that, both for positive and negative stimuli, pupillary diameter during the anticipation of emotion-eliciting events is inversely and strongly correlated to pupillary responses during the emotional image presentation. The variance in this temporal interplay between anticipation and online processing was related to individual differences in emotion regulation. Specifically, the results show that high reappraisal scores are related to larger pupil diameter during the anticipation which is related to smaller pupillary responses during the online processing of emotion-eliciting events. The habitual use of expressive suppression was not associated to pupillary responses in the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli. Taken together, the current data suggest (most strongly for individuals scoring high on the habitual use of reappraisal) that larger pupillary responses during the anticipation of an emotional stimulus are indicative of a sustained attentional set activation to prepare for an upcoming emotional stimulus, which subsequently directs a reduced need to cognitively process that emotional event. Hence, because the habitual use of reappraisal is known to have a positive influence on emotional well-being, the interplay between anticipation and online processing of emotional stimuli might be a significant marker of this well-being. PMID:24659976

Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Remue, Jonathan; Ng, Kwun Kei; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-01-01

209

The interplay between the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli as measured by pupillary dilatation: the role of cognitive reappraisal.  

PubMed

Emotions can occur during an emotion-eliciting event, but they can also arise when anticipating the event. We used pupillary responses, as a measure of effortful cognitive processing, to test whether the anticipation of an emotional stimulus (positive and negative) influences the subsequent online processing of that emotional stimulus. Moreover, we tested whether individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies are associated with pupillary responses during the anticipation and/or online processing of this emotional stimulus. Our results show that, both for positive and negative stimuli, pupillary diameter during the anticipation of emotion-eliciting events is inversely and strongly correlated to pupillary responses during the emotional image presentation. The variance in this temporal interplay between anticipation and online processing was related to individual differences in emotion regulation. Specifically, the results show that high reappraisal scores are related to larger pupil diameter during the anticipation which is related to smaller pupillary responses during the online processing of emotion-eliciting events. The habitual use of expressive suppression was not associated to pupillary responses in the anticipation and subsequent online processing of emotional stimuli. Taken together, the current data suggest (most strongly for individuals scoring high on the habitual use of reappraisal) that larger pupillary responses during the anticipation of an emotional stimulus are indicative of a sustained attentional set activation to prepare for an upcoming emotional stimulus, which subsequently directs a reduced need to cognitively process that emotional event. Hence, because the habitual use of reappraisal is known to have a positive influence on emotional well-being, the interplay between anticipation and online processing of emotional stimuli might be a significant marker of this well-being. PMID:24659976

Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Remue, Jonathan; Ng, Kwun Kei; De Raedt, Rudi

2014-01-01

210

Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

2015-01-01

211

Emotion and the motivational brain  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain’s motivational circuits that determine human emotion. PMID:19879918

Lang, Peter J.; Bradley, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

212

Emotional intelligence as a basis for self-esteem in young adults.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT As self-esteem is likely to build on favorable social experiences, such as those derived from achievement (i.e., GPA) and social competence, emotional intelligence is likely to be pivotal in fostering social experiences conducive to self-esteem. Accordingly, emotional intelligence is likely to underlie social competence and mediate the contribution of achievement to self-esteem. This uncharted role is the focus of this study, which surveyed 405 undergraduates in Hong Kong, China. Results demonstrated the pivotal role of emotional intelligence. Essentially, emotional intelligence appeared to be a strong determinant of self-esteem and explain away the positive effect of social competence on self-esteem. The results imply the value of raising emotional intelligence in order to consolidate the basis for the young adult's self-esteem. PMID:25495163

Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Hue, Ming-Tak

2015-01-01

213

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification.…

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-01-01

214

Promoting Peaceful Coexistence in Conflict-Ridden Cyprus: Teachers' Difficulties and Emotions towards a New Policy Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper looks at teachers' perceptions of difficulties and emotions about a recent policy initiative in the Greek-Cypriot educational system to promote peaceful coexistence. This policy initiative by the government sparked strong emotional reactions. This paper provides an in-depth understanding of the intersection between tensions at…

Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota; Kendeou, Panayiota

2011-01-01

215

The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Design: Three types of caring sessions

Eva Gotell; Steven Brown; Sirkka-Liisa Ekman

216

Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.  

PubMed

Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta-analysis findings indicate that the amygdala, a key region for emotion processing, exhibits valence-dependent sex differences in activation to emotional stimuli. The greater left amygdala response to negative emotion for women accords with previous reports that women respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, as well as with hypothesized links between increased neurobiological reactivity to negative emotion and increased prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women. The finding of greater left amygdala activation for positive emotional stimuli in men suggests that greater amygdala responses reported previously for men for specific types of positive stimuli may also extend to positive stimuli more generally. In summary, this study extends efforts to characterize sex differences in brain activation during emotion processing by providing the largest and most comprehensive quantitative meta-analysis to date, and for the first time examining sex differences as a function of positive vs. negative emotional valence. The current findings highlight the importance of considering sex as a potential factor modulating emotional processing and its underlying neural mechanisms, and more broadly, the need to consider individual differences in understanding the neurobiology of emotion. PMID:22450197

Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

2012-06-01

217

An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

2014-01-01

218

Trauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. PMID:25317255

Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël; Hearn, Melissa; Fürst, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial

2014-01-01

219

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Fear of Emotions: The Role of Attentional Control  

PubMed Central

Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience elevated concerns about their capacity to control, and the consequences of, strong emotions that occur in response to trauma reminders. Anxiety is theorized to compromise attentional control (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). In turn, diminished attentional control may increase vulnerability to threat cues and emotional reactivity (Ehlers & Clark, 2001). Consequently, attentional control may play a role in the fear of emotions frequently experienced by individuals with PTSD. Study participants included 64 men and 64 women with a mean age of 37 years, 86% of whom were White, non-Hispanic. Participants experienced an average of 7.68 types of traumatic events, most commonly including motor vehicle accidents and intimate partner violence. PTSD symptoms positively correlated with fear of emotions (r = .53) and negatively correlated with attentional control (r = ?.38). Attentional control was negatively correlated with fear emotions (r = ?.77) and partially mediated the link between PTSD and fear of emotions (R2 = .22). Given the findings regarding top-down attentional control, these results have implications for cognitive and emotional processing theories of PTSD and emphasize the importance of clinical consideration of fear of emotions and attentional control in the treatment of PTSD. PMID:23606358

Sippel, Lauren M.; Marshall, Amy D.

2014-01-01

220

The Production and Perception of Emotionally Expressive Walking Sounds: Similarities between Musical Performance and Everyday Motor Activity  

PubMed Central

Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions. PMID:25551392

Giordano, Bruno L.; Egermann, Hauke; Bresin, Roberto

2014-01-01

221

The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

2015-01-01

222

Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.  

PubMed

Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

2015-02-01

223

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

224

Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition  

PubMed Central

Background: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Methods: Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the “old” or the “new” button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very fast. PMID:24634661

Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

225

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

226

Radiotherapy delivery during motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the 3D dosimetric consequences of radiotherapy delivery during two kinds of motion, (i) the respiratory motion by the patient and (ii) the motion by the gantry while rotating around the patient. Respiratory motion primarily compromises treatments in the thorax and abdomen regions. Several strategies to reduce respiratory motion effects have been developed or are under development. The organ motion could for instance be measured and incorporated in the treatment planning, or adapted to by using respiratory gating and tumour-tracking delivery techniques. Gantry motion is involved in various forms of intensity-modulated arc-therapy techniques. The purpose is to increase the modulation by simultaneously varying the MLC positions, the rotation speed of the gantry, and the dose rate during the treatment. The advantage of these techniques is the increased possibility to deliver a high absorbed dose to the target volume while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. However, the dosimetric uncertainties associated with motion, small fields and steep dose gradients, has to be evaluated in detail, and this requires adequate true 3D dose-verification tools.

Ceberg, Sofie; Bäck, Sven Å. J.

2010-11-01

227

The Strength of Weak Identities: Social Structural Sources of Self, Situation and Emotional Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern societies are highly differentiated, with relatively uncorrelated socially salient dimensions and a preponderance of weak, unidimensional (as opposed to strong, multiplex) ties. What are the implications of a society with fewer strong ties and more weak ties for the self? What do these changes mean for our emotional experience in everyday…

Smith-Lovin, Lynn

2007-01-01

228

A new plan quality index for dose painting radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Dose painting radiotherapy is considered a promising radiotherapy technology that enables more targeted dose delivery to tumor rich regions while saving critical normal tissues. Obviously, dose painting planning would be more complicated and hard to be evaluated with current plan quality index systems that were developed under the paradigm of uniform dose prescription. In this study, we introduce a new plan quality index, named "index of achievement (IOA)" that assesses how close the planned dose distribution is to the prescribed one in a dose painting radiotherapy plan. By using voxel-based comparison between planned and prescribed dose distributions in its formulation, the index allows for a single-value evaluation regardless of the number of prescribed dose levels, which cannot be achieved with the conventional indices such as conventional homogeneity index. Benchmark calculations using patient data demonstrated feasibility of the index not only for contour-based dose painting plans, but also for dose painting by numbers plans. Also, it was shown that there is strong correlation between the new index and conventional indices, which indicates a potential of the new index as an alternative to conventional ones in general radiotherapy plan evaluation. PMID:25207424

Park, Yang-Kyun; Park, Soyeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Siyong

2014-01-01

229

Speaking the unspeakable: emotional expressions of identity within journals  

E-print Network

, laughter, and tears. Please know that I hold you in the highest regard, and love you like a sister. Here?s to the power of strong women! And finally, Andrew. You are still my favorite! Thank you for supporting me in accomplishing my dreams..., such as women?s personal experiences (Clark, 2001; Langellier, 1986), abortion (Ellis & Bochner, 1992), HIV/AIDS (Cherry, 1996), breast cancer (Sharf, 1997), 8 domestic violence (Montalbano, 1993), and sharecropper activities and emotions (Madison, 1993...

Horrocks, Aubrie

2004-11-15

230

Usability, Emotions and Customer Satisfaction in Online Travel Booking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability is a key factor in Electronic Commerce. High usability enables the customer to use a web page effectively and efficiently.\\u000a Hence, usability is strongly related to customer satisfaction. In this study we investigate the impact of usability (in terms\\u000a of effectiveness and efficiency) on emotions that are elicited by the web page’s usability, and on customer satisfaction and\\u000a its

Kurt Matzler; Martin Waiguny; Anita Toschkov; Todd A. Mooradian

2006-01-01

231

Small animal radiotherapy research platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

2011-06-01

232

Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

233

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

234

Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health  

MedlinePLUS

... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...

235

Cognition and Emotion in Cerebellar Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... ATAXIA FOUNDATION Are problems in the areas of cognition and emotion related to the cerebellar damage in ... minimal or no ataxia. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT... Cognition and Emotion in Cerebellar Disorders National Ataxia Foundation ...

236

Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

Horner, Michelle S.

2009-01-01

237

Entropy growth in emotional online dialogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and model the dialogues between its participants by assuming that the driving force for the discussion is the entropy growth of emotional probability distribution.

Sienkiewicz, J.; Skowron, M.; Paltoglou, G.; Ho?yst, Janusz A.

2013-02-01

238

Motivation and Emotion ISSN 0146-7239  

E-print Network

suppression. Within CCT, the amount of formal meditation practiced was related to reductions in worry Mindfulness Á Affect Á Emotion Á Emotion regulation Á Meditation Introduction Compassion may be defined

Gross, James J.

239

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

2012-01-01

240

The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

Fisher, R. Michael

2009-01-01

241

Examining the effect of spinal cord injury on emotional awareness, expressivity and memory for emotional material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view on the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on emotion is that it dampens emotional experience due to a loss of peripheral bodily feedback, with the higher the lesion on the spinal cord the greater the reduction in the intensity of emotional experience. This view persists despite many studies showing an absence of such an emotional impairment

D. K. Deady; N. T. North; D. Allan; M. J. Law Smith; R. E. OCarroll

2010-01-01

242

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a,  

E-print Network

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a, , Deanna Schizophrenia Face recognition Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits both in facial emotion recognition­1644). Thus, individuals with schizophrenia may have deficits in facial emotion processing, at least in part

243

Relationships of Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse to Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Incarcerated Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationships of sexual, physical and emotional abuse to emotional and behavioral problems among incarcerated girls and boys. Analyses indicated that girls were more likely than boys to internalize their problems. The only abuse variable that was positively and significantly associated with emotional problems was emotional abuse.…

Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Koopman, Cheryl; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Nicole; Canterbury, R. J., II

2001-01-01

244

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the 'bottom-up' (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or 'top-down' (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

McRae, Kateri; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K; Pereira, Sean C; Gross, James J

2012-03-01

245

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

246

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early childhood. A subsequent structural model indicated that emotion understanding processes were significantly positively

Esther M. Leerkes; Matthew John. Paradise; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Garrett. Lange

2008-01-01

247

Historical analysis in the study of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical research on emotion has burgeoned in recent years. While some historians examine continuities in emotion despite changes in context—as in 19th- and 20th-century grief reactions—most attention has been directed toward charting major changes in emotional standards and explaining their causation. In Western civilization, the century and a half following about 1680 stands as a major period of emotional change,

Peter N. Stearns

1986-01-01

248

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Work: Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

This contribution links psychological models of emotion regulation to sociological accounts of emotion work to demonstrate the extent to which emotion regulation is systematically shaped by culture and society. I first discuss a well-established two-factor process model of emotion regulation and argue that a substantial proportion of emotion regulatory goals are derived from emotion norms. In contrast to universal emotion values and hedonic preferences, emotion norms are highly specific to social situations and institutional contexts. This specificity is determined by social cognitive processes of categorization and guided by framing rules. Second, I argue that the possibilities for antecedent-focused regulation, in particular situation selection and modification, are not arbitrarily available to individuals. Instead, they depend on economic, cultural, and social resources. I suggest that the systematic and unequal distribution of these resources in society leads to discernible patterns of emotion and emotion regulation across groups of individuals. PMID:23181041

von Scheve, Christian

2012-01-01

249

Responses of single neurons in monkey amygdala to facial and vocal emotions.  

