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Sample records for rael artel gallery

  1. Image Gallery

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Image Gallery Share: The Image Gallery contains high-quality digital photographs available from ... Select a category below to view additional thumbnail images. Images are available for direct download in 2 ...

  2. Heritage Gallery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) building 4200 hosts a new spaceflight history museum referred to as the Heritage Gallery, allowing employees and visitors alike to have the opportunity to experience history first hand. On display are many models of launch vehicles and spacecraft that have made the center famous. It features a full-scale mockup of the lunar roving vehicle, three built-in multimedia displays, a large theater screen, and two glass cases that house memorabilia such as personal items belonging to Wernher von Braun, MSFC's first Center Director. The new Heritage Gallery features the accomplishments of several past and present members of the Marshall team. Attending the ribbon cutting ceremony are: (left to right) Gerhard Reisig; Cort Durocher, executive director of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Ernst Stuhlinger; Konrad Darnenburg; Werner Dahm; Walter Jacobi; and host of event, Center Director Art Stephenson.

  3. Sixth-Grade Gallery Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Frances

    2003-01-01

    Describes how an instructional assistant organized a gallery project that featured artwork from the school's staff. Discusses how the gallery was organized, why it was created, and what happened when the students visited it. States that the students selected an artwork as inspiration for a story. (CMK)

  4. Whispering gallery mode sensors

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Swaim, Jon D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to date to improve current detection limits. Proposals in this vein are numerous and range, for example, from plasmonic enhancements and active cavities to hybrid optomechanical sensors, which are already working in the shot noise limited regime. In parallel to furthering WGM sensitivity, efforts to improve the time resolution are beginning to emerge. We therefore summarize the techniques being pursued in this vein. Ultimately WGM sensors aim for real-world applications, such as measurements of force and temperature, or alternatively gas and biosensing. Each such application is thus reviewed in turn, and important achievements are discussed. Finally, we adopt a more forward-looking perspective and discuss the outlook of WGM sensors within both a physical and biological context and consider how they may yet push the detection envelope further. PMID:26973759

  5. MoMLA: From Panel to Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitanza, Victor, Ed.; Kuhn, Virginia, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented here in this "Panel to Gallery" was originally produced and assembled for the 2012 Modern Language Association Conference in Seattle, Washington. Similar to "From Gallery to Webtext", the event Victor curated for the 2006 College Composition and Communication Conference, this "Panel to Gallery" event at MLA set aside the…

  6. Guards, Galleries, Fortresses, and the Octoplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    The art gallery problem asks for the maximum number of stationary guards required to protect the interior of a polygonal art gallery with "n" walls. This article explores solutions to this problem and several of its variants. In addition, some unsolved problems involving the guarding of geometric objects are presented.

  7. Graded-index whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical resonators which have spatially-graded refractive indices. In one implementation, the refractive index spatially increases with a distance from an exterior surface of such a resonator towards an interior of the resonator to produce substantially equal spectral separations for different whispering gallery modes. An optical coupler may be used with such a resonator to provide proper optical coupling.

  8. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  9. Drawing at the Albright-Knox Gallery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Sharon

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Advanced Drawing Studio for talented students at the Albright-Knox Gallery in Buffalo, NY. The program's purpose is to improve students' drawing skills and increase their ability to look at and appreciate abstract art. (AM)

  10. Whispering-gallery-mode-based seismometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fourguette, Dominique Claire; Otugen, M Volkan; Larocque, Liane Marie; Ritter, Greg Aan; Meeusen, Jason Jeffrey; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2014-06-03

    A whispering-gallery-mode-based seismometer provides for receiving laser light into an optical fiber, operatively coupling the laser light from the optical fiber into a whispering-gallery-mode-based optical resonator, operatively coupling a spring of a spring-mass assembly to a housing structure; and locating the whispering-gallery-mode-based optical resonator between the spring-mass assembly and the housing structure so as to provide for compressing the whispering-gallery-mode-based optical resonator between the spring-mass assembly and the housing structure responsive to a dynamic compression force from the spring-mass assembly responsive to a motion of the housing structure relative to an inertial frame of reference.

  11. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  12. Landslide Caused Damages in a Gallery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisel, R.; Mair am Tinkhof, K.; Preh, A.

    2016-06-01

    On October 5th, 2010, cracks were found in a gallery 1.8 m high and 1.4 m wide. The gallery is 100 years old, runs parallel to a valley flank and was excavated in a tectonically strongly stressed, weathered and slightly dipping sandwich of clayey shales, sandstones and marls. The cracks in the roof as well as in the invert ran parallel to the axis of the gallery. Monitoring showed that crack widths were increasing 1.5 mm per year, sidewall distances were increasing 3.5 mm per year, whereas the height of the gallery was decreasing 2.5 mm per year. After eliminating several possible causes of cracking, a landslide producing the damages had to be taken into consideration. Monitoring of the valley flank surface as well as inclinometer readings revealed that a landslide was occurring, loading the gallery lining. Most probably the landslide had been reactivated by excessive rainfall in 2009 as well as by works for the renewal of a weir in the valley bottom. As stabilization of the slope was not an option for several reasons, it was decided to replace the gallery by a new one deeper inside the slope, which will be ready for operation in 2017. Thus the old gallery has to be kept in operation till then and it was decided to reinforce the old gallery by a heavily reinforced shotcrete lining 10 cm thick. As slope displacements went on, cracks in the shotcrete lining developed with a completely different pattern: in the section where the gallery lies completely in the landslide shear zone no cracks formed until now due to heavy reinforcement, whereas in the transition sections stable ground-landslide and landslide-stable ground diagonal tension cracks in the roof due to shear by the landslide developed. Numerical models showed that cracking and spalling of the shotcrete lining would occur only after some centimetres of additional displacements of the slope, which hopefully will not occur before 2017.

  13. At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, view of spiral stairway leading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, view of spiral stairway leading to 1200 Gallery, looking south. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. 7. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Stero ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Stero Photo of 1875 Rephoto 1960 INTERIOR STAIRHALL MAIN FLOOR TO WEST - Crocker Art Gallery, 216 O Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 13. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Original 1875 Rephoto 1960 DINING ROOM (IN SERVICE WING) LOOKING EAST TO HALL & DOUBLE PARLOURS - Crocker Art Gallery, 216 O Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. "Menage a Trois": The University, Art Gallery, and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jane Turnbull

    1984-01-01

    The Mackenzie Art Gallery in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, provides an internship program for students enrolled in the art education program at the University of Regina. The gallery trains teachers in the concepts of aesthetic education and the use of art objects and gallery resources in the teaching of those concepts. (RM)

  17. Portrait Gallery Illuminates--Grant's Triumphs, Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Robert G., Jr.

    The 100th anniversary of Ulysses S. Grant's death was observed on July 23, 1985. The Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery featured an exhibit of Grant portraiture, which covered his life, from its humble beginnings to military and political triumphs and to failures and disappointment. The exhibit included pictures, artifacts, and momentos from…

  18. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of Manhattan in New York…

  19. The Empirical Spectator and Gallery Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkova, Marie; Straker, Alison; Jaros, Milan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the onto-epistemic status and understanding of contemporary material culture and of visual art, particularly in the context of gallery education. It does so through a case study of the response of 15 year-old school students in the Czech Republic and in England to a recent photographic exhibition, I.N.R.I., created by artists…

  20. Single molecules as whispering galleries for electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reecht, G.; Bulou, H.; Schull, G.; Scheurer, F.

    2016-04-01

    Whispering gallery modes, well-known for acoustic and optical waves, have been shown recently for electrons in molecules on surfaces. The existence of such waves opens new possibilities for nanoelectronic devices. Here we propose a simple analytical textbook model which allows the main characteristic features of such electronic waves to be understood. The model is illustrated by two- and three-dimensional experimental situations.

  1. Single molecules as whispering galleries for electrons.

    PubMed

    Reecht, G; Bulou, H; Schull, G; Scheurer, F

    2016-04-27

    Whispering gallery modes, well-known for acoustic and optical waves, have been shown recently for electrons in molecules on surfaces. The existence of such waves opens new possibilities for nanoelectronic devices. Here we propose a simple analytical textbook model which allows the main characteristic features of such electronic waves to be understood. The model is illustrated by two- and three-dimensional experimental situations. PMID:26987969

  2. Possible methods of reconstructing conveyor gallery span structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, V.G.; Beizer, V.N.; Raskina, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of reconstruction of industrial buildings and structures are acquiring increasing national economic importance. The Makeevka Construction Engineering Institute of the conducted investigations of the design of the conveyor galleries at the Yasinovka and Makeevka Coke Works, in operation for 20-40 years. The bearing constructions of the span structures are generally welded (in the old galleries riveted) metal trusses. The principal trusses are predominantly made discontinuous with spans of 10-40 m, supported by hinges on intermediate lattice columns, connected through the upper and lower horizontal strips by ties (see figure, a). The height of the main trusses corresponds to the height of the galleries (2.3-3.4 m). The width of a gallery depends on the width and number of conveyors; for galleries with a single conveyor it is 3.1-3.8 m, and 5.5-7.1 m for a gallery with two conveyors.

  3. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. ASPRS Digital Imagery Guideline Image Gallery Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the image gallery are to 1) give users and providers a simple means of identifying appropriate imagery for a given application/feature extraction; and 2) define imagery sufficiently to be described in engineering and acquisition terms. This viewgraph presentation includes a discussion of edge response and aliasing for image processing, and a series of images illustrating the effects of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on images. Another series of images illustrates how images are affected by varying the ground sample distances (GSD).

  5. Magnetic whispering-gallery mirror for atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, R. P.; Merimeche, H.; Mützel, M.; Metcalf, H.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Rosenbusch, P.; Hinds, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    Videotape with a sinusoidal magnetization of 31 μm wavelength is used to reflect Cs atoms with unit reflectivity in a 75 m/s atomic beam. The atoms serve as a probe, allowing us to measure the magnetic field at the surface. A technique is presented for mounting the videotape so that its surface can be curved to a specific shape or made flexible. We show that such a reflector provides high-quality grazing-incidence atom optics and we demonstrate deflections as large as 23 ° in a whispering-gallery geometry.

  6. View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; the gallery housed turret, engine and toolroom lathes, small milling machines and drill presses used for machining small parts. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Reconfigurable optical spectra from perturbations on elliptical whispering gallery resonances.

    PubMed

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-02-01

    Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed. PMID:18542283

  8. Genesis of a Joint Gallery of Sport Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania's dual sport art gallery showcases the work of R. Taft McKenzie and Joe Brown, two of the premier sport artists of our time. This article briefly outlines the artists' careers and describes the planning which led to establishment of the gallery. (IAH)

  9. Places to Go: New York Public Library Digital Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This article features the New York Public Library's (NYPL) recently opened Digital Gallery. Containing more than 275,000 images digitized from primary sources and printed rarities, the Digital Gallery offers unparalleled access to the past for educators and interested visitors alike. Organization and navigation present a challenge with any…

  10. Reconfigurable Optical Spectra from Perturbations on Elliptical Whispering Gallery Resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.

  11. Science Outreach through Art: A Journal Article Cover Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Research faculty journal covers were used to create a gallery in the Science & Technology branch library at the University of Akron. The selection, presentation, and promotion process is shared along with copyright considerations and a review of galleries used for library outreach. The event and display was a great success attracting faculty…

  12. Promoting Discussion in the Science Classroom Using Gallery Walks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francek, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A gallery walk is a discussion technique that gets students out of their chairs and actively involved in synthesizing important science concepts, writing, and public speaking. The technique also cultivates listening and team-building skills. This paper provides guidance for conducting, managing, and assessing gallery walks. (Contains 4 tables and…

  13. The Authors Gallery: A Meaningful Integration of Technology and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Deb

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author first explains what an authors gallery is and suggests additional uses and modifications. Next, readers are taken through a day-by-day description of creating the gallery while having the theory behind this pedagogical choice explained. The step-by-step discussion is supported with student examples and concepts drawn…

  14. Detecting light in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Mohageg, Makan (Inventor); Le, Thanh M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical device including a whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator configured to support one or more whispering gallery modes; and a photodetector optically coupled to an exterior surface of the optical resonator to receive evanescent light from the optical resonator to detect light inside the optical resonator.

  15. From Analog Prototypes to Digital Drawing in the Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen G.

    2011-01-01

    The "You Are Here" digital drawing interactive is one of the most successful interpretive elements in the renovated Oakland Museum of California Gallery of California Art. This interactive grew from considering how visitors could see themselves in the gallery and how visitor awareness of the creative process could be increased. The renovation…

  16. View just east of Block 31, 1150 Gallery, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View just east of Block 31, 1150 Gallery, looking west showing change in ceiling height; in foreground is transverse gallery used for drum gate cord storage. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  17. 19. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Copy from N. P. Goodell, Architect C1879 NORTHWEST CORNER (EAST ELEVATION?) OF 3RD & P ST. (property of Mrs. E. B. Crocker) - Crocker Art Gallery, 216 O Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 20. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Building Survey Crocker Art Gallery Collection Drawing by N.D. Goodell, Architect C 1879 NORTH ELEVATION, SOUTH HOUSE (Property of Mrs. E. B. Crocker, 3rd & P Sts.) - Crocker Art Gallery, 216 O Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

    Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

  1. Whispering-Gallery Mode-Locked Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Savchenkov, Anatoly; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    Mode-locked lasers of a proposed type would incorporate features of the design and operation of previously demonstrated miniature electro-optical modulators and erbium-doped glass lasers that contain whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators. That is to say, WGM lasers and WGM electro-optical modulators would be integrated into monolithic units that, when suitably excited with pump light and microwaves, would function as mode-locked lasers. The proposed devices are intended to satisfy an anticipated demand for compact, low-power devices that could operate in the optical-communication wavelength band centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m and could generate pulses as short as picoseconds at repetition rates of multiple gigahertz.

  2. Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators.

    PubMed

    Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Berneschi, Simome; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR)-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON) ring resonators. PMID:27438861

  3. Whispering gallery effects in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    1992-12-01

    Experimental data that recorded higher-than-expected signals at 3087.7 MHz far beyond the horizon in the presence of an elevated duct are examined and compared to results from the radio physical optics (RPO) propagation model. RPO is a range-dependent hybrid model that combines ray optics and parabolic equation methods. Previous modeling of this same case study using waveguide methods for both the measured elevated duct and hypothetical evaporation ducts has been disappointing. However, when the elevated duct is allowed to rise slowly with increasing range, the RPO results closely match the observed signal levels, indicating that weakly attenuated earth-detached, or whispering gallery, modes were the dominant propagation mechanism.

  4. 7. Detail of gallery railings, looking north along Saybrook east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of gallery railings, looking north along Saybrook east breakwater to Lynde Point Lighthouse - Saybrook Breakwater Light, South tip of west end of Saybrook Breakwater, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  5. VIEW WESTBUILDING 7 MACHINE SHOP (1901 SECTIONNORTH GALLERY) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 7 MACHINE SHOP (1901 SECTION-NORTH GALLERY) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ALLEN SMITH'S VEHICLE WITH WHICH HE AS STATE GEOLOGIST (FROM 1873 TO 1927) CONDUCTED SURVEYS OF DISTRICT MINERAL RESOURCES - Smith Hall, Capstone Drive at Sixth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We report on our recent results concerning fabrication of high-Q whispering gallery mode crystalline resonaors, and discuss some possible applications of lithium niobate WGM resonators in nonlinear optics and photonics.

