Science.gov

Sample records for rail-based intermodal freight

  1. Development of analytic intermodal freight networks for use within a GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.; Xiong, D.; Middendorf, D.

    1997-05-01

    The paper discusses the practical issues involved in constructing intermodal freight networks that can be used within GIS platforms to support inter-regional freight routing and subsequent (for example, commodity flow) analysis. The procedures described can be used to create freight-routable and traffic flowable interstate and intermodal networks using some combination of highway, rail, water and air freight transportation. Keys to realistic freight routing are the identification of intermodal transfer locations and associated terminal functions, a proper handling of carrier-owned and operated sub-networks within each of the primary modes of transport, and the ability to model the types of carrier services being offered.

  2. 75 FR 25309 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Expanded Intermodal Freight Terminal in Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Freight Terminal in Michigan AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Yard, also known as the Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal (DIFT) and associated external-to-terminal... following expansion project in the State of Michigan: Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal. The...

  3. Intermodality in Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Margarette

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation articulates a writing pedagogy based on a theory of "intermodality" to help writing instructors navigate the affordances and challenges of multimodal composition. Drawing from recent discoveries in neuroscience about how the brain makes meaning, I situate this pedagogy of intermodality--literally, "between the…

  4. The overweight container problem and international intermodal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayuth, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Containerization has become the dominant method of transporting general cargo commodities in international trade. In 1991 over 93 million 20-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containers were handled worldwide, and 15.7 million were transferred through US ports alone. The deregulation of the trucking industry and the railways in 1980 and the US Shipping Act of 1984 advanced the development of intermodal movements of containerized cargo in domestic and international trade. Despite the rapid progress of containerization and intermodality, the US freight transport system is still struggling with the basic issue of overweight containers. A study conducted by the Federal Highway Administration revealed that between October 1987 and September 1988 more than one million containers, or 33.5 percent of the containers in the sample, carried weights that could violate federal vehicle weight laws.

  5. Railroad freight transportation. January 1981-September 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1981-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects, intermodal systems, energy studies, scheduling, accident studies, and regional characterizations pertaining to railroad operations. Freight-car design aspects, engineering analyses, and testing programs are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 290 citations, 25 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  7. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  8. Intermodal Exploration and Perceptual Knowledge in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Owsley, Cynthia J.

    This report describes two exploration studies which examined the development of infants' intermodal knowledge by examining infants' auditorily guided visual search for objects. Experiment 1 examined intermodal search for the mother and father by 9 infants at each of three age levels: 3, 5, and 7 months of age; the final sample was 23 infants.…

  9. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  11. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  12. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  13. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives. PMID:20681436

  14. Dynamics of railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwnicki, S. D.; Stichel, S.; Orlova, A.; Hecht, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper summarises the historical development of railway freight vehicles and how vehicle designers have tackled the difficult challenges of producing running gear which can accommodate the very high tare to laden mass of typical freight wagons whilst maintaining stable running at the maximum required speed and good curving performance. The most common current freight bogies are described in detail and recent improvements in techniques used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles are summarised and examples of how these have been used to improve freight vehicle dynamic behaviour are included. A number of recent developments and innovative components and sub systems are outlined and finally two new developments are presented in more detail: the LEILA bogie and the SUSTRAIL bogie.

  15. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods. PMID:26339921

  16. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  17. Freight Network Equilibrium Model revisited: the Freight Network Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Freight Network Equilibrium Model (FNEM) was developed to study potential coal transportation impacts that could result from widespread conversion of boilers to use coal for fuel, as mandated under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978. Continued improvement of FNEM and creation of auxiliary software and data during applications of the model in various transportation analyses led to the development of the Freight Network Modeling System, a general and flexible modeling system designed to have wide applicability to a variety of freight transportation analyses. It consists of compatible network data bases, data management software, models of freight transportation, report generators, and graphics output. The network data include US rail, water, highway, and pipeline systems. Data management software automates the task of setting up a study network of appropriate detail in appropriate regions of the country. The major analytical tools in the system are FNEM and Shortest Path Analysis and Display (SPAD); FNEM is predictive and simulates decisions of both shippers and carriers, taking into account the competition for transportation facilities; SPAD is a simpler model that optimizes routings of single shipments. Output for both FNEM and SPAD includes detailed routings, cost and delay estimates for all shipments, and data on total traffic levels. SPAD can be used interactively with routes displayed graphically. 13 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  18. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments... freight bill or a group of freight bills presented at one time shall state that “failure timely to...

  19. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  20. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  1. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  2. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  4. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight...

  5. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  6. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  7. Air freight demand models: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bernstein, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of some of the approaches which have been considered in freight demand estimation. The few existing continuous time computer simulations of aviation systems are reviewed, with a view toward the assessment of this approach as a tool for structuring air freight studies and for relating the different components of the air freight system. The variety of available data types and sources, without which the calibration, validation and the testing of both modal split and simulation models would be impossible are also reviewed.

  8. 75 FR 52594 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of open season for enrollment in the VISA program. Introduction The VISA program was established pursuant to section 708...

  9. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  10. 76 FR 41861 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    .... Therefore, approval of the VISA as published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2010 (75 FR 14245) is... January 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on February 13, 1997, (62 FR 6837). Effective... Maritime Administration Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) AGENCY: Maritime Administration,...

  11. 78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., vessel space, intermodal systems and equipment, terminal facilities, and related management services, to... regarding the operations and U.S. citizenship of the applicant company. A copy of the VISA document as... applicant company must provide an affidavit that demonstrates that the company is qualified to document...

  12. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13...

  13. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13...

  14. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13...

  15. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13...

  16. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13...

  17. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  18. Sensitivity to intermodal asynchrony between acoustic and structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kent; Martens, William L.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the attributes of musical stimuli which facilitate sensory integration in bi-modal music reproduction systems incorporating sound and whole-body vibration. It was hypothesized that subjective judgments regarding bimodal synchrony would vary depending on the spectral, temporal, and spatial properties of the stimuli. To test this hypothesis, musical instruments with significant low frequency energy and a variety of spectra-temporal envelopes were recorded. These stimuli were then reproduced with varying intermodal delay and overlap in frequency content between displayed vibratory and acoustic components. The air-born component of the bimodal stimuli was presented via a multichannel loudspeaker array, with a direct sound component, as well as a reproduced indirect sound arriving from all around the observer. Psychometric functions were constructed for time order judgment (TOJ) over a range of intermodal delay values. Changes in the slope and intercept of the transformed psychometric functions gave a clear picture of the influence of spectra-temporal and spatial parameters of the multimodal stimuli, the most striking results being the decreased tolerance for intermodal asynchrony associated with instruments recorded in reverberant environments. [Work supported by a Grant from VRQ of the Government of Quebec.

  19. Current Problems and Issues in Air Freight Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Actions of the Civil Aeronautics Board in determining air freight rates are discussed. The tariff filings by domestic airlines for making basic changes in domestic fares and rates are reported. The roles of the carriers and the Civil Aeronautics Board in establishing freight rates are defined. Specific examples of areas of controversy in establishing freight rates are included. Methods for improving the air cargo and freight rate situation are proposed.

  20. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  1. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  2. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... of the national freight network as required by Section 1115 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the... freight network, the designation of additional miles critical to future efficient movement of goods on...

  3. Assessing the future of air freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of air cargo in the current transportation system in the United States is explored. Methods for assessing the future role of this mode of transportation include the use of continuous-time recursive systems modeling for the simulation of different components of the air freight system, as well as for the development of alternative future scenarios which may result from different policy actions. A basic conceptual framework for conducting such a dynamic simulation is presented within the context of the air freight industry. Some research needs are identified and recommended for further research. The benefits, limitations, pitfalls, and problems usually associated with large scale systems models are examined.

  4. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... full term of the rental agreement. See the leasing regulations at 49 CFR 376 for information that... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal... Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment. (a) General. Every self-propelled CMV subject...

  5. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leasing regulations at 49 CFR part 376 for information that should be included in all leasing documents... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal... Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR...

  6. 76 FR 29169 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... inspections (74 FR 68703). Petition for Rulemaking On March 31, 2010, the Ocean Carrier Equipment Management... Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating Intermodal Equipment AGENCY: Federal Motor... motor carriers to prepare a driver- vehicle inspection report (DVIR) on an item of intermodal...

  7. 14 CFR 222.2 - Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services. 222.2 Section 222.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INTERMODAL CARGO SERVICES BY FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS § 222.2...

  8. Energy contingency planning for freight transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Saricks, C.L.; Klein, Y.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Hill, LG.; Knorr, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Intercity freight transportation accounts for about 25% of the transportation fuel use in the United States. Because they are petroleum-dependent, trucks, railroads, aircraft, and marine vessels are vulnerable to disruptions in oil supplies. In modeling the effects of rising fuel prices during an oil shortfall, it was found that the modal preferences of shippers will shift - generally in the direction of aircraft to trucks, trucks to railroads, and railroads to marine vessels - as the higher fuel coats are reflected in higher freight rates. Allowing fuel prices to rise to an equilibrium or market-clearing level not only causes a shift to more energy-efficient modes of freight transportation, but it also provides the carriers with an incentive to conserve fuel in order to reduce costs. A maximum reduction in fuel demand of 4 to 8% (depending on the mode) can be achieved by freight carriers in an emergency without drastically curtailing service and retarding economic recovery. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is considered to be a significant national asset that would distinguish future fuel-supply interruptions from those of the past. Recommendations are provided to supplement reliance on equilibrium fuel prices and the SPR during any future petroleum shortfall.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  10. A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

    SciTech Connect

    Sebo, D.

    1996-08-01

    Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.

  11. Early Intermodal Integration in Offspring of Parents With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gamma, Franziska; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying early developmental indicators of risk for schizophrenia is important for prediction and possibly illness prevention. Disturbed intermodality has been proposed as one important neurodevelopmental risk for schizophrenia. Early intermodal integration (EII) is the infant’s ability to link motility and perception and to relate perception across modalities. We hypothesized that infants of parents with schizophrenia would have more EII abnormalities than infants of healthy parents and that infants of parents with affective psychosis would be intermediate in severity. The New England Family Study high-risk sample, ascertained from community populations, was utilized. Eight-month-old infants of parents with schizophrenia (n = 58), affective psychoses (n = 128), and healthy controls (n = 174) were prospectively assessed. Diagnoses of parents were determined 30 years later blind to offspring data. EII measures were grouped into 3 domains characterizing different aspects of infant development: (1) one’s own body, (2) objects, and (3) social interactions. Results demonstrated that body- and object-related EII abnormalities were significantly increased for infants of parents with schizophrenia compared with control infants and not significantly increased for infants of parents with affective psychoses. EII abnormalities in relation to social interactions were significantly increased in infants of parents with schizophrenia and affective psychoses. Thus, body- and object-related EII abnormalities were most severe in infants of parents with schizophrenia, supporting the importance of intermodality dysfunction as an early indicator of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. Future research should evaluate how this dysfunction evolves with development and its associations with other psychopathological and neurodevelopmental deficits in youth at risk for psychosis. PMID:23986303

  12. Freight from Space: Evaluating Freight Activity and Emissions Trends from Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy duty diesel freight trucks are the fastest growing source of highway emissions in the U.S., with domestic freight tonnage projected to double by 2050. Highway diesel vehicles currently account for 42% of on-road emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 58% of on-road fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. Because most surface air quality monitors are located in densely populated areas and not rural highways, it is difficult to use ground-based observations to validate spatial trends in transportation emissions. Therefore, we have employed satellite retrievals from the OMI instrument to inform surface freight transportation inventory estimates by validating modeled tropospheric vertical column total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against satellite observations. For this research we built a roadway-by-roadway bottom-up diesel truck emissions inventory using GIS, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) activity dataset, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emissions model. We use freight rail emissions from the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC), inventory emissions from the Lake Michigan's Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) and the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Qualiy (CMAQ) model to simulate ground-level and tropospheric column concentrations of NO2. We also use the combination of models and satellite data to evaluate weekday-weekend patterns of NO2 concentrations and the relative contributions of highway diesel vehicles, highway gasoline vehicles, and freight rail to transportation-related pollution. This research presents the first evaluation of surface freight transport from space-based observations. We find satellite retrievals of surface pollutants provide a useful data tool for evaluating air quality models and constraining emissions sources.