PubMed

The face and voice can independently convey the same information about emotion. When we see an angry face or hear an angry voice, we can perceive a person's anger. These two different sensory cues are interchangeable in this sense. However, it is still unclear whether the same group of neurons process signals for facial and vocal emotions. We recorded neuronal activity in the amygdala of monkeys while watching nine video clips of species-specific emotional expressions: three monkeys showing three emotional expressions (aggressive threat, scream, and coo). Of the 227 amygdala neurons tested, 116 neurons (51%) responded to at least one of the emotional expressions. These "monkey-responsive" neurons-that is, neurons that responded to monkey-specific emotional expression-preferred the scream to other emotional expressions irrespective of identity. To determine the element crucial to neuronal responses, the activity of 79 monkey-responsive neurons was recorded while a facial or vocal element of a stimulus was presented alone. Although most neurons (61/79, 77%) strongly responded to the visual but not to the auditory element, about one fifth (16/79, 20%) maintained a good response when either the facial or vocal element was presented. Moreover, these neurons maintained their stimulus-preference profiles under facial and vocal conditions. These neurons were found in the central nucleus of the amygdala, the nucleus that receives inputs from other amygdala nuclei and in turn sends outputs to other emotion-related brain areas. These supramodal responses to emotion would be of use in generating appropriate responses to information regarding either facial or vocal emotion. PMID:17182913

Kuraoka, Koji; Nakamura, Katsuki

2007-02-01

250

The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

Spasova, Z.

2011-03-01

251

Emotions and their expression in Chinese culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to integrate the scattered studies on Chinese emotion and proposes some methodological and substantive suggestions for future work. Emotions are construed as interpretations of physiological response to important social events with these interpretations guiding behavior. Concerning interpretation, the dimensions used by Chinese to understand emotion-eliciting events are the same as those found in many other cultures. Which

Michael Harris Bond

1993-01-01

252

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

253

Why emotions should be integrated into conversational  

E-print Network

and motivation Sonny: I did not murder him. Detective Spooner: You were emotional... I don't want my vacuum1 Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents Christian Becker, Stefan Kopp & Sons, Ltd #12;2 WHY EMOTIONS SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO CONVERSATIONAL AGENTS 1.1 Introduction

Becker-Asano, Christian

254

Why emotions should be integrated into conversational  

E-print Network

Sonny: I did not murder him. Detective Spooner: You were emotional... I don't want my vacuum cleaner1 Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents Christian Becker, Stefan Kopp & Sons, Ltd #12;2 WHY EMOTIONS SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO CONVERSATIONAL AGENTS When building

Kopp, Stefan

255

Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

2008-01-01

256

Positive emotions enhance recall of peripheral details  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects

Jennifer M. Talarico; Dorthe Berntsen; David C. Rubin

2009-01-01

257

Facilitating Maltreated Children's Use of Emotional Language.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4-9-year-old maltreated children's spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children's use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children's use of emotional language. PMID:25243047

Ahern, Elizabeth C; Lyon, Thomas D

2013-05-01

258

Stereotypical Portrayals of Emotionality in News Photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research content analyzed the news photographs of a major U.S. daily newspaper to examine the emotional portrayals of individuals in different gender, age, and ethnic subgroups. A multidimensional measure of emotion (pleasure, arousal, dominance) was used. A total of 1,595 individuals were coded. The results demonstrate that emotionality was stereotyped to some degree, particularly in relation to women, ethnic

Shelly Rodgers; Linda Jean Kenix; Esther Thorson

2007-01-01

259

Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting

Nina R. Jakoby

2012-01-01

260

Visual Search for Faces with Emotional Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this review is to critically examine contradictory findings in the study of visual search for emotionally expressive faces. Several key issues are addressed: Can emotional faces be processed preattentively and guide attention? What properties of these faces influence search efficiency? Is search moderated by the emotional state of the…

Frischen, Alexandra; Eastwood, John D.; Smilek, Daniel

2008-01-01

261

Social and Emotional Education in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' social and emotional development is vital in today's education, especially in light of changing family structures. This paper examines implications of recent cultural changes which have resulted in positive and negative changes in students' social and emotional needs, then describes and presents approaches to social and emotional…

Burke, Robert W.

2002-01-01

262

Expressions of Emotion as Mediated by Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her thoughtful work regarding various aspects of emotion and emotion related words, Pavlenko explores a variety of perspectives on how we might characterize and conceptualize expressions of emotion. It is a work that is quite rich in breadth--one that leads to a variety of different thoughts on this topic, many of which are amenable to…

Altarriba, Jeanette

2008-01-01

263

Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence suggests that a key distinction in the classification of human emotion is that between an appetitive motivational system associated with positive or pleasant emotion and an aversive motivational system associated with negative or unpleasant emotion. To explore the neural substrates of these two systems, 12 healthy women viewed sets of pictures previously demonstrated to elicit pleasant, unpleasant and

Eric M. Reiman; Margaret M. Bradley; Peter J. Lang; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Richard J. Davidson; Gary E. Schwartz

1997-01-01

264

Higher Education Emotions: A Scale Development Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion experienced in the classroom has been shown to influence subject-level satisfaction and loyalty to the institution. To date, a valid and reliable scale to measure higher-education satisfaction emotions does not exist and this study aims to rectify this shortfall. After a qualitative and quantitative investigation, 14 emotions that formed…

White, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

265

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

2008-01-01

266

"Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

Wang, Hongyu

2008-01-01

267

Emotion capture based on body postures and  

E-print Network

systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 #12;The goalEmotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay

268

Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

269

Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

2010-01-01

270

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

271

A survey on emotional semantic image retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional semantic image retrieval is a new and promising research direction in recent years. This paper attempts to introduce this emerging area to researchers, give them a brief overview of current research progress and framework. In this field three key issues, emotional semantic representation, image feature extraction, and emotion recognition, are discussed in detail with approaches and challenges. In addition,

Weining Wang; Qianhua He

2008-01-01

272

The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion

Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

2008-01-01

273

Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

2012-01-01

274

Radiotherapy for ocular tumours  

PubMed Central

Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2?Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

2013-01-01

275

Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Background During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM. Method Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N=83). Results We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress. Conclusions The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions. PMID:22893818

van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Spinhoven, Philip

2011-01-01

276

Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior  

PubMed Central

Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain’s endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior. PMID:21949506

Zanettini, Claudio; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Aliczki, Mano; Goldberg, Steven R.; Haller, József; Yasar, Sevil

2011-01-01

277

Metrological Issues in Molecular Radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project "Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT)" is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided.

D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Solc, Jaroslav; Bobin, Christophe; Rabus, Hans; Joulaeizadeh, Leila

2014-08-01

278

Remembering faces with emotional expressions  

PubMed Central

It is known that happy faces create more robust identity recognition memory than faces with some other expressions. However, this advantage was not verified against all basic expressions. Moreover, no research has assessed whether similar differences also exist among other expressions. To tackle these questions, we compared the effects of six basic emotional expressions on recognition memory using a standard old/new recognition task. The experiment also examined whether exposure to different emotional expressions at training creates variable effects on transfer of the trained faces to a new/neutral expression. Our results suggest that happy faces produced better identity recognition relative to disgusted faces, regardless of whether they were tested in the same image or a new image displaying a neutral expression. None of the other emotional expressions created measurable advantage for recognition memory. Overall, our data lend further support for the happy face advantage for long-term recognition memory. However, our detailed analyses also show that the advantage of happy expression on identity recognition may not be equally discernible from all other emotional expressions. PMID:25540634

Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng; Ward, James

2014-01-01

279

Online Gaming and Emotion Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to simulate lifelike interactive characters has many appli- cations in the gaming industry. A lifelike human face can enhance interactive applications by providing straightforward feedback to and from the users and stimulating emotional responses from them. Thus, the gaming and entertain- ment industries can benefit from employing believable, expressive characters since such features significantly enhance the atmosphere of

Amaryllis Raouzaiou; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2003-01-01

280

Emotional brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in brain-computer interface (BCI) has significantly increased during the last few years. In addition to their initial role as assisting devices for the physically challenged, BCIs are now proposed for a wider range of applications. As in any HCI application, BCIs can also benefit from adapting their operation to the emotional state of the user. BCIs have the advantage

Gary Garcia Molina; Tsvetomira Tsoneva; Anton Nijholt; J. Cohn; Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

281

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

282

Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

283

Attentional bias in emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

1986-01-01

284

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

285

Emotion Circuits in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

Joseph E. LeDoux

2000-01-01

286

Spatial frequencies and emotional perception.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that, during evolution, specific mechanisms developed in order to optimize the detection of threats and opportunities even in perceptually degraded conditions. A naturalistic example of perceptual degradation can be found in blurry images, which contain the coarsest elements of a scene (low spatial frequencies) but lack the fine-grained details (high spatial frequencies). In the past decade, several studies have examined the relation between spatial frequencies and emotions, using a variety of methods, stimuli, and rationales. Here, we conduct a literature survey on the studies that have examined the relation between emotion and spatial frequencies. Some studies have suggested that the low spatial frequencies of emotional stimuli may be processed by a subcortical neural pathway, eventually eliciting emotional responses. However, the evidence provided by the reviewed studies does not support this possibility, for conceptual and methodological reasons (e.g., mistaking the processing of a fuzzy stimulus for subcortical processing). Here, the conceptual and methodological problems present in the reviewed studies are analyzed and discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23183741

De Cesarei, Andrea; Codispoti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

287

Emotion regulation and sport performance.  

PubMed

This study used a single-blind, within-participant, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to examine the relationship between emotional self-regulation and sport performance. Twenty competitive athletes completed four laboratory-based conditions; familiarization, control, emotion suppression, and nonsuppression. In each condition participants completed a 10-km cycling time trial requiring self-regulation. In the experimental conditions participants watched an upsetting video before performing the cycle task. When participants suppressed their emotional reactions to the video (suppression condition) they completed the cycling task slower, generated lower mean power outputs, and reached a lower maximum heart rate and perceived greater physical exertion than when they were given no self-regulation instructions during the video (nonsuppression condition) and received no video treatment (control condition). The findings suggest that emotional self-regulation resource impairment affects perceived exertion, pacing and sport performance and extends previous research examining the regulation of persistence on physical tasks. The results are discussed in line with relevant psychophysiological theories of self-regulation and fatigue and pertinent potential implications for practice regarding performance and well-being are suggested. PMID:25226609

Wagstaff, Christopher R D

2014-08-01

288

Sex, IQ, and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

150 young bankers estimated their IQ (Academic/Cognitive Intelligence) and EQ (Emotional Intelligence) before taking an IQ test. Pearson correlations were r = .40 and .41 between IQ test (Wonderlic Personnel Test) scores (M = 32.8) and IQ estimates (M = 27.9) and EQ estimates, respectively. Women's mean self-estimated IQ was significantly lower than men's. PMID:20229912

Furnham, Adrian

2009-12-01

289

Boosting Social and Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

Beland, Kathy

2007-01-01

290

Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

291

Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and evaluates the La Grange (Illinois) Area Department of Special Education (LADSE) network for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). It also presents a curriculum guide for applying the wraparound approach in schools. The LADSE EBD network is based on three levels of support: special classroom, supported…

La Grange Area Dept. of Special Education, IL.

292

Neural Networks for Emotion Classification  

E-print Network

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. This thesis describes a neural network-based approach for emotion classification. We learn a classifier that can recognize six basic emotions with an average accuracy of 77% over the Cohn-Kanade database. The novelty of this work is that instead of empirically selecting the parameters of the neural network, i.e. the learning rate, activation function parameter, momentum number, the number of nodes in one layer, etc. we developed a strategy that can automatically select comparatively better combination of these parameters. We also introduce another way to perform back propagation. Instead of using the partial differential of the error function, we use optimal algorithm; namely Powell's direction set to minimize the error function. We were also interested in construction an authentic emotion databases. This...

Sun, Yafei

2011-01-01

293

Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

1992-01-01

294

The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.  

PubMed

One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. PMID:24330427

Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

2013-12-11

295

Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

296

False memories to emotional stimuli are not equally affected in right- and left-brain-damaged stroke patients.  

PubMed

Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. PMID:25129810

Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

2014-10-01

297

Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval.  

PubMed

A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories. PMID:24380867

Dew, Ilana T Z; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

2014-07-01

298

Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.  