  8. 74. Credit TCL. General overview of interior from gallery looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Credit TCL. General overview of interior from gallery looking east. Note air duct on generator (now removed). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. 72. Credit FM. Overview of powerhouse from gallery. Notice cooling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Credit FM. Overview of powerhouse from gallery. Notice cooling duct on generator (now removed) and spare gate valve in far corner. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE SERIES OF MANIPULATOR ARMS ALONG THE LEFT WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION WITH MANIPULATOR ARMS. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 14. VIEW IN THE WEST OPERATING GALLERY OF POSTMORTEM CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW IN THE WEST OPERATING GALLERY OF POST-MORTEM CELL WORK STATION AND MANIPULATOR ARMS. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 5. JL photographer, summer 1978. View in filteration gallery looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. JL photographer, summer 1978. View in filteration gallery looking to filter pits. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  15. 43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING CONTROL PEDESTAL IN FOREGROUND AND NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS IN CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  16. At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, view of top of spiral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, view of top of spiral stairway, looking west. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  17. At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, between spiral stairways, looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1150 Gallery, Block 5, between spiral stairways, looking southwest. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  18. At 1150 Gallery, Block 7, looking east, the length of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1150 Gallery, Block 7, looking east, the length of the dam. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  19. Interior hallway at 1250 Gallery, Block 11, which leads from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior hallway at 1250 Gallery, Block 11, which leads from Left Powerhouse to Pump-Generating Plant, looking southwest. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. Optical rogue waves in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Dudley, John; Genty, Goëry; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering-gallery-mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we give evidence of a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with non-Gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.

  1. Whispering Gallery Optical Resonator Spectroscopic Probe and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a spectroscopic probe comprising at least one whispering gallery mode optical resonator disposed on a support, the whispering gallery mode optical resonator comprising a continuous outer surface having a cross section comprising a first diameter and a second diameter, wherein the first diameter is greater than the second diameter. A method of measuring a Raman spectrum and an Infra-red spectrum of an analyte using the spectroscopic probe is also disclosed.

  2. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL(-1)) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10(-3) mol · mL(-1) is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  3. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL−1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10−3 mol · mL−1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  4. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL‑1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10‑3 mol · mL‑1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing.

  5. Whispering-Gallery-Mode Tunable Narrow-Band-Pass Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    An experimental tunable, narrow-band-pass electro-optical filter is based on a whispering-gallery resonator. This device is a prototype of tunable filters needed for the further development of reconfigurable networking wavelength-division multiplexers and communication systems that utilize radio-frequency (more specifically, microwave) subcarrier signals on optical carrier signals. The characteristics of whispering-gallery resonators that make them attractive for such applications include high tuning speed, compactness, wide tuning range, low power consumption, and compatibility with single-mode optical fibers. In addition, relative to Fabry-Perot resonators, these devices offer advantages of greater robustness and lower cost. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, a whispering-gallery resonator is a spheroidal, disk-like, or toroidal body made of a highly transparent material. It is so named because it is designed to exploit whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes, which are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. The experimental whispering-gallery tunable filter (see figure) is made from a disk of Z-cut LiNbO3 of 4.8-mm diameter and 0.17-mm thickness. The perimeter of the disk is rounded to a radius of curvature of 100 m. Metal coats on the flat faces of the disk serve as electrodes for exploiting the electro-optical effect in LiNbO3 for tuning. There is no metal coat on the rounded perimeter region, where the whispering-gallery modes propagate. Light is coupled from an input optical fiber into the whispering-gallery modes by means of a diamond prism. Another diamond prism is used to couple light from the whispering-gallery modes to an output optical fiber. This device is designed and operated to exploit transverse magnetic (TM) whispering- gallery modes, rather than transverse electric (TE) modes because the

  6. CyberSpace: Adler's Computer-Based Gallery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, J.

    2002-05-01

    The Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum has recently opened its CyberSpace Gallery. This gallery is a radical departure from a typical museum exhibit space. It fuses all the potential that computer technology enables into one programmable museum gallery. In this entirely computer-based facility, content is flexibly updated and routed to various display/interactive stations in its three different spaces: the informal gallery, the classroom, and the distance learning studio. These spaces can be configured into individualized and theme-based exhibits, classrooms, and videoconferencing centers to host events that can be transmitted and/or received via high bandwidth internet connectivity. CyberSpace relies on more than seventy computers to drive all exhibit components, which includes 16 plasma displays, 16 computer stations, 4 immersive workstations, and 10 video projectors. All these components are used to present externally produced material as well as in-house content produced by professional staff astronomers and educators. In addition to its ``everyday" use as a multimedia gallery for museum visitors, CyberSpace has been used for teacher professional development, school field trip experiences, live demonstrations, presentations of NASA events, including launches and ISS-shuttle missions, and public astronomy classes.

  7. HIV seropositivity of needles from shooting galleries in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, D D; McCoy, C B; Inciardi, J A; McBride, D C; Comerford, M; Trapido, E; McCoy, H V; Page, J B; Griffin, J; Fletcher, M A

    1990-02-01

    Needle/syringe combinations were collected from three shooting galleries in South Florida and tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1. Fifteen of 148 needles (10.1 percent) tested positive for HIV-1 antibody. Seropositivity rates did not vary by the day of the week of collection, nor by shooting gallery from which they were collected. When the needle appeared to contain blood residue, 20.0 percent were positive versus 5.1 percent with no blood residue. These findings suggest that needles/syringes used in shooting galleries are likely to serve as reservoirs and/or vectors of transmission of the HIV-1 virus, and that although visual inspection of the needle/syringe may be useful in lessening the chance for transmission, even the visually "clean" needles may result in transmission of infection. PMID:2297056

  8. Indoor/outdoor ozone concentrations at a contemporary art gallery

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, T.D.; Ramer, B.; Kaspyzok, G.; Delany, A.C.

    1984-02-01

    Ozone concentrations were measured both inside and outside the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, near a small city in rural eastern England, during a three-week period in summer. The inside concentration was typically 70 +/- 10% of the outside concentration during the period of expected maximum outside levels. During the period of observation the maximum outside ozone levels have been well in excess of 120 ppb. The relatively high indoor/outdoor ozone ratio is a function of the Centre's design, its internal geometry, and its ventilation system. Conventional art galleries and museums experience much lower indoor ozone exposure. The measured indoor ozone levels imply deleterious effects on the gallery exhibits and an enhanced ozone exposure may have to be considered in the design of modern galleries and museums. 8 references.

  9. Ringing phenomenon based whispering-gallery-mode sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Shen, Mei-Xia; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive sensing is one of the most important applications of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators, which is usually accomplished through a tunable continuous-wave laser sweeping over a whispering-gallery mode with the help of a fiber taper in a relative slow speed. It is known that if a tunable continuous-wave laser sweeps over a high quality whispering-gallery mode in a fast speed, a ringing phenomenon will be observed. The ringing phenomenon in WGM microresonators is mainly used to measure the Q factors and mode-coupling strengths. Here we experimentally demonstrate that the WGM sensing can be achieved based on the ringing phenomenon. This kind of sensing is accomplished in a much shorter time and is immune to the noise caused by the laser wavelength drift. PMID:26796871

  10. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-09-07

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  11. Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ornigotti, Marco

    2011-07-15

    An analytic solution for a uniaxial spherical resonator is presented using the method of Debye potentials. This serves as a starting point for the calculation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in such a resonator. Suitable approximations for the radial functions are discussed in order to best characterize WGMs. The characteristic equation and its asymptotic expansion for the anisotropic case is also discussed, and an analytic formula with a precision of the order O[{nu}{sup -1}] is also given. Our careful treatment of both boundary conditions and asymptotic expansions makes the present work a particularly suitable platform for a quantum theory of whispering gallery resonators.

  12. Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University

  13. Optical filter having coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Optical filters having at least two coupled whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators to produce a second order or higher order filter function with a desired spectral profile. At least one of the coupled WGM optical resonators may be tunable by a control signal to adjust the filtering function.

  14. 40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CONSTRUCTION OF GALLERY NO. 3, SHOWING INCLINED PLANE USED TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS, ALSO SPOIL FROM TUNNEL INTERIOR. POWDER HOUSE AND TOOL SHED VISIBLE TO RIGHT OF BASE INCLINE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Tunnel, Two miles east of Zion Canyon Scenic Drive, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  15. 20. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery of Photo Engravings, Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Sandusky, Ohio, (August Spies), 1902) SECOND FLOOR, GRAND ARMY HALL, LOOKING SOUTH - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Library, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  16. 18. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery of Photo Engravings, Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Sandusky, Ohio, (August Spies), 1902) FIRST FLOOR, READING ROOM, LOOKING WEST (INSET NORTHEAST FRONT) - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Library, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  17. 13. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photo engraving (from August Spies' Spies' Gallery of Photo Engravings, Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Sandusky, Ohio, (August Spies), 1902) VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTHWEST FRONT - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Cottage M, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  18. 45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified at the time of removal for transfer to the George School for re-erection. The stamp reads, 'REMOVED FROM 12th ST. MTG HSE PHILA 1972'. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 13. VIEW OF EAST OPERATING GALLERY ALONG THE POSTMORTEM CELLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF EAST OPERATING GALLERY ALONG THE POST-MORTEM CELLS. A NUMBER OF MANIPULATOR ARMS COVERED WITH PLASTIC ARE ON THE LEFT WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. At 1050 Gallery, Block 65, view of coaster gate bypass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 65, view of coaster gate bypass valve (for turbine-generator unit G-10, this bypass-valve unit manufactured by Western Koppers Co., Fort Wayne, Ind., 1938), looking southeast. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  1. At 1050 Gallery, Block 16, view of access port down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 16, view of access port down to top of penstock (this is a service hatch into penstock for turbine-generator unit No. 2), looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, view of gate control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, view of gate control and motor, looking west, (Westinghouse Gearmotor, ca. 1939, type CS induction motor, 440 volts, 43 rpm, 60 cycle). - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  3. 71. (Credit JTL) Pipe gallery looking south in basement underneath ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. (Credit JTL) Pipe gallery looking south in basement underneath 1910-11 and 1924 filter wing extensions. Note bottoms of converted New York horizontal pressure filters in right background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  4. 8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MAIN INLET FROM FILTER GALLERY AND CANAL INTO HINDS PLANT. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  5. LONG GALLERY; NORTH WALL, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LONG GALLERY; NORTH WALL, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-LG-N-9 157.4870. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 4. LOOKING WEST FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY ABOVE THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING WEST FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY ABOVE THE SOUTH END OF LEVEL 4; SAWTOOTH MONITORS PROVIDED AMPLE NATURAL LIGHT FOR KILLING OPERATIONS; STEEL SUBSTRUCTURE NEAR BOTTOM OF PHOTO SUPPORTED CHAIN CONVEYOR SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAUNDRY ROOM ON GALLERY LEVEL, NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAUNDRY ROOM ON GALLERY LEVEL, NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 149; WORKERS' UNIFORMS AND BEEF SHROUDS WERE LAUNDERED HERE; CLEAN BEEF SHROUDS WERE RETURNED TO DISASSEMBLY LINE ON LEVEL 4 THROUGH FUNNEL-SHAPED CHUTE AT LOWER LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. 11. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERY D UNDER ERECTION March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERY D UNDER ERECTION March 20, 1922 (Original negative destroyed; print in Barge Canal Construction Photographs, Box 12, Series 501, Accession No. 336-85) - New York Barge Canal, Gowanus Bay Terminal Pier, East of bulkhead supporting Columbia Street, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  9. 12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERIES C AND D, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERIES C AND D, July 17, 1922 (Original negative destroyed; print in Barge Canal Construction Photographs, Box 12, Series 501, Accession No. 336-85) - New York Barge Canal, Gowanus Bay Terminal Pier, East of bulkhead supporting Columbia Street, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  10. Nonlinear mode coupling in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2016-04-01

    We present a first-principles derivation of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations that govern the interaction between two families of modes with different transverse profiles in a generic whispering-gallery-mode resonator. We find regions of modulational instability and the existence of trains of bright solitons in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regime.

  11. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  12. Cross-Curricular Gallery Learning: A Phenomenological Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Richard; Kiss, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the strategies that can be used to enhance students' understanding of how subjects link together and whether cross-curricular approaches, through a gallery project, have any real impact on students' understanding of the links between subjects. A substantial part of this article, however, describes the methodological aspect of…

  13. At 1295 Gallery, Block 31, view of truck for hauling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1295 Gallery, Block 31, view of truck for hauling coaster gates; note track at perpendicular; the elevator at Block 31 is to the left. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. At 1200 Gallery, Block 63, looking west, showing 230 kv ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1200 Gallery, Block 63, looking west, showing 230 kv cables. These lines were installed in the 1960s and are no longer used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  15. At 1200 Gallery, Block 63, looking down tunnel that extends ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1200 Gallery, Block 63, looking down tunnel that extends to the Right Powerhouse, showing 230 kva lines. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  16. Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 [angstrom] to 500 [angstrom

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 [Angstrom] to 500 [Angstrom]). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 [Angstrom] as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 [Angstrom]. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 [Angstrom]. 8 figs, 18 refs.

  17. Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 {angstrom} to 500 {angstrom}

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

    1990-12-31

    We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 {Angstrom} to 500 {Angstrom}). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 {Angstrom} as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 {Angstrom}. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 {Angstrom}. 8 figs, 18 refs.

  18. From GUI to Gallery: A Study of Online Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guynup, Stephen Lawrence

    This paper began as an attempt to clarify and classify the development of Web3D environments from 1995 to the present. In that process, important facts came to light. A large proportion of these sites were virtual galleries and museums. Second, these same environments covered a wide array of architectural interpretations and represented some of…

  19. What Can the Habitable Zone Gallery Do For You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) came online in August 2011 as a service to the exoplanet community that provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table, a plot with the period and eccentricity of each of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ, a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits, and orbital movies. Recently, we have added new features including: implementation of both conservative and optimistic HZs, more user-friendly table and movies, movies for circumbinary planets, and a count of planets whose orbits lie entirely within the system's HZ. Here we discuss various educational and scientific applications of the site such as target selection, exploring planets with eccentric or circumbinary orbits, and investigating habitability.

  20. Phased-array optical whispering gallery mode modulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator device and method capable of filtering sidebands of optical modulators are provided. The method includes providing an optical resonator adapted to support whispering gallery modes and forming a first field and a second field from a first location and a second location, respectively, at the circumference of the optical resonator and being separated by an arc angle, .alpha.. The method includes adjusting relative phase between the first field and the second field in accordance to a differential phase, .beta., and combining the first and the second fields into an output. Particular selection of the arc angle, .alpha., and the differential phase, .beta., can determine the function of the output.