  13. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  14. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  15. Ground vibrations from heavy freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawn, T. M.

    1983-03-01

    Ground vibration from heavy freight trains on good quality welded track are found to have only a weak dependence on train speed above 30 km/h. At the site on which these tests were carried out a critical speed was found at which the vibration reached a peak. The frequencies of vibration produced appear to be functions of track and vehicle dimensions and the critical speed occurs at the coincidence of sleeper passage frequency and the total vehicle on track resonance frequency.

  16. 77 FR 22768 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning freight classification description. Public comments... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0055, Freight Classification Description, by any of...

  17. National Freight Demand Modeling - Bridging the Gap between Freight Flow Statistics and U.S. Economic Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a development of national freight demand models for 27 industry sectors covered by the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey. It postulates that the national freight demands are consistent with U.S. business patterns. Furthermore, the study hypothesizes that the flow of goods, which make up the national production processes of industries, is coherent with the information described in the 2002 Annual Input-Output Accounts developed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. The model estimation framework hinges largely on the assumption that a relatively simple relationship exists between freight production/consumption and business patterns for each industry defined by the three-digit North American Industry Classification System industry codes (NAICS). The national freight demand model for each selected industry sector consists of two models; a freight generation model and a freight attraction model. Thus, a total of 54 simple regression models were estimated under this study. Preliminary results indicated promising freight generation and freight attraction models. Among all models, only four of them had a R2 value lower than 0.70. With additional modeling efforts, these freight demand models could be enhanced to allow transportation analysts to assess regional economic impacts associated with temporary lost of transportation services on U.S. transportation network infrastructures. Using such freight demand models and available U.S. business forecasts, future national freight demands could be forecasted within certain degrees of accuracy. These freight demand models could also enable transportation analysts to further disaggregate the CFS state-level origin-destination tables to county or zip code level.

  18. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leasing regulations at 49 CFR 376 for information that should be included in all leasing documents. (f... individual items of intermodal equipment, without requiring advance user registration, a password, or a...

  19. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... leasing regulations at 49 CFR 376 for information that should be included in all leasing documents. (f... individual items of intermodal equipment, without requiring advance user registration, a password, or a...

  20. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov... Freight Commodity Flow Survey: http://www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey/ Data Sources Related..._waybill.html National Transportation Atlas Database includes FRA rail network:...

  1. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  2. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  3. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight Classification... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Classification... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the...

  6. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... 6, 2013 (78 FR 8686), introduced the process for designation of the highway PFN, NFN, and CRFCs... Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... initial designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN), which is established by the Secretary...

  7. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  8. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  9. Energy use in freight transportation. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report examines the relative energy efficiency of the different modes of freight transportation. It finds that in terms of energy per ton-mile, oil pipelines are easily the most efficient of the modes of transportation considered. Inland barges rank second, although for some uses railroads are of comparable efficiency. Trucks use more energy than railroads, and cargo planes are at the bottom of the efficiency range. But these simplified comparisons must be modified in several ways, such as specialized functions, service levels, speed, terrain, and the nature of the cargo. 44 references, 22 tables.

  10. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  11. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  12. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  13. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  14. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act...

  15. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act...

  16. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act...

  17. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b) By... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  19. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  20. Three-dimensional derailment analysis of crashed freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hechao; Zhang, Jimin; Hecht, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the collision-induced derailment of freight trains was investigated. The collision between two identical freight trains occurring on a curved path rather than along a straight line was investigated. This is because from the point of view of safety against derailment this collision scenario is thought to be more critical than the scenarios defined in the European standard EN 15227. In this work, one of the trains is stationary and the other moving train collides at 36 km/h. Two kinds of container wagons were simulated. One is the two-axle freight wagon Kls 442. Another is the freight wagon Rmms 662 with two Y25 bogies. Simulation results demonstrate that in terms of safety against derailment the bogie wagon Rmms 662 was found to have better behaviour than the two-axle wagon Kls 442. In addition, this study points out that there are many contributory factors to the responses of freight wagons during a collision, such as curve radius, distance between bogie pivots and loading mass. The derailment phenomenon is less likely to occur, when freight trains collide on the curve with a larger radius. Besides that the characteristics of freight wagons with large axle loads, low centre of gravity of car body and appropriate static strength are favourable for the collided wagons in reducing the risk of derailment.

  1. The Future of the U. S. Domestic Air Freight Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A research project on the future of U.S. domestic air freight operations was conducted. The two main subjects of the project were: (1) during the 1965 to 1969 time period, when the airlines introduced jet freighters into domestic service and air freight traffic growth continued at a high rate, what strategies were employed by management and with what results and (2) what are the opportunities and problems confronting the domestic air freight industry during the 1970 and 1980 time period. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of graphs and tables.

  2. Intermodal auditory, visual, and tactile attention modulates early stages of neural processing

    PubMed Central

    Karns, Christina M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and gamma band oscillatory responses (GBRs) to examine whether intermodal attention operates early in the auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. To control for the effects of spatial attention, we spatially coregistered all stimuli and varied the attended modality across counterbalanced blocks in an intermodal selection task. In each block participants selectively responded to either auditory, visual, or vibrotactile stimuli from the stream of intermodal events. Auditory and visual ERPs were modulated at the latencies of early cortical processing, but attention manifested later for tactile ERPs. For ERPs, auditory processing was modulated at the latency of the Na (29 ms) which indexes early cortical or thalamocortical processing and the subsequent P1 (90 ms) ERP components. Visual processing was modulated at the latency of the early phase of the C1 (62-72 ms) thought to be generated in primary visual cortex and the subsequent P1 and N1 (176 ms). Tactile processing was modulated at the latency of the N160 (165 ms) likely generated in secondary association cortex. Intermodal attention enhanced early sensory GBRs for all three modalities: auditory (onset 57 ms), visual (onset 47 ms) and tactile (onset 27 ms). Together, these results suggest that intermodal attention enhances neural processing relatively early in the sensory stream independent from differential effects of spatial and intramodal selective attention. PMID:18564047

  3. 49 CFR 390.46 - Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations? (a) General. As provided by 49 U.S.C. 31151(d), a law... law, regulation, order, or other requirement exceeds or is inconsistent with a requirement imposed by... requirement for the periodic inspection of intermodal chassis by intermodal equipment providers that was...

  4. 49 CFR 390.46 - Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations? (a) General. As provided by 49 U.S.C. 31151(d), a law... law, regulation, order, or other requirement exceeds or is inconsistent with a requirement imposed by... requirement for the periodic inspection of intermodal chassis by intermodal equipment providers that was...

  5. 49 CFR 390.46 - Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations? (a) General. As provided by 49 U.S.C. 31151(d), a law... law, regulation, order, or other requirement exceeds or is inconsistent with a requirement imposed by... requirement for the periodic inspection of intermodal chassis by intermodal equipment providers that was...

  6. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  7. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  8. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  9. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  10. 3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 9. EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF FREIGHT STATION SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF FREIGHT STATION SOUTH OF PASSENGER DEPOT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Illinois Central Railroad Passenger Depot, Iowa & Jones Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  13. FTFc52 - freight train fuel consumption computer program. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, J.; Muhlenberg, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    This tape contains a copy of a computer program for the prediction of fuel consumption of a freight train operated over track with known characteristics. The program is written in FORTRAN for the IBM VM/370 computer.

  14. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  15. Purging of working atmospheres inside freight containers.

    PubMed

    Braconnier, Robert; Keller, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on prevention of possible exposure to chemical agents, when opening, entering, and stripping freight containers. The container purging process is investigated using tracer gas measurements and numerical airflow simulations. Three different container ventilation conditions are studied, namely natural, mixed mode, and forced ventilation. The tests conducted allow purging time variations to be quantified in relation to various factors such as container size, degree of filling, or type of load. Natural ventilation performance characteristics prove to be highly variable, depending on environmental conditions. Use of a mechanically supplied or extracted airflow under mixed mode and forced ventilation conditions enables purging to be significantly accelerated. Under mixed mode ventilation, extracting air from the end of the container furthest from the door ensures quicker purging than supplying fresh air to this area. Under forced ventilation, purging rate is proportional to the applied ventilation flow. Moreover, purging rate depends mainly on the location at which air is introduced: the most favourable position being above the container loading level. Many of the results obtained during this study can be generalized to other cases of purging air in a confined space by general ventilation, e.g. the significance of air inlet positioning or the advantage of generating high air velocities to maximize stirring within the volume. PMID:25636319

  16. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  17. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspection report. The Driver Vehicle Examination Report shall be used to record results of motor...

  18. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspection report. The Driver Vehicle Examination Report shall be used to record results of motor...

  19. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspection report. The Driver Vehicle Examination Report shall be used to record results of motor...

  20. Auditory-Visual Intermodal Matching of Small Numerosities in 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Tessei; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that preverbal infants are able to discriminate between numerosities of sets presented within a particular modality. There is still debate, however, over whether they are able to perform intermodal numerosity matching, i.e. to relate numerosities of sets presented with different sensory modalities. The present study…

  1. 14 CFR 222.2 - Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services. 222.2 Section 222.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... limitation as to geographic area within the United States. (d) The Board may withdraw the authority of...

  2. Infants' Intermodal Perception of Canine ("Canis Familairis") Facial Expressions and Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously…

  3. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  4. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat... CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.61 Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a...

  5. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  6. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  7. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  12. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  14. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203...

  19. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are available to ship freight? (a) The following is a partial list of handbooks and guides available from...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1) Identify... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What shipping...

  2. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-03-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%. PMID:25836821

  3. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224—Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock Freight car or locomotive...

  4. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  5. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  6. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  7. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  8. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... despatch earned: (A) At the port of unloading on c.i.f. or c. & f. shipments, or (B) At the port of...

  9. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  10. 78 FR 10249 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network Correction In notice document 2013-02580 appearing on pages 8686-8689, in the issue of Wednesday, February 6, 2013, make...

  11. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...) notice, which was published on November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520. The original comment period is set to..., except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520, the... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal...

  12. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  13. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  14. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  15. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  16. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  17. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  18. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Theobald; Schön, Tobias; Dittmann, Jonas; Sukowski, Frank; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-01

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today's 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  19. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  20. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  1. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  2. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  3. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  4. A two-stage approach for medical supplies intermodal transportation in large-scale disaster responses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the "helicopters and vehicles" intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  5. An intermode-coupled thin-film micro-acoustic resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapan, Lilia; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2012-08-01

    A novel concept for the development of thin-film micro-acoustic resonators based on the coupling between different plate acoustic modes is demonstrated. The basic principles for the design and fabrication of intermode-coupled plate acoustic wave resonators on c-textured thin aluminum nitride films are presented. More specifically, the lowest order symmetric S0 Lamb wave is excited and then coupled to the fundamental thickness shear bulk resonance by means of a metal strip grating with specific periodicity. The experimental results demonstrate that the grating-assisted intermode coupling can be employed in high-frequency resonators inheriting the low dispersive nature of the S0 mode in combination with the energy localization in the plate bulk typical for the fundamental thickness shear resonance.