PubMed

Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research. PMID:25470436

Nabi, Robin L

2015-02-01

299

External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally,

Maurice Tubiana; Elias Haddad; Martin Schlumberger; Catherine Hill; Philippe Rougier; Danièle Sarrazin

1985-01-01

300

PARTICLE BEAM RADIOTHERAPY: CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

of high LET #12;radiation. This provided the impetus for the clinical studies using fast neutron beams path is referred to as linear energy transfer. Conventional photon and electron beams used in therapyCHAPTER 16 PARTICLE BEAM RADIOTHERAPY: CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE GEORGE E. LARAMORE MARK H. PHILLIPS

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

301

Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

302

The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

303

Beyond emotional benefits: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.  

PubMed

Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources. PMID:25307453

Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

2015-03-01

304

Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: Testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

2015-01-01

305

The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user’s sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom–up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of presence is suggested as a first step toward an integrative framework for emotion research in VR. Gaps in the current literature and future directions are outlined.

Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W.; Peperkorn, Henrik M.; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

2015-01-01

306

The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB) signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning, and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall, and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviors and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLA???mPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLA???mPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing, learning, and memory abnormalities related to various neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia-related psychoses. PMID:25071606

Tan, Huibing; Ahmad, Tasha; Loureiro, Michael; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R.

2014-01-01

307

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

Goldman, Steven A.

308

[Radiotherapy of soft tissue sarcoma--part of a multidisciplinary strategy].  

PubMed

The management of soft tissue sarcoma has evolved from a solitary surgical treatment to an interdisciplinary multimodal approach including radiotherapy. These fundamental changes are the result of increased knowledge in tumor biology, radiation sensitivity and the improvement in modern radiation therapy techniques. A successful effective therapy regimen strongly depends on distinct preoperative diagnostics, preoperative conception of the surgical intervention and an experienced oncological team. Of significant importance for the prognosis is early diagnosis as well as tumor excision with a wide negative margin. However, even after complete wide resection in sano, the use of postoperative radiotherapy can further improve local control and should therefore be applied to the majority of patients. Consequently, radiotherapy should only be omitted in cases in which the tumor has been excised with a very wide negative margin; this implies, however, high quality of surgery and distinct histopathological analysis. Patients with non- or questionable resectable tumors, should be referred for pre-operative radiotherapy in order to improve the surgical results. Recent studies have underlined the efficiency of modern radiotherapy regimens. The different radiotherapy regimens will be highlighted against the background of tumor stage and tumor resectibility. PMID:19122982

Pape, Hildegard; Orth, Klaus; Engers, Rainer; Matuschek, Christiane; Müller, Anja; Hartmann, Karl-Axel; Gerber, Peter Arne; Lammering, Guido; Habermehl, Daniel; Fenk, Roland; Budach, Wilfried; Gripp, Stephan; Peiper, Matthias; Bölke, Edwin

2008-01-01

309

Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.  

PubMed

A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. PMID:25400166

Megreya, Ahmed M

2015-01-01

310

Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience  

PubMed Central

Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility – the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli; and b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high trait resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low trait resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High trait resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. PMID:21707168

Waugh, Christian E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

2011-01-01

311

Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

2013-01-01

312

Place of proton radiotherapy in future radiotherapy practice.  

PubMed

Proton beam therapy offers potential dosimetric advantages coupled with complexities not currently encompassed in the photon radiotherapy experience. The practice is evolving alongside other developments in oncology, which include higher precision of photon radiotherapy, greater understanding of the biological effect of radiation and its potential modification, and the recognition of new molecular targets with a plethora of agents aimed at affecting biological function. For proton therapy to have an impact on clinical practice requires full examination in rigorous clinical trials comparing proton with best photon therapy. Only the results of present and future studies, showing equivalent, superior, or even potentially worse clinical results will shape their application. The desired goal is to develop personalized treatment strategies of fractionation appropriate for protons potentially combined with targeted agents. We describe the steps in health technology assessment and the potential design of preclinical and clinical trials to define the role of proton therapy in the future. PMID:23473693

Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael

2013-04-01

313

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-04-01

314

Facial signs of emotional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

35 right-handed White females (18–35 yrs) viewed positive and stress-inducing motion picture films and then reported on their subjective experience. Spontaneous facial expressions provided accurate information about more specific aspects of emotional experience than just the pleasant vs unpleasant distinction. The facial action coding system (P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, 1978) isolated a particular type of smile that was

Paul Ekman; Wallace V. Freisen; Sonia Ancoli

1980-01-01

315

Emotional attachment and mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  This article has provided, through reference to recent research, insights into the ways that people are using their mobile\\u000a phones in their everyday lives and in particular it has explored and examined the concept of emotional attachment to the mobile\\u000a phone. In offering some explanations for this seemingly unique behaviour it has highlighted the role of the social groups\\u000a or

Jane Vincent

2006-01-01

316

An Initial Evaluation of the Role of Emotion and Impulsivity in Explaining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Use of Corporal Punishment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors sought to provide an initial evaluation of the hypothesis that corporal punishment is less strongly associated with parental emotion and impulsivity among African American ("Black") in contrast to European American ("White") parents. White-Latino and Black-Latino differences in corporal punishment, emotion, and impulsivity were…

Lorber, Michael F.; O'Leary, Susan G.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

2011-01-01

317

The Cerebellum and Emotional Experience  

PubMed Central

Summary While the role of the cerebellum in motor coordination is widely accepted, the notion that it is involved in emotion has only recently gained popularity. To date, functional neuroimaging has not been used in combination with lesion studies to elucidate the role of the cerebellum in the processing of emotional material. We examined six participants with cerebellar stroke and nine age and education matched healthy volunteers. In addition to a complete neuropsychological, neurologic, and psychiatric examination, participants underwent [15O]water positron emission tomography (PET) while responding to emotion-evoking visual stimuli. Cerebellar lesions were associated with reduced pleasant experience in response to happiness-evoking stimuli. Stroke patients reported an unpleasant experience to frightening stimuli similar to healthy controls, yet showed significantly lower activity in the right ventral lateral and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, and retrosplenial cingulate gyrus. Frightening stimuli led to increased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, pulvinar, and insular cortex. This suggests that alternate neural circuitry became responsible for maintaining the evolutionarily critical fear response after cerebellar damage. PMID:17123557

Turner, Beth M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Marvel, Cherie L.; Pierson, Ronald; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Hichwa, Richard D.; Robinson, Robert G.

2007-01-01

318

Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder  

E-print Network

Emotion Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder Aleena C. Hay, Gal How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder. Emotion. Advance online publication. http June Gruber University of Colorado Boulder Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion

Gross, James J.

319

SonificationSonification, Music, Music and Emotionand Emotion  

E-print Network

SonificationSonification, Music, Music and Emotionand Emotion #12;SonificationSonification, Music and, Music and EmotionEmotion nn SonificationSonification nn What is it?What is it? nn How is it used?How is it used? nn Music and EmotionMusic and Emotion nn How are they linked?How are they linked? nn Combination

Kearney, Joseph K.

320

Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has often been presumed that jobs involving “people work” (e.g., nurses, service workers) are emotionally taxing (Maslach & Jackson, 1982), seldom is the emotional component of these jobs explicitly studied. The current study compared two perspectives of emotional labor as predictors of burnout beyond the effects of negative affectivity: job-focused emotional labor (work demands regarding emotion expression) and

Céleste M. Brotheridge; Alicia A. Grandey

2002-01-01

321

Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

Klaus R. Scherer

1993-01-01

322

The Voice Conveys Specific Emotions: Evidence From Vocal Burst Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and

Emiliana R. Simon-Thomas; Dacher J. Keltner; Disa Sauter; Lara Sinicropi-Yao; Anna Abramson

2009-01-01

323

A MULTI-AGENT MODEL FOR MUTUAL ABSORPTION OF EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times researchers have initiated investigating emotion as a collective property of groups, emphasizing the influence of combined emotions among group members on group processes. Within groups humans recognize and react emotionally to expressions of emotions of other group members. This paper uses a multi9agent9based approa ch to formalize and simulate such emotion contagion within groups.

Tibor Bosse; Rob Duell; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

324

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

325

Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.  

SciTech Connect

Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

2008-08-01

326

Emotional persistence in online chatting communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

2012-05-01

327

Source memory enhancement for emotional words.  

PubMed

The influence of emotional stimuli on source memory was investigated by using emotionally valenced words. The words were colored blue or yellow (Experiment 1) or surrounded by a blue or yellow frame (Experiment 2). Participants were asked to associate the words with the colors. In both experiments, emotionally valenced words elicited enhanced free recall compared with nonvalenced words; however, recognition memory was not affected. Source memory for the associated color was also enhanced for emotional words, suggesting that even memory for contextual information is benefited by emotional stimuli. This effect was not due to the ease of semantic clustering of emotional words because semantically related words were not associated with enhanced source memory, despite enhanced recall (Experiment 3). It is suggested that enhancement resulted from facilitated arousal or attention, which may act to increase organization processes important for source memory. PMID:12894807

Doerksen, S; Shimamura, A P

2001-03-01

328

Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

2014-01-01

329

TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence  

PubMed Central

The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

330

The impact of emotion on numerosity estimation  

PubMed Central

Both time and numerosity can be represented continuously as analog properties whose discrimination conforms to Weber’s Law, suggesting that the two properties may be represented similarly. Recent research suggests that the representation of time is influenced by the presence of emotional stimuli. If time and numerosity share a common cognitive representation, it follows that a similar relationship may exist between emotional stimuli and the representation of numerosity. Here, we provide evidence that emotional stimuli significantly affect humans’ estimation of visual numerosity. During a numerical bisection task, enumeration of emotional stimuli (angry faces) was more accurate compared to enumeration of neutrally valenced stimuli (neutral faces), demonstrating that emotional stimuli affect humans’ visual representation of numerosity as previously demonstrated for time. These results inform and broaden our understanding of the effect of negative emotional stimuli on psychophysical discriminations of quantity. PMID:23950754

Baker, Joseph M.; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry

2013-01-01

331

Emotional news : how emotional content of news and financial markets are related  

E-print Network

We present here a first step towards developing a quantitative model that relates investor emotions to financial markets. We used Wall Street Journal articles as a proxy of investor emotions on a "macro" level. We measured ...

Zhu, Wan Li, 1981-

2004-01-01

332

Long-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are  

E-print Network

Stanford University Corresponding author: Eran Halperin, Deputy Director Political Psychology ProgramLong-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are thought to play a central role in initiating and sustaining intergroup conflicts (Halperin, 2010; Halperin, Bar

Gross, James J.

333

Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:24424260

Ladra, Matthew M.; Yock, Torunn I.

2014-01-01

334

Single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients: comparative effectiveness  

PubMed Central

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is an effective treatment for symptomatic bone metastases from a variety of primary malignancies. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported on the efficacy of EBRT on bone metastases from multiple primaries. This review is focused on the comparative effectiveness of single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. PMID:25473313

Yoon, Frederick; Morton, Gerard C

2014-01-01

335

Crossing the Cartesian Divide: An Investigation into the Role of Emotion in Science Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many science educators and researchers believe that emotion is an important part of the learning process, few researchers have dealt with the topic in a systematic fashion. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotion in the learning process, particularly in the learning of science content. My study utilized a dimensional perspective which defined emotion in terms of arousal and valence, and drew on research from the fields of psychology and neuroscience to examine how emotion affects different aspects of cognition such as attention and memory. On the basis of these findings, I developed and tested a path model to investigate the predicted relationships among emotional arousal, valence, attention, intrinsic motivation and short- and long-term learning outcomes. I conducted the study in two phases. The first phase took place in a psychology laboratory in which participants watched either an exciting or neutral nature video, read a factual article related to the video and were tested on their learning. The second phase took place at the Oregon Coast Aquarium in which participants watched a narrated otter or sea lion presentation and took a short posttest after the show. In both phases, participants' emotional arousal, valence, attention, and motivation levels were also measured for inclusion in the model. The results indicated that emotional arousal was an important predictor of short-term learning in both experiments although its effect was fully mediated by attention at the aquarium. In addition, negative valence (displeasure) and intrinsic motivation were strong predictors of short-term learning in the laboratory experiment. At the aquarium, the narrator of the animal presentation strongly affected both attention and short-term learning---visitors who listened to a non-scripted rather than a scripted narration paid more attention and had significantly better short-term learning outcomes. In the aquarium study, emotional arousal correlated strongly with several measures of long-term learning. In particular, those who felt more arousal during the animal presentation were able to describe their experience at greater length and with more detail and complexity two to three months after their visit. My findings suggest that emotional arousal is an important component of science learning both directly and through its relationship with attention. Therefore, science educators in both informal and formal learning institutions may be able to increase both attention and learning outcomes by designing emotionally arousing learning experiences around the science content they wish to teach. In addition, the importance of narrator quality in the aquarium study suggests that narrators and teachers should be trained to deliver information in such a way that supports short- and long-term science learning.

Staus, Nancy L.

336

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

337

Mother and Child Emotions during Mathematics Homework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics is often thought of as a purely intellectual and unemotional activity. Recently, researchers have begun to question the validity of this approach, arguing that emotions and cognition are intertwined. The emotions expressed during mathematics work may be linked to mathematics achievement. We used behavioral measures to identify the emotions expressed by U.S. mothers and their 11-year-old children while solving

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet S. Hyde; Ahalya Hejmadi

2008-01-01

338

The empirical themes of five maternal emotions  

E-print Network

emotional quality toward their child (ke. , "a recent time when you were really proud of your child" ). The experimenter asked the subject to write a brief narrative on the front page of a packet. She was instructed that the narrative should describe.... , "a recent time when you were really angry at your child" ). Another brief narrative was written on a new packet. This procedure was carried out for five separate emotional events (two positive and three negative emotions) pertaining...