  1. Optical pulse propagation via whispering gallery modes in glass spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, W.B.; Shaw, R.W.; Barnes, M.D.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    Early in this century, Rayleigh showed that waves could propagate close to the wall of a spherical cavity with very little loss as long as the wavelength was small compared to the cavity circumference. The treatment was primarily for acoustic waves, modeling the whispering gallery effect, but he pointed out that electromagnetic waves should behave similarly. Study of the optical properties of dielectric spheres has received new interest with improvements in optical instrumentation and the emergency of new applications for high-Q resonators. It has recently been shown that optical pulses propagating in whispering gallery modes can be treated analogously to pulses in a fiber optic waveguide. Since the optical fields extend beyond the surface of the sphere, the sphere`s environment could alter propagation properties such as cavity ringdown time. The authors describe here some time and frequency-domain measurements of picosecond pulses in glass spheres of millimeter dimension and discuss potential analytical applications.

  2. Whispering gallery mode resonators based on radiation-sensitive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators formed of radiation-sensitive materials to allow for permanent tuning of their resonance frequencies in a controlled manner. Two WGM resonators may be cascaded to form a composite filter to produce a second order filter function where at least one WGM resonator is formed a radiation-sensitive material to allow for proper control in the overlap of the two filter functions.

  3. Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We report on our recent results concerning fabrication of high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) crystalline resonators, and discuss some possible applications of lithium niobate WGM resonators in nonlinear optics and photonics. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally a tunable third-order optical filter fabricated from the three metalized resonators; and report observation of parametric frequency dobuling in a WGM resonator made of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN).

  4. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, view of motors for operating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, view of motors for operating gates of diversion tubes, looking west (Note: the gate control unit to the far right is the one mistakenly left open in 1952 and this led to the flood inside the dam) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  6. Graded-Index "Whispering-Gallery" Optical Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    Graded-index-of-refraction dielectric optical microresonators have been proposed as a superior alternative to prior dielectric optical microresonators, which include microspheres and microtori wherein electromagnetic waves propagate along circumferential paths in "whispering-gallery" modes. The design and method of fabrication of the proposed microresonators would afford improved performance by exploiting a combination of the propagation characteristics of the whisperinggallery modes and the effect of a graded index of refraction on the modes.

  7. Whispering gallery resonators with broken axial symmetry: Theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Fürst, J; Sturman, B; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2016-09-01

    Axial symmetry is the cornerstone for theory and applications of high-Q optical whispering gallery resonators (WGRs). Nevertheless, research on birefringent crystalline material persistently pushes towards breaking this symmetry. We show theoretically and experimentally that the effect of broken axial symmetry, caused by optical anisotropy, is modest for the resonant frequencies and Q-factors of the WGR modes. Thus, the most important equatorial whispering gallery modes can be quantitatively described and experimentally identified. At the same time, the effect of broken axial symmetry on the light field distribution of the whispering gallery modes is typically very strong. This qualitatively modifies the phase-matching for the χ(2) nonlinear processes and enables broad-band second harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation. The effect of weak geometric ellipticity in nominally symmetric WGRs is also considered. Altogether our findings pave the way for an extensive use of numerous birefringent (uniaxial and biaxial) crystals with broad transparency window and large χ(2) coefficients in nonlinear optics with WGRs. PMID:27607622

  8. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  9. eFluids Video Gallery: a ``YouTube'' for Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    The research and educational value of videos of fluid mechanical phenomena cannot be overstated, yet there are literally hundreds of videos that, while posted on various websites, can be difficult to find. eFluids.com has launched a new video gallery website highlighting all aspects of fluid mechanics that will hopefully serve as a repository for this material. The gallery receives submissions using a user-friendly interface modeled on the popular YouTube site. Submissions can be in any format and any size up 50MB and up to 5 minutes long. The galleries are searchable and are classified in 23 categories, including subject-specific categories such as ``Laminar Flow,'' ``Turbulence,'' ``Vortices,'' ``Biological Flows,'' etc., as well as ``Recent Postings'' and links to fluids videos on other sites such as YouTube. The Video Gallery is integrated with the other Galleries on eFluids, including the long-established Gallery of Images, Gallery of Experiments, and Gallery of Problems. The presentation will show examples, demonstrate the submission interface, and the integration with the other galleries. In collaboration with George Homsy and Gordon McCreigh, www.eFluids.com.

  10. A contribution to film coefficient estimation in piston cooling galleries

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, A.J.; Broatch, A.; Olmeda, P.; Martin, J.

    2010-02-15

    The need to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in internal combustion engines has been drastically increased during last years. One of the most important processes affecting these parameters is heat transfer from the in-cylinder gas to the surrounding walls, as this mechanism has a direct influence on the combustion process. Regarding the different walls (liner, cylinder head and piston surfaces), heat flow to the piston is especially important, as it is essential to avoid excessively high temperatures that could result in material damage and/or oil cracking. With this purpose different cooling strategies are used, among which the improvement of the piston cooling system by using oil galleries is preferred. In this work, the heat flow through the oil gallery in a Diesel piston was investigated on a dedicated test bench. This bench consists of a controlled heat source and a piston oil cooling system in which different test conditions were evaluated in order to obtain a correlation for the film coefficient associated with piston oil cooling. These experimental results were then incorporated into a lumped model for engine heat transfer. Finally, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this model and the effects of the correlation for oil gallery coefficient on engine heat flows, results obtained on a conventional engine test bench equipped with a Diesel engine, in which two piston temperatures had been measured, were used. The results show an improvement in piston temperature predictions when compared with those obtained using a previously reported expression for the calculation of the oil film coefficient. (author)

  11. Opto-acoustic phenomena in whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Optical whispering gallery mode resonators are important platforms to enhance and study various nonlinear frequency conversion processes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the strongest nonlinear effects, and can be successfully investigated using these platforms. In this article, we study the phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering using a crystalline disk resonator. A fast scanning ringdown spectroscopy technique is used to characterize the optical modes featuring quality factors of the order of one billion at telecom wavelengths. The mW scale threshold power in a centimeter disk resonator is observed and found to be strongly dependent on the gap between the resonator and the prism coupler.

  12. STAR Images: Image gallery from the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    DOE Data Explorer

    The primary physics task of STAR is to study the formation and characteristics of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a state of matter believed to exist at sufficiently high energy densities. STAR consists of several types of detectors, each specializing in detecting certain types of particles or characterizing their motion. These detectors allow final statements to be made about the collision. The gallery of STAR images makes available a small collection of event-generated images from Gold-Beam experiments, a simulation of TCP Drift, and a library of STAR instrument and construction photos.

  13. High-Q silk fibroin whispering gallery microresonator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linhua; Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Guangming; Ma, Ding; Tao, Hu; Liu, Zhiwen; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Yang, Lan

    2016-09-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated an on-chip all-silk fibroin whispering gallery mode microresonator by using a simple molding and solution-casting technique. The quality factors of the fabricated silk protein microresonators are on the order of 105. A high-sensitivity thermal sensor was realized in this silk fibroin microtoroid with a sensitivity of -1.17 nm/K, that is 8 times higher than previous WGM resonator-based thermal sensors. This opens the way to fabricate biodegradable and biocompatible protein based microresonators on a flexible chip for biophotonics applications. PMID:27607686

  14. Blue-pumped whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christoph Sebastian; Beckmann, Tobias; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate a whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator pumped at 488 nm wavelength. This millimeter-sized device has a pump threshold of 160 μW. The signal field is tunable between 707 and 865 nm wavelength and the idler field between 1120 and 1575 nm through temperature variation. Although the conversion efficiency is fundamentally limited to several percent because of absorption loss for the pump wave, the results provide evidence that such oscillators will be able to cover finally the entire visible range. PMID:23073418

  15. Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.

  16. Observation of whispering gallery modes in microtube-microspheres system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanyang; Hao, Sue; Qiang, Liangsheng; Li, Jin; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-06-01

    We proposed that a fluorescent microsphere with diameter of 6 μm was manipulated into a microtube with inner diameter of 6.2 μm. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of fluorescence resonance were observed by 532 nm laser pumping the microspheres-mircotube system. Another microsphere with the same diameter was manipulated into the microtube and mode splitting in the system of two spheres in contact in the mircotube was demonstrated. We also discussed relationship between WGMs peak intensity and the excitation power. The scheme will bring more insight into the applications of WGMs for biomedical diagnostics and microfluidics.

  17. The Portable Art Gallery: Fostering Student Ownership and Meaningful Artmaking through Exhibiting Student Artwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Jethro

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how High School Visual Arts Teacher Jethro Gillespie built a portable art gallery for his students--essentially an 8-foot cube made from plywood and lightweight boards that can be assembled with bolts and taken apart in sections. The ceiling pieces of the gallery have track lights, the interior walls have been painted gray,…

  18. Communities of Practice in Art and Design and Museum and Gallery Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herne, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on a wider body of research that explores whether art and design teachers (art teachers) and museum and gallery educators (gallery educators) hold conflicting conceptions of "critical and contextual studies". The data analysis focuses on what interviewees said about each other in relation to crossing boundaries between…

  19. Using Sense to Make Sense of Art: Young Children in Art Galleries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects on a collaborative project between Manchester City Art Gallery and Manchester Metropolitan University (2003-2004). The project's aim was to attract very young children and their families to the gallery. This paper will not report directly on the research methods used or the outcomes of the project but, rather, will explore…

  20. Voice, Choice, Equity and Access: Young Children Capture Their Art Gallery Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Narelle

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a digital camera in the art gallery space is somewhat confrontational. Most museums have strict protocols on what can and cannot be captured. From the educational perspective it does, however, offer a new and innovative way of working that supports young people's ability to record what they see and how they experience the gallery, the…

  1. Whispering gallery modes in a spherical microcavity with a photoluminescent shell

    SciTech Connect

    Grudinkin, S. A. Dontsov, A. A.; Feoktistov, N. A.; Baranov, M. A.; Bogdanov, K. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Golubev, V. G.

    2015-10-15

    Whispering-gallery mode spectra in optical microcavities based on spherical silica particles coated with a thin photoluminescent shell of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide are studied. The spectral positions of the whispering-gallery modes for spherical microcavities with a shell are calculated. The dependence of the spectral distance between the TE and TM modes on the shell thickness is examined.

  2. Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers Value of Art Museums and Galleries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Narelle; Garvis, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Art museums and galleries provide many educational opportunities for generalist classroom teachers to engage in learning experiences with students. Beliefs about engagement with art museums and galleries can begin in teacher education programs. This paper explores the beliefs of pre-service teachers in a Bachelor of Education (primary) program in…

  3. Inclusive Art Gallery Practices: Exploring Collaborative Processes and Pedagogy in Outreach Community Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    Currently, many museums and galleries are attempting to create more welcoming and meaningful experiences for individuals who tend to be reluctant to enter and participate in these institutions. Art galleries and museums are examining and experimenting with ways to connect diverse publics through socially inclusive community outreach programs. This…

  4. The Art Gallery/La Galeria de Arte: An Exhibition of Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biagi, Juliet

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an art gallery within an urban elementary school, examining its impact on diverse students and their social interactions at school and home. The gallery had a positive impact on students (improved self-esteem, motivation, and appreciation of others); the school (transformation of the physical space and appreciation of…

  5. Virtual gallery of ancient coins through conoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Majo, Raffaele; Carli, Marco; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, Domenica

    2003-10-01

    Physical access to historic and artistic manufactures can be limited by a lot of factors. In particular, the access to the collection of the ancient coins is difficult, especially for students. Indeed, for coins digital archive of high quality three-dimensional model and remote fruition is of great interest. In this work we propose 3D acquisition and digitizing techniques for the virtualized reality of ancient coins (virtual gallery). The system used for creating 3D shape of coins is based on conoscopic holography. This technique is a non-contact three-dimensional measuring technique that makes possible to produce holograms, even with incoherent light, with fringe periods that can be measured precisely to determine the exact distance to the point measured. It is suitable to obtain 3D profile with high resolution also on surface with unevenness reflectivity (this situation is usual on the surface of the ancient coins). By conoscopic holography, high-resolution 3D model can be obtained. However, accurate representation and high-quality display are fundamental requirements to avoid misinterpretation of the data. Therefore, virtual galleries can be obtained through a procedure involving 3D acquisition, 3D model and visualization. In conclusion, we propose an optoelectronic application, integrated with multimedia techniques, in order to improve the access to collection of ancient coins belonging to museums or privates.

  6. 5-Azacytidine up regulates the expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) through EBNA-6 and latent membrane protein in the Burkitt's lymphoma line rael.

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, M G; Contreras-Salazar, B; Ragnar, E; Falk, K; Minarovits, J; Ernberg, I; Klein, G

    1989-01-01

    Nonproductive infection of B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a highly restricted expression of viral genes. In growth-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, the products of these genes include a complex of at least six EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) (EBNA-1 through EBNA-6) and one membrane protein (latent membrane protein [LMP]). EBV-carrying Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) biopsies and derived cell lines that have retained a representative phenotype (group I BL lines) express only EBNA-1 (M. Rowe, D. T. Rowe, C. D. Gregory, L. S. Young, P. J. Farrell, H. Rupani, and A. B. Rickinson, EMBO J. 6:2743-2751, 1987). We have found that EBNA-2 through EBNA-6 and LMP can be up regulated by treating the group I BL line Rael with the DNA-demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC). The drug acted in a time- and dose-dependent manner. EBNA-2-positive cells were detected by anti-complement immunofluorescence staining just 12 h after addition of 4 microM 5-AzaC and reached a maximum number at 72 h, when up to 75% of the population was positive. EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-4, EBNA-4, EBNA-6, and LMP were demonstrated immunoblots starting at 48 h. The EBV-encoded early antigens and viral capsid antigens were also induced but at a lower level. EBNA-2 and the lytic cycle-associated antigens appeared with a different time course and in largely nonoverlapping cell subpopulations, as demonstrated by double fluorescence staining. Thus, EBNA-2 expression was not restricted to lytically infected cells, nor was EBNA-2 required for entry into the lytic cycle. The coding and regulatory sequences of EBNA-2 and LMP were found to be highly methylated in Rael cells and were, as expected, demethylated after 5-AzaC treatment. These findings suggest that DNA methylation may participate in the regulation of growth transformation-associated viral genes in BL cells. Images PMID:2470924

  7. Method for predicting whispering gallery mode spectra of spherical microresonators.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jonathan M M; Afshar V, Shahraam; Henderson, Matthew R; François, Alexandre; Reynolds, Tess; Riesen, Nicolas; Monro, Tanya M

    2015-04-20

    A full three-dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD)-based toolkit is developed to simulate the whispering gallery modes of a microsphere in the vicinity of a dipole source. This provides a guide for experiments that rely on efficient coupling to the modes of microspheres. The resultant spectra are compared to those of analytic models used in the field. In contrast to the analytic models, the FDTD method is able to collect flux from a variety of possible collection regions, such as a disk-shaped region. The customizability of the technique allows one to consider a variety of mode excitation scenarios, which are particularly useful for investigating novel properties of optical resonators, and are valuable in assessing the viability of a resonator for biosensing. PMID:25969034

  8. All-polymer whispering gallery mode sensor system.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Ann Britt; Varkentin, Arthur; Roth, Bernhard; Morgner, Uwe; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve

    2016-03-21

    Sensors based on whispering gallery modes have been extensively investigated with respect to their possible application as physical or biological sensors. Instead of using a single resonator, we use an all polymer resonator array as sensing element. A tunable narrowband laser is coupled into a PMMA plate serving as an optical wave guide. PMMA spheres are placed in the evanescent field on the surface of the plate. Due to small size variations, some spheres are in resonance at a given wavelength while others are not. We show that this device is well suited for the determination of an unknown wavelength or for temperature measurements. Moreover, we discuss several general aspects of the sensor concept such as the number and size of sensing elements which are necessary for a correct measurement result, or the maximum acceptable linewidth of the laser. PMID:27136799

  9. Genome Structure Gallery from the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Structual Genomics Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer

    The TB Structural Genomics Consortium works with the structures of proteins from M. tuberculosis, analyzing these structures in the context of functional information that currently exists and that the Consortium generates. The database of linked structural and functional information constructed from this project will form a lasting basis for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and for structure-based drug design. The Consortium's structural and functional information is publicly available. The Structures Gallery makes more than 650 total structures available by PDB identifier. Some of these are not consortium targets, but all are viewable in 3D color and can be manipulated in various ways by Jmol, an open-source Java viewer for chemical structures in 3D from http://www.jmol.org/

  10. Human Genome Program Image Gallery (from genomics.energy.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This collection contains approximately 240 images from the genome programs of DOE's Office of Science. The images are divided into galleries related to biofuels research, systems biology, and basic genomics. Each image has a title, a basic citation, and a credit or source. Most of the images are original graphics created by the Genome Management Information System (GMIS). GMIS images are recognizable by their credit line. Permission to use these graphics is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs and provide the website http://genomics.energy.gov. Other images were provided by third parties and not created by the U.S. Department of Energy. Users must contact the person listed in the credit line before using those images. The high-resolution images can be downloaded.