  6. Bending sensor based on intermodal interference properties of two-dimensional waveguide array fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Y; Han, T; Wu, Z; Wei, C; Wei, H; Li, J; Tong, W

    2012-05-15

    We propose a highly sensitive bending sensor based on the intermodal interference properties of a strongly coupled two-dimentional waveguide array fiber (WAF). The interference resonance peaks formed by the SMF-WAF-SMF Mach-Zehnder interferometer are intrinsically the result of interference between the LP(01)-like supermode and other higher order supermodes, displaying supernormal sensitivity to bending in a wide curvature range. The bending sensitivity of the intermodal MZI is a quadratic function of curvature, and the resonance wavelength shift is up to 100 nm within a curvature range 0-10 m(-1). The fabrication reveals briefness, and temperature response shows little impact on the bend sensing precision. The high bending sensitivity and wide sensing range can make this device a candidate for bending discrimination and measurement in widespread areas. PMID:22627512

  7. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  8. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  9. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems. High speed passenger trains in freight railroad corridors: Operations and safety considerations. Final report, September 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, K.B.; Bing, A.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study into some operations and technical issues likely to be encountered when planning for high-speed rail passenger service on corridors that presently carry freight or commuter traffic. The study starts with a review of corridors designated under Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, a potential future high-speed corridors. After a review of signal, train control and braking systems presently used in the United States and elsewhere, the study provides analyses of the safety and operations impacts of introducing high-speed rail service on the hypothetical corridor. The safety analysis established a safety performance target based on present intercity rail safety performance, and reviewed the need for and benefits from safety improvements for high speed operation. The operations analysis concentrated on the impacts on track capacity and train delays of introducing a high-speed rail service on three hypothetical existing corridors with different track layouts and signal systems.

  10. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  11. Intermodal Transportation: Current Fast Ship Designs Specify Propulsion Systems that Are about 20 Knots Faster than Ships in the Current Fleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2005-01-01

    Intermodal transportation is the moving of people or cargo using more than one mode of transportation. When a person drives to the airport, stands on a conveyor to move through the terminal, and flies to another city, then he or she is using intermodal transportation. Moving cargo in the first half of the twentieth century was a time-consuming and…

  12. Carrying freight on high-speed rail lines

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, D.

    1997-05-01

    Under the current economic climate it is expected that any new high-speed rail line in the US would be constructed as a public/private partnership, requiring substantial private investment, and thus the expectation of reasonable profits. To date, proposed high-speed rail lines have failed to attract sufficient investment to create any new starts, in great part due to the conclusion that these systems would not likely cover their capital and operating costs and also provide reasonable profit for investors. Studies of the economic potential of US high-speed rail lines have commonly considered them as passenger carriers only, depending solely on ridership as a source of revenue. Yet is likely that significant revenue potential exists for carrying higher value freight as well--perhaps enough to substantially improve the economic viability of certain high-speed operations. Some basic technical aspects of carrying freight on high-speed rail lines are presented, along with an analysis to estimate the quantity of freight that may be technically practical, and thus potentially economically viable, for a high-speed train to carry.

  13. Effects of intermodal dispersion and fiber length on the mode-locking of a dual-core fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaohui; Song, Yanrong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate theoretically how the intermodal dispersion and the fiber length influence the formation of ultrashort pulses in a dual-core fiber laser. Our simulation using the Ginzburg-Landau equation found that stable self-starting of mode-locking can be achieved with a fiber length deviating from integer multiples of the linear coupling length. Furthermore, the intermodal dispersion will not lead to pulse splitting, in contrast, it will induce asymmetry in the pulse shape and increase the modulation instability. Consequently, a filter is found necessary to stabilize the mode-locking operation when the fiber length is longer than the linear coupling length.

  14. Intermodal interferometer for strain and temperature sensing fabricated in birefringent boron doped microstructured fiber.

    PubMed

    Statkiewicz-Barabach, G; Carvalho, J P; Frazão, O; Olszewski, J; Mergo, P; Santos, J L; Urbanczyk, W

    2011-07-20

    We present a compact in-line fiber interferometric sensor fabricated in a boron doped two-mode highly birefringent microstructured fiber using a CO(2) laser. The intermodal interference arises at the fiber output due to coupling between the fundamental and the first order modes occurring at two fiber tapers distant by a few millimeters. The visibility of intermodal interference fringes is modulated by a polarimetric differential signal and varies in response to measurand changes. The proposed interferometer was tested for measurements of the strain and temperature, respectively, in the range of 20-700 °C and 0-17 mstrain. The sensitivity coefficients corresponding to fringe displacement and contrast variations are equal respectively for strain -2.51 nm/mstrain and -0.0256 1/mstrain and for temperature 16.7 pm/°C and 5.74×10(-5) 1/°C. This allows for simultaneous measurements of the two parameters by interrogation of the visibility and the displacement of interference fringes. PMID:21772355

  15. A probabilistic, non-parametric framework for inter-modality label fusion.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multi-atlas techniques are commonplace in medical image segmentation due to their high performance and ease of implementation. Locally weighting the contributions from the different atlases in the label fusion process can improve the quality of the segmentation. However, how to define these weights in a principled way in inter-modality scenarios remains an open problem. Here we propose a label fusion scheme that does not require voxel intensity consistency between the atlases and the target image to segment. The method is based on a generative model of image data in which each intensity in the atlases has an associated conditional distribution of corresponding intensities in the target. The segmentation is computed using variational expectation maximization (VEM) in a Bayesian framework. The method was evaluated with a dataset of eight proton density weighted brain MRI scans with nine labeled structures of interest. The results show that the algorithm outperforms majority voting and a recently published inter-modality label fusion algorithm. PMID:24505808

  16. Intermode beating mode-locking technique for O-band mixed-cascaded Raman fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Zhong, Min; Xiong, Fengfu; Wu, Duanduan; Huang, Yizhong; Li, Yingyue; Le, Lili; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-02-15

    A novel intermode beating mode-locking (IBML) technique combined with a cascaded Raman process is proposed to mode-lock an O-band two-cascaded Raman fiber laser. Using a 980-m-long phosphosilicate fiber pumped by a 1064 nm laser, the second-order Raman oscillation at 1319 nm is generated by the mixed-cascaded Raman shifts of P2O5 and SiO2. By precisely matching the intermode beating frequencies of the 1064 nm pump laser and the second-order Raman cavity frequency, harmonic mode-locking at 1319 nm is initiated. The dynamic process of the IBML operation in the cascaded Raman laser is experimentally investigated. The 131st-order harmonic mode-locking with a repetition rate of 27.247 MHz is very stable with the radio-frequency (RF) signal-to-noise ratio of >56  dB and the RF supermode-suppression ratio of >43  dB. The mode-locked pulses with the square profile are confirmed as the noise-like pulses by an autocorrelator. The IBML technique, in combination with the cascaded Raman process, could offer an exciting new prospect for obtaining simple, compact, and arbitrary-wavelength mode-locked laser sources. PMID:25680135

  17. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Eksioglu, Sandra D; Li, Song; Zhang, Shu; Petrolia, Daniel; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-09-01

    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  18. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP) AGENCY: Department... provider (TSP) registrations during the FCRP open season which will run 1 September through 30 November... services, utilizing an open season for freight motor carrier registration, allows SDDC to...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... governing freight classification or tariff (or Government rate tender) under which lowest freight rates...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... governing freight classification or tariff (or Government rate tender) under which lowest freight rates...

  1. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  2. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  3. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  6. 49 CFR 172.512 - Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aircraft unit load device if it is only transported by air and is identified as containing a hazardous... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.512 Freight containers and...

  7. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31 Section 231.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.31 Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts for transportation or for transportation-related services when the weight...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-9 - Agreed Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreed Weight-General....247-9 Agreed Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(1), insert the following clause in... determines the weight of shipments of freight other than household goods or office furniture: Agreed...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-9 - Agreed Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreed Weight-General....247-9 Agreed Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(1), insert the following clause in... determines the weight of shipments of freight other than household goods or office furniture: Agreed...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  13. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  14. 46 CFR 502.271 - Special docket application for permission to refund or waive freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special docket application for permission to refund or waive freight charges. 502.271 Section 502.271 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges § 502.271 Special docket application for permission to...

  15. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must consist of red or black letters on a white background that is at least 30 cm (11.8 inches) wide... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  17. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) concerning persons acting as a broker or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... President signed MAP-21 (Pub. L. 112-141, 126 Stat. 405 (2012)) into law, which included a number...

  18. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  19. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  20. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  1. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-9 - Commodity description and freight classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification and (2) the hazardous material description and hazard class as shown in 49 CFR 172.101. (d) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commodity description and... Commodity description and freight classification. (a) Generally, the freight rate for supplies is based...

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  5. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297.5 Section 297.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air...

  6. 78 FR 33888 - National Freight Advisory Committee: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141. DATES: The meeting will be held on... will provide an overview of MAP-21 freight provisions and an update of the Department's progress... freight@dot.gov with your name and affiliation no later than June 18, 2013, in order to facilitate...

  7. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order...

  8. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution...) 220-5870. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules...

  9. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution...: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background: The MFTURP No....

  10. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution... INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background:...

  11. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: References: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  12. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  13. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. 47.303-4 Section 47.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term....

  14. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  15. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  1. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  3. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82... Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. (a)...

  4. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  5. 49 CFR 390.40 - What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (49 CFR parts 350-399)? 390.40 Section 390... equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (49 CFR parts 350-399)?...

  6. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? 390.42 Section 390.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  7. 49 CFR 390.46 - Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal equipment preempted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations? 390.46 Section 390.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  8. Sloshing effects and running safety in railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Premoli, Antonio; Gallazzi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with the study of running dynamic effects for a partially filled railway tank vehicle. A computational fluid dynamics model in 2D is established and used to define the motion of the sloshing fluid and the forces generated on the tank, for curving conditions typical of railway freight transport. From these results, an equivalent mechanical model is identified which is able to correctly reproduce the forces generated on the tank. Finally, a mathematical model is defined for the entire freight car, including the bogies with primary suspensions, the tank and a discrete number of equivalent models positioned at different places along the longitudinal axis of the tank. This model is used to simulate the dynamics of the tank for a variety of curve geometries, train speeds and fill levels. By these simulations, derailment and rollover risks are evaluated and the most critical conditions for running safety are defined. Results show that sloshing can increase significantly the risk of tank rollover whereas its influence on the risk of derailment is minor.

  9. 75 FR 7152 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... intermodal United Parcel Service (UPS) trains that originate or terminate at CSX Intermodal's Bedford Park Intermodal Terminal. The UPS trains handle freight to and from the southeastern region of the United...

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers via intermodal phase matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbeyram, Hamed; Mafi, Arash

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed study of photon pair generation in a multimode optical fiber via nonlinear four-wave mixing and intermodal phase matching. We show that in multimode optical fibers, it is possible to generate correlated photon pairs in different fiber modes with large spectral shifts from the pump wavelength, such that the photon pairs are immune to contamination from spontaneous Raman scattering and residual pump photons. We also show that it is possible to generate factorable two-photon states exhibiting minimal spectral correlations between the photon pair components in conventional multimode fibers using commonly available pump lasers. It is also possible to simultaneously generate multiple factorable states from different FWM processes in the same fiber and over a wide range of visible spectrum by varying the pump wavelength without affecting the factorability of the states. Therefore, photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers exhibits considerable potential for producing state engineered photons for quantum communications and quantum information processing applications.

  12. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A T; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J D; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  13. Intermodal transfer in temporal discrimination. [of visual and acoustic stimuli duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warm, J. S.; Stutz, R. M.; Vassolo, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    This study determined if training for accuracy in temporal discrimination would transfer across sensory modalities. A fractionation method was used in which subjects bisected the durations of acoustic and visual signals at three standard intervals (6, 12, and 18 sec). Absolute error was the performance index. Half of the subjects were trained with acoustic stimuli and then tested in vision; the remainder were trained in vision and tested in audition. Similar negatively accelerated acquisition functions were noted for both modalities. Positive intermodal transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities, was obtained at all standard durations. The results were considered to provide support for the notion that a common mechanism underlies temporal discriminations in different sensory systems.