Krause, Matthew David

1998-01-01

339

Emotion and culture: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of 190 cross-cultural emotion studies, published between 1967 and 2000, was performed to examine (1) to what extent reported cross-cultural differences in emotion variables could be regarded as valid (substantive factors) or as method-related (statistical artefacts, cultural bias), and (2) which country characteristics could explain valid cross-cultural differences in emotion. The relative contribution of substantive and method-related factors

Dianne A. van Hemert; Ype H. Poortinga

2007-01-01

340

Vocal Gestures in Slovak: Emotions and Prosody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-spot words are indicators of high emotional invovement of speakers in the conversation and contain cues to the emotional\\u000a state of the speaker. Understanding and modeling of these cues may improve the effec-tiveness and naturalness of automated\\u000a cross-modal dialogue systems. In this paper we investigate the relationship between prosody and emotions in a subgroup of\\u000a hot-spot words: non-verbal vocal gestures

Stefan Benus; Milan Rusko

2008-01-01

341

Emotion recognition and emotional theory of mind in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Difficulties with social function have been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but underpinning factors are unknown. Emotion recognition, theory of mind (inference of another's mental state) and ‘emotional’ theory of mind (eToM) (inference of another's emotional state) are important social abilities, facilitating understanding of others. This study examined emotion recognition and eToM in CFS patients and their relationship

A. Oldershaw; D. Hambrook; K. A. Rimes; K. Tchanturia; J. Treasure; S. Richards; U. Schmidt; T. Chalder

2011-01-01

342

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion  

E-print Network

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto:peggy.st.jacques@duke.edu #12;Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 2 Abstract Emotional processes are enhanced

Cabeza, Roberto

343

The Effects of an Emotional Education Program on the Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an Emotional Education Program, which is based on the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategy) developed by Domitrovich, Greenberg, Cortes and Kusche, on six year old children's emotional skills (identification of emotions, understanding emotions and expression of emotions). In this study,…

Saltali, Neslihan Durmosoglu; Deniz, M. Engin

2010-01-01

344

Emotional difficulties in early adolescence following severe early deprivation: findings from the English and Romanian adoptees study.  

PubMed

The study assessed conduct and emotional difficulties in a group of Romanian adoptees at age 11, and serves as a follow-up to assessments made when the children were 6 years old. It was found that there was a significant increase in emotional difficulties, but not conduct problems, for the Romanian sample since age 6. It was also found that emotional difficulty was significantly more prevalent at age 11 in the Romanian group than in a within-UK adoptee group. Emotional difficulties in the Romanian adoptee group were found to be significantly and strongly related to previous deprivation-specific problems (disinhibited attachment, cognitive impairment, inattention/overactivity and quasi-autism); however, the presence of such early problems did not account fully for the onset of later emotional problems. Five contrasting hypotheses concerning possible mediators for later onset of emotional difficulties for the Romanian group were examined. No links were found to duration of deprivation or other deprivation-related indices, stresses/difficulties in the postadoption family environment, or educational attainment and self-esteem. There was some evidence that emotion recognition might play a role in the emergence of these problems, but other measures of social competence and theory of mind showed no associations with the onset of emotional problems. PMID:18423094

Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'connor, Thomas G; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

2008-01-01

345

Social regulation of emotion: messy layers.  

PubMed

Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the "messy layers." PMID:23424049

Kappas, Arvid

2013-01-01

346

Adolescents’ Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts  

PubMed Central

Adolescents’ emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with adolescents’ reactivity to conflict in friendships and romantic relationships during middle adolescence. Close friendship reactivity partially explained the prospective association between reactivity to interparental conflict and romantic relationship reactivity. The association between perceived emotional reactivity and relationship conflict was stronger for girls than boys. Results have important developmental implications regarding adolescents’ emotional reactivity across salient interpersonal contexts during adolescence. PMID:22545839

Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

2012-01-01

347

Social regulation of emotion: messy layers  

PubMed Central

Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049

Kappas, Arvid

2013-01-01

348

Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

2011-01-01

349

Emotion and Emotionality as a Hidden Dimension of Lexicon and Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her thought-provoking article, Aneta Pavlenko approaches emotion and emotion-laden words in the bilingual lexicon from an impressive number of different perspectives. This is particularly welcome, since most models of linguistic structure do not account for emotional meanings in a systematic way. One exception worth mentioning, however, is…

Viberg, Ake

2008-01-01

350

Emotional needs of car buyers and emotional intent of car designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the emotional intent of car buyers and designers in two related studies. The first study involved 179 Asian and European car owners from 10 countries who were interviewed in a survey. The results showed that several car design descriptors gave similar emotional associations in Europe and in Asia. Clearly, car owners look beyond functionality to consider emotional design

Martin G. Helander; Halimahtun M. Khalid; Tek Yong Lim; Hong Peng; Xi Yang

2012-01-01

351

Giving Shape and Form to Emotion: Using Drawings to Identify Emotions in University Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academia is generally not considered a place for expressing emotions, yet emotions are inevitably present in complex activities such as teaching. We investigated whether drawings could be used as a means of gaining access to emotions in university teaching and how. The data consisted of academics' drawings of themselves as university teachers…

Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

2014-01-01

352

On the Validity of the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task for Emotion Induction  

PubMed Central

The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed. PMID:24776697

Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

2014-01-01

353

Tears and fears: modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions play a critical role in creating engaging and believable characters to populate virtual worlds. Our goal is to create general computational models to support characters that act in virtual environments, make decisions, but whose behavior also suggests an underlying emotional current. In service of this goal, we integrate two complementary approaches to emotional modeling into a single unified system.

Jonathan Gratch; Stacy Marsella

2001-01-01

354

Emotional Labor Actors: A Latent Profile Analysis of Emotional Labor Strategies.  

PubMed

Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068812

Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

2014-07-28

355

Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

2007-01-01

356

Longitudinal effects of emotional labour on emotional exhaustion and dedication of teachers.  

PubMed

A great number of teachers find teaching fulfilling and are dedicated to it, but others feel emotionally exhausted, indicating that the interaction with pupils can be emotionally demanding. Emotional labor was shown to play an important role for the health of teachers. In a full two-wave longitudinal study over the period of 1 year, the effect of emotional labor on emotional exhaustion and dedication of 102 teachers was investigated. Teachers who were able to influence their emotions to feel the emotion appropriate in a situation (so called deep acting) felt significantly less emotionally exhausted after 1 year. From this result, deep acting can, thus, be characterized as health-beneficial. Once teachers felt emotionally exhausted, they used more surface acting. More dedicated teachers, on the contrary, did neither engage more in deep acting nor in surface acting at Time 2. This indicates that those teachers who are dedicated to teaching seem less likely to act. To prevent emotional exhaustion of teachers, the development of interventions to promote health-beneficial emotional labor is necessary. This can be achieved by fostering deep acting, which reduces emotional exhaustion over longer periods of time. PMID:21058861

Philipp, Anja; Schüpbach, Heinz

2010-10-01

357

Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

Killian, Kyle D.

2012-01-01

358

Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N?=?72) and an experience sampling study (N?=?34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

2014-01-01

359

The Primacy of Perceiving: Emotion Recognition Buffers Negative Effects of Emotional Labor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is ample empirical evidence for negative effects of emotional labor (surface acting and deep acting) on workers' well-being. This study analyzed to what extent workers' ability to recognize others' emotions may buffer these effects. In a 4-week study with 85 nurses and police officers, emotion recognition moderated the relationship between…

Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Rohrmann, Sonja; De Pater, Irene E.; Beersma, Bianca

2011-01-01

360

The emotional shape of our moral life: anger-related emotions and mutualistic anthropology.  

PubMed

The evolutionary hypothesis advanced by Baumard et al. makes precise predictions on which emotions should play the main role in our moral lives: morality should be more closely linked to “avoidance” emotions (like contempt and disgust) than to “punitive” emotions (like anger). Here, we argue that these predictions run contrary to most psychological evidence. PMID:23445584

Cova, Florian; Deonna, Julien; Sander, David

2013-02-01

361

Emotionally-Vulnerable Subjects and New Inequalities: The Educational Implications of an "Epistemology of the Emotions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by very different goals, various interest groups argue that the British government should address problems with citizens' emotional well-being. Concerns about emotional vulnerability and poor emotional well-being amongst growing numbers of children, young people and adults produce ideas and approaches from different branches of…

Ecclestone, Kathryn

2011-01-01

362

Too Emotional to Be Capable? The Changing Nature of Emotion Work in Definitions of "Capable Teaching"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the concept of emotional labour to understand some of the changes that are ongoing in the teaching profession. While research has explored the impact of the new performance culture upon teachers' work and identified a marginalisation of the caring and emotional aspects of teaching, the concept of emotional labour allows us to…

Hebson, Gail; Earnshaw, Jill; Marchington, Lorrie

2007-01-01

363

Improving Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Self-Efficacy through a Teaching Intervention for University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in…

Pool, Lorraine Dacre; Qualter, Pamela

2012-01-01

364

Context, culture and face emotion perception 1 How does context affect assessments of facial emotion?  

E-print Network

Context, culture and face emotion perception 1 How does context affect assessments of facial emotion? The role of culture and age Seon-Gyu Ko University of Southern California Tae-Ho Lee Korea California February, 2010: in press, Psychology and Aging #12;Context, culture and face emotion perception 2

Mather, Mara

365

Emotion-Related Parenting Styles (ERPS): A Short Form for Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Parents' meta-emotion philosophy guides their approach to teaching their children about emotions (J. M. Gottman, L. F. Katz, & C. Hooven, 1997) and is measured with the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test-Likert (Gottman et al., 1997, modified by J. Hakim-Larson, A. Parker, C. Lee, J. Goodwin, & S. Voelker, 2006). The…

Paterson, Ashley D.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Camodeca, Amy; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Hakim-Larson, Julie; Voelker, Sylvia; Gragg, Marcia

2012-01-01

366

Adolescents’ emotional competence is associated with parents’ neural sensitivity to emotions  

PubMed Central

An essential component of youths’ successful development is learning to appropriately respond to emotions, including the ability to recognize, identify, and describe one’s feelings. Such emotional competence is thought to arise through the parent–child relationship. Yet, the mechanisms by which parents transmit emotional competence to their children are difficult to measure because they are often implicit, idiosyncratic, and not easily articulated by parents or children. In the current study, we used a multifaceted approach that went beyond self-report measures and examined whether parental neural sensitivity to emotions predicted their child’s emotional competence. Twenty-two adolescent–parent dyads completed an fMRI scan during which they labeled the emotional expressions of negatively valenced faces. Results indicate that parents who recruited the amygdala, VLPFC, and brain regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., inferring others’ emotional states) had adolescent children with greater emotional competence. These results held after controlling for parents’ self-reports of emotional expressivity and adolescents’ self-reports of the warmth and support of their parent relationships. In addition, adolescents recruited neural regions involved in mentalizing during affect labeling, which significantly mediated the associated between parental neural sensitivity and adolescents’ emotional competence, suggesting that youth are modeling or referencing their parents’ emotional profiles, thereby contributing to better emotional competence. PMID:25100982

Telzer, Eva H.; Qu, Yang; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galván, Adriana; Lieberman, Matthew D.

2014-01-01

367

Dysregulated negative emotional reactivity as a predictor of chronic peer victimization in childhood.  

PubMed

This study examined the relations of dysregulated negative emotional reactivity, emotional distress, and chronic peer victimization in childhood. A model was proposed whereby dysregulated reactivity was directly and indirectly related to concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. The model further proposed that dysregulated reactivity directly incrementally predicted longitudinal peer victimization above and beyond the effect of concurrent victimization. Two hundred thirteen 9- to 13-year-old children and their parents completed measures of dysregulated reactivity and victimization experiences at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Children also related narratives of personal victimization experiences at baseline that were coded to assess victimization-related emotional distress. Model testing strongly supported the direct association of dysregulated reactivity with concurrent victimization and incremental predictive effects of dysregulated reactivity on peer victimization over time. Model testing also provided support for an indirect effect of dysregulated reactivity on concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. This study demonstrated the powerful role that dysregulated negative emotional reactivity plays in the development of chronic peer victimization over time. PMID:22707083

Rosen, Paul J; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J

2012-01-01

368

Manipulating Greek musical modes and tempo affects perceived musical emotion in musicians and nonmusicians.  

PubMed

The combined influence of tempo and mode on emotional responses to music was studied by crossing 7 changes in mode with 3 changes in tempo. Twenty-four musicians aged 19 to 25 years (12 males and 12 females) and 24 nonmusicians aged 17 to 25 years (12 males and 12 females) were required to perform two tasks: 1) listening to different musical excerpts, and 2) associating an emotion to them such as happiness, serenity, fear, anger, or sadness. ANOVA showed that increasing the tempo strongly affected the arousal (F(2,116) = 268.62, mean square error (MSE) = 0.6676, P < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, the valence of emotional responses (F(6,348) = 8.71, MSE = 0.6196, P < 0.001). Changes in modes modulated the affective valence of the perceived emotions (F(6,348) = 4.24, MSE = 0.6764, P < 0.001). Some interactive effects were found between tempo and mode (F (1,58) = 115.6, MSE = 0.6428, P < 0.001), but, in most cases, the two parameters had additive effects. This finding demonstrates that small changes in the pitch structures of modes modulate the emotions associated with the pieces, confirming the cognitive foundation of emotional responses to music. PMID:21180883

Ramos, D; Bueno, J L O; Bigand, E

2011-02-01

369

Emotional states of drivers and the impact on speed, acceleration and traffic violations - a simulator study.  