  11. Dispersion analysis of whispering gallery mode microbubble resonators.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Zhang, Wen Qi; Monro, Tanya M

    2016-04-18

    This paper examines the opportunities existing for engineering dispersion in non-silica whispering gallery mode microbubble resonators, for applications such as optical frequency comb generation. More specifically, the zero dispersion wavelength is analyzed as a function of microbubble diameter and wall thickness for several different material groups such as highly-nonlinear soft glasses, polymers and crystalline materials. The zero dispersion wavelength is shown to be highly-tunable by changing the thickness of the shell. Using certain materials it is shown that dispersion equalization can be realized at interesting wavelengths such as deep within the visible or mid-infrared, opening up new possibilities for optical frequency comb generation. This study represents the first extensive analysis of the prospects of using non-silica microbubbles for nonlinear optics. PMID:27137317

  12. Elementary modes of coupled oscillators as whispering-gallery microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip

    2015-10-01

    We obtain the elementary modes of a system of parity-time reversal (PT)-symmetric coupled oscillators with balanced loss and gain. These modes are used to give a physical picture of the phase transition recently reported [C. M. Bender, M. Gianfreda, B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir and L. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062111 (2013); L. Yang, S. K. Özdemir and B. Peng, 12th Int. Workshop and Conf. Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, Istanbul, Turkey, July 2013; B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014)] in experiments with whispering-gallery microresonators.

  13. Brillouin lasing in whispering gallery micro-resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturman, B.; Breunig, I.

    2015-12-01

    Thresholds of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in solid-state whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators are analyzed. It is shown that the SBS interaction is substantially different here from that known in the bulk case and in the case of water droplet resonators. The reason is the absence of pure longitudinal acoustic WGMs owing to strong coupling of the longitudinal (l) and transverse (t) acoustic displacements at the surface of the resonator. As a result, a considerable increase of the SBS thresholds takes place, and the lowest thresholds correspond to the hybrid tl-modes with very large radial indices. Nevertheless, the thresholds lie in the μW range of the pump power. Dependence of the SBS power thresholds on the modal numbers and the possibility of self-tuning to the SBS resonance are analyzed.

  14. Tuning whispering gallery modes using internal aerostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Henze, Rico; Seifert, Tom; Ward, Jonathan; Benson, Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Aerostatic tuning of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in a microbubble resonator is demonstrated. The optical modes are redshifted over hundreds of gigahertz (GHz) simply by increasing the air pressure (up to 6 bars) inside the microbubble. A description of the pressure tuning properties of the WGMs in microbubbles is given in terms of the corresponding elasto-optical equations of spherical shells and the results are compared to experimental data. Microbubbles as small as 74 μm are tested and the experimental results show excellent agreement with the theory. An estimation method is developed for calculating the wall thicknesses of the microbubbles from the diameters, which are measured via direct microscopy. A geometrical factor χ is defined and a linear relationship between the shift rate (GHz/bar) of the bubbles modes and χ is observed. PMID:22139234

  15. A temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with a microwave temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator whose dielectric medium is a cylindrical sapphire crystal. The performance as temperature sensor were investigated a three WGMs resonant frequencies over the temperature range from -40 °C to 85 °C. It was found that the quality factor for these WGMs can be in excess of 1.7ṡ105, potentially enabling high-resolution measurements. The temperature repeatability, stability, hysteresis, frequency-vs-temperature sensitivity of the WGM temperature sensor are reported. Moreover, two sapphires, which have the same nominal characteristics, were investigated in order to assess the system reproducibility and the results reported.

  16. Spherical-sapphire-based whispering gallery mode resonator thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lili; Fernicola, V.

    2012-09-01

    A novel microwave whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on a spherical sapphire crystal was developed at INRIM and its use as a thermometer was tested. The temperature dependence of the WGM frequencies was studied and the most promising resonance near to 13.6 GHz, with a loaded quality factor as large as 82 000, was carefully investigated. Its potential use in thermometry was evaluated through a study of its main metrological characteristics, such as the temperature sensitivity, the frequency stability, the repeatability, and the resolution at several temperatures over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. Finally, the INRIM spherical sapphire thermometer was compared with the NIST SWGT, a dielectric thermometer based on a cylindrical sapphire resonator [V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and Kh. S. Bagdassarov, Phys. Lett. A 120(3), 300 (1987), 10.1016/0375-9601(87)90676-1].

  17. Spherical-sapphire-based whispering gallery mode resonator thermometer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lili; Fernicola, V

    2012-09-01

    A novel microwave whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on a spherical sapphire crystal was developed at INRIM and its use as a thermometer was tested. The temperature dependence of the WGM frequencies was studied and the most promising resonance near to 13.6 GHz, with a loaded quality factor as large as 82 000, was carefully investigated. Its potential use in thermometry was evaluated through a study of its main metrological characteristics, such as the temperature sensitivity, the frequency stability, the repeatability, and the resolution at several temperatures over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. Finally, the INRIM spherical sapphire thermometer was compared with the NIST SWGT, a dielectric thermometer based on a cylindrical sapphire resonator [V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and Kh. S. Bagdassarov, Phys. Lett. A 120(3), 300 (1987)]. PMID:23020404

  18. Rarefying Spectra of Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitri; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A method of cleaning the mode spectra of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators has been devised to make such resonators more suitable for use as narrow-band optical filters. The method applies, more specifically, to millimeter- sized whispering-gallery-mode optical resonators that are made of crystalline electro-optical materials and have ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The mode spectrum of such a resonator is typically dense, consisting of closely spaced families of modes; as such, the spectrum is not well suited for narrow-band filtering, in which there is a need for strong rejection of side modes. Cleaning as used here signifies rarefying the spectrum so that what remains consists mostly of a single desired family of modes or, at worst, a few mode families that are more widely spaced in frequency than are the mode families in the original, non-rarefied spectrum. The spectrum-cleaning method exploits the fact that various WGM mode families occupy various positions near the equator at the rim of a resonator disk. In this method, a damper in the form of a prism or other polished piece of material having an index of refraction greater than that of the resonator material is placed in contact with the rim of the resonator at such a position that the Qs of most or all of the undesired mode families are greatly reduced while the Q of the desired mode family is reduced by only a tolerably small amount. In an alternative method that has been considered, the mode spectrum would be cleaned through special design of the shape of the rim, but fabrication of the rim in a special shape is a complicated task. The advantage of the present method, relative to the alternative method, is that special shaping of the rim is not necessary and the damping prism can be emplaced after the resonator has been fabricated.

  19. Microwave Photonics Systems Based on Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  20. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  1. The Cosmology Gallery: Unity through diversity in a vast and awe-inspiring universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2011-06-01

    Scientists, artists, religious and cultural leaders have come together to create the Cosmology Gallery at the Gravity Discovery Centre (GDC) located 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. The Cosmology Gallery exhibitions include the multicultural cosmology artworks, Celestial Visions astronomical photography exhibition and the Timeline of the Universe. The multicultural cosmology artworks are new artworks inspired by Australian Indigenous, Christian, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, scientific and technological perspectives of the universe. The Celestial Visions exhibition features astronomical events above famous landmarks, including Stonehenge and the Pyramids. The AUD 400,000+ project was funded by Lotterywest, Western Australia and the Cosmology Gallery was officially opened in July 2008 by the Premier of Western Australia.

  2. 75 FR 15740 - Gallery Leather Company, Inc., Trenton, ME; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Gallery Leather Company, Inc., Trenton, ME; Notice of Termination of... Leather Company, Inc., Trenton, Maine. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  3. Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.

  4. OPTICAL SOLITONS: Optical solitons appearing during propagation of whispering-gallery waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    The properties of solitons appearing during the propagation of whispering-gallery waves in a homogeneous glass cylinder are considered. It is shown that such solitons can be used for the light frequency conversion.

  5. The Junior Gallery: A Hands-On Space for Learning and Creating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podhurst, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    Describes an educational program focusing on workshops at the Junior Gallery, a part of the Everhart Museum (Scranton, Pennsylvania). Explains that the museum's collection is integrated with lessons in art appreciation, production, natural history, and other subject areas. (CMK)

  6. 6. TROLLEY WASHER/OILER IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GALLERY LEVEL; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. TROLLEY WASHER/OILER IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF GALLERY LEVEL; LOOKING NORTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. Direct electrical-to-optical conversion and light modulation in micro whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Levi, Anthony F. J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Techniques for directly converting an electrical signal into an optical signal by using a whispering gallery mode optical resonator formed of a dielectric material that allows for direct modulation of optical absorption by the electrical signal.

  8. Interior hallway, at 1250 Gallery, showing entrance into PumpGenerating Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior hallway, at 1250 Gallery, showing entrance into Pump-Generating Plant from Left Powerhouse, looking southwest. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  9. Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

    2014-09-15

    As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.

  10. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.

    2009-04-01

    A large scientific program of geophysical investigations is presently performed inside the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit / LSBB, Rustrel, France) which is an decomissioned underground missile control center, buried in a karstified limestone formation. One of the goals of this project is the understanding of the water circulation inside the structure. This experimental site offers a unique opportunity of perfoming measurements within an unweathered limestone massif. The tunnel has been dug in lower cretaceous limestone which is characterized by a low clay content, high electrical resistivity. The dip is around 25 degrees and vertical faults locally affect the structure. The studied zone is located in south-eastern France (Provence) and is characterized by a mediterranean climate with long dry periods and strong, short events of rain. This phenomenon induces large variations of water content within the karstified limestone from dry to saturated conditions. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the water flow in a karstified limestones needs to define the geological context and the adequate geophysical methods. GPR offers a good tradeoff between resolution and ease of use on one hand and investigation depth on the other hand. We present some GPR profiles which have been acquired in April 2008 after a quite long and strong period of rain, inducing a complete water saturation inside the karstified massif. We used several RAMAC shielded antennas from 100 to 500 MHz. The longest profile is around 600 m long, with a 20 cm spacing, running from a raw to a concrete gallery. These data sets are characterized by a very good signal to noise ratio and a signal penetration, up to 18 meters. Signal processing includes very low frequency filtering, amplitude compensation, keeping lateral relative attenuation and ringing suppression. Final sections includes migration and time to depth conversion or depth migration. The estimated

  11. Whispering galleries and the control of artificial atoms

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computation using artificial-atoms, such as novel superconducting circuits, can be sensitively controlled by external electromagnetic fields. These fields and the self-fields attributable to the coupled artificial-atoms influence the amount of quantum correlation in the system. However, control elements that can operate without complete destruction of the entanglement of the quantum-bits are difficult to engineer. Here we investigate the possibility of using closely-spaced-linear arrays of metallic-elliptical discs as whispering gallery waveguides to control artificial-atoms. The discs confine and guide radiation through the array with small notches etched into their sides that act as scatterers. We focus on π-ring artificial-atoms, which can generate their own spontaneous fluxes. We find that the micro-discs of the waveguides can be excited by terahertz frequency fields to exhibit whispering-modes and that a quantum-phase-gate composed of π-rings can be operated under their influence. Furthermore, we gauge the level of entanglement through the concurrence measure and show that under certain magnetic conditions a series of entanglement sudden-deaths and revivals occur between the two qubits. This is important for understanding the stability and life-time of qubit operations using, for example, a phase gate in a hybrid of quantum technologies composed of control elements and artificial-atoms. PMID:27122353

  12. Conceptual Design Report. Footprint Gallery Upgrade - Civil Construction, May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    The Footprint Gallery Complex will be enlarged and modified. The basic outline of the project will be to add 68,100 square feet of new construction, remodel 20,600 square feet of existing space, and retire by removal 17 ,500 square feet. The principal items to be addressed are: the creation of larger Main Control Rooms and Central Control Computer Rooms, the replacement of several temporary structures with permanent facilities, the provision for a growth in population of 132 people, and the creation of an intermediate sized meeting/lecture room facility. Disjointed second floor areas will be connected and made accessible to the handicapped, secure and informative viewing for visitors will be provided, and parking will be increased to match the expected growth. The new construction will provide for a more centralized concentration of systems and support personnel of the Fermilab Accelerator Division, reflecting the growth of these organizations during the last 15 years. Experiments, such as the D-Zero detector and antiproton deceleration (E760), have been assigned to the Accelerator Division for support. The associated physicists and experimenters make up the most significant component of the growth in population for which this construction will provide additional space.