  14. V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometer for high-temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Gao, Rong

    2015-01-10

    Novel V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometers fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation on a standard single-mode fiber are described. The high-order cladding modes are excited due to the special V-groove structure. The interferometers are classified as Mach-Zehnder and Michelson type based on the way they are structured. Benefiting from the large difference of thermal coefficients of the core and high-order cladding modes, both types receive high temperature sensitivity by monitoring the wavelength shift of the interference spectrum, and their responses to temperature are similar. Compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is more compact and more flexible in application. PMID:25967632

  15. Maglev-rail intermodal equipment and suspension study. Final report, July 1991-February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, E.E.; Gillam, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    The physical and operational characteristics of four existing and planned maglev systems were surveyed pertinent to the intermodal interface for each system. The maglev systems investigated were: Grumman New York State' (Configuration 002) Maglev; Transrapid Intercity (Transrapid 07) Maglev; HSST Passive Intermediate Speed (HSST-300) Maglev; and Japan Railways Vertical Magnet (Configuration MLU 002) Maglev. The focus of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using existing railroad right-of-way to access center-city terminals in one of three possible methods: Maglev vehicles traveling over existing railroad tracks with the use of steel guide wheels and some means of exterior propulsion; maglev vehicles transferred onto modified railroad flatcars and transported over existing railroad tracks with locomotive power; or new grade-separated maglev guideways on existing railroad rights-of-way.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Stenciling 215.301Failure to stencil car number and built date on freight car as required. 215.303Failure to stencil restricted car as required. 215.305Failure to stencil maintenance-of-way equipment as required....

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Stenciling 215.301Failure to stencil car number and built date on freight car as required. 215.303Failure to stencil restricted car as required. 215.305Failure to stencil maintenance-of-way equipment as required....

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Stenciling 215.301Failure to stencil car number and built date on freight car as required. 215.303Failure to stencil restricted car as required. 215.305Failure to stencil maintenance-of-way equipment as required....

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Stenciling 215.301Failure to stencil car number and built date on freight car as required. 215.303Failure to stencil restricted car as required. 215.305Failure to stencil maintenance-of-way equipment as required....

  20. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... destination. Other types of services may include, but are not limited to, multi-trip voyage charters... its shipping agent, shall be notified by the Department of the vessel freight rate used in...

  1. 48 CFR 47.305-9 - Commodity description and freight classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification and (2) the hazardous material description and hazard class as shown in 49 CFR 172.101. (d) The... the rating applicable to the freight classification description published in the National...

  2. Visual discrimination of delayed self-generated movement reveals the temporal limit of proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Mark; O'Driscoll, Kelly; Moore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the intermodal integration of visual-proprioceptive feedback via a novel visual discrimination task of delayed self-generated movement. Participants performed a goal-oriented task in which visual feedback was available only via delayed videos displayed on two monitors-each with different delay durations. During task performance, delay duration was varied for one of the videos in the pair relative to a standard delay, which was held constant. Participants were required to identify and use the video with the lesser delay to perform the task. Visual discrimination of the lesser-delayed video was examined under four conditions in which the standard delay was increased for each condition. A temporal limit for proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration of 3-5s was revealed by subjects' inability to reliably discriminate video pairs. PMID:27208649

  3. Results from the car-coupling impact tests of intermodal trailers and containers. Final report, 1985-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.R.

    1988-03-01

    Results are presented from car-coupling impact and lift/drop tests conducted in April 1985 under the Safety Evaluation of Intermodal and Jumbo Tank Hazardous Material Cars Program. The program was conducted to develop information for analyzing the safety of transporting hazardous material containers by rail in trailer-on-flat-car or container-on-flat-car service. The 106 car-coupling impact tests included 10 different arrangements of cargo tanks (tank trailers) and intermodal tank containers mounted on a flat car. No tendency for trailers or containers to become dislodged during impact was observed, properties of end-of-car cushioning devices were found to be different at each end of the car, and drop tests caused significant damage to support legs of the tank trailers.

  4. Theory of intermodal four-wave mixing with random linear mode coupling in few-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Essiambre, René-Jean; Desgroseilliers, Marc; Tulino, Antonia M; Ryf, Roland; Mumtaz, Sami; Agrawal, Govind P

    2014-12-29

    We study intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibers in the presence of birefringence fluctuations and random linear mode coupling. Two different intermodal FWM processes are investigated by including all nonlinear contributions to the phase-matching condition and FWM bandwidth. We find that one of the FWM processes has a much larger bandwidth than the other. We include random linear mode coupling among fiber modes using three different models based on an analysis of the impact of random coupling on differences of propagation constants between modes. We find that random coupling always reduces the FWM efficiency relative to its vale in the absence of linear coupling. The reduction factor is relatively small (about 3 dB) when only a few modes are linearly coupled but can become very large (> 40 dB) when all modes couple strongly. In the limit of a coupling length much shorter than the nonlinear length, intermodal FWM efficiency becomes vanishingly small. These results should prove useful in the context of space-division multiplexing with few-mode and multimode fibers. PMID:25607171

  5. Research on the optical fiber gas flowmeters based on intermodal interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Hu, Hai-feng; Bi, Dan-juan; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a self-heating type optical fiber flowmeter with high sensitivity was proposed. The core-offset fiber structures were employed to couple a part of signal light into the fiber cladding layer, and the other part of light still propagated in the core layer. The intermodal interference between the two parts of light happened when the cladding modes were coupled back into core layer. Meanwhile, the high power laser was also introduced into fiber to heat the silver film coated on the surface of the cladding layer. When the cool gas flow passed, the temperature of the sensor probe decreased due to the heat transfer process. Because of the thermo-optic effect in the fiber, interference spectrum could be shifted when the temperature was changed. The experimental results showed the resolution of the proposed sensor was 2×10-2 m/s in the region of 0-8 m/s. The highest sensitivity could achieve 1537 pm/(m/s).

  6. Consequences of Intermodality Registration Errors for Intramodality 3D Ultrasound IGRT.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Skadi; Seravalli, Enrica; Fontanarosa, Davide; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Intramodality ultrasound image-guided radiotherapy systems compare daily ultrasound to reference ultrasound images. Nevertheless, because the actual treatment planning is based on a reference computed tomography image, and not on a reference ultrasound image, their accuracy depends partially on the correct intermodality registration of the reference ultrasound and computed tomography images for treatment planning. The error propagation in daily patient positioning due to potential registration errors at the planning stage was assessed in this work. Five different scenarios were simulated involving shifts or rotations of ultrasound or computed tomography images. The consequences of several workflow procedures were tested with a phantom setup. As long as the reference ultrasound and computed tomography images are made to match, the patient will be in the correct treatment position. In an example with a phantom measurement, the accuracy of the performed manual fusion was found to be ≤2 mm. In clinical practice, manual registration of patient images is expected to be more difficult. Uncorrected mismatches will lead to a systematically incorrect final patient position because there will be no indication that there was a misregistration between the computed tomography and reference ultrasound images. In the treatment room, the fusion with the computed tomography image will not be visible and based on the ultrasound images the patient position seems correct. PMID:26048909

  7. Utilizing Strong Tight Intermodal Waste Packaging to Meet Accelerated Cleanup Goals at The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, JosephC.

    2004-01-22

    In support of the accelerated cleanup challenge, personnel at the Savannah River Site have been working diligently to identify and acquire cost-effective waste containers that can be used to package a voluminous amount of low level radioactive waste that needs to be disposed. In so doing, personnel have transformed their paradigm in packaging low level radioactive waste in traditional 45-cubic-foot and 90-cubic-foot containers and utilizing refurbished intermodal containers instead. The transition has increased efficiencies in the processing, packaging, transportation, storage, and disposal of low level radioactive waste, while providing decreased procurement costs. Since large items do not have to be size-reduced to fit into the large containers, additional cost savings are being realized by minimizing void space, labor, time, equipment, and risks if size reduction techniques were performed. Cost savings for fiscal year 2003 exceeded one million dollars. Additional savings are estimated to be between 3 million dollars and 4 million dollars through fiscal year 2006.

  8. Preliminary analysis of hub and spoke air freight distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the hub and spoke air freight distribution system which would employ less than 15 hub centers world wide with very large advanced distributed-load freighters providing the line-haul delivery between hubs. This system is compared to a more conventional network using conventionally-designed long-haul freighters which travel between numerous major airports. The analysis calculates all of the transportation costs, including handling charges and pickup and delivery costs. The results show that the economics of the hub/spoke system are severely compromised by the extensive use of feeder aircraft to deliver cargo into and from the large freighter terminals. Not only are the higher costs for the smaller feeder airplanes disadvantageous, but their use implies an additional exchange of cargo between modes compared to truck delivery. The conventional system uses far fewer feeder airplanes, and in many cases, none at all. When feeder aircraft are eliminated from the hub/spoke system, however, that system is universally more economical than any conventional system employing smaller line-haul aircraft.

  9. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated...

  10. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section...

  11. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  15. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  17. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.61 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to train) (account 51-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to train... (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.61 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-65 - F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight-Small Package Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Freight-Small Package Shipments. 52.247-65 Section 52.247-65 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-65 F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight—Small Package Shipments. As... Shipments (JAN 1991) (a) When authorized by the Contracting Officer, f.o.b. origin freight shipments...

  5. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  6. Freight Network Modeling System. Volume IV. Shortest-Path Analysis and Display user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The Freight Network Modeling System (FNEM) is a general and flexible modeling system designed to have wide applicability to a variety of freight transportation analyses. The system consists of compatible network data bases, data management software, models of freight transportation, report generators, and graphics output. In many studies, a model as comprehensive as FNEM is not required. The second model, Shortest-Path Analysis and Display (SPAD), is a simpler model that optimizes routings of single shipments. The routing criteria that can be used are numerous - including minimizing cost, minimizing delay, minimizing population exposure (useful when considering shipments of hazardous materials), and minimizing accident risk. In addition to the above criteria, the routes can also be restricted to those with clearance for oversized loads or with sufficient load capabilities. SPAD can be used interactively and the routes can be displayed graphically. This volume contains a user's guide for SPAD including preprocessor programs and SPAD execution. 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    PubMed Central

    He, Shi-wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable. PMID:25435867

  8. A STUDY ON TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN CONSIDERATION OF DAILY WORK-LIFE CYCLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, Daiki; Hara, Hidetaka; Oeda, Yoshinao; Sumi, Tomonori

    As advanced freight service is demanded, the time related requirements fo r freight transportation becomes more and more significant. This study, focusing on temporal distribution of freight transportation responding to the travel time, developed a shipment departure time decision model for each item, aiming at quantitatively grasping social requirement in the time domain. The model takes account of the daily work cycle of both work cy cles of shippers and carriers along with the travel time. The proposed model has a similar structure as that derived from the previous studies taking account of the daily living cycle of individuals. This model properly reproduced temporal distribution of shipment departure time that changes depending on the length of necessary lead time for each item.