PubMed

Maladjusted driving, such as aggressive driving and delayed reactions, is seen as one cause of traffic accidents. Such behavioural patterns could be influenced by strong emotions in the driver. The causes of emotions in traffic are divided into two distinct classes: personal factors and properties of the specific driving situation. In traffic situations, various appraisal factors are responsible for the nature and intensity of experienced emotions. These include whether another driver was accountable, whether goals were blocked and whether progress and safety were affected. In a simulator study, seventy-nine participants took part in four traffic situations which each elicited a different emotion. Each situation had critical elements (e.g. slow car, obstacle on the street) based on combinations of the appraisal factors. Driving parameters such as velocity, acceleration, and speeding, together with the experienced emotions, were recorded. Results indicate that anger leads to stronger acceleration and higher speeds even for 2 km beyond the emotion-eliciting event. Anxiety and contempt yielded similar but weaker effects, yet showed the same negative and dangerous driving pattern as anger. Fright correlated with stronger braking momentum and lower speeds directly after the critical event. PMID:24836476

Roidl, Ernst; Frehse, Berit; Höger, Rainer

2014-09-01

370

Blocking HIF-1? Following Radiotherapy to Prolong and Enhance the Immune Effects of Radiotherapy: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Tumor local immune escape is one of the “hallmarks” of cancer leading to poor prognosis. The effects of local radiotherapy on tumors are rapidly emerging as opportunities to remodel and enhance immunity against cancer. However, this immunity remodeling and enhancing are not permanent after local radiotherapy. High expression of HIF-1? following local radiotherapy for tumor cell reoxygenation has been confirmed, and recently accumulating evidence shows the tumor immune suppression effects. These research findings suggest a new direction in the investigation of methods to enhance the efficacy of local radiotherapy. We speculate that by blocking HIF-1?, the immune effects of radiotherapy might be prolonged and enhanced. PMID:25358601

Wei, Luo; Wei, Ge; Jing, Song; Cong, Chen; Huilin, Xu; Pingpo, Ming

2014-01-01

371

[Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy].  

PubMed

Currently radical prostatectomy remains the standard mode of treatment for patients with locally and localized stage of prostate cancer. On the other hand, after radical prostatectomy approximately 50% of patients have postoperative positive margin. Therefore implementation of effective mode of adjuvant radiotherapy treatment after radical prostatectomy plays important role in clinic. Currently available data, which evaluated the effectiveness of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy are based on retrospective studies. These studies indicated that post-operative radiotherapy reduced the local recurrence rate but the influence on the patient's survival is unknown. Generally, the following factors are considered as prognostic for failure: the presence of pathologic T3 (pT3), positive surgical margin, preoperative concentration of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) above 25ng/ml, metastases to lymph nodes, Gleason >7. Radiotherapy is performed as typical adjuvant radiotherapy in case of pT3 or positive margin without rising of PSA level. This mode of treatment is efficient and gives the excellent local control rate but without marked influence on overall survival of patients. Another strategy, which is considered after radical prostatectomy, is salvage radiotherapy. This mode of treatment is introduced when the rising level of PSA and/or the pathological recurrence mass in the tumor bed is occurred. The efficacy of the salvage radiotherapy is lower than classical adjuvant radiotherapy. Still remain questions about the following issues: timing of radiotherapy, optimal dose, treatment technique, involved target for radiotherapy, and the role of adjuvant hormonal therapy. The last issue now is evaluating in the randomized clinical trial. In summary, currently until outcomes from well conducted randomized trials will available patients after radical prostatectomy with adverse significant factors for local recurrence or/and increased level of PSA should be considered for postoperative radiotherapy. PMID:15518437

Milecki, Piotr; Kwias, Zbigniew; Skowronek, Janusz; Stachowski, Tomasz

2004-05-01

372

Definitive Radiotherapy versus Postoperative Radiotherapy of Patients with Oro- and Hypopharyngeal Cancer: Impact of Prognostic Factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To compare the impact of prognostic factors of patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy versus patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oro- and hypopharynx. Patients and Methods. 162 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy and 126 patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. The impact of the prognostic factors gender, age, total tumor volume (TTV), pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level (Hb-level), tumor site, T- and N-classification, radiotherapy interruptions >5 days, radiotherapy versus simultaneous radiochemotherapy, R-status and time interval between surgery and radiotherapy were investigated. Results. The median follow-up time for the censored patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy was 28.5 months and for postoperative radiotherapy 36.5 months. On univariate analysis, the TTV, Hb-level, and simultaneous radiochemotherapy had a significant impact on the survival of patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. For patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy, only the TTV showed a statistical trend for the survival (P = 0.13). On multivariate analysis, the TTV and simultaneous radiochemotherapy maintained their statistical significance for patients treated with definitive raditherapy, and the TTV, the statistical trend for patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.19). Conclusions. The TTV was the predominant prognostic factor for both, patients treated with definitive or postoperative radiotherapy. PMID:22315594

Rudat, Volker; Ahmet-Osman, Salia; Schramm, Oliver; Dietz, Andreas

2012-01-01

373

Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception  

PubMed Central

Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

2014-01-01

374

An Acceptance-Based Psychoeducation Intervention to Reduce Expressed Emotion in Relatives of Bipolar Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expressed emotion (EE) is a robust predictor of outcome in bipolar disorder. Despite decades of research, interventions to reduce EE levels have had only modest effects. This study used an expanded model of EE to develop an intervention. Research has demonstrated a strong link between attributions and EE in families of patients with psychiatric…

Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L.

2008-01-01

375

A Service for Emotion Management: Turkish Version of the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An individual's activities are closely related with his/her communication abilities. One's awareness of his feelings and needs and to what extend he can control such feelings are the key factors which effect communication abilities. Webster (1996) defines anger as, "a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed…

Aslan, A. Esra; Sevincler-Togan, Seyhan

2009-01-01

376

Examination of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Profiles of Illinois Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the transformational leadership and emotional intelligence profiles of current Illinois superintendents. Demographic characteristics related to age, gender, degree, experience, and district size, type, and location were also examined. As schools are asked to "do more with less," the impact of leaders who demonstrate strong…

Wolf, Ty

2010-01-01

377

Special Education Teacher Preparation in Classroom Management: Implications for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education teachers' skills with classroom organization and behavior management affect the emergence and persistence of behavior problems as well as the success of inclusive practice for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Adequate special education teacher preparation and strong classroom organization and behavior…

Oliver, Regina M.; Reschly, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

378

Positive Emotional Responses to Hybridised Writing about a Socio-Scientific Issue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand better the role of affect in learning about socio-scientific issues (SSI), this study investigated Year 12 students' emotional arousal as they participated in an online writing-to-learn science project about the socio-scientific issue of biosecurity. Students wrote a series of hybridised scientific narratives, or BioStories, that integrate scientific information about biosecurity with narrative storylines, and uploaded these to a dedicated website. Throughout their participation in the project, students recorded their emotional responses to the various activities ( N = 50). Four case students were also video recorded during selected science lessons as they researched, composed and uploaded their BioStories for peer review. Analysis of these data, as well as interview data obtained from the case students, revealed that pride, strength, determination, interest and alertness were among the positive emotions most strongly elicited by the project. These emotions reflected students' interest in learning about a new socio-scientific issue, and their enhanced feelings of self-efficacy in successfully writing hybridised scientific narratives in science. The results of this study suggest that the elicitation of positive emotional responses as students engage in hybridised writing about SSI with strong links to environmental education, such as biosecurity, can be valuable in engaging students in education for sustainability.

Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

379

Anger, Emotion, and Arrhythmias: from Brain to Heart  

PubMed Central

Strong emotion and mental stress are now recognized as playing a significant role in severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanisms, although incompletely understood, include central processing at the cortical and brain stem level, the autonomic nerves and the electrophysiology of the myocardium. Each of these is usually studied separately by investigators from different disciplines. However, many are regulatory processes which incorporate interactive feedforward and feedback mechanisms. In this review we consider the whole as an integrated interactive brain–heart system. PMID:22022314

Taggart, Peter; Boyett, Mark R.; Logantha, Sunil Jit R. J.; Lambiase, Pier D.

2011-01-01

380

Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity  

PubMed Central

A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities. PMID:23508036

Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

2013-01-01

381

Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction  

PubMed Central

The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

2013-01-01

382

Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad, and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion discrimination and regulatory abilities (both cognitive control and emotion regulation) improve steadily for each age group, with each age group showing unique patterns of performance. The findings suggest that emotion regulation is constructed from basic cognition control and emotion discrimination skills. The patterns of behavior from the Emotional Go/Nogo task provide normative benchmark data across a wide range of emotions that can be used for future behavioral and neuroimaging studies that examine the developmental construction of emotion regulatory processes. PMID:21716604

Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

2011-01-01

383

Altered emotion processing circuits during the anticipation of emotional stimuli in women with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with disturbed emotion processing, typically encompassing intense and fast emotional reactions toward affective stimuli. In this study, we were interested in whether emotional dysregulation in BPD occurs not only during the perception of emotional stimuli, but also during the anticipation of upcoming emotional pictures in the absence of concrete stimuli. Eighteen female patients with a diagnosis of BPD and 18 healthy control subjects anticipated cued visual stimuli with prior known emotional valence or prior unknown emotional content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain activity during the anticipation of emotional stimuli was compared between both groups. When anticipating negative pictures, BPD patients demonstrated less signal change in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and left middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and enhanced activations in the left pregenual ACC, left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) as well as in left visual cortical areas including the lingual gyrus. During the anticipation of ambiguously announced stimuli, brain activity in BPD was also reduced in the left MCC extending into the medial and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results point out that deficient recruitment of brain areas related to cognitive-emotional interaction already during the anticipation phase may add to emotional dysregulation in BPD. Stronger activation of the PCC could correspond to an increased autobiographical reference in BPD. Moreover, increased preparatory visual activity during negative anticipation may contribute to hypersensitivity toward emotional cues in this disorder. PMID:24100929

Scherpiet, Sigrid; Brühl, Annette B; Opialla, Sarah; Roth, Lilian; Jäncke, Lutz; Herwig, Uwe

2014-02-01

384

Effects of emotion on prospection during decision-making  

PubMed Central

In two experiments we examined the role of emotion, specifically worry, anxiety, and mood, on prospection during decision-making. Worry is a particularly relevant emotion to study in the context of prospection because high levels of worry may make individuals more aversive toward the uncertainty associated with the prospect of obtaining future improvements in rewards or states. Thus, high levels of worry might lead to reduced prospection during decision-making and enhance preference for immediate over delayed rewards. In Experiment 1 participants performed a two-choice dynamic decision-making task where they were required to choose between one option (the decreasing option) which provided larger immediate rewards but declines in future states, and another option (the increasing option) which provided smaller immediate rewards but improvements in future states, making it the optimal choice. High levels of worry were associated with poorer performance in the task. Additionally, fits of a sophisticated reinforcement-learning model that incorporated both reward-based and state-based information suggested that individuals reporting high levels of worry gave greater weight to the immediate rewards they would receive on each trial than to the degree to which each action would lead to improvements in their future state. In Experiment 2 we found that high levels of worry were associated with greater delay discounting using a standard delay discounting task. Combined, the results suggest that high levels of worry are associated with reduced prospection during decision-making. We attribute these results to high worriers' aversion toward the greater uncertainty associated with attempting to improve future rewards than to maximize immediate reward. These results have implications for researchers interested in the effects of emotion on cognition, and suggest that emotion strongly affects the focus on temporal outcomes during decision-making. PMID:25002854

Worthy, Darrell A.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Fields, Sherecce

2014-01-01

385

Simple dose verification system for radiotherapy radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate an accurate and convenient quality assurance programme that should be included in the dosimetry system of the radiotherapy level radiation. We designed a mailed solid phantom and used TLD-100 chips and a Rexon UL320 reader for the purpose of dosimetry quality assurance in Taiwanese radiotherapy centers. After being assembled, the solid polystyrene

J. H. Lee; C. Y. Yeh; S. M. Hsu; M. Y. Shi; W. L. Chen; C. F. Wang

2008-01-01

386

The Classification of Emotion and Scientific Realism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific study of emotion has been characterized by classification schemes that propose to ‘carve nature at the joints.’ This article examines several of these classifications, drawn from both the categorical and dimensional perspectives. Each classification is given credit for what it contributes to our understanding, but the dream of a single, all purpose taxonomy of emotional phenomena is called

Peter Zachar

2006-01-01

387

Parafoveal Semantic Processing of Emotional Visual Scenes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether emotional pictorial stimuli are especially likely to be processed in parafoveal vision. Pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented parafoveally (2.1[degrees] or 2.5[degrees] of visual angle from a central fixation point) for 150-3,000 ms, followed by an immediate recognition test (500-ms delay).…

Calvo, Manuel G.; Lang, Peter J.