  13. Optothermal transport behavior in whispering gallery mode optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Soheil; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-08-04

    Over the past century, whispering gallery mode optical cavities have enabled numerous advances in science and engineering, such as discoveries in quantum mechanics and non-linear optics, as well as the development of optical gyroscopes and add drop filters. One reason for their widespread appeal is their ability to confine light for long periods of time, resulting in high circulating intensities. However, when sufficiently large amounts of optical power are coupled into these cavities, they begin to experience optothermal or photothermal behavior, in which the optical energy is converted into heat. Above the optothermal threshold, the resonance behavior is no longer solely defined by electromagnetics. Previous work has primarily focused on the role of the optothermal coefficient of the material in this instability. However, the physics of this optothermal behavior is significantly more complex. In the present work, we develop a predictive theory based on a generalizable analytical expression in combination with a geometry-specific COMSOL Multiphysics finite element method model. The simulation couples the optical and thermal physics components, accounting for geometry variations as well as the temporal and spatial profile of the optical field. To experimentally verify our theoretical model, the optothermal thresholds of a series of silica toroidal resonant cavities are characterized at different wavelengths (visible through near-infrared) and using different device geometries. The silica toroid offers a particularly rigorous case study for the developed optothermal model because of its complex geometrical structure which provides multiple thermal transport paths.

  14. Optothermal transport behavior in whispering gallery mode optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Soheil; M. Armani, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Over the past century, whispering gallery mode optical cavities have enabled numerous advances in science and engineering, such as discoveries in quantum mechanics and non-linear optics, as well as the development of optical gyroscopes and add drop filters. One reason for their widespread appeal is their ability to confine light for long periods of time, resulting in high circulating intensities. However, when sufficiently large amounts of optical power are coupled into these cavities, they begin to experience optothermal or photothermal behavior, in which the optical energy is converted into heat. Above the optothermal threshold, the resonance behavior is no longer solely defined by electromagnetics. Previous work has primarily focused on the role of the optothermal coefficient of the material in this instability. However, the physics of this optothermal behavior is significantly more complex. In the present work, we develop a predictive theory based on a generalizable analytical expression in combination with a geometry-specific COMSOL Multiphysics finite element method model. The simulation couples the optical and thermal physics components, accounting for geometry variations as well as the temporal and spatial profile of the optical field. To experimentally verify our theoretical model, the optothermal thresholds of a series of silica toroidal resonant cavities are characterized at different wavelengths (visible through near-infrared) and using different device geometries. The silica toroid offers a particularly rigorous case study for the developed optothermal model because of its complex geometrical structure which provides multiple thermal transport paths.

  15. Dispersion and polarization conversion of whispering gallery modes in nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovic, G.; Malpuech, G.; Gippius, N. A.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate theoretically the optical properties of nano-wires (NWs) with cross sections having either discrete or cylindrical symmetry. The material forming the wire is birefringent, showing a different dielectric response in the plane and along the axis of the wire, which is typically the case for wires made of wurtzite materials, such as ZnO or GaN. We look for solutions of Maxwell's equations having the proper symmetry. The dispersions and the linewidths versus angle of incident light for the modes having high momentum in the cross-section plane, so called whispering gallery modes, are calculated. We put a special emphasis on the case of hexagonal cross sections. The energy positions of the modes for a set of azimuthal quantum numbers are shown. We demonstrate the dependence of the energy splitting between TE and TM modes versus birefringence. The polarization conversion from TE to TM with increase in the axial wave vector is discussed for both cylindrical and discrete symmetries.

  16. High-Q BBO whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Fürst, Josef U.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Grudinin, Ivan S.; Yu, Nan

    2013-02-01

    We report an investigation on optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators made from non z-cut beta barium borate (BBO) crystals. We first fabricated high quality (Q) factor WGM resonators made of an angle-cut BBO crystal. Q factors of 1×108 level have been demonstrated at various wavelengths including UV. They led to new upper bounds for the absorption coefficients of BBO at 1560 nm, 980 nm and 370 nm. We observed only one set of ordinarily polarized WGMs with polarization rotating along the resonator circumference. We also fabricated xy-cut BBO WGM resonators, in which the optic axis is parallel to the resonator plane. In that case, two WGM families with different polarization exist, one with constant the other with oscillatory phase velocity. This enables a novel way of broadband phase matching in WGM resonators with cyclic gain. We experimentally demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation (SHG) to a wide harmonic wavelength range from 780 nm at near infrared to 317 nm in UV. It is also the first reported direct UV SHG in a high-Q WGM resonator. This work lays a foundation for further investigations of WGM properties of non-z cut birefringent resonators and their applications in nonlinear optics.

  17. Protein-based flexible whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Xu, Linhua; Shreiner, Robert; Jung, Huihun; Huang, Steven H.; Özdemir, Sahin K.; Demirel, Melik C.; Yang, Lan

    2016-02-01

    The idea of creating photonics tools for sensing, imaging and material characterization has long been pursued and many achievements have been made. Approaching the level of solutions provided by nature however is hindered by routine choice of materials. To this end recent years have witnessed a great effort to engineer mechanically flexible photonic devices using polymer substrates. On the other hand, biodegradability and biocompatibility still remains to be incorporated. Hence biomimetics holds the key to overcome the limitations of traditional materials in photonics design. Natural proteins such as sucker ring teeth (SRT) and silk for instance have remarkable mechanical and optical properties that exceed the endeavors of most synthetic and natural polymers. Here we demonstrate for the first time, toroidal whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) fabricated entirely from protein structures such as SRT of Loligo vulgaris (European squid) and silk from Bombyx mori. We provide here complete optical and material characterization of proteinaceous WGMRs, revealing high quality factors in microscale and enhancement of Raman signatures by a microcavity. We also present a most simple application of a WGMR as a natural protein add-drop filter, made of SRT protein. Our work shows that with protein-based materials, optical, mechanical and thermal properties can be devised at the molecular level and it lays the groundwork for future eco-friendly, flexible photonics device design.

  18. Whispering galleries and the control of artificial atoms.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Kusmartsev, Feodor V

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computation using artificial-atoms, such as novel superconducting circuits, can be sensitively controlled by external electromagnetic fields. These fields and the self-fields attributable to the coupled artificial-atoms influence the amount of quantum correlation in the system. However, control elements that can operate without complete destruction of the entanglement of the quantum-bits are difficult to engineer. Here we investigate the possibility of using closely-spaced-linear arrays of metallic-elliptical discs as whispering gallery waveguides to control artificial-atoms. The discs confine and guide radiation through the array with small notches etched into their sides that act as scatterers. We focus on π-ring artificial-atoms, which can generate their own spontaneous fluxes. We find that the micro-discs of the waveguides can be excited by terahertz frequency fields to exhibit whispering-modes and that a quantum-phase-gate composed of π-rings can be operated under their influence. Furthermore, we gauge the level of entanglement through the concurrence measure and show that under certain magnetic conditions a series of entanglement sudden-deaths and revivals occur between the two qubits. This is important for understanding the stability and life-time of qubit operations using, for example, a phase gate in a hybrid of quantum technologies composed of control elements and artificial-atoms. PMID:27122353

  19. Interfacing whispering gallery mode microresonators for environmental biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Heather K.; Dahmen, Jeremy L.; Soteropulos, Carol E.

    2014-03-01

    Label-free biosensors that combine high sensitivity and high specificity characteristics have shown tremendous potential for applications in medical diagnostics, and have more recently been extended to the food safety and environmental monitoring arenas. A unique type of label-free, optical biosensor, based on Whispering Gallery Mode microresonators, has tremendous potential to revolutionize biodetection due to its extreme sensitivity. The primary limitation of these biosensors, however, is that they require the addition of biorecognition elements to specifically target a biological species of interest. Therefore, the ability to selectively functionalize the microresonator for a specific target molecule, without degrading device performance, is extremely important, and represents the next step in translating these devices from laboratory to field environments. Here, we demonstrate a variety of straightforward bioconjugation strategies that not only impart specificity to optical microresonators, but also allow for the creation of multi-use platforms for complex environments. Of particular interest is the ability to detect harmful bacteria, insects, and fungi in crop and water systems. The resulting surface chemistries are illustrated with XPS, SEM, and fluorescence and optical microscopy, and the device sensitivity is determined via quantitative microcavity analysis. The ability to minimize non-specific adsorption and target unique molecules in complex environments is demonstrated via ellipsometry and in situ device testing. The resulting devices can be recycled several times without loss of sensitivity. By combining these high sensitivity biosensors with appropriate biochemistries, the resulting platforms can be extended to address broader issues in environmental biosensing that directly impact agriculture.

  20. Whispering galleries and the control of artificial atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum computation using artificial-atoms, such as novel superconducting circuits, can be sensitively controlled by external electromagnetic fields. These fields and the self-fields attributable to the coupled artificial-atoms influence the amount of quantum correlation in the system. However, control elements that can operate without complete destruction of the entanglement of the quantum-bits are difficult to engineer. Here we investigate the possibility of using closely-spaced-linear arrays of metallic-elliptical discs as whispering gallery waveguides to control artificial-atoms. The discs confine and guide radiation through the array with small notches etched into their sides that act as scatterers. We focus on π-ring artificial-atoms, which can generate their own spontaneous fluxes. We find that the micro-discs of the waveguides can be excited by terahertz frequency fields to exhibit whispering-modes and that a quantum-phase-gate composed of π-rings can be operated under their influence. Furthermore, we gauge the level of entanglement through the concurrence measure and show that under certain magnetic conditions a series of entanglement sudden-deaths and revivals occur between the two qubits. This is important for understanding the stability and life-time of qubit operations using, for example, a phase gate in a hybrid of quantum technologies composed of control elements and artificial-atoms.

  1. Phase-Array Approach to Optical Whispering Gallery Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    This technology leverages the well-defined orbital number of a whispering gallery modulator (WGM) to expand the range of applications for such resonators. This property rigidly connects the phase variation of the field in this mode with the azimuthal angle between the coupling locations. A WGM with orbital momentum L has exactly L instant nodes around the circumference of the WGM resonator supporting such a mode. Therefore, in two locations separated by the arc alpha, the phase difference of such a field will be equal to phi= alpha L. Coupling the field out of such locations, and into a balanced interferometer, once can observe a complete constructive or distractive interference (or have any situation in between) depending on the angle alpha. Similarly, a mode L + delta L will pick up the phase phi + alpha delta L. In all applications of a WGM resonator as a modulator, the orbital numbers for the carrier and sidebands are different, and their differences delta L are known (usually, but not necessarily, delta L = 1). Therefore, the choice of the angle alpha, and of the interferometer arms difference, allows one to control the relative phase between different modes and to perform the conversion, separation, and filtering tasks necessary.

  2. Unidirectional emission from whispering gallery modes via transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yushin; Lee, Soo-Young; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Inbo; Han, Jae-hyung; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Muhan; Min, Bumki

    2014-09-01

    It is well known from transformation optics that a light pathway can be designed with artificial materials. When a coordinate transform technique is applied to optically resonating dielectric structures, interesting phenomena can be observed as well. Generally, a long-lived whispering gallery mode (WGM) has no preferential direction of radiation because of its rotationally symmetric structure. However, if the space inside the resonator is transformed so that the discontinuity of coordinates exists, it becomes possible to reconcile directional emission with WGMs. Here, we transform only the inner space of a deformed optical cavity, e.g., the Limaçon cavity into a virtual perfect disk via a conformal mapping and show these two seemingly incompatible behaviors can be observed simultaneously. The refractive index profiles that realize the transformed space can be obtained from the conformal space transformation. The resonant mode calculated with a transformed boundary element method shows that the WGMs can restore for the deformed cavity. The Husimi function calculated for this transformed cavity shows a weighted band-like profile, which implies that the optical rays inside the cavity is maintaining its reflecting angle as is for the original cavity. However, the far-field pattern shows anisotropic emission of radiation because it is determined by tunneling through the rotationally asymmetric boundary. For example, the conformal WGMs in Limaçon and center-shifted triangular cavities exhibit bidirectional and uni-directional emission patterns in the far-field, respectively. These conformal WGM cavities with both the ultra-high quality factor and the directional light emission may be used in the realization of efficient directional light sources.

  3. Topological Galleries: A High Level User Interface for Topology Controlled Volume Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    MacCarthy, Brian; Carr, Hamish; Weber, Gunther H.

    2011-06-30

    Existing topological interfaces to volume rendering are limited by their reliance on sophisticated knowledge of topology by the user. We extend previous work by describing topological galleries, an interface for novice users that is based on the design galleries approach. We report three contributions: an interface based on hierarchical thumbnail galleries to display the containment relationships between topologically identifiable features, the use of the pruning hierarchy instead of branch decomposition for contour tree simplification, and drag-and-drop transfer function assignment for individual components. Initial results suggest that this approach suffers from limitations due to rapid drop-off of feature size in the pruning hierarchy. We explore these limitations by providing statistics of feature size as function of depth in the pruning hierarchy of the contour tree.

  4. Stress Distribution on Blasting Gallery Barrier Pillar due to Goaf Formation During Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Reddy, Sandi; Sastry, Vedala Rama

    2015-09-01

    Semi-mechanised blasting gallery mining is a sustainable option to achieve higher production and productivity from underground thick coal seams. Judicious design of underground blasting gallery panel requires understanding of stress distribution on barrier pillars during different stages of extraction. This paper presents a study of stress distribution in and around barrier pillar for the different stages of extraction in the blasting gallery panel. Finite difference analysis taken up for final excavation (depillaring) in the panel with different stages of extraction. Analysis revealed that the stress transferred on barrier pillar increased as progress of excavation increased. Maximum stress was observed at a distance of 10 and 12 m from the pillar edge for virgin and goaved out panel sideby respectively, which gradually decreased towards centre of the pillar.

  5. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition. PMID:26022298

  6. Continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through fourth-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Jarrahi, Mona

    2011-11-21

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through forth-harmonic generation in a millimeter-scale lithium niobate whispering-gallery resonator pumped with a telecommunication-compatible infrared source. The whispering-gallery resonator provides four spectral lines at ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and infrared, which are equally spaced in frequency via the cascaded-harmonic process and span a 2-octave frequency band. Our technique relies on a variable crystal poling and high transverse order of the modes for phase-matching and a resonator quality factor of over 10(7) to allow cascaded-harmonic generation up to the fourth-harmonic at input pump powers as low as 200 mW. The compact size of the whispering gallery resonator pumped at telecommunication-compatible infrared wavelengths and the low pump power requirement make our device a promising ultraviolet light source for information storage, microscopy, and chemical analysis. PMID:22109440

  7. 76 FR 68101 - Safety Zone; Art Gallery Party St. Pete 2011 Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Art Gallery Party St. Pete 2011 Fireworks... Spa Beach in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Art Gallery Party St. Pete 2011 Fireworks Display on... to provide for the safety of event participants, spectator craft, and other vessels transiting...

  8. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays.

  9. The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers

    PubMed Central

    Szedlak, Rolf; Holzbauer, Martin; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schwarzer, Clemens; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    We introduce ring lasers with continuous π-phase shifts in the second order distributed feedback grating. This configuration facilitates insights into the nature of the modal outcoupling in an optical cavity. The grating exploits the asymmetry of whispering gallery modes and induces a rotation of the far field pattern. We find that this rotation can be connected to the location of the mode relative to the grating. Furthermore, the direction of rotation depends on the radial order of the whispering gallery mode. This enables a distinct identification and characterization of the mode by simple analysis of the emission beam. PMID:26573341

  10. Multi-scale nonlinear effects in whispering-gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-03-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators have been the focus of many research works in recent years. They allow to study the light-matter interactions induced by the confinement of photons in nonlinear media. In particular, Brillouin Raman and Kerr nonlinearities excite the resonator at the lattice, molecular and electronic scale. This difference in spatial scales give to whispering gallery-mode resonators the potential to be central photonic components in microwave photonics, quantum optics and optoelectronics. We discuss in this communication some of the key challenges that have to be met for the understanding of Kerr, Raman and Brillouin interactions that can take place in these resonators.