  9. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  10. Emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bickford, Erica; Holloway, Tracey; Karambelas, Alexandra; Johnston, Matt; Adams, Teresa; Janssen, Mark; Moberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We present an examination of the potential emissions and air quality benefits of shifting freight from truck to rail in the upper Midwestern United States. Using a novel, freight-specific emissions inventory (the Wisconsin Inventory of Freight Emissions, WIFE) and a three-dimensional Eulerian photochemical transport model (the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ), we quantify how specific freight mode choices impact ambient air pollution concentrations. Using WIFE, we developed two modal shift scenarios: one focusing on intraregional freight movements within the Midwest and a second on through-freight movements through the region. Freight truck and rail emissions inventories for each scenario were gridded to a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution as input to CMAQ, along with emissions from all other major sectors, and three-dimensional time-varying meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The through-freight scenario reduced monthly mean (January and July) localized concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by 28% (-2.33 ppbV) in highway grid cells, and reduced elemental carbon (EC) by 16% (-0.05 μg/m(3)) in highway grid cells. There were corresponding localized increases in railway grid cells of 25% (+0.83 ppbV) for NO2, and 22% (+0.05 μg/m(3)) for EC. The through-freight scenario reduced CO2 emissions 31% compared to baseline trucking. The through-freight scenario yields a July mean change in ground-level ambient PM2.5 and O3 over the central and eastern part of the domain (up to -3%). PMID:24004244

  11. The Intermodal Bike: multi-modal integration of cycling mobility through product and process innovations in bicycle design.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Francesca; Belli, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tucci, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the early results of the UE-FP7 project "The Intermodal Bike". The research aim is to provide a super-compactable, super-lightweight folding bicycle as a realistic solution to graft the cycling mode onto the root of the public or private transportation systems. The folding bikes now on the international market reach weighs between 12-15 kg, with a variable footprint but occupying -when compacted- an average volume of about 100 liters. To encourage the use of this vehicle and to extend it to a larger number of users with different characteristics, the research project has set its goal in increasing as possible compactness and light weight, creating a bicycle with a volume when compacted of 20 liters (reduction factor =5), with a shape of 48 × 36 × 12 cm and a weight of 5 kg. max., ensuring stability and improving vehicle usability and efficiency, during the ride and in the phase of bike folding. To achieve this goal ergonomic and usability tests have been carried out. The tests allowed to find a posture that would ensure efficiency and comfort in the ride to as many users as possible. Parallel tests were made on the vehicle usability in the urban transport system and intermodal. The need for light weight has required special studies on the optimization of the vehicle's architecture and research on super-lightweight materials. PMID:22316928

  12. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS...

  13. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS...

  14. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS...

  15. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. 372.301 Section 372.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  16. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF... development, relief, and rehabilitation in nations or areas designated by the Administrator of AID from...

  17. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF... development, relief, and rehabilitation in nations or areas designated by the Administrator of AID from...

  18. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF... development, relief, and rehabilitation in nations or areas designated by the Administrator of AID from...

  19. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  20. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  1. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  2. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  3. 77 FR 41372 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Ocean Freight Revenues and..., (BE- 50), Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230; phone: (202... Analysis (BEA) estimates data for non-respondents. Form BE-37, U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  7. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... in terms of the governing freight classification or tariff (or Government rate tender) under...

  10. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  11. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  12. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  13. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  14. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  15. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  17. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN...

  18. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.83 Section 174.83 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  19. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Handling and...

  20. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL NOTICE AND EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT...

  1. Demonstrating the Use of Spatial Optimising Techniques by Means of a Freight Distribution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Alan C.

    1984-01-01

    College seniors in a geography of marketing and distribution course learn about spatial optimizing techniques by participating in a freight distribution game. Students plan the distribution of confectionery from two factories in England to 20 wholesale and retail customers in Scotland. The team that designs the lowest cost system wins. (RM)

  2. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  3. Task Analysis for the Jobs of Freight Train Conductor and Brakeman. RDTR No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark S.; And Others

    The principal tasks performed by conductors, rear brakemen, and head brakemen during over-the-road freight operations are identified and described in the report. Forty-four tasks and subtasks are analyzed and grouped into six categories: basic handling tasks, prerun preparation and starting off tasks, over-the-road tasks, terminating tasks,…

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... stated in the solicitation, to any Government-designated point located within the same city or commercial... the Government delivered— (i) On board the indicated type or conveyance of the carrier (or of...

  5. Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood shantes foreground (roundhouse visible in near distance is the second roadhouse built at aurora, 1868-1872) Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  6. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.83 Section 174.83 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  7. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  8. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  9. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  10. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  11. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.172 Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except...

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What shipping process must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What shipping process must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What shipping process must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What shipping process must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  16. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  17. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly...

  18. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated. 173.9 Section 173.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  19. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  20. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  1. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  2. 49 CFR 385.201 - Who is qualified to perform a review of a motor carrier or an intermodal equipment provider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is qualified to perform a review of a motor carrier or an intermodal equipment provider? 385.201 Section 385.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  3. 49 CFR 390.44 - What are the procedures to correct the safety record of a motor carrier or an intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the procedures to correct the safety record of a motor carrier or an intermodal equipment provider? 390.44 Section 390.44 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR...

  4. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  5. Detailed investigation of intermodal four-wave mixing in SMF-28: blue-red generation from green.

    PubMed

    Pourbeyram, Hamed; Nazemosadat, Elham; Mafi, Arash

    2015-06-01

    A short piece of commercial-grade SMF-28 optical fiber is pumped with a 680 ps high-peak power green laser. Red Stokes and blue anti-Stokes beams are generated spontaneously from vacuum noise in different modes in the fiber via intermodal four-wave mixing. Detailed experimental and theoretical analyses are performed and are in reasonable agreement. The large spectral shifts from the pump protect the Stokes and anti-Stokes from contamination by spontaneous Raman scattering noise. This work highlights the predictive power and limitations of a theoretical model to explain the experimental results for a process that relies on the amplification of quantum vacuum energy over more than 11 orders of magnitude. PMID:26072809

  6. Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

  7. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  8. IntelligentFreight: A Tracking 2.0 Prototype for Global Supply Chain Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a world where boxes talk to containers, containers talk to trucks and trucks talk to forklifts that talk to people. Each box would be smart, carrying all the information about its contents, its shipping history, its handling instructions, and where it is supposed to be. This world is within our reach as a result of Web 2.0 innovations on the Internet. While technologies such as RFID, GPS, cellular phones and barcodes have become ever more prevalent in the freight supply chain, there is still an invisible curtain blocking information flow between proprietary and legacy enterprise systems. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are working with academia, the U.S. Government, and commercial companies to apply Web 2.0 technologies to the challenge of tracking and monitoring hazardous materials and nuclear sources in the international supply chain. Under the rubric of Tracking 2.0, a term for the use of Web 2.0 technologies for tracking applications, ORNL is developing a prototype called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight interfaces sensors, legacy databases, and proprietary commercial tracking systems. The prototype combines Web 2.0 s social networking and tagging concepts with a classical faceted classification (a way of describing the same object in multiple ways) model to track a shipment across incompatible enterprise systems.

  9. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  10. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  11. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  12. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed. PMID:25645163

  13. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels. PMID:26368392

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Young Children's Comprehension of English SVO Word Order Revisited: Testing the Same Children in Act-Out and Intermodal Preferential Looking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angel; Meints, Kerstin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Act-out and intermodal preferential looking (IPL) tasks were administered to 67 English children aged 2-0, 2-9 and 3-5 to assess their comprehension of canonical SVO transitive word order with both familiar and novel verbs. Children at 3-5 and at 2-9 showed evidence of comprehending word order in both verb conditions and both tasks, although…

  16. A method for high-resolution x-ray imaging of intermodal cargo containers for fissionable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiter, B. J.; Prussin, S. G.; Pohl, B.; Hall, J.; Trebes, J.; Stone, G.; Descalle, M.-A.

    2008-03-01

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargos of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E ⩽2-3MeV that contain the majority of multiply scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E ⩽3MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargos with Z ⩽30 and areal densities of at least 145gcm-2. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  17. A methodological investigation of the Intermodal Preferential Looking paradigm: Methods of analyses, picture selection and data rejection criteria.

    PubMed

    Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; Poltrock, Silvana; Floccia, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    The Intermodal Preferential Looking paradigm provides a sensitive measure of a child's online word comprehension. To complement existing recommendations (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008), the present study evaluates the impact of experimental noise generated by two aspects of the visual stimuli on the robustness of familiar word recognition with and without mispronunciations: the presence of a central fixation point and the level of visual noise in the pictures (as measured by luminance saliency). Twenty-month-old infants were presented with a classic word recognition IPL procedure in 3 conditions: without a fixation stimulus (No Fixation - noisiest condition), with a fixation stimulus before trial onset (Fixation, intermediate), and with a fixation stimulus, a neutral background and equally salient images (Fixation Plus - least noisy). Data were systematically analyzed considering a range of data selection criteria and dependent variables (proportion of looking time towards the target, longest look, and time-course analysis). Critically, the expected pronunciation and naming interaction was only found in the Fixation Plus condition. We discuss the impact of data selection criteria and the dependent variable choice on the modulation of these effects across the different conditions. PMID:26176183

  18. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  19. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  20. Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Josi R; DeVogelaere, Andrew P; Burton, Erica J; Frey, Oren; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A; Whaling, P J; Lovera, Christopher; Buck, Kurt R; Barry, James P

    2014-06-15

    Carrying assorted cargo and covered with paints of varying toxicity, lost intermodal containers may take centuries to degrade on the deep seafloor. In June 2004, scientists from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) discovered a recently lost container during a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dive on a sediment-covered seabed at 1281 m depth in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The site was revisited by ROV in March 2011. Analyses of sediment samples and high-definition video indicate that faunal assemblages on the container's exterior and the seabed within 10 m of the container differed significantly from those up to 500 m. The container surface provides hard substratum for colonization by taxa typically found in rocky habitats. However, some key taxa that dominate rocky areas were absent or rare on the container, perhaps related to its potential toxicity or limited time for colonization and growth. Ecological effects appear to be restricted to the container surface and the benthos within ∼10 m. PMID:24793778

  1. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  2. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  3. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket...

  4. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket...

  5. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  6. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  7. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  8. Transportation statistics annual report 1998: Long-distance travel and freight

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.

    1998-12-01

    This is the fifth annual report prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). As in prior years, the report brings together under one cover information about how the transportation system is used, how well it works, its economic contributions and costs, and its unintended consequences for safety, energy import dependency, and the environment. This year`s report also contains a detailed analysis of long-distance passenger travel and freight activity, drawing on the American Travel Survey and the Commodity Flow Survey conducted by BTS in cooperation with the US Census Bureau.

  9. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations.

    PubMed

    Thöni, L; Schnyder, N; Krieg, F

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown. PMID:15067476

  10. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  11. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  12. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  13. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  14. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  15. 78 FR 5168 - BE-30: Survey of Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of United States Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC005 BE-30: Survey of Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of United States Carriers AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of reporting requirements. SUMMARY: By this Notice, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), Department of Commerce,...

  16. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate... requests the Commission has received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and... World Container Index (WCI, 2011). Each of these indices includes one or more U.S. trade routes,...

  17. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for changing the name or business form... name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. (a) Scope. These procedures apply in the following circumstances: (1) A change in the form of a business, such as...

  18. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. 174.84 Section 174.84 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  19. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  20. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.85 Section 174.85 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  1. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. 1319.1 Section 1319.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE...

  2. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... position in a train of each loaded placarded car, transport vehicle, freight container, and bulk packaging must conform to the provisions of this section. (b) A car placarded “RADIOACTIVE” must comply with..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank...

  3. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... position in a train of each loaded placarded car, transport vehicle, freight container, and bulk packaging must conform to the provisions of this section. (b) A car placarded “RADIOACTIVE” must comply with..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank...

  4. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... position in a train of each loaded placarded car, transport vehicle, freight container, and bulk packaging must conform to the provisions of this section. (b) A car placarded “RADIOACTIVE” must comply with..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank...

  5. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38128-38129). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  6. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  7. Rail versus truck fuel efficiency: The relative fuel efficiency of truck-competitive rail freight and truck operations compared in a range of corridors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the findings of a study to evaluate the fuel efficiency of rail freight operations relative to competing truckload service. The objective of the study was to identify the circumstances in which rail freight service offers a fuel efficiency advantage over alternative truckload options, and to estimate the fuel savings associated with using rail service. The findings are based on computer simulations of rail and truck freight movements between the same origins and destinations. The simulation input assumptions and data are based on actual rail and truck operations. Input data was provided by U.S. regional and Class I railroads and by large truck fleet operators.