2005-01-01

388

Integrating Social Emotional Learning into Secondary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students are able to cope with, manage and maneuver the social and emotional landscapes of their lives, their ability to learn on all levels improves. Teaching Social / Emotional Learning (SEL), as a component of secondary education, not only increases academic performance, but prepares students to meet the challenges of lifelong learning in…

Lindsay, Marilyn

2013-01-01

389

Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

390

Auditory Emotional Cues Enhance Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by…

Zeelenberg, Rene; Bocanegra, Bruno R.

2010-01-01

391

The emotion paradox in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews age differences in emotion processing and how they may relate to age-related changes in the brain. Compared with younger adults, older adults react less to negative situations, ignore irrelevant negative stimuli better, and remember relatively more positive than negative information. Older adults’ ability to insulate their thoughts and emotional reactions from negative situations is likely due to a number of factors, such as being less influenced by interoceptive cues, selecting different emotion regulation strategies, having less age-related decline in prefrontal regions associated with emotional control than in other prefrontal regions, and engaging in emotion regulation strategies as a default mode in their everyday lives. Healthy older adults’ avoidance of processing negative stimuli may contribute to their well-maintained emotional well-being. However, when cardiovascular disease leads to additional prefrontal white matter damage, older adults have fewer cognitive control mechanisms available to regulate their emotions, making them more vulnerable to depression. In general, while age-related changes in the brain help shape emotional experience, shifts in preferred strategies and goal priorities are also important influences. PMID:22409159

Mather, Mara

2012-01-01

392

Emotion Context Insensitivity in Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested 3 competing views of how depression alters emotional reactivity: positive attenuation (reduced positive), negative potentiation (increased negative), and emotion context insensitivity (ECI; reduced positive and negative). Normative and idiographic stimuli that elicited happy, sad, and neutral states were presented to currently depressed, formerly depressed, and healthy control individuals while experiential, behavioral, and autonomic responses were measured.

Jonathan Rottenberg; James J. Gross; Ian H. Gotlib

2005-01-01

393

Adaptive Emotion Regulation among Low-Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined early childhood predictors of adaptive emotion regulation among economically disadvantaged urban African American children. Vagal tone (VNA), attachment, and regulation capacities were assessed among 69 preschoolers. Two years later, additional indices of child regulation were obtained for 56 of the children. Emotion regulation was assessed through observation, child self-report, parent report, and teacher report. As expected, attachment

Shari L. Kidwell

2007-01-01

394

Modeling of Internet Influence on Group Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-range interactions are introduced to a two-dimensional model of agents with time-dependent internal variables ei = 0, ±1 corresponding to valencies of agent emotions. Effects of spontaneous emotion emergence and emotional relaxation processes are taken into account. The valence of agent i depends on valencies of its four nearest neighbors but it is also influenced by long-range interactions corresponding to social relations developed for example by Internet contacts to a randomly chosen community. Two types of such interactions are considered. In the first model the community emotional influence depends only on the sign of its temporary emotion. When the coupling parameter approaches a critical value a phase transition takes place and as result for larger coupling constants the mean group emotion of all agents is nonzero over long time periods. In the second model the community influence is proportional to magnitude of community average emotion. The ordered emotional phase was here observed for a narrow set of system parameters.

Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Ho?yst, Janusz A.

395

Social Appraisal Influences Recognition of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or

Christian Mumenthaler; David Sander

2012-01-01

396

How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

2010-01-01

397

Neural processing of emotional faces requires attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention gates the processing of stimuli relatively early in visual cortex. Yet, existing data suggest that emotional stimuli activate brain regions automatically, largely immune from attentional control. To resolve this puzzle, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to first measure activation in regions that responded differentially to faces with emotional expressions (fearful and happy) compared with neutral faces. We then

L. Pessoa; M. McKenna; E. Gutierrez; L. G. Ungerleider

2002-01-01

398

Engineering Student Learning and Emotional Competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to an emotional and social skill set that can underpin a student's success in their university education and their professional workplace, either domestic or global. In order to nurture EI development , the authors believe the learning environment must change from a teacher centred 'dispenser of all knowledge' environment to a student centred climate which takes

M. F. Stewart; C. Chisholm; M. Harris

2010-01-01

399

Organizational Sleepwalkers: Emotional Distress at Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, attention is paid to a dysfunctional emotional behavior pattern whereby individuals experience very little (or a total absence of) pleasure. Instead, there is a feeling of emotional numbness. Although this phenomenon touches all parts of life, this paper focuses on the organizational context. For some executives, the stresses and strains of midlife (including stresses involving career issues)

1999-01-01

400

Culture and Biology in Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a biological and cultural framework that examines species-specific and culture-specific characteristics for the development of human emotions with evidence from Korea, China, and the United States. Discusses how emotions fall into broad families and dimensions across cultures, with both commonalities and differences. Notes that…

Fischer, Kurt W.; Wang, Lianquin; Kennedy, Bruce; Chen, Ching-Ling

1998-01-01

401

Emotional Needs and Control of SLD Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents thoughts and techniques concerning the control of the specific learning disability (SLD) child and the emotional needs which these children have. The SLD child whose learning and behavior problems are significant and are due to some visual-perceptual or organic problem and not emotional disturbance, disadvantagement, or gross…

McEchron, W. David

402

Fashion design in emotional consumption era  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid economic and technological development, a new consumption pattern -emotional consumption arises, which begin to replace the consumption of product attributes gradually. Consumers' demand for garment products has shifted from the focus on the physical functions of products to the direction which is more desirous of comforting the soul for pleasure of emotional experience, that is, from the

Yu Weihua

2009-01-01

403

Emotion Modulates Early Auditory Response to Speech  

E-print Network

Emotion Modulates Early Auditory Response to Speech Jade Wang1 , Trent Nicol1 , Erika Skoe1 , Mikko's physiological response to speech, subjects looked at emotion-evoking pictures while 32-channel EEG evoked re from the Interna- tional Affective Picture System database. They were rated by participants

404

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

405

Encouraging Preadolescent Emotional Intelligence through Leadership Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to determine effects of leadership activity on emotional intelligence in preadolescents. Ninety-two Central California Valley sixth grade students in two schools and four classes were assessed on emotional intelligence. Treatment and comparison groups were identified. A Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA examined change over time…

Alvarado, John Henry

2010-01-01

406

Emotional Intelligence in Christian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between…

Gliebe, Sudi Kate

2012-01-01

407

Supporting the Emotional Work of School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical book deals with the emotional and moral dimensions of school leadership. The author sets out the intra-personal and interpersonal attributes, attitudes and behaviours necessary to develop emotional and moral leadership within the school community. The book provides a range of person-centred strategies for building communities of…

Harris, Belinda M.

2007-01-01

408

The Core Emotion Themes of Conjugal Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have associated emotion and appraisal with long-term bereavement outcome. The present study extended this research by coding conjugal bereavement narratives for core relational themes (CRT) that served as emotional summaries of unique combinations of appraisal features. A range of CRTs was evidenced at 6 months after loss, with positive CRTs, such as love\\/affection and pride, occurring most frequently.

George A. Bonanno; Michael C. Mihalecz; Jenna T. LeJeune

1999-01-01

409

Managing emotions in research with challenging pupils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the challenge of matching practice with the ideals of participatory research and the reflexivity and (re)negotiation of the researcher's role. We highlight the centrality of emotions to our study, both in terms of the substantive topic and our observations and experiences as researchers. Building on this experience we argue that recognising and foregrounding the emotional dimensions of

Val Gillies; Yvonne Robinson

2010-01-01

410

Audio-visual integration of emotion expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the fact that emotions are usually recognized by combining facial and vocal expressions, the multisensory nature of affect perception has scarcely been investigated. In the present study, we show results of three experiments on multisensory perception of emotions using newly validated sets of dynamic visual and non-linguistic vocal clips of affect expressions. In Experiment 1, participants were required

Olivier Collignon; Simon Girard; Frederic Gosselin; Sylvain Roy; Dave Saint-Amour; Maryse Lassonde; Franco Lepore

2008-01-01

411

Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.  

PubMed

When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

2014-01-01

412

Emotional Labor Demands and Compensating Wage Differentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level by incorporating data on generalized work activities and work context features

Theresa M. Glomb; John D. Kammeyer-Mueller; Maria Rotundo

2004-01-01

413

Emotion capture based on body postures and  

E-print Network

systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 hal-00176161,version1 and e-systems 2007 (TIGERA'07), Hammamet : Tunisia (2007)" #12;The goal of the Human

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

2013-01-01

415

The Diagnosticity of Color for Emotional Objects  

PubMed Central

Object classification can be facilitated if simple diagnostic features can be used to determine class membership. Previous studies have found that simple shapes may be diagnostic for emotional content and automatically alter the allocation of visual attention. In the present study, we analyzed whether color is diagnostic of emotional content and tested whether emotionally diagnostic hues alter the allocation of visual attention. Reddish-yellow hues are more common in (i.e., diagnostic of) emotional images, particularly images with positive emotional content. An exogenous cueing paradigm was employed to test whether these diagnostic hues orient attention differently from other hues due to the emotional diagnosticity. In two experiments, we found that participants allocated attention differently to diagnostic hues than to non-diagnostic hues, in a pattern indicating a broadening of spatial attention when cued with diagnostic hues. Moreover, the attentional broadening effect was predicted by self-reported measures of affective style, linking the behavioral effect to emotional processes. These results confirm the existence and use of diagnostic features for the rapid detection of emotional content. PMID:24659831

McMenamin, Brenton W.; Radue, Jasmine; Trask, Joanna; Huskamp, Kristin; Kersten, Daniel; Marsolek, Chad J.

2012-01-01

416

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

417

The Emotional Development of Exceptional Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and research on children's emotional development are reviewed, and it is suggested that in mainstreaming children with disabilities, everything possible should be done to make the mainstream a hospitable environment for them, beginning with teacher recognition of responsibility for the classroom's socio-emotional climate. (MSE)

Dupont, Henry

1989-01-01

418

Prospective memory, emotional valence, and multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) extend to tasks demanding prospective memory (PM): remembering to perform an intended act during ongoing activity. This study investigated whether emotional content influenced the effects of MS on PM, following evidence that emotional valence can influence other aspects of memory. Thirty participants with MS were compared to 30 controls on a PM task, Virtual

Peter G. Rendell; Julie D. Henry; Louise H. Phillips; Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia; Patricia Booth; Patricia Phillips; Matthias Kliegel

2012-01-01

419

Material Matters: Increasing Emotional Engagement in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational scholars and neuroscientists suggest that when people are more emotionally engaged, they learn more effectively. Clinical art therapists suggest that the experience as well as the expression of emotions can be enabled or constrained by different materials. So then, what materials can be employed by management educators to achieve…

Taylor, Steven S.; Statler, Matt

2014-01-01

420

Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der, E-mail: n.vandervoortvanzyp@erasmusmc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prevost, Jean-Briac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Holt, Bronno van der [Department of Trials and Statistics, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Braat, Cora [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Klaveren, Robertus J. van [Department of Pulmonology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2010-05-01

421

Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Treatment for patients with head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiotherapy is employed as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to surgery. Each specific subsite dictates the appropriate radiotherapy techniques, fields, dose, and fractionation scheme. Quality of life is also an important issue in the management of head and neck cancer. The radiation-related complications have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Modern radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy, can offer precise radiation delivery and reduce the dose to the surrounding normal tissues without compromise of target coverage. In the future, efforts should be made in the exploration of novel strategies to improve treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:22550433

Yeh, Shyh-An

2010-01-01

422

Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage  

PubMed Central

Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500

Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.

2014-01-01

423

Personality and emotional intelligence in teacher burnout.  

PubMed

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between teacher's personality types, emotional intelligence and burnout and to predict the burnout levels of 147 teachers in the city of Mashhad (Iran). To this end, we have used three inventories: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). We used Homogeneity Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression to analyze the data. The results exhibited a significant relationship between personality types and emotional intelligence and the three dimensions of burnout. It was indicated that the best predictors for emotional exhaustion were neuroticism and extroversion, for depersonalization were intrapersonal scale of emotional intelligence and agreeableness, and for personal accomplishment were interpersonal scale and conscientiousness. Finally, the results were discussed in the context of teacher burnout. PMID:22379712

Pishghadam, Reza; Sahebjam, Samaneh

2012-03-01

424

Emotion understanding in postinstitutionalized Eastern European children.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of early emotional neglect on children's affective development, we assessed children who had experienced institutionalized care prior to adoption into family environments. One task required children to identify photographs of facial expressions of emotion. A second task required children to match facial expressions to an emotional situation. Internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children had difficulty identifying facial expressions of emotion. In addition, postinstitutionalized children had significant difficulty matching appropriate facial expressions to happy, sad, and fearful scenarios. However, postinstitutionalized children performed as well as comparison children when asked to identify and match angry facial expressions. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of emotional input early in life on later developmental organization. PMID:15487600

Fries, Alison B Wismer; Pollak, Seth D

2004-01-01

425

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.  

PubMed

A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message. PMID:12415074

Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

2003-01-01

426

Childhood maltreatment, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities.  