  11. In-fiber whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Leilei; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Dongmei; Liu, Min; Deng, Ming; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    An in-fiber whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromaching is demonstrated. The cylinder resonator cavity is fabricated by scanning the D-fiber cladding with infrared femtosecond pulses along a cylindrical trace with radius of 25μm and height of 20μm. Quality factor on the order of 103 is achieved by smoothing the cavity surface with ultrasonic cleaner, which is mainly limited by the surface roughness of hundreds nanometers. Resonant characteristics and polarization dependence of the proposed resonator is also studied in detail. Our method takes a step forward to the integration of whispering gallery mode resonators.

  12. Electro-pumped whispering gallery mode ZnO microlaser array

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G. Y.; Li, J. T.; Tian, Z. S.; Dai, J.; Wang, Y. Y.; Li, P. L.; Xu, C. X.

    2015-01-12

    By employing vapor-phase transport method, ZnO microrods are fabricated and directly assembled on p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructural microlaser array, which avoids of the relatively complicated etching process comparing previous work. Under applied forward bias, whispering gallery mode ZnO ultraviolet lasing is obtained from the as-fabricated heterostructural microlaser array. The device's electroluminescence originates from three distinct electron-hole recombination processes in the heterojunction interface, and whispering gallery mode ultraviolet lasing is obtained when the applied voltage is beyond the lasing threshold. This work may present a significant step towards future fabrication of a facile technique for micro/nanolasers.

  13. White-Light Whispering-Gallery-Mode Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators can be designed to exhibit continuous spectra over wide wavelength bands (in effect, white-light spectra), with ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q) that are nearly independent of frequency. White-light WGM resonators have potential as superior alternatives to (1) larger, conventional optical resonators in ring-down spectroscopy, and (2) optical-resonator/electro-optical-modulator structures used in coupling of microwave and optical signals in atomic clocks. In these and other potential applications, the use of white-light WGM resonators makes it possible to relax the requirement of high-frequency stability of lasers, thereby enabling the use of cheaper lasers. In designing a white-light WGM resonator, one exploits the fact that the density of the mode spectrum increases predictably with the thickness of the resonator disk. By making the resonator disk sufficiently thick, one can make the frequency differences between adjacent modes significantly less than the spectral width of a single mode, so that the spectral peaks of adjacent modes overlap, making the resonator spectrum essentially continuous. Moreover, inasmuch as the Q values of the various modes are determined primarily by surface Rayleigh scattering that does not depend on mode numbers, all the modes have nearly equal Q. By use of a proper coupling technique, one can ensure excitation of a majority of the modes. For an experimental demonstration of a white-light WGM resonator, a resonator disk 0.5-mm thick and 5 mm in diameter was made from CaF2. The shape of the resonator and the fiberoptic coupling arrangement were as shown in Figure 1. The resonator was excited with laser light having a wavelength of 1,320 nm and a spectral width of 4 kHz. The coupling efficiency exceeded 80 percent at any frequency to which the laser could be set in its tuning range, which was >100-GHz wide. The resonator response was characterized by means of ring

  14. Using Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators for Refractometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the refractive and absorptive properties of optically transparent materials involves a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis of electromagnetic responses of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator disks made of those materials. The method was conceived especially for use in studying transparent photorefractive materials, for which purpose this method affords unprecedented levels of sensitivity and accuracy. The method is expected to be particularly useful for measuring temporally varying refractive and absorptive properties of photorefractive materials at infrared wavelengths. Still more particularly, the method is expected to be useful for measuring drifts in these properties that are so slow that, heretofore, the properties were assumed to be constant. The basic idea of the method is to attempt to infer values of the photorefractive properties of a material by seeking to match (1) theoretical predictions of the spectral responses (or selected features thereof) of a WGM of known dimensions made of the material with (2) the actual spectral responses (or selected features thereof). Spectral features that are useful for this purpose include resonance frequencies, free spectral ranges (differences between resonance frequencies of adjacently numbered modes), and resonance quality factors (Q values). The method has been demonstrated in several experiments, one of which was performed on a WGM resonator made from a disk of LiNbO3 doped with 5 percent of MgO. The free spectral range of the resonator was approximately equal to 3.42 GHz at wavelengths in the vicinity of 780 nm, the smallest full width at half maximum of a mode was approximately equal to 50 MHz, and the thickness of the resonator in the area of mode localization was 30 microns. In the experiment, laser power of 9 mW was coupled into the resonator with an efficiency of 75 percent, and the laser was scanned over a frequency band 9 GHz wide at a nominal wavelength of

  15. Bringing Image and Language Together: A Workshop at the Lehman College Art Gallery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Alice

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a ten day workshop for kindergarten and fourth grade students that centered around the art exhibit "Contemporary Chinese Art and the Literary Culture of China" held at the Lehman College Art Gallery (Bronx, New York). Explains that students created accordion books based on Xing Fei's "Red Book." (CMK)

  16. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Byers, J.A.

    1992-05-19

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam is described. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k[sub [phi

  17. Visual Culture and Literacy Online: Image Galleries as Sites of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    As new media emerge in the common culture, the authors recommend that art educators adopt those media to facilitate deep understanding of visual culture and literacy. They report here on applications of an online image gallery that helps users develop ways to interpret what they see and compose. Over the past few years the authors have…

  18. Contemporary Adult Education Philosophies and Practices in Art Galleries and Museums in Canada and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Bell, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Public art galleries and museums have been mandated to become more relevant and useful to the lived experiences of the broad communities they claim to serve. Adult education has long been part of the work of these institutions, although historically the relationship has been uneasy, and they seldom feature in the adult education literature. To…

  19. The Spiral Gallery: Non-Market Creativity and Belonging in an Australian Country Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore creative practice in an Australian country town, and in so doing, to unsettle market-orientated interpretations of creativity that privilege the urban. Instead of focusing on creative practice as a means to develop industries, we focus on how creativity is a means to establish a cooperative gallery space that helps to…

  20. "The Art of Democracy": Young People's Democratic Learning in Gallery Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawy, Robert; Biesta, Gert; McDonnell, Jane; Lawy, Helen; Reeves, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors report on research which aimed to explore the opportunities for democratic action and learning in a number of artist-led gallery education projects in the south-west of England. The research takes an approach to citizenship learning and democracy that is less focused on citizenship as a specific subject in the formal…

  1. At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, similar view as WA139A25. Joshua ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 55, similar view as WA-139-A-25. Joshua Hendy Ironworks, Sunnyvale, California, manufactured the mechanical components of this gate control unit. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. Artistic Sensibility in the Studio and Gallery Model: Revisiting Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the cultivation of artistic sensibility and its impact on the art therapy process and product in a community mental health center. Artistic sensibility embodies the sense of self as an artist through the integration of artistic and aesthetic attributes of self and other. The formation of a gallery to exhibit patient art was…

  3. A coaxial converter for transforming a whispering gallery mode to the HE sub 11 mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    A coaxial analogue of the Vlasov converter is described which transforms a whispering gallery mode into an oversize rectangular TE{sub 01} mode, which can in turn be transformed into the HE{sub 11} mode by standard techniques. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Lifelong Learning for People Aged 64+ within the Contemporary Art Gallery Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulding, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the initial findings from Contemporary Visual Art and Identity Construction--Wellbeing Amongst Older People: a two-year research project that aims to understand how the lives of older people can be improved by examining their use of contemporary visual art in the art gallery and museum. It will focus on data relating to lifelong…

  5. The Management of Higher Education Museums, Galleries and Collections (HEMGCs) in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed workers in higher education museums, galleries, and collections (HEMGCs) about threats to HEMGCs, how they contribute to their institutions and the wider community, and how they might effectively be managed. Concluded that HEMGCs provide a valuable service, that staff need the authority and funds to run them professionally, and that…

  6. Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Strekalov, D V; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Yu, N

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation into the optical domain in a high-Q whispering gallery mode resonator with quadratic optical nonlinearity. The 5x10(-3) power conversion efficiency of a cw 100 GHz signal is achieved with only 16 mW of optical pump. PMID:19282908

  7. The National Gallery of Canada's Theme Rooms: Exploring the Educational Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlands, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Didactic space for education within art museums is explored, and the development of four such areas in the National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa) is traced. Evaluation of the resulting Theme Rooms through observations of and interviews with 112 patrons will increase their appeal and potential for education. (SLD)

  8. Durability of visitable concrete sewer gallery under the effect of domestic wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, Aimed; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Tioua, Tahar; Abimiloud, Youcef; Barluenga, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    The durability of concrete structures for the disposal of wastewater depends on their behavior when faced to different aggressions such as mechanics, chemical and biological, causing a deterioration often cementing matrix. The deterioration of recent evacuations wastewater infrastructure, made of reinforced concrete less than 15 years ago, has become an important concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation and the factors responsible for the deterioration of the concrete visitable gallery of sewage from the town of Touggourt (south-east of Algeria). Thus, samples from different parts of the gallery were extracted and unaltered samples were selected as a reference. A degraded sample exposed to H2S gas and another sample of the gallery submerged into wastewater were analyzed to characterize the internal and external damage to the gallery as well as the chemical and mineralogical changes. These tests were complemented by a physical and mechanical characterization of the samples. The experimental results showed the strong anisotropy of both internal and external damage.

  9. Linear and nonlinear behavior of crystalline optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate strong nonlinear behavior of high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators made out of various crystals adn devices based on the resonators. The maximum WGM optical Q-fact or achieved at room temperature exceeds 2X10 to the tenth power.

  10. Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Grandidier, Jonathan; Callahan, Dennis M; Munday, Jeremy N; Atwater, Harry A.

    2011-03-07

    A novel approach to increasing light absorption in thin-film solar cells is demonstrated. This new method involves redirecting the incident sunlight into the cell via coupling to the whispering gallery modes of dielectric spheres, which lie atop the cell. Such a scheme leads to a predicted current enhancement of >12% for a-Si.

  11. The Artist-Led Pedagogic Process in the Contemporary Art Gallery: Developing a Meaning Making Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on recent research which examined how selected artist educators perceive themselves as arts practitioners and analysed how these constructions inform their pedagogy, this article proposes a framework of meaning making in the art gallery. Art practice is defined as a process of conceptual and experiential enquiry which embraces inspiration,…

  12. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  13. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity. PMID:19488520

  14. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  15. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives. PMID:27455332

  16. Physics. Creating and probing electron whispering-gallery modes in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Wyrick, Jonathan; Natterer, Fabian D; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F; Lewandowski, Cyprian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Levitov, Leonid S; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    The design of high-finesse resonant cavities for electronic waves faces challenges due to short electron coherence lengths in solids. Complementing previous approaches to confine electronic waves by carefully positioned adatoms at clean metallic surfaces, we demonstrate an approach inspired by the peculiar acoustic phenomena in whispering galleries. Taking advantage of graphene's gate-tunable light-like carriers, we create whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators defined by circular pn junctions, induced by a scanning tunneling probe. We can tune the resonator size and the carrier concentration under the probe in a back-gated graphene device over a wide range. The WGM-type confinement and associated resonances are a new addition to the quantum electron-optics toolbox, paving the way to develop electronic lenses and resonators. PMID:25954005

  17. Hybrid whispering gallery mode/plasmonic chain ring resonators for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arnold, Stephen; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the physics of hybrid whispering gallery mode resonators formed by arranging a periodic array of epitopes (i.e., gold nano-shells covering silica nano-spheres) around the equator of a silica microsphere. When the epitopes are located at the antinodes of the field of the whispering gallery mode, we find that the field localization properties near the epitopes change drastically as the radius of the epitopes is varied due to the existence of distinct coupling regions of the hybrid resonator. We investigated the application of such resonators for biosensing by calculating the resonance wavelength shift caused by a binding event of a single Thyroglobulin cancer marker protein to the surface of an epitope in the chain.

  18. In-fiber whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leilei; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Dongmei; Liu, Min; Deng, Ming; Huang, Wei

    2015-08-15

    An in-fiber whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining is demonstrated. The cylinder resonator cavity is fabricated by scanning the D-fiber cladding with infrared femtosecond pulses along a cylindrical trace with a radius of 25 μm and height of 20 μm. Quality factor on the order of 10(3) is achieved by smoothing the cavity surface with an ultrasonic cleaner, which is mainly limited by the surface roughness of several hundred nanometers. Resonant characteristics and polarization dependence of the proposed resonator are also studied in detail. Our method takes a step forward in the integration of whispering-gallery-mode resonators. PMID:26274656

  19. White-Light Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Resonator System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical resonator system and method that includes a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator that is capable of resonating across a broad, continuous swath of frequencies is provided. The optical resonator of the system is shaped to support at least one whispering gallery mode and includes a top surface, a bottom surface, a side wall, and a first curved transition region extending between the side wall and the top surface. The system further includes a coupler having a coupling surface which is arranged to face the transition region of the optical resonator and in the vicinity thereof such that an evanescent field emitted from the coupler is capable of being coupled into the optical resonator through the first curved transition region

  20. From the galleries to the clinic: applying art museum lessons to patient care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexa; Grohe, Michelle; Khoshbin, Shahram; Katz, Joel T

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, medical educators integrate art-viewing into curricular interventions that teach clinical observation-often with local art museum educators. How can cross-disciplinary collaborators explicitly connect the skills learned in the art museum with those used at the bedside? One approach is for educators to align their pedagogical approach using similar teaching methods in the separate contexts of the galleries and the clinic. We describe two linked pedagogical exercises--Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) in the museum galleries and observation at the bedside--from "Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis," an elective museum-based course at Harvard Medical School. It is our opinion that while strategic interactions with the visual arts can improve skills, it is essential for students to apply them in a clinical context with faculty support-requiring educators across disciplines to learn from one another. PMID:24014232

  1. Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.; Lassen, M.; Andersen, U. L.; Marquardt, C.; Leuchs, G.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time natural phase matching for optical frequency doubling in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonator made of lithium niobate. A conversion efficiency of 9% is achieved at 30μW in-coupled continuous wave pump power. The observed saturation pump power of 3.2 mW is almost 2 orders of magnitude lower than the state-of-the-art value. This suggests an application of our frequency doubler as a source of nonclassical light requiring only a low-power pump, which easily can be quantum noise limited. Our theoretical analysis of the three-wave mixing in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator provides the relative conversion efficiencies for frequency doubling in various modes.