  8. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  9. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. PMID:26130420

  10. Work Inside Ocean Freight Containers—Personal Exposure to Off-Gassing Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Svedberg, Urban

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers’ exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r 2 ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1–7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition

  11. Work inside ocean freight containers--personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r(2) ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1-7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition to

  12. Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Tovar, Andrea T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with language and communication.1 Children with ASD's onset of speaking is usually delayed, and many children with ASD consistently produce language less frequently and of lower lexical and grammatical complexity than their typically developing (TD) peers.6,8,12,23 However, children with ASD also exhibit a significant social deficit, and researchers and clinicians continue to debate the extent to which the deficits in social interaction account for or contribute to the deficits in language production.5,14,19,25 Standardized assessments of language in children with ASD usually do include a comprehension component; however, many such comprehension tasks assess just one aspect of language (e.g., vocabulary),5 or include a significant motor component (e.g., pointing, act-out), and/or require children to deliberately choose between a number of alternatives. These last two behaviors are known to also be challenging to children with ASD.7,12,13,16 We present a method which can assess the language comprehension of young typically developing children (9-36 months) and children with autism.2,4,9,11,22 This method, Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (P-IPL), projects side-by-side video images from a laptop onto a portable screen. The video images are paired first with a 'baseline' (nondirecting) audio, and then presented again paired with a 'test' linguistic audio that matches only one of the video images. Children's eye movements while watching the video are filmed and later coded. Children who understand the linguistic audio will look more quickly to, and longer at, the video that matches the linguistic audio.2,4,11,18,22,26 This paradigm includes a number of components that have recently been miniaturized (projector, camcorder, digitizer) to enable portability and easy setup in children's homes. This is a crucial point for assessing young children with ASD, who are frequently

  13. Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): investigating language comprehension in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Naigles, Letitia R; Tovar, Andrea T

    2012-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with language and communication.(1) Children with ASD's onset of speaking is usually delayed, and many children with ASD consistently produce language less frequently and of lower lexical and grammatical complexity than their typically developing (TD) peers.(6,8,12,23) However, children with ASD also exhibit a significant social deficit, and researchers and clinicians continue to debate the extent to which the deficits in social interaction account for or contribute to the deficits in language production.(5,14,19,25) Standardized assessments of language in children with ASD usually do include a comprehension component; however, many such comprehension tasks assess just one aspect of language (e.g., vocabulary),(5) or include a significant motor component (e.g., pointing, act-out), and/or require children to deliberately choose between a number of alternatives. These last two behaviors are known to also be challenging to children with ASD.(7,12,13,16) We present a method which can assess the language comprehension of young typically developing children (9-36 months) and children with autism.(2,4,9,11,22) This method, Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (P-IPL), projects side-by-side video images from a laptop onto a portable screen. The video images are paired first with a 'baseline' (nondirecting) audio, and then presented again paired with a 'test' linguistic audio that matches only one of the video images. Children's eye movements while watching the video are filmed and later coded. Children who understand the linguistic audio will look more quickly to, and longer at, the video that matches the linguistic audio.(2,4,11,18,22,26) This paradigm includes a number of components that have recently been miniaturized (projector, camcorder, digitizer) to enable portability and easy setup in children's homes. This is a crucial point for assessing young children with ASD, who are

  14. All-optical ultrafast wavelength and mode converter based on inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2015-08-01

    An ultrafast all-optical simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion scheme is purposed based on intermodal four-wave mixing (IM-FWM), with the capability of switching state of polarization (SOP) and mode degeneracy orientation (MDO) in few-mode fibers (FMF). The relation among the conversion efficiency, pump power and phase matching conditions is investigated in theory analysis and simulation. Using this scheme, cross-polarization modulation (XPolM) and cross-mode modulation (XMM) can be achieved, by in the best case up to 50% conversion efficiency. Furthermore, numerical results further indicate that the proposed configuration has the potential application for generating doughnut modes by the mixing of three characteristic spatial frequencies.

  15. Inter-modality variation in gross tumor volume delineation in 18FDG-PET guided IMRT treatment planning for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yulin; Chan, Maria; Burman, Chandra; Cann, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Rapid advances in 18FDG-PET/CT technology and novel co-registration algorithms have created a strong interest in 18FDG-PET/CT's application in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Accurate target volume delineation, particularly identification of pathologically positive lymph nodes, could translate into favorable treatment outcome. However, gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation on both CT and 18FDG-PET is very sensitive to observer variation. The objectives of the study were to investigate the inter-modality variation in gross tumor volume delineation defined by two imaging modalities for lung cancer: CT and 18FDG-PET/CT and its dosimetric implications in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). PMID:17946204

  16. An efficient scheme of intermodal distributed Raman amplification using tailored doping profiles in spatial-division multiplexed coherent fiber-optic transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    For next-generation long-haul communication systems, space-division multiplexing (SDM) is suggested as a promising technique for providing orders of magnitude increase in transmission capacity. Optical amplifiers for multimode fibers are the crucial components to realize SDM systems, while few-mode fiber (FMF) has the advantage of strong intensity overlap between different modes that allows sharing of single pump across multiple signal modes. FMF-based erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers (FM-EDFA) have been intensively studied. Since SDM is exceedingly reliant on DSP technique and thus has more stringent requirement on noise performance, FMF-based distributed Raman amplifier (FM-DRA) benefits from relatively lower noise figure (NF) compared with FM-EDFA. Yet much less work has been done in this area. To implement FM-DRAs in SDM systems, their performance should be carefully optimized. In this paper, modal gain and saturation characteristics of intermodal Raman amplification in FMFs have been fully investigated by tailoring the refractive-index profiles and doping levels of different FMF designs. For 50-km-long FMF with -3 dBm signal at 1550 nm and a 20-25 dBm pump at 1455 nm, the optimized modal-equalization of Raman gain and NF are provided depending on various fiber cross-section and pumping configuration with respect to modes/wavelengths. The pumpsignal modal-overlap integrals for each of the four mode-groups with normalized frequency V=5 have been exploited, resulting in a mean gain of 10 dB within 1 dB of equalization for 16 gain coefficients. Our results show it should be possible to design FMF with larger intermodal nonlinearity and better dispersion characteristics to achieve desirable Raman gain.

  17. State-level accident rates of surface freight transportation : a reexamination.

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Tompkins, M. M.

    1999-05-03

    State-level accident rates for truck, rail, and barge transportation have been updated for mid-1990s shipping conditions. The updated accident, fatality, and injury rates reflect multiyear data for interstate-registered highway carriers, American Association of Railroads member carriers (i.e., all Class 1 and Class 2 railroads), and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicated or otherwise inaccurate or unusable entries in the public-use accident data files applied. State-to-state variation in rates, reflecting recent developments in freight flows, the possible effect of speed limit changes on highway rates, and the stability of rates over time, are discussed. Carrier-specific information was used to confirm the general accuracy of the computed rates for highway shipments. Study conclusions suggest that these rates may be used for the next several years. However, further investigation is suggested, within two to three years, to verify or reject the emergence of a trend toward higher truck accident rates in states that raised highway speed limits between 1995 and 1996.

  18. Effects of Wind on Background Particle Concentrations at Truck Freight Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. In order to understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at US trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses, which were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these “source” and “non-source” directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, while the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect. PMID:17162479

  19. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  20. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  1. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  2. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. The development and testing of collapsible intermodal containers for the handling and transport of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.L.; Thomasson, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    SEEC, Incorporated, is developing a collapsible intermodal container (CIC{trademark}) designed for containment and transport of fly ash and other dry-flowable bulk commodities. The CIC is specially configured to ride in open top rail cars, but as an intermodal container, it also rides in barges and on flat bed trailers. This allows SEEC to use unit coal train back haul capacity to transport fly ash to markets at and near coal mines. SEEC`s goals for this project were to design a CIC for handling and transporting dry fly ash, and then demonstrate the CIC technology. During this project, SEEC has performed extensive initial design work, leading to the manufacture of three prototype CICs for demonstration. Preliminary tests to examine safety issues included finite element analyses and an overload test in which the CIC was lifted while carrying weight in excess of its rated capacity. In both cases, the CIC met all safety requirements. With the above information satisfying possible safety concerns in hand, SEEC worked with SIU and other cooperators to plan and carry out field demonstration and testing of three CICs. This demonstration/testing including filling the CICs with fly ash, transporting them in a coal hopper car, handling with standard intermodal equipment, and emptying by inverting (two CICs) and by vacuuming (one CIC). Results were very positive. Filling with fly ash, transporting, and intermodal handling went very well, as did emptying by vacuum. Emptying by inverting was less successful, but most of the problems were predicted ahead of time, and were mostly due to lack of fly ash fluidizing equipment as much as anything. Throughout the testing, valuable information was gathered that will greatly accelerate refinement of both the CIC and the system of CIC handling.

  4. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis

    PubMed Central

    SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

    2008-01-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal exposure=urban background+work site background+personal activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  5. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

    2009-02-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  6. Galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester for wireless sensors to be installed on freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasini, Gisella; Giappino, Stefano; Costa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Energy harvesting from galloping oscillations of a bluff body can be used to supply power to a wireless sensor. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use a galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester to supply power to a wireless sensors network installed on a freight train to measure the accelerations in correspondence of axle boxes. The monitoring system will be used to detect possible deteriorations of the running conditions that, in the worst cases, can lead to the vehicle derailment. Unlike other applications in this case the air speed relative to the body is due to the train motion and, for typical freight trains and standard running conditions, is equal to about 20 m/s. In the paper we discuss the design of the harvester on the basis of the constrains due to the application. Preliminary aerodynamic tests shows the limitation of the classical quasi-steady theory of galloping as a consequence of the interaction with the vortex shedding phenomenon.

  7. Experimental Determination of Pass-By Noise Contributions from the Bogies and Superstructure of a Freight Wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DE BEER, F. G.; VERHEIJ, J. W.

    2000-03-01

    Pass-by noise from freight trains on straight tracks is dominated by rolling noise. The main contributions are generally accepted to originate from vibrations of the track and the wheels. However, there is uncertainty about the contributions from the bogie and the wagon superstructure. This article describes experimental methods to determine these. The methods combine vibration measurements on a rolling wagon and measurements of structural and of vibro-acoustical transfer functions under static conditions. Firstly, an inverse method is used to determine the equivalent structural excitation of a wagon. Secondly, two reciprocity methods are described for detailed vibro-acoustic transmission path analysis, with the wagon parts excited by the equivalent forces. As an example, some data will be shown from experiments on a widely used freight wagon. It appears that the contributions from two bogies and from the wagon superstructure are respectively 20 and 30dB(A) lower than the measured pass-by noise levels. Detailed information is obtained about the ranking of sub-areas which contribute to the sound radiation. The results illustrate the practical value of the methods even in the case of weak partial sources.

  8. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  9. Interwoven fluctuations during intermodal perception: fractality in head sway supports the use of visual feedback in haptic perceptual judgments by manual wielding.

    PubMed

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Dixon, James A

    2014-12-01

    Intermodal integration required for perceptual learning tasks is rife with individual differences. Participants vary in how they use perceptual information to one modality. One participant alone might change her own response over time. Participants vary further in their use of feedback through one modality to inform another modality. Two experiments test the general hypothesis that perceptual-motor fluctuations reveal both information use within modality and coordination among modalities. Experiment 1 focuses on perceptual learning in dynamic touch, in which participants use exploratory hand-wielding of unseen objects to make visually guided length judgments and use visual feedback to rescale their judgments of the same mechanical information. Previous research found that the degree of fractal temporal scaling (i.e., "fractality") in hand-wielding moderates the use of mechanical information. Experiment 1 shows that head-sway fractality moderates the use of visual information. Further, experience with feedback increases head-sway fractality and prolongs its effect on later hand-wielding fractality. Experiment 2 replicates effects of head-sway fractality moderating use of visual information in a purely visual-judgment task. Together, these findings suggest that fractal fluctuations may provide a modal-general window onto not just how participants use perceptual information but also how well they may integrate information among different modalities. PMID:25328996

  10. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND...

  11. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF...

  12. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... first biennial inspection performed pursuant to 49 CFR 229.29 occurring after November 28, 2005. (ii) A... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224... Maintenance of Retroreflective Material Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part...