PubMed

Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate or tolerate negative emotional states, has been associated with interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress. Affect-regulation difficulties play a role in many psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders, and especially major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with wide-ranging psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents, and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood trauma, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities in children, adolescents, and adults. PMID:24704784

Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A

2014-01-01

427

How healthcare leaders can increase emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

How leaders deal with a variety of feelings will deduce how successful they are in dealing with the daily challenges of being in a leadership position. Successful healthcare leaders are those who lead with heart and possess the soft skills needed to positively influence others. All humans have two minds: the rational one and the emotional one, which operate in tight harmony to assist in decision making. When passions surge, the emotional mind takes over and sometimes makes a decision before the rational mind has time to react. Some strategies to help leaders strengthen emotional intelligence include keeping an emotional journal, daily meditation, positive visualization, appreciative inquiry, thought before action, and empathetic listening. Four skills that will enhance an individual's emotional intelligence include self awareness, self management, social management, and relationship management. PMID:24358581

Scott, Jason

2013-01-01

428

Emotion and consciousness in adolescent psychogenic amnesia.  

PubMed

Psychogenic amnesia is characterized by an impaired retrieval process of stored information, while the acquisition of new information is conserved. In addition, patients with this condition may display a state of belle indifference towards their own situation and may manifest deficits in emotional processing. So far, these conditions were noted cursorily in previous case descriptions, but have not been investigated thoroughly. We report data on two female juvenile patients that were examined with neuropsychological, including remote memory tests. No impairments in cognitive or anterograde mnestic functions but, as expected, severe disturbances in remote memory tests were found. Additionally, we administered tests to assess basic and higher emotional processing functions. Both patients showed evidence of impaired higher and, though to a lesser extent, basic emotional processing skills. Finally, we discuss the contribution of (self-)consiousness, the current emotional state and emotional processing skills as possible factors, maintaining the condition of psychogenic amnesia. PMID:19331025

Reinhold, Nadine; Markowitsch, Hans J

2007-03-01

429

Emotional context modulates subsequent memory effect.  

PubMed

Emotions have been shown to modulate memory processes. However, the neuronal substrate underlying these modulatory effects is largely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the context of emotional encoding modulates brain activation predictive for subsequent recall of emotionally neutral material. While inferior frontal activation predicted recall in general, our data show that in a positive encoding context, recall was predicted by activation of right anterior parahippocampal and extrastriate visual brain areas, whereas in a negative encoding context, recall was predicted by activation of the amygdala. Thus, we could demonstrate that successful episodic encoding is differentially modulated by emotional context. These results contribute to the understanding of the interaction of emotion and cognition and moreover are of general relevance for studies of episodic memory. PMID:12595197

Erk, Susanne; Kiefer, Markus; Grothe, Jo; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

2003-02-01

430

Negative affect, emotional acceptance, and smoking cessation.  

PubMed

This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention. PMID:18303707

Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A

2007-12-01

431

Expression of emotion in voice and music.  

PubMed

Vocal communication of emotion is biologically adaptive for socially living species and has therefore evolved in a phylogenetically continuous manner. Human affect bursts or interjections can be considered close parallels to animal affect vocalizations. The development of speech, unique to the human species, has relied on the voice as a carrier signal, and thus emotion effects on the voice become audible during speech. This article reviews (a) the evidence on listeners' ability to accurately identify a speaker's emotion from voice cues alone, (b) the research efforts trying to isolate the acoustic features that determine listener judgments, and (c) the findings on actual acoustic concomitants of a speaker's emotional state (real or portrayed by actors). Finally, based on speculations about the joint origin of speech and vocal music in nonlinguistic affect vocalizations, similarities of emotion expression in speech and music are discussed. PMID:8541967

Scherer, K R

1995-09-01

432

Postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the prognostic factors and effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy alone for endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods Sixty four patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer (EC) treated with postoperative radiotherapy alone between January 1989 and December 2008 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center were chosen for the present study. Typically, total hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed on the patient's pelvis. Total dose from 50.4 Gy to 63 Gy was irradiated at pelvis or extended field. Thirteen patients were treated with Co-60 or Ir-192 intracavitary radiotherapy. Follow-up periods were from 7 to 270 months, with a median of 56 months. Results Five year overall survival (OS) rate was 58.7%, respectively. Five year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 59.2%, respectively. In univariate analysis for OS and DFS, stage, menopausal age, type of operation, serosal invasion, and lymph node involvement were found to be statistically significant. Histologic type was marginally significant. In multivariate analysis for OS and DFS, stage, types of operation, histologic type were also found to be statistically significant. Treatment failure occurred in 14 patients. The main pattern of failure was found to be distant metastasis. Time to distant metastasis was from 3 to 86 months (median, 12 months). There were no grade 3 or 4 complications. Conclusion Stage, types of operation, and histologic type could be the predictive prognostic factors in patients. We contemplated postoperative radiation as effective and safe treatment method for EC. Additional treatment would be needed to reduce distant metastasis. PMID:23170289

Choi, Eun Cheol; Kim, Ok Bae; Byun, Sang Jun; Park, Seung Gyu; Kwon, Sang Hoon

2012-01-01

433

Orbitofrontal Cortex Biases Attention to Emotional Events  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of orbitofrontal (OF) cortex in regulating emotion-attention interaction and the balance between involuntary and voluntary attention allocation. We studied patients with OF lesion applying reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) measures in a lateralized visual discrimination task with novel task-irrelevant affective pictures (unpleasant, pleasant or neutral) preceding a neutral target. This allowed for comparing the effects of automatic attention allocation to emotional vs neutral stimuli on subsequent voluntary attention allocation to target stimuli. N2-P3a and N2-P3b ERP components served as measures of involuntary and voluntary attention allocation correspondingly. Enhanced N2-P3a amplitudes to emotional distractors and reduced N2-P3b amplitudes to targets preceded by emotional distractors were observed in healthy subjects, suggesting automatic emotional orienting interfered with subsequent voluntary orienting. OF patients showed an opposite pattern with tendency towards reduced N2-P3a responses to emotional distractors, suggesting impaired automatic orienting to emotional stimuli due to orbitofrontal damage. Enhanced N2-P3b responses to targets preceded by any affective distractor was observed in OF patients, suggesting bias towards voluntary target-related attention allocation due to orbitofrontal lesion. Behavioral evidence indicated that LVF attention performance was modulated by emotional stimuli. Specifically, OF patients responded faster to LVF targets subsequent to pleasant emotional distractors. We suggest damage to the orbitofrontal circuitry leads to dysbalance between voluntary and involuntary attention allocation in the context of affective distracters with predisposition to posterior target related processing over frontal novelty and affect related processing. Furthermore, we suggest orbitofrontal influence on emotion- attention interaction is valence and hemisphere dependent. PMID:22413757

Hartikainen, K.M.; Ogawa, K.H.; Knight, R.T.

2012-01-01

434

Altered Emotion Perception in Insomnia Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Chronic insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that negatively affects daytime functioning and confers risk for the future development of psychiatric disorder. Patients with insomnia often report problems with emotion regulation and impaired social interactions. Moreover, experimental sleep loss in healthy adults is associated with altered reactivity to and interpretation of emotional information. In the current study, we investigated socioemotional processing in patients with chronic insomnia disorder relative to healthy good sleepers. Design: Between-groups comparison. Setting: Sleep Research Laboratory. Participants: Patients with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI; n = 16), free from psychiatric disorder, and an age- and sex-matched control group of good sleepers (GS; n = 15). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: All participants completed a facial expression recognition task, between 18:00 and 19:00, requiring participants to categorize and rate the intensity of four emotional expression categories: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. People with PI did not differ from GS with respect to categorization of facial expressions. However, in terms of intensity judgements, across all emotion categories, patients tended to rate faces as less emotionally intense (Cohen's d = 0.70). Specifically, they rated expressions displaying sadness and fear as significantly less emotionally intense than healthy GS (both P < 0.05; Cohen's d = 0.77 and 0.89, respectively). Measures of sleepiness (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) or self-reported sleep were not reliably associated with emotional intensity ratings. However, anxiety and depression were negatively related to intensity ratings. Conclusion: For the first time we show that chronic insomnia is associated with reduced ratings of emotion intensity for face expressions displaying sadness and fear. Further work is required to elucidate possible mechanisms and pathways underlying insomnia-related emotional impairment. Citation: Kyle SD; Beattie L; Spiegelhalder K; Rogers Z; Espie CA. Altered emotion perception in insomnia disorder. SLEEP 2014;37(4):775-783. PMID:24899765

Kyle, Simon D.; Beattie, Louise; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Rogers, Zoe; Espie, Colin A.

2014-01-01

435

Recommendations for the use of PET and PET–CT for radiotherapy planning in research projects  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) for disease staging, follow-up and therapy monitoring in a number of oncological indications there is growing interest in the use of PET and PET–CT for radiation treatment planning. In order to create a strong clinical evidence base for this, it is important to ensure that research data are clinically relevant and of a high quality. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute PET Research Network make these recommendations to assist investigators in the development of radiotherapy clinical trials involving the use of PET and PET–CT. These recommendations provide an overview of the current literature in this rapidly evolving field, including standards for PET in clinical trials, disease staging, volume delineation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and PET-augmented planning techniques, and are targeted at a general audience. We conclude with specific recommendations for the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in research projects. PMID:22374274

Somer, E J; Pike, L C; Marsden, P K

2012-01-01

436

Effects of emotional context on impulse control.  

PubMed

High risk behaviors such as narcotic use or physical fighting can be caused by impulsive decision making in emotionally-charged situations. Improved neuroscientific understanding of how emotional context interacts with the control of impulsive behaviors may lead to advances in public policy and/or treatment approaches for high risk groups, including some high-risk adolescents or adults with poor impulse control. Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is an important contributor to response inhibition (behavioral impulse control). IFG also has a role in processing emotional stimuli and regulating emotional responses. The mechanism(s) whereby response inhibition processes interact with emotion processing in IFG are poorly understood. We used 4.7 T fMRI in 20 healthy young adults performing a rapid event-related emotional Go/NoGo task. This task combined the Go/NoGo task, which is a classic means of recruiting response inhibition processes, with emotionally neutral and aversive distractor images. In IFG, both response inhibition in an emotionally neutral context (neutral NoGo trials) and aversive emotional picture processing (aversive Go trials) evoked activation greater than the simple response baseline (neutral Go trials). These results are consistent with the literature. Activation for response inhibition in aversive contexts (aversive NoGo-neutral Go trials) was approximately the sum of response inhibition activation (neutral NoGo-neutral Go) and aversive emotional distractor activation (aversive Go-neutral Go). We conclude that response inhibition and aversive emotional stimulus processing activities combine additively (linearly) in IFG, rather than interfering with each other (sub-linearly) or mutually-enhancing each other (super-linearly). We also found previously undocumented interaction effects between response inhibition (NoGo vs. Go) and emotional context (aversive vs. neutral distractor pictures) in bilateral posterior middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, right frontal eye field, and other brain regions. These results may reflect the interaction of attention processes driven by emotional stimuli with conflict resolution processes related to Go/NoGo performance. PMID:22781161

Brown, Matthew R G; Lebel, R Marc; Dolcos, Florin; Wilman, Alan H; Silverstone, Peter H; Pazderka, Hannah; Fujiwara, Esther; Wild, T Cameron; Carroll, Alan M; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Zedkova, Lenka; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Thompson, Angus H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

2012-10-15

437

Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting.

Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

2014-01-01

438

Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. PMID:25265320

Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

2014-11-01

439

Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: A validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).  

PubMed

Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author. PMID:24853832

Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

2014-05-23

440

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOEpatents

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

1996-08-20

441

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOEpatents

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

442

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastases.  

PubMed

The management of metastatic solid tumours has historically focused on systemic treatment given with palliative intent. However, radical surgical treatment of oligometastases is now common practice in some settings. The development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), building on improvements in delivery achieved by intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy, now allows delivery of ablative doses of radiation to extracranial sites. Many non-randomised studies have shown that SBRT for oligometastases is safe and effective, with local control rates of about 80%. Importantly, these studies also suggest that the natural history of the disease is changing, with 2-5 year progression-free survival of about 20%. Although complete cure might be possible in a few patients with oligometastases, the aim of SBRT in this setting is to achieve local control and delay progression, and thereby also postpone the need for further treatment. We review published work showing that SBRT offers durable local control and the potential for progression-free survival in non-liver, non-lung oligometastatic disease at a range of sites. However, to test whether SBRT really does improve progression-free survival, randomised trials will be essential. PMID:23276369

Tree, Alison C; Khoo, Vincent S; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ahmed, Merina; Dearnaley, David P; Hawkins, Maria A; Huddart, Robert A; Nutting, Christopher M; Ostler, Peter J; van As, Nicholas J

2013-01-01

443

Radiotherapy for Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Anus: Thirty Years' Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. Treatment evolved from radiotherapy with or without surgery, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The radiotherapy techniques also evolved. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED). Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% {+-} 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% {+-} 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% {+-} 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% {+-} 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% {+-} 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001). No association was found with gender, age, preoperative vs. definitive CRT, or human immunodeficiency virus status. The 20 human immunodeficiency virus+ patients all received CRT. The radiotherapy factors associated with Grade 3 or greater late morbidity included anorectal morbidity with tumor dose (29% with a dose {>=}55 Gy vs. 9% otherwise), small bowel injury with technique (9% with anteroposterior-posteroanterior supine vs. 0.7% with multiple fields prone), and bone injury with femoral head dose (9% with a dose of {>=}44 Gy vs. 0.7% otherwise). Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields. Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that CRT is an effective approach. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus can be treated with CRT. Tumor mobility significantly predicts the outcome; the implications for management are discussed. We also discuss the treatment planning implications of the late morbidity findings. The substantial incidence of additional malignancies underscores the importance of full oncologic screening during follow-up.

Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: Myerson@radonc.wustl.edu; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Chang, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Fleshman, James W. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kodner, Ira J.; Malayapa, Robert S.; Mutch, Matthew G. [Department of Surgery, Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Picus, Joel; Tan, Benjamin R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2009-10-01

444

Dietary correlates of emotional eating in adolescence.  

PubMed

To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency of intake of sweet high energy-dense foods, such as cake and ice cream, salty high energy-dense foods like chips, and soda. Gender stratified analyses revealed an association between emotional eating and more frequent fruit and vegetable intake in boys only, and a positive association between emotional eating and salty high energy-dense intake in both boys and girls. These data support previous literature that reports a preference for high energy-dense food in emotional eating, and shows that this association may be generalizable to Latino youth. Considering that emotional eating may lead to overeating because it often takes place in the absence of hunger, it may be appropriate to develop interventions to teach youth healthier substitutions and regulate mood by means other than eating in order to reduce risk for obesity, especially in high risk populations, such as Latinos. PMID:17466408

Nguyen-Michel, Selena T; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2007-09-01

445

Mapping aesthetic musical emotions in the brain.  

PubMed

Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions. PMID:22178712

Trost, Wiebke; Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2012-12-01

446

Mapping Aesthetic Musical Emotions in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions. PMID:22178712

Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2012-01-01

447

Successful cognitive and emotional aging  

PubMed Central

We review the definitions, determinants, and ways of enhancing successful cognitive and emotional aging. Objective definitions of successful aging based on physical health emphasize outcomes including freedom from disability and disease, whereas subjective definitions center on well-being, social connectedness, and adaptation. Most older people do not meet objective criteria for successful aging, while a majority meet the subjective criteria. Older people with severe mental illness are not excluded from successful aging. The determinants of successful aging include complex interactions of lifestyle behaviors and social environment with genes. Depression interferes with nearly all determinants of successful aging. Evidence-based means of enhancing successful aging include calorie restriction, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation, social support, and optimization of stress. Future directions for successful aging research and implications for geriatric psychiatry are discussed. PMID:20671889

JESTE, DILIP V.; DEPP, COLIN A.; VAHIA, IPSIT V.

2010-01-01

448

The timing and directional connectivity of human frontoparietal and ventral visual attention networks in emotional scene perception.  

PubMed

Electrocortical and hemodynamic measures reliably identify enhanced activity in the ventral and dorsal visual cortices during the perception of emotionally arousing versus neutral images, an effect that may reflect directive feedback from the subcortical amygdala. However, other brain regions strongly modulate visual attention, such as frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Here we employ rapid sampling of BOLD signal (4 Hz) in the amygdala, fusiform gyrus (FG), FEF and IPS in 42 human participants as they viewed a series of emotional and neutral natural scene photographs balanced for luminosity and complexity, to test whether emotional discrimination is evident in dorsal structures prior to such discrimination in the amygdala and FG. Granger causality analyses were used to assess directional connectivity within dorsal and ventral networks. Results demonstrate emotionally-enhanced peak BOLD signal in the amygdala, FG, FEF, and IPS, with the onset of BOLD signal discrimination occurring between 2 and 3s after stimulus onset in ventral structures, and between 4 and 5s in FEF and IPS. Granger causality estimates yield stronger directional connectivity from IPS to FEF than the reverse in this emotional picture paradigm. Consistent with a reentrant perspective of emotional scene perception, greater directional connectivity was found from the amygdala to FG compared to the reverse. These data support a perspective in which the registration of emotional scene content is orchestrated by the amygdala and rostral inferotemporal visual cortex. PMID:25018086

Sabatinelli, D; Frank, D W; Wanger, T J; Dhamala, M; Adhikari, B M; Li, X

2014-09-26

449

C H A P T E R Emotion, Consciousness,  

E-print Network

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 C H A P T E R 195 12 Emotion, Consciousness, and Social Behavior- science is the operation of emotions. This chapter focuses on the relation of emotion to consciousness components of emotion are necessarily con- scious and which can operate without conscious awareness? Can

Berridge, Kent

450

Mothers' Construal of Self and Emotion Socialisation Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationships between construal of self and emotion socialisation goals. The Parental Goals for Children's Emotional Competence Scale was constructed to measure the relative importance of individualistic emotional competence (IEC) and relational emotional competence (REC) of children to parents. Data were collected…

Chan, Siu Mui

2011-01-01

451

Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions: Affect or Cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether observers' facial reactions to the emotional facial expressions of others represent an affective or a cognitive response to these emotional expressions. Three hypotheses were contrasted: (1) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are due to mimicry as part of an affective empathic reaction; (2) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are a reection of shared affectdue

Ursula Hess Pierre Philippot Sylvie Blairy; Sylvie Blairy

1998-01-01

452

Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

2012-01-01

453

Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for

Paul Ekman; E. Richard Sorenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1969-01-01

454

A State of the Art Review on Emotional Speech Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two emotional speech databases are reviewed. Each database consists of a corpus of human speech pronounced under different emotional conditions. A basic description of each database and its applications is provided. The conclusion of this study is that automated emotion recognition on these databases cannot achieve a correct classification that exceeds 50% for the four basic emotions, i.e., twice as

Dimitrios Ververidis; Constantine Kotropoulos

455

How Emotionally Intelligent Are Pre-Service Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is evidence that teacher emotional intelligence is important for pupil adjustment and learning and for teachers in managing the emotional demands of their work, little is known about the levels of emotional skill of teachers and beginning teachers. Using Mayer and Salovey's emotional intelligence (EI) model and the MSCEIT test of…

Corcoran, Roisin P.; Tormey, Roland

2012-01-01

456

Towards a New Privacy: Totalitarianism, Emotion and Management Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews some leadership and management literature dealing with emotional demands in professional contexts. An image of the "real self", requiring emotional privacy, is highly valued by individuals subjected to intense emotional demands. It is argued that the "real self" and emotional privacy ought to be defended…

Hanley, Christopher

2013-01-01

457

Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a selective, qualitative review of affect, emotions, and emotional competencies in leadership theory and research published in ten management and organizational psychology journals, book chapters and special issues of journals from 1990 to 2010. Three distinct themes emerged from this review: (1) leader affect, follower affect and outcomes, (2) discrete emotions and leadership, and (3) emotional competencies

Janaki Gooty; Shane Connelly; Jennifer Griffith; Alka Gupta

2010-01-01

458

"Emotional Intelligence" in the Classroom? An Aristotelian Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend in moral education, social and emotional learning, incorporates the mantra of emotional intelligence (EI) as a key element in an extensive program of character building. In making his famous claim that the good life would have to include appropriate emotions, Aristotle obviously considered the schooling of emotions to be an…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2006-01-01

459

The case for positive emotions in the stress process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many decades, the stress process was described primarily in terms of negative emotions. However, robust evidence that positive emotions co-occurred with negative emotions during intensely stressful situations suggested the need to consider the possible roles of positive emotions in the stress process. About 10 years ago, these possibilities were incorporated into a revision of stress and coping theory (Folkman,

Susan Folkman

2008-01-01

460

Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

2009-01-01

461

An ambient agent model for group emotion support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an agent-based support model for group emotion, to be used by ambient systems to support teams in their emotion dynamics. Using model-based reasoning, an ambient agent analyzes the team's emotion level for present and future time points. In case the team's emotion level is found to become deficient, the ambient agent provides support to the team by

Rob Duell; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur; C. Natalie van der Wal

2009-01-01

462

Emotion Regulation Choice: A Conceptual Framework and Supporting Evidence  

E-print Network

­3) and illuminate the mechanisms that underlie choices between different emotion regulation strategies (Studies 4­6 of emotion regulation choice is the idea that our emotions often are advantageous for survival and well-being that flexible choice between emotion regulation strategies is central for well-being and that various forms

Gross, James J.

463

Developing social and emotional aspects of learning: the American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman’s work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL’s exploration and articulation of the implications of emotional intelligence for schools,

Maurice J. Elias; Dominic C. Moceri

2012-01-01

464

Beyond Sentiment: The Manifold of Human Emotions  

E-print Network

Sentiment analysis predicts the presence of positive or negative emotions in a text document. In this paper we consider higher dimensional extensions of the sentiment concept, which represent a richer set of human emotions. Our approach goes beyond previous work in that our model contains a continuous manifold rather than a finite set of human emotions. We investigate the resulting model, compare it to psychological observations, and explore its predictive capabilities. Besides obtaining significant improvements over a baseline without manifold, we are also able to visualize different notions of positive sentiment in different domains.

Kim, Seungyeon; Lebanon, Guy; Essa, Irfan

2012-01-01

465

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this\\u000a study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions under\\u000a two conditions (free association and stress condition). Finally, delinquent participants completed a

Belinda Plattner; Niranjan Karnik; Booil Jo; Rebecca E. Hall; Astrid Schallauer; Victor Carrion; Martha Feucht; Hans Steiner

2007-01-01

466

On Strong ( A )-Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a strong property (A) as follows: A ring R is called satisfying strong property (A) if every finitely generated ideal of R which is generated by a finite number of zero-divisors elements of R, has a non zero annihilator. We study the transfer of property (A) and strong property (A) in trivial ring extensions and

Najib Mahdou; Aziza Rahmouni Hassani

467

Synesthesia: Strong and Weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we distinguish strong and weak forms of synesthesia. Strong synesthesia is characterized by a vivid image in one sensory modality in response to stimulation in another one. Weak synesthesia is characterized by cross-sensory correspondences expressed through language, perceptual similarity, and perceptual interactions during information processing. Despite important phenomenological dissimilarities between strong and weak synesthesia, we maintain that

Gail Martino; Lawrence E. Marks

2001-01-01

468

[Radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

Solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma require a differentiated radiotherapy. The irradiation for plasmacytoma with an adequate total dose (medullary 40-50 Gy or extramedullary 50-60 Gy) leads to a high degree of local control with a low rate of side effects. In cases of multiple myeloma radiotherapy will achieve effective palliation, both in terms of recalcification as well as reduction of neurological symptoms and analgesia. In terms of analgesia the rule is the higher the single dose fraction the faster the reduction of pain. As part of a conditioning treatment prior to stem cell transplantation radiotherapy contributes to the establishment of a graft versus myeloma effect (GVM). PMID:24871208

Schmaus, M C; Neuhof, D

2014-06-01

469

Gender differences in emotion recognition: Impact of sensory modality and emotional category.  

PubMed

Results from studies on gender differences in emotion recognition vary, depending on the types of emotion and the sensory modalities used for stimulus presentation. This makes comparability between different studies problematic. This study investigated emotion recognition of healthy participants (N = 84; 40 males; ages 20 to 70 years), using dynamic stimuli, displayed by two genders in three different sensory modalities (auditory, visual, audio-visual) and five emotional categories. The participants were asked to categorise the stimuli on the basis of their nonverbal emotional content (happy, alluring, neutral, angry, and disgusted). Hit rates and category selection biases were analysed. Women were found to be more accurate in recognition of emotional prosody. This effect was partially mediated by hearing loss for the frequency of 8,000 Hz. Moreover, there was a gender-specific selection bias for alluring stimuli: Men, as compared to women, chose "alluring" more often when a stimulus was presented by a woman as compared to a man. PMID:24151963

Lambrecht, Lena; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

2014-04-01

470

Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relation between alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last three months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses for general aggression revealed that heavy alcohol consumption at the time of the aggression and strong alcohol-related aggression expectancies were associated with more frequent social and emotional consequences. For sexual aggression, similar regression analyses found that any alcohol use at the time of the aggression, but not outcome expectancies, was associated with social and emotional consequences. Among individuals who perpetrated general and sexual aggression, consuming alcohol at the time of the aggression was positively associated with perceived negative social and emotional consequences. Results do not support the idea that alcohol is used as an excuse for aggressive behavior. PMID:19528632

Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

2013-01-01

471

Egocentric fairness perception: emotional reactions and individual differences in overt responses.  

PubMed

Extensive research documents the existence of egocentric biases in the perception and application of justice norms. The origin of these biases remains poorly understood. We investigated both inter- and intra-individual differences in egocentric justice biases. Participants played an ultimatum game presumably with different anonymous players (simulated by a computer) in which they contributed differentially to the joint production of the initial endowment. We examined how contributions (low vs. high) affect proposers' offers and responders' acceptance decisions, as well as their fairness judgments and their emotional reactions to different types of offers (equal, equitable, unfair, and hyperfair). An egocentric bias in proposers' offers (indicating more flexible preferences) was found only in individualists and not in prosocials, suggesting differences in the motivations (or cognitions) underlying their choice of justice norms. Responders also showed egocentric biases in their judgments of fairness and in their emotional reactions to equal and equitable offers, but not in their acceptance decisions. Such dissociation might suggest that some form of emotion regulation occurred. Responders may evaluate offers on valence dimensions (e.g., goal conduciveness/outcome favorability and norm compatibility/justice) that are multiply interacting and potentially conflicting. The individual's acceptance/rejection decision reflects the relative weight attributed to competing appraisals. For this overt behavioral decision, the (personal) appraisal of outcome favorability that drives (analytical) acceptance of goal-conducive outcome seems to be stronger than the (social) appraisal of outcome fairness, which may trigger covert (emotional) rejection of offers that are incompatible with justice norms. Our data show that the emotional reaction patterns provide a more fine-grained readout of the overall evaluation of the proposer's action, the underlying