  2. High gain selective amplification in whispering gallery mode resonators: analysis by cavity ring down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féron, P.; Rasoloniaina, A.; Huet, V.; Le Cren, E.; Trebaol, S.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Serier-Brault, H.; Mortier, M.; Dumeige, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the dispersive properties of single whispering gallery mode resonators. We present a simple experimental protocol which allows us to obtain in detail its coupling regime and thus their dispersive properties. We demonstrate a compact optical amplifier with a gain up to 20dB in an Erbium doped fluoride microsphere of 135μm in diameter coupled via a tapered fiber. The model is also applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the modal coupling between two degenerate resonances of the same cavity. In particular, this can be used to describe the coupling of counterpropagating whispering gallery modes (WGM) by Rayleigh scattering. The theory is successfully compared to experiments carried out in silica microspheres

  3. Shooting Gallery Attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: Correlates, Prevention Opportunities, and the Role of the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan; Pollini, Robin A.; Ramos, Rebecca; Lozada, Remedios; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    We identified factors associated with shooting gallery attendance among injection drug users (IDUs) in two Mexico–US border cities. IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 205), Mexico, who were ≥18 years and injected illicit drugs in the last month were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). An interviewer-administered survey collected sociodemographic and behavioral data. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of shooting gallery attendance in each of the two cities. Homelessness and being arrested for syringe possession—both structural level factors—were associated with shooting gallery use in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, younger age and having overdosed were also associated with shooting gallery use. Our study highlights the need for structural interventions that mitigate homelessness among IDUs and facilitate changes in law enforcement practices associated with shooting gallery use. Harm reduction interventions based within shooting galleries should also be considered to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among IDUs. PMID:18369723

  4. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan; Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya Yang, Lan; Long, Gui Lu

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  5. Coherences of transmon qubits embedded in superconducting whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Z. K.; Serniak, K.; Pop, Ioan; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R.; Devoret, Michel

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design and measurement of a planar uperconducting two-resonator one-qubit device. The two resonators are realized in a hardware-efficient way by the differential modes of a superconducting whispering gallery mode resonator [APL 103, 142604]. This device forms an integrated basis for a quantum memory [New J. Phys. 16, 045014 2014]. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and ONR.

  6. Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering gallery modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate novel techniques to manipulate spectral properties of high quality factor (Q>107) whispering-gallery modes (WGM) in optical dielectric microresonators. These include permanent frequency trimming of WGM frequencies by means of UV photosensitivity of germanium doped silica resonators electro-optical tuning of WGM in lithium niobate resonators, and cascading of microresonators for obtaining second-order filtering function. We present theoretical interpretation of experimental results, and application example of techniques for photonic microwave filtering.

  7. A&M. TAN607. Interior view of operating gallery in hot shop. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Interior view of operating gallery in hot shop. Shielded viewing windows are along right side of corridor. Cabinet on wheels at left of corridor is operating console for hot shop manipulators. When in use, it is stationed at window station and connected to appropriate control cables. note reserve bottles of zinc bromide above each station. Date: January 3, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-0072 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Semiochemical emission from individual galleries of the southern pine beetle, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), attacking standing trees.

    PubMed

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T

    2012-02-01

    We collected, identified, and quantified volatiles arising from individual gallery entrances of the monogamous bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Samples were collected while the insects were mass attacking mature loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in an established infestation in western Mississippi, 1 August through 3 October 2005. Following volatile sample collection, the entrances were dissected and categorized according to those that 1) contained a solitary female (the gallery initiating sex), 2) contained a pair that had not yet produced an egg gallery, 3) led to an egg gallery with niches and/or eggs, or 4) represented failed attacks (either abandoned or containing dead beetles). The greatest mean release rate of the female-produced aggregation pheromone components frontalin (74 ng/h) and trans-verbenol (0.35 microg/h) was detected from entrances of solitary females, whereas the highest mean quantities of the male-produced multifunctional pheromone components endo-brevicomin (18 ng/h) and verbenone (0.15 microg/h) were detected from entrances of preoviposition beetle pairs. Alpha-pinene, a host-produced monoterpene that functions as a synergist for the aggregation attractant for D. frontalis, was detected from entrances of solitary females and preoviposition pairs at a rate of 0.6 mg/h, or 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the insect-produced components of the attractant. Our results indicate that the release rates of pheromone components used in published field studies of the chemical ecology of D. frontalis (generally > 0.1 mg/h) represent thousands of 'attack equivalents' or production rates on the scale of a beetle mass attack on a single host. Additionally, our data suggest that the loss in attractiveness of host tissue fully colonized by D. frontalis is because of the disappearance of attractants rather than an increase in inhibitors. PMID:22420266

  9. Silica hollow bottle resonators for use as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Bui, Khoa V.; Rosenberger, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    A simple three-step method for making silica hollow bottle resonators (HBRs) was developed. This procedure is advantageous because it uses commercially available materials, is cost effective, and is easy to implement. Additionally, the use of these HBRs as whispering gallery mode based chemical sensors is demonstrated by preliminary absorption sensing results in the near infrared (1580-1660 nm) using a trace gas (CH4) in air at atmospheric pressure and a dye (SDA2072) in methanol solution.

  10. Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-30

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultrahigh Q calcium fluoride resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has 3 muW Brillouin lasing threshold. The scattering is observed due to the unique morphology of the resonator reducing the phase mismatch between the optical modes and the hypersound wave. PMID:19257418

  11. Thermal characterisation of (bio)polymers with a temperature-stabilised whispering gallery mode microsensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene; Foreman, Matthew R.; Baaske, Martin D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the thermal response of whispering gallery mode microresonators operating in an aqueous glycerol medium. Thermal stabilisation of the resonance wavelength is realised by appropriate choice of the resonator radius and glycerol concentration, with a 60 fold reduction in thermal sensitivity demonstrated. Finally, we employ our stabilised system to determine the thermal dependence of the molecular polarisability of adsorbed bovine serum albumin molecules and the refractive index of dextran and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) coatings.

  12. Whispering-gallery-mode analysis of phase-matched doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice

    2006-12-01

    We propose a coupled modes analysis of second-harmonic generation in microdisk resonators. We demonstrate that whispering gallery modes can be used to obtain a combination of modal and geometrical quasi-phase-matching (without domain inversion) to obtain efficient conversion in isotropic and nonferroelectric materials such as III-V semiconductor compounds. Finally we use an analytical model to describe the coupling between a bus waveguide and the nonlinear microdisk to achieve an optimization scheme for practical configuration.

  13. Coupled-mode induced transparency in a bottle whispering-gallery-mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Song; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chi, Ming-Bo; Hao, Peng

    2016-04-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are ideal systems for achieving electromagnetically induced transparency-like phenomenon. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that one or more transparent windows can be achieved with coupled-mode induced transparency (CMIT) in a single bottle WGM resonator due to the bottle's dense mode spectra and tunable resonant frequencies. This device offers an approach for multi-channel all-optical switching devices and sensitivity-enhanced WGM-based sensors. PMID:27082355

  14. Do isolated gallery-forest trees facilitate recruitment of forest seedlings and saplings in savannna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azihou, Akomian Fortuné; Glèlè Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice

    2013-11-01

    Facilitation is an ecological process that allows some species to establish in environments they can hardly afford in the absence of the process. This study investigated if the subcanopy of gallery-forest trees isolated in savanna is suitable for the early recruitment of forest woody species. We measured tree crown area as well as the density of seedlings and saplings of gallery-forest tree species beneath isolated trees and in the savanna matrix along 50 transects of 5-km long and 600 m wide located along four gallery forests. We then tested the nurse-plant effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis beneath isolated trees. We also examined the relationships between the crown area and the density of seedlings and saplings. Among the eight identified tree species isolated in savanna, only Daniellia oliveri and Khaya senegalensis showed nurse-plant effect and promoted a significant, yet low early recruitment with a seedling-to-sapling survival of 0.044 and 0.578, respectively. The suitability of the subcanopy of isolated trees decreased with the recruitment progression and Janzen-Connell effects were absent. Seedlings had neutral association with the crown area of isolated trees which shifted to positive at the sapling stage. The species of the isolated tree and the crown area explained less than 20% of total variance, indicating that other predictive factors are important in explaining the nurse-plant effect observed in this study.

  15. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  16. High Diversity and Low Specificity of Chaetothyrialean Fungi in Carton Galleries in a Neotropical Ant–Plant Association

    PubMed Central

    Nepel, Maximilian; Voglmayr, Hermann; Schönenberger, Jürg; Mayer, Veronika E.

    2014-01-01

    New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the – usually undescribed – fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae), the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant–fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis. PMID:25398091

  17. Integration of microsphere resonators with bioassay fluidics for whispering gallery mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel C; Armendariz, Kevin P; Dunn, Robert C

    2013-06-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators are small, radially symmetric dielectrics that trap light through continuous total internal reflection. The resonant condition at which light is efficiently confined within the structure is linked with refractive index, which has led to the development of sensitive label-free sensing schemes based on whispering gallery mode resonators. One resonator design uses inexpensive high index glass microspheres that offer intrinsically superior optical characteristics, but have proven difficult to multiplex and integrate with the fluidics for sample delivery and fluid exchange necessary for assay development. Recently, we introduced a fluorescence imaging approach that enables large scale multiplexing with microsphere resonators, thus removing one obstacle for assay development. Here we report an approach for microsphere immobilization that overcomes limitations arising from their integration with fluidic delivery. The approach is an adaptation of a calcium-assisted glass bonding method originally developed for microfluidic glass chip fabrication. Microspheres bonded to glass using this technique are shown to be stable with respect to fluid flow and show no detectable loss in optical performance. Measured Q-factors, for example, remain unchanged following sphere bonding to the substrate. The stability of the immobilized resonators is further demonstrated by transferring lipid films onto the immobilized spheres using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Bilayers of DOPC doped with GM1 were transferred onto immobilized resonators to detect the binding of cholera toxin to GM1. Binding curves generated from shifts in the whispering gallery mode resonance result in a measured Kd of 1.5 × 10(-11) with a limit of detection of 3.3 pM. These results are discussed in terms of future assay development using microsphere resonators. PMID:23615457

  18. Calculation of the spectrum of whispering gallery modes in cylindrical resonators with perturbed boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsov, A A; Monakhov, A M; Averkiev, Nikita S

    2013-05-31

    The spectrum of whispering gallery modes for resonators with a small deformation of the boundary is calculated analytically. Cylindrical resonators with two different cross sections (segment close to a circle and segment close to a semicircle) are considered. The calculation is performed for resonators with metal boundaries, but the obtained result is a good approximation for dielectric resonators as well. The applicability limits of the found expressions for the spectra are analysed. It is shown that the spectra calculated using the obtained expressions coincide well with computer-calculated spectra. The perturbation-induces changes in the field distribution are qualitatively studied using numerical simulation. (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)

  19. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Barry W.; Makowski, Michael A.; Byers, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k.sub..phi. component of the propagation vector of the gyrotron output beam. The second mirror has a twist reflector to linearly polarize the beam. The third mirror has a constant phase surface so the converter output is in phase.

  20. Strong coupling between whispering gallery modes and chromium ions in ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2014-08-01

    We report the study of interactions between cavity photons and paramagnetic Cr3+ spins in a ruby (Cr3+:Al2O3) whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator. Examining the system at microwave frequencies and millikelvin temperatures, spin-photon couplings up to 610 MHz or about 5% of photon energy are observed between the impurity spins and high quality factor (Q >105) WGM. Large tunability and spin-spin interaction allows operation in the strong coupling regime. The system exhibits behavior not predicted by the usual Tavis-Cummings model because of interactions within the two-level spin bath, and the existence of numerous photonic modes.

  1. Fabrication of transmon qubits embedded in superconducting whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serniak, K.; Minev, Z. K.; Pop, I. M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) can confine up to 98% of two high quality modes in lossless vacuum [APL 103, 142604]. We have fabricated new WGMR-based devices using standard lithography techniques and in which transmon qubits were integrated. The advantages of this transmon-resonator configuration are i) the possibility to perform a targeted study of thin-film quality factor across different methods and steps of fabrication and ii) precise control of the Hamiltonian parameters. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and ONR.

  2. Infrared light detection using a whispering-gallery-mode optical microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jiangang E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu Yang, Lan E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate a thermal infrared (IR) detector based on an ultra-high-quality-factor (Q) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microtoroidal silica resonator and investigate its performance to detect IR radiation at 10 μm wavelength. The bandwidth and the sensitivity of the detector are dependent on the power of a probe laser and the detuning between the probe laser and the resonance frequency of the resonator. The microtoroid IR sensor achieved a noise-equivalent-power (NEP) of 7.46 nW, corresponding to an IR intensity of 0.095 mW/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Detection of nanoparticles with a frequency locked whispering gallery mode microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaim, Jon D.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2013-05-01

    We detect 39 nm × 10 nm gold nanorods using a microtoroid stabilized via the Pound-Drever-Hall method. Real-time detection is achieved with signal-to-noise ratios up to 12.2. These nanoparticles are a factor of three smaller in volume than any other nanoparticle detected using whispering gallery mode sensing to date. We show through repeated experiments that the measurements are reliable and verify the presence of single nanorods on the microtoroid surface using electron microscopy. At our current noise level, the plasmonic enhancement of these nanorods could enable detection of proteins with radii as small as a = 2 nm.

  4. Generalized full-vector multi-mode matching analysis of whispering gallery microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xuan; Vincent, Serge; Faucher, Mathieu; Picard, Marie-Josée; Lu, Tao

    2014-06-01

    We outline a full-vectorial three-dimensional multi-mode matching technique in a cylindrical coordinate system that addresses the mutual coupling among multiple modes copropagating in a perturbed whispering-gallery-mode microcavity. In addition to its superior accuracy in respect to our previously implemented single-mode matching technique, this current technique is suitable for modelling waveguide-to-cavity coupling where the influence of multi-mode coupling is non-negligible. Using this methodology, a robust scheme for hybrid integration of a microcavity onto a silicon-on-insulator platform is proposed.

  5. A hybrid plasmonic whispering gallery mode sensor for single bionanoparticle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, S.; Dantham, V. R.; Kolchenko, V.; Wan, Z.; Arnold, S.

    2013-05-01

    Our hybrid plasmonic whispering gallery mode biosensor has recently demonstrated detection and characterization of the smallest known RNA virus. A gold nanoparticle affixed to the resonator surface acts like a nanoscopic antenna, enhancing locally the electric field within the cavity mode. When a target analyte binds with this nanoscopic antenna the result is an enhanced response (spectral shift) of the resonator system to the binding event. We have observed shift enhancements ~70× over the response of the bare resonator, thereby permitting the detection and characterization of all known viral particles and even some large protein molecules.