  13. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... first biennial inspection performed pursuant to 49 CFR 229.29 occurring after November 28, 2005. (ii) A... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224... Maintenance of Retroreflective Material Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part...

  14. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locomotive not later than nine months after the first biennial inspection performed pursuant to 49 CFR 229.29... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... 3 of Subpart B to Part 224—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material...

  15. 49 CFR 386.65 - Failure to comply with final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 386.65 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND...

  16. 49 CFR 386.22 - Settlement agreements and their contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 386.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER,...

  17. 49 CFR 386.65 - Failure to comply with final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 386.65 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND...

  18. 49 CFR 386.22 - Settlement agreements and their contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 386.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER,...

  19. ORNL IntelligentFreight Initiative:Enhanced End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility of Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the post September 11, 2001 (9/11) world the federal government has increased its focus on the manufacturing, distributing, warehousing, and transporting of hazardous materials. In 2002, Congress mandated that the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) designate a subset of hazardous materials that could pose a threat to the American public when transported in sufficiently large quantities. This subset of hazardous materials, which could be weaponized or subjected to a nefarious terrorist act, was designated as Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials (SSHM). Radioactive materials (RAM) were of special concern because actionable intelligence had revealed that Al Qaeda desired to develop a homemade nuclear device or a dirty bomb to use against the United States (US) or its allies.1 Because of this clear and present danger, it is today a national priority to develop and deploy technologies that will provide for visibility and real-time exception notification of SSHM and Radioactive Materials in Quantities of Concern (RAMQC) in international commerce. Over the past eight years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing, implementing, and deploying sensor-based technologies to enhance supply chain visibility. ORNL s research into creating a model for shipments, known as IntelligentFreight, has investigated sensors and sensor integration methods at numerous testbeds throughout the national supply chain. As a result of our research, ORNL believes that most of the information needed by supply chain partners to provide shipment visibility and exceptions-based reporting already exists but is trapped in numerous proprietary or agency-centric databases.

  20. A dynamic image recognition method for sleeper springs trouble of moving freight cars based on Haar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Guangjun

    2006-11-01

    A novel conception of automatic recognition for free-trouble sleeper springs is proposed and Adaboost algorithm based on Haar features is applied for the sleeper springs recognition in Trouble of moving Freight car Detection System (TFDS). In the recognition system, feature set of sleeper springs is determined by Haar features and selected by Adaboost algorithm. In order to recognize and select the free-trouble sleeper springs from all the captured dynamic images, a cascade of classifier is established by searching dynamic images. The amount of detected images is drastically reduced and the recognition efficiency is improved due to the conception of free-trouble recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method is characterized by simple feature, high efficiency and robustness. It performs high robustness against noise as well as translation, rotation and scale transformations of objects and indicates high stability to images with poor quality such as low resolution, partial occlusion, poor illumination and overexposure etc. The recognition time of a 640×480 image is about 16ms, and Correct Detection Rate is high up to about 97%, while Miss Detection Rate and Error Detection Rate are very low. The proposed method can recognize sleeper springs in all-weather conditions, which advances the engineering application for TFDS.

  1. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  2. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.; Weiner, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel.

  3. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  4. Railroad management planning. 1974-October, 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1974-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Studies are presented of railroad planning concerning operating costs, yard operations, intermodal systems, railway abandonment and consolidation, efficiency in operations and services, freight car utilization systems, forecasting future railroad freight and passenger market and the potential of energy conservation in railroad transportation. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 79 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  6. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  7. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  8. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  9. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  10. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10/μm2 . The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results show that internodal sodium ion channels play an important role in action potential propagation. In this paper, based on the compartment model, we investigate the function of internodal sodium ion channels. We find that internodal sodium ion channels can promote action potential propagation, enlarge the maximal internodal distance guaranteeing stable action potential propagation, and increase the propagation speed of action potentials. In this paper, we find an optimal conductance of internodal sodium ion channels (4-5mS/cm2) , which accords with the active internodal sodium ion conductance in a real myelinated axon. With the optimal conductance, the average sodium ion channel conductance of the axon is minimal, and the metabolic energy consumption due to ion channels is also minimal.

  11. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... programs, ``* * * to consult with representatives of industry, business, financing, agriculture, labor and... amended (50 App. U.S.C. 2158); Executive Order 12919 as amended, 59 FR 29525, June 7, 1994; Executive... consist of designated representatives from MARAD, USTRANSCOM, each Participant, and maritime labor....

  12. Simulation analysis of intermodal sodium channel function.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shangyou; Jung, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Although most sodium ion channels clustered in nodes of Ranvier provide the physiological basis for saltatory conduction, sodium ion channels cannot be excluded from internodal regions completely. The density of internodal sodium ion channels is of the order of 10/microm2. The function of internodal sodium ion channels has been neglected for a long time; however, experimental and theoretical results show that internodal sodium ion channels play an important role in action potential propagation. In this paper, based on the compartment model, we investigate the function of internodal sodium ion channels. We find that internodal sodium ion channels can promote action potential propagation, enlarge the maximal internodal distance guaranteeing stable action potential propagation, and increase the propagation speed of action potentials. In this paper, we find an optimal conductance of internodal sodium ion channels (4-5 mS/cm2), which accords with the active internodal sodium ion conductance in a real myelinated axon. With the optimal conductance, the average sodium ion channel conductance of the axon is minimal, and the metabolic energy consumption due to ion channels is also minimal. PMID:19256877

  13. 49 CFR 386.36 - Motions for final agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS... date. (2) The motion for final order must be accompanied by written evidence in accordance with § 386.49. (3) The motion will state with particularity the grounds upon which it is based and...

  14. 49 CFR 386.16 - Action on replies to the Notice of Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administrator may issue a Final Agency Order and order based on the evidence and arguments submitted, or may... OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND... dispute of a material fact at issue in the matter, the Assistant Administrator may issue a decision...

  15. 49 CFR 386.16 - Action on replies to the Notice of Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administrator may issue a Final Agency Order and order based on the evidence and arguments submitted, or may... OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND... dispute of a material fact at issue in the matter, the Assistant Administrator may issue a decision...

  16. 49 CFR 386.55 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prehearing conference. The order shall be served on the parties and filed in the record of the proceedings. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing conferences. 386.55 Section 386.55... CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  17. 49 CFR 386.61 - Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision. 386.61 Section 386.61 Transportation..., INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Decision § 386.61 Decision. (a) Administrative Law Judge After receiving the proposed findings of fact,...

  18. Nondestructive inspection for internal defects of rail based on photoacoustic elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingjian; Fu, Ying; Liu, Ting; Cheng, Xingzhen; Leng, Guanji; Feng, Naizhang

    2015-11-01

    Laser ultrasonic technique is used for the nondestructive testing technology of surface damage, but ignores the density variation in the sample. Photoacoustic elastography is adopted to obtain more rail information (such as the internal defects, the variation of sample's interior density) of the sample by collecting Rayleigh wave on rail surface and shear wave within the rail. In this paper, it is proved that the internal defects and the variation of density can be detected by photoacoustic elastography, using finite element analysis (FEA). We first use FEA to simulate the ultrasound excitation on the steel material surface excited by the laser source. Two cases of sample are modeled and analyzed, one is with defects of different depth and the other is with different density. Then, an isotropic model using ANSYS is employed and shear wave propagation is modeled. The preliminary results successfully recapitulate the trend of the change of shear wave's velocities, which shows that the defects can enhance the amplitude of shear wave. In addition, the velocities of shear wave would increase when the density of the sample enlarges. Results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of photoacoustic elastography with application to quantitative analysis for the structures of sample.

  19. QTREDS: a Ruby on Rails-based platform for omics laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, the experimental aspects of the laboratory activities have been growing in complexity in terms of amount and diversity of data produced, equipment used, of computer-based workflows needed to process and analyze the raw data generated. To enhance the level of quality control over the laboratory activities and efficiently handle the large amounts of data produced, a Laboratory Management Information System (LIMS) is highly-recommended. A LIMS is a complex software platform that helps researchers to have a complete knowledge of the laboratory activities at each step encouraging them to adopt good laboratory practices. Results We have designed and implemented Quality and TRacEability Data System - QTREDS, a software platform born to address the specific needs of the CRS4 Sequencing and Genotyping Platform (CSGP). The system written in the Ruby programming language and developed using the Rails framework is based on four main functional blocks: a sample handler, a workflow generator, an inventory management system and a user management system. The wizard-based sample handler allows to manage one or multiple samples at a time, tracking the path of each sample and providing a full chain of custody. The workflow generator encapsulates a user-friendly JavaScript-based visual tool that allows users to design customized workflows even for those without a technical background. With the inventory management system, reagents, laboratory glassware and consumables can be easily added through their barcodes and minimum stock levels can be controlled to avoid shortages of essential laboratory supplies. QTREDS provides a system for privileges management and authorizations to create different user roles, each with a well-defined access profile. Conclusions Tracking and monitoring all the phases of the laboratory activities can help to identify and troubleshoot problems more quickly, reducing the risk of process failures and their related costs. QTREDS was designed to address the specific needs of the CSGP laboratory, where it has been successfully used for over a year, but thanks to its flexibility it can be easily adapted to other "omics" laboratories. The software is freely available for academic users from http://qtreds.crs4.it. PMID:24564791

  20. 77 FR 53963 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... January 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on February 13, 1997, (62 FR 6837). ] Effective.... Therefore, approval of the VISA as published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2010 (75 FR 14245) is.... ACTION: Notice of open season for enrollment in the VISA program. Introduction The VISA program...

  1. The development of intermodal emotion perception from bodies and voices.

    PubMed

    Zieber, Nicole; Kangas, Ashley; Hock, Alyson; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2014-10-01

    Even in the absence of facial information, adults are able to efficiently extract emotions from bodies and voices. Although prior research indicates that 6.5-month-old infants match emotional body movements to vocalizations, the developmental origins of this function are unknown. Moreover, it is not clear whether infants perceive emotion conveyed in static body postures and match them to vocalizations. In the current experiments, 6.5-month-olds matched happy and angry static body postures to corresponding vocalizations in upright images but not in inverted images. However, 3.5-month-olds failed to match. The younger infants also failed to match when tested with videos of emotional body movements that older infants had previously matched. Thus, whereas 6.5-month-olds process emotional cues from body images and match them to emotional vocalizations, 3.5-month-olds do not exhibit such emotion knowledge. These results indicate developmental changes that lead to sophisticated emotion processing from bodies and voices early in life. PMID:24892883

  2. New Technology and Intermodal Competition I: Technical Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Israel

    The development of a news delivery system capable of implementation with current technologies and usable on most cable television systems is described. The choice of digital frame grabbing and high speed digital transmission is justified. Then the choice of hardware for home terminals and transmission equipment is explained. It is claimed that…

  3. An Articulation Guide for Intermodal Transportation Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Wallace R.; Babb, Charles W.

    Designed to facilitate the transition of students in transportation career education from the secondary to the postsecondary level, this guide, which is part of a series on career education in transportation, deals with the problem of the lack of communication between the two levels necessary for a unified, comprehensive career education system.…

  4. Intermodal Transportation Career Education. An Occupational Cluster Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harold; And Others

    One in a series devoted to the topic of careers in transportation, this guide, which is intended to aid in curriculum development for transportation career education in elementary through high school, provides information and models for career education and the transportation field. The four sections that comprise the guide are the following: (1)…

  5. 78 FR 11727 - National Freight Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... requests nominations for members of the Committee to ensure a wide range of member candidates and a... must be formatted in Microsoft Word or PDF. Should more information be needed, DOT staff will...

  6. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... investigation, Mr. Collado requested settlement negotiations with the Commission's Bureau of Enforcement (BOE.... On November 17, 2011, the Bureau of Certification and Licensing (BCL) issued a Notice of Intent to... Respondents in this proceeding; It is further ordered That the Commission's Bureau of Enforcement be made...

  7. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined. PMID:25990978

  8. Geospatial Products and Techniques at the Center for Transportation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Peterson, Bruce E

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights geospatial science-related innovations and developments conducted by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. CTA researchers have been developing integrated inter-modal transportation solutions through innovative and cost-effective research and development for many years. Specifically, this paper profiles CTA-developed Geographic Information System (GIS) products that are publicly available. Examples of these GIS-related products include: the CTA Transportation Networks; GeoFreight system; and the web-based Multi-Modal Routing Analysis System. In addition, an application on assessment of railroad Hazmat routing alternatives is also discussed.

  9. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or in... transportation of supplies from pickup point in initial port of discharge to designated point of entry in...

  10. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or in... transportation of supplies from pickup point in initial port of discharge to designated point of entry in...

  11. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or in... transportation of supplies from pickup point in initial port of discharge to designated point of entry in...

  12. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or in... transportation of supplies from pickup point in initial port of discharge to designated point of entry in...

  13. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or in... transportation of supplies from pickup point in initial port of discharge to designated point of entry in...

  14. Regularities of Acoustic Emission in the Freight Car Solebar Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekher, S.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic emission results which were obtained during tests of the samples, which were made from foundry solebars with the developing fatigue crack, are presented. The dependences of the acoustic emission event count, the force critical value during the stationary acoustic emission process, and the growth rate of the event count from the cycles number are determined. The amplitude signal distributions relating to the crack growth were received. It is offered to use the force critical value and the amplitude threshold in the rejection criteria.

  15. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or missing snubber activating spring; or EC01AP91.002 (4) Snubber unit that is broken, or in the case... from the body bolsters of more than 3/4 of an inch; (d) Truck springs— (1) That do not maintain travel or load; (2) That are compressed solid; or (3) More than one outer spring of which is broken,...

  16. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  17. Shippers and freight operators perceptions of sustainable initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal; Mendes, Juliana Veiga; Suyama, Suzi Sanae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which Brazilian companies in retail channels have committed to adopting environmental sustainability measures, goals and strategies for waste disposal in the evaluation and planning of sustainable transportation. This paper also aims to examine the different viewpoints of sustainability issues and the preventive actions taken by companies in terms of controlling carbon dioxide emissions and proper disposal of tires, lubricant oils, accessories and spare parts. Finally, taking the perspective of these companies, this paper examines their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The research involved a survey completed by 185 representatives of different types of companies, including shippers (represented by manufacturers), LSPs (logistics service providers) and carriers. The non-linear canonical correlation was calculated to verify the opinions of these representatives from different companies regarding issues that impact on the environment, the preventive actions they adopt to reduce their environmental impact and their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The results show that shippers and LSPs have the same perceptions regarding these sustainability issues and preventive actions. In addition, the companies perceive high costs and the lack of training for their partners as the major challenges experienced in addressing these issues and undertaking preventive actions. Therefore they need to plan their transportation activities. PMID:26227446

  18. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity, the... notice on such items: This company is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or is... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING,...

  19. Examination of sea freight containers using modern electron linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönges, G.; Geus, G.; Henkel, R.; Ries, H.; Schall, P.; Bermbach, R.

    1992-05-01

    Electron linear accelerators and scintillation line detectors were studied as major components of a transmission scanning system to check the contents of standard sea containers. A maximum beam energy of 10 MeV was found to be the best compromise of high penetration capability of the bremsstrahlung and the WHO recommendations for irradiation of food. CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors turned out to be very efficient and reliable for this rugged application. The results obtained in full size prototype systems are discussed.

  20. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operations in intrastate commerce and requiring a Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this... (PRISM) program (authorized under section 4004 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century )...

  1. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... intrastate commerce and requiring a Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this chapter must file... (PRISM) program (authorized under section 4004 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century )...

  2. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... intrastate commerce and requiring a Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this chapter must file... (PRISM) program (authorized under section 4004 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century )...

  3. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... intrastate commerce and requiring a Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this chapter must file... (PRISM) program (authorized under section 4004 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century )...

  4. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this chapter must file the Combined Motor Carrier... (PRISM) program (authorized under section 4004 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century )...

  5. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Stansbury, Paul S.; Taira, Randal Y.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Collins, Robert

    2009-05-11

    The Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the num-ber of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  6. Robust Inter-Modality Multi-Atlas Segmentation for PACS-based DTI Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Asman, Andrew J.; Lauzon, Carolyn B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical contexts (spatial labels) are critical for interpretation of medical imaging content. Numerous approaches have been devised for segmentation, query, and retrieval within the Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS) framework. To date, application-based methods for anatomical localization and tissue classification have yielded the most successful results, but these approaches typically rely upon the availability of standardized imaging sequences. With the ever expanding scope of PACS archives — including multiple imaging modalities, multiple image types within a modality, and multi-site efforts, it is becoming increasingly burdensome to devise a specific method for each data type. To address the challenge of generalizing segmentations from one modality to another, we consider multi-atlas segmentation to transfer label information from labeled T1-weighted MRI data to unlabeled B0 data collected in a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) experiment. The label transfer approach is fully automated and enables a generalizable cross-modality segmentation method. Herein, we propose a multi-tier multi-atlas segmentation framework for the segmentation of previously unlabeled imaging modalities (e.g., B0 images for DTI analysis). We show that this approach can be used to construct informed structure-wise noise estimates for fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of DTI. Although this label transfer methodology is demonstrated in the context of quality control of DTI images, the proposed framework is applicable to any application where the segmentation of unlabeled modalities is limited due to the current collection of available atlases. PMID:24379940

  7. 75 FR 51419 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Legal Basis The legal basis of the December 17, 2008 final rule (73 FR 76794) is also... to driver-vehicle inspections in response to a petition filed by OCEMA (74 FR 68703). OCEMA/IICL... submitted on March 31, 2010, by the Ocean Carrier Equipment Management Association (OCEMA) and the...

  8. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leasing regulations at 49 CFR part 376 for information that should be included in all leasing documents... password, or a usage fee. Effective Date Note: At 78 FR 52653, Aug. 23, 2013, § 390.21 was amended...

  9. Actively mode-locked fiber ring laser by intermodal acousto-optic modulation.

    PubMed

    Bello-Jiménez, M; Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Sáez-Rodríguez, D; Diez, A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2010-11-15

    We report an actively mode-locked fiber ring laser. A simple and low-insertion-loss acousto-optic modulator driven by standing flexural waves, which couples core-to-cladding modes in a standard single-mode optical fiber, is used as an active mechanism for mode locking. Among the remarkable features of the modulator, we mention its high modulation depth (72%), broad bandwidth (187 GHz), easy tunability in the optical wavelength, and low insertion losses (0.7 dB). The narrowest optical pulses obtained were of 95 ps time width, 21 mW peak power, repetition rate of 4.758 MHz, and 110 mW of pump power. PMID:21081995

  10. Optically induced strong intermodal coupling in mechanical resonators at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, R.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hey, R.; Friedland, K. J.

    2015-08-31

    Strong parametric mode coupling in mechanical resonators is demonstrated at room temperature by using the photothermal effect in thin membrane structures. Thanks to the large stress modulation by laser irradiation, the coupling rate of the mechanical modes, defined as half of the mode splitting, reaches 2.94 kHz, which is an order of magnitude larger than electrically induced mode coupling. This large coupling rate exceeds the damping rates of the mechanical resonators and results in the strong coupling regime, which is a signature of coherent mode interaction. Room-temperature coherent mode coupling will enable us to manipulate mechanical motion at practical operation temperatures and provides a wide variety of applications of integrated mechanical systems.

  11. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management. PMID:27182735

  12. Using Intermodal Psychodrama to Personalize Drama Students' Experience: Two Case Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2011-01-01

    J. L. Moreno (1889-1974), the founder of psychodrama, argued against legitimate theater, asserting it is a "rigid drama conserve," a finished product of the preceding creative process. In particular, Moreno protested against the centripetal manner in which actors of legitimate theater assimilate a role from a written play: an external material,…

  13. Intermodal Person Schema in Infancy: Perception Within a Common Auditory-Visual Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Hurowitz, Laurie

    This study was designed to test two alternate hypotheses regarding the meaning of increased lateral head movements in infants during experiments in which the mothers' voices were displaced from their faces. One interpretation is that the lateral looking responses of the infants are attributable to maturational effects on the infants' physiological…

  14. 75 FR 76778 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI (Milwaukee Intermodal Station) to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). FRA, with Mn/DOT and WisDOT... Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) right-of-way from Milwaukee, WI to Watertown, WI; right-of-way owned by the... Madison, WI; CP right-of-way from Johnson Street Yard in Madison through Portage, WI and La Crosse, WI...

  15. Modality dependence and intermodal transfer in the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task: Screen vs. Floor.

    PubMed

    Röser, Andrea; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    Four versions of the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task (CSST) were tested in a complete within-subject design, investigating whether participants' performance depends on the modality of task presentation and reproduction that put different demands on spatial processing. Presentation of the sequence (encoding phase) and the reproduction (recall phase) were each carried out either on a computer screen or on the floor of a room, involving actual walking in the recall phase. Combinations of the two different encoding and recall procedures result in the modality conditions Screen-Screen, Screen-Floor, Floor-Screen, and Floor-Floor. Results show the expected decrease in performance with increasing sequence length, which is likely due to processing limitations of working memory. We also found differences in performance between the modality conditions indicating different involvements of spatial working memory processes. Participants performed best in the Screen-Screen modality condition. Floor-Screen and Floor-Floor modality conditions require additional working memory resources for reference frame transformation and spatial updating, respectively; the resulting impairment of the performance was about the same in these two conditions. Finally, the Screen-Floor modality condition requires both types of additional spatial demands and led to the poorest performance. Therefore, we suggest that besides the well-known spatial requirements of CSST, additional working memory resources are demanded in walking CSST supporting processes such as spatial updating, mental rotation, reference frame transformation, and the control of walking itself. PMID:26892885

  16. 76 FR 32906 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Management System (FDMS) in the Federal Register published on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316) at http://edocket... identifying IME only came into effect in December 2010, and because information management systems and crash... would likely affect the safety of operation of that vehicle (4 FR 2294, 2305, June 7, 1939). The...

  17. Gesturing through Time: Holds and Intermodal Timing in the Stream of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Doob, Mischa Alan

    2010-01-01

    Most previous work examining co-speech gestures (the spontaneous bodily movements and configurations we engage in during speaking) has emphasized the importance of their most "salient" or energetically expressive moments, known as gesture "strokes" (Kendon 1980). In contrast, in this dissertation I explore the potential functions of intervals of…

  18. 77 FR 34846 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... FR 3316) at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . III. Abbreviations AAR Association of....C. 31151(d) and (e)). FMCSA published a final rule on December 17, 2008 (73 FR 76794), implementing... provider's designated agent'' (49 U.S.C. 31151(a)(3)(L)). FMCSA's December 17, 2008 rule (73 FR...

  19. Local intermodal energy transfer of the secondary instability in a plane channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Ferziger, Joel H.; Spalart, Philippe R.; Reed, Helen L.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical technique for analyzing local energy-transfer rates among wave-vector triads is developed and applied to the data generated by direct numerical simulations of waves with various types of initial conditions. Starting the simulation with a primary two-dimensional wave and random noise produced structures very similar to those which evolved from three-dimensional center modes. The local transfer rates determined in this case help to explain the eventual deformation of the primary two-dimensional wave which was observed in wind-tunnel experiments. Including weak streamwise vortices in the initial flow field results in large amounts of energy being transferred to the K-type modes early in the simulation. The later development of the waves (and hence the energy-transfer rates) is similar to the previous case.

  20. Longitudinal, intermodality registration of quantitative breast PET and MRI data acquired before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Atuegwu, Nkiruka C.; Williams, Jason M.; Li, Xia; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Abramson, Richard G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Abramson, Vandana G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a method whereby serially acquired DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast data sets can