  6. Optical Sensors Based on Whispering Gallery Modes in Fluorescent Microbeads: Response to Specific Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Himmelhaus, Michael; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Francois, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in surface-fixated fluorescent polystyrene microbeads are studied in view of their capability of sensing the formation of biochemical adsorption layers on their outer surface with the well-established biotin-streptavidin specific binding as the model system. Three different methods for analysis of the observed shifts in the WGM wavelength positions are applied and used to quantify the adsorbed mass densities, which are then compared with the results of a comparative surface plasmon resonance (SPR) study. PMID:22219711

  7. Whispering gallery mode photoemission from self-assembled poly-para-phenylenevinylene microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kushida, Soh; Yamamoto, Yohei; Braam, Daniel; Lorke, Axel

    2015-12-31

    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMOPPV) self-assembles to form well-defined spheres with several micrometers in diameter upon addition of a methanol vapor into a chloroform solution of MDMOPPV. The single sphere of MDMOPPV with 5.7 µm diameter exhibits whispering gallery mode (WGM) photoemission upon excitation with focused laser beam. The periodic emission lines are characterized by transverse electric and magnetic WGMs, and Q-factor reaches ∼345 at the highest.

  8. Influence of surface roughness on the efficiency of X-ray mirrors with whispering gallery modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, I. V.

    2009-03-15

    The influence of roughness on the propagation of an X-ray beam along a concave surface in the whispering gallery mode has been investigated. The transfer equation of beam intensity is derived and the conditions of concave surface smoothness necessary for effective beam rotation are obtained. It is shown that the influence of roughness on the beam rotation efficiency is not very strong: the roughness height should not exceed several nanometers. The point is that the scattered radiation is not lost but rotated by a concave surface and makes a significant contribution to the intensity of the output beam.

  9. Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef U; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Becker, Petra; Liebertz, Josef; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2015-05-01

    A millimeter-sized, monolithic whispering gallery resonator made of a lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7, crystal was employed for doubly resonant second-harmonic generation with a continuous-wave laser source at 490 nm. An intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(8) was observed at the pump wavelength. A conversion efficiency of 2.2% was attained with 5.9 mW of mode-matched pump power. In the lithium tetraborate resonator, it is feasible to achieve phase-matching of second-harmonic generation for pump wavelengths between 486 and 506 nm. PMID:25927751

  10. Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that frequency (Kerr) comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators can be modeled by a variant of the Lugiato-Lefever equation that includes higher-order dispersion and nonlinearity. This spatiotemporal model allows us to explore pulse formation in which a large number of modes interact cooperatively. Pulse formation is shown to play a critical role in comb generation, and we find conditions under which single pulses (dissipative solitons) and multiple pulses (rolls) form. We show that a broadband comb is the spectral signature of a dissipative soliton, and we also show that these solitons can be obtained by using a weak anomalous dispersion and subcritical pumping.

  11. Controlled excitation of higher radial order whispering gallery modes with metallic diffraction grating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanyan; Luan, Feng; Gu, Bobo; Yu, Xia

    2015-02-23

    Metallic diffraction grating coupler is investigated for controlled excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of different radial orders. Based on effective mode index calculations and finite difference time domain method, it is found that higher radial order WGMs can be separated from the fundamental modes by sending them into the opposite propagation direction. By phase-matching designs, the metallic diffraction grating provides extra freedom to switch propagation directions, and is able to selectively enhance or suppress different radial-order WGMs. Such structure offers a simple and practical configuration for various WGM applications including liquid sensing, band pass filtering and fiber lasers. PMID:25836534

  12. Rapid 3D µ-printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jushuai; Guo, Xin; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2015-11-16

    A novel microfabrication method for rapid printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is presented. A 3D micro-printing technology based on high-speed optical spatial modulator (SLM) and high-power UV light source is developed to fabricate suspended-disk WGM resonator array using SU-8 photoresist. The optical spectral responses of the fabricated polymer WGM resonators were measured with a biconically tapered optical fiber. Experimental results reveal that the demonstrated method is very flexible and time-saving for rapid fabrication of complex polymer WGM resonators. PMID:26698452

  13. Whispering gallery mode photoemission from self-assembled poly-para-phenylenevinylene microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Soh; Braam, Daniel; Lorke, Axel; Yamamoto, Yohei

    2015-12-01

    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMOPPV) self-assembles to form well-defined spheres with several micrometers in diameter upon addition of a methanol vapor into a chloroform solution of MDMOPPV. The single sphere of MDMOPPV with 5.7 µm diameter exhibits whispering gallery mode (WGM) photoemission upon excitation with focused laser beam. The periodic emission lines are characterized by transverse electric and magnetic WGMs, and Q-factor reaches ˜345 at the highest.

  14. Distribution, diversity, mesonotal morphology, gallery architecture, and queen physogastry of the termite genus Calcaritermes (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An updated New World distribution of the genus Calcaritermes is given along with photographs and a key to the New World species outside Mexico. Calcaritermes recessifrons is found to be a junior synonym of Calcaritermes nigriceps. Except for Calcaritermes temnocephalus, pseudergates of the other seven studied Calcaritermes species possess a mesonotal rasp. The rasps suggest a role in propagation of microbes on gallery surfaces and microbial infusion below the wood surface. Calcaritermes temoncephalus is shown to have an unusually large physogastric queens for a kalotermitid and several species produce large eggs. PMID:22287890

  15. Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Fescenko, I; Alnis, J; Schliesser, A; Wang, C Y; Kippenberg, T J; Hänsch, T W

    2012-08-13

    Frequency stabilization of a diode laser locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) reference resonator made of a MgF2 single crystal is demonstrated. The strong thermal dependence of the difference frequency between two orthogonally polarized TE an TM modes (dual-mode frequency) of the optically anisotropic crystal material allows sensitive measurement of the resonator's temperature within the optical mode volume. This dual-mode signal was used as feedback for self-referenced temperature stabilization to nanokelvin precision, resulting in frequency stability of 0.3 MHz/h at 972 nm, which was measured by comparing with an independent ultrastable laser. PMID:23038559

  16. Characterization technique of optical whispering gallery mode resonators in the microwave frequency domain for optoelectronic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Saleh, Khaldoun; Llopis, Olivier; Berneschi, Simone; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi

    2012-07-10

    Optical Q factor measurements are performed on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonator using a microwave frequency domain approach instead of using an optical domain approach. An absence of hysteretic behavior and a better linearity are obtained when performing linewidth measurements by using a microwave modulation for scanning the resonances instead of the piezoelectric-based frequency tuning capability of the laser. The WGM resonator is then used to stabilize a microwave optoelectronic oscillator. The microwave output of this system generates a 12.48 GHz signal with -94 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset. PMID:22781250

  17. Victorian era esthetic and restorative dentistry: an advertising trade card gallery.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Swanson, Ben Z

    2006-01-01

    A chief means of print advertising in the Victorian era was the "trade card." Innumerable products, companies, and services were highlighted on colorful chromolithographic trade cards, and these became desirable collectible objects which were pasted into scrapbooks and enjoyed by many families. Dentistry- and oral health-related subjects were often depicted on Victorian trade cards, and esthetic and restorative dentistry themes were featured. This review describes the history of advertising trade cards and offers a photographic gallery of dentistry-related cards of the era. PMID:16987318

  18. Vertically-coupled Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Optical Waveguide, and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatolly A. (Inventor); Matleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A vertically-coupled whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator optical waveguide, a method of reducing a group velocity of light, and a method of making a waveguide are provided. The vertically-coupled WGM waveguide comprises a cylindrical rod portion having a round cross-section and an outer surface. First and second ring-shaped resonators are formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical rod portion and are spaced from each other along a longitudinal direction of the cylindrical rod. The first and second ringshaped resonators are capable of being coupled to each other by way an evanescent field formed in an interior of the cylindrical rod portion.

  19. Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopova, S. I.; Rajmangal, R.; Holler, S.; Arnold, S.

    2011-06-01

    We describe and demonstrate a physical mechanism that substantially enhances the label-free sensitivity of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for the detection of individual nanoparticles in aqueous solution. It involves the interaction of dielectric nanoparticle in an equatorial carousel orbit with a plasmonic nanoparticle bound at the microparticle's equator. As the dielectric particle parks to hot spots on the plasmonic particle we observe frequency shifts that are enhanced by a factor of 4, consistent with a simple reactive model. Once optimized the enhancement by this mechanism should exceed several orders of magnitude, putting individual protein within reach.

  20. Exploring the Frequency Stability Limits of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Metrological Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Baumgartel, Lukas; Grudinin, Ivan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators are attracting increasing interest as promising frequency reference cavities. Unlike commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities, however, they are filled with a bulk medium whose properties have a significant impact on the stability of its resonance frequencies. In this context that has to be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, a small monolithic resonator provides opportunity for better stability against vibration and acceleration. this feature is essential when the cavity operates in a non-laboratory environment. In this paper, we report a case study for a crystalline resonator, and discuss the a pathway towards the inhibition of vibration-and acceleration-induced frequency fluctuations.

  1. High- Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ZhongHao; Shu, FangJie; Shen, Zhen; Dong, ChunHua; Guo, GuangCan

    2015-11-01

    We have reported the high- Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) optical microresonators with broad tuning range. The PDMS microresonators are fabricated at the center of two collimating fiber tips, which can be controlled by the piezoelectric stage. Through stretching the fiber stem, the tuning range of WGMs are demonstrated more than 50 nm. Further investigations demonstrated that the WGM shift has a high force sensitivity (~ 19.7 pm/μN) of the gravitation when the microcavity is stretched by a weight. The theoretical analysis reveals that the high force sensitivity of polymer microresonator can be used for the weak force or height measurement.

  2. Quantum-information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator

    SciTech Connect

    Li Pengbo; Gao Shaoyan; Li Fuli

    2011-05-15

    We propose an efficient scheme for the realization of quantum information transfer and entanglement with nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers coupled to a high-Q whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microresonator. We show that based on the effective dipole-dipole interaction between the N-V centers mediated by the WGM, quantum information can be transferred between the N-V centers through Raman transitions combined with laser fields. This protocol may open up promising possibilities for quantum communications with the solid-state quantum electrodynamic cavity system.

  3. Auto-oscillatory system based on dielectric resonator with whispering-gallery modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormidontov, A. V.; Kirichenko, A. Ya.; Lonin, Yu. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.; Prokopenko, Yu. V.; Sotnikov, G. V.; Uvarov, V. T.; Filippov, Yu. F.

    2012-01-01

    A new method of microwave generation in a system with high- Q quasi-optical cylindrical dielectric resonator (CDR) excited by an azimuthal-periodic electron beam current is proposed. Characteristic parameters of a cylindrical fluoroplastic CDR have been determined. Data on microwave generation in a system based on a CDR with whispering-gallery eigenmodes excited by a relativistic azimuthal-periodic electron beam current are presented. Electromagnetic radiation of this system was measured using a detector for the 8-mm wavelength range.

  4. Calculation of the spectrum of whispering gallery modes in cylindrical resonators with perturbed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontsov, A. A.; Monakhov, A. M.; Averkiev, Nikita S.

    2013-05-01

    The spectrum of whispering gallery modes for resonators with a small deformation of the boundary is calculated analytically. Cylindrical resonators with two different cross sections (segment close to a circle and segment close to a semicircle) are considered. The calculation is performed for resonators with metal boundaries, but the obtained result is a good approximation for dielectric resonators as well. The applicability limits of the found expressions for the spectra are analysed. It is shown that the spectra calculated using the obtained expressions coincide well with computer-calculated spectra. The perturbation-induces changes in the field distribution are qualitatively studied using numerical simulation.

  5. Nanoscale welding aerosol sensing based on whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical silica resonator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aram; Mills, Thomas; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental technique where one uses a standard silica fiber as a cylindrical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator to sense airborne nanoscale aerosols produced by electric arc welding. We find that the accumulation of aerosols on the resonator surface induces a measurable red-shift in resonance frequency, and establish an empirical relation that links the magnitude of resonance shift with the amount of aerosol deposition. The WGM quality factors, by contrast, do not decrease significantly, even for samples with a large percentage of surface area covered by aerosols. Our experimental results are discussed and compared with existing literature on WGM-based nanoparticle sensing. PMID:25837078

  6. Coupler for coupling gyrotron whispering gallery mode RF into HE11 waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Neilson, Jeffrey M

    2015-02-24

    A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.

  7. Dark-field imaging as a noninvasive method for characterization of whispering gallery modes in microdisk cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, D. A.; Samusev, K. B.; Shishkin, I. I.; Samusev, A. K.; Belov, P. A.; Bogdanov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Whispering gallery mode microdisk cavities fabricated by direct laser writing are studied using dark-field imaging and spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. {Dark-field imaging allows us to directly visualize the spatial intensity distribution of whispering gallery modes. We extract their azimuthal and radial mode indices from dark-field images, and find the axial mode number from the dispersion relation. The scattering spectrum obtained in the confocal arrangement provides information on the density of optical states in the resonator. The proposed technique is a simple non-invasive way to characterize the optical properties of microdisk cavities.

  8. Dark-field imaging as a noninvasive method for characterization of whispering gallery modes in microdisk cavities.

    PubMed

    Baranov, D A; Samusev, K B; Shishkin, I I; Samusev, A K; Belov, P A; Bogdanov, A A

    2016-02-15

    Whispering gallery mode microdisk cavities fabricated by direct laser writing are studied using dark-field imaging and spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. Dark-field imaging allows us to directly visualize the spatial intensity distribution of whispering gallery modes. We extract their azimuthal and radial mode indices from dark-field images, and find the axial mode number from the dispersion relation. The scattering spectrum obtained in the confocal arrangement provides information on the density of optical states in the resonator. The proposed technique is a simple noninvasive way to characterize the optical properties of microdisk cavities. PMID:26872179

  9. Transmission and radiation in a slab waveguide coupled to a whispering-gallery resonator: volume-integral-equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Chremmos, Ioannis D; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K

    2004-05-01

    The excitation of a whispering gallery resonator by a surface wave guided in a dielectric slab is analyzed with a rigorous volume-integral-equation approach. The analysis is based on the Green's function concept and the application of the entire-domain Galerkin technique through expansion of the electric field in the resonator in terms of cylindrical wave functions. The algorithm developed yields highly accurate results for the transmission and reflection coefficients in the waveguide. The radiated far field is computed, and the effect of the excitation of a whispering gallery mode on the radiation pattern is studied. PMID:15139438

  10. Telerobotic Haptic Exploration in Art Galleries and Museums for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Hyuk; Ryu, Eun-Seok; Howard, Ayanna M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic telepresence system that enables visually impaired users to explore locations with rich visual observation such as art galleries and museums by using a telepresence robot, a RGB-D sensor (color and depth camera), and a haptic interface. The recent improvement on RGB-D sensors has enabled real-time access to 3D spatial information in the form of point clouds. However, the real-time representation of this data in the form of tangible haptic experience has not been challenged enough, especially in the case of telepresence for individuals with visual impairments. Thus, the proposed system addresses the real-time haptic exploration of remote 3D information through video encoding and real-time 3D haptic rendering of the remote real-world environment. This paper investigates two scenarios in haptic telepresence, i.e., mobile navigation and object exploration in a remote environment. Participants with and without visual impairments participated in our experiments based on the two scenarios, and the system performance was validated. In conclusion, the proposed framework provides a new methodology of haptic telepresence for individuals with visual impairments by providing an enhanced interactive experience where they can remotely access public places (art galleries and museums) with the aid of haptic modality and robotic telepresence. PMID:26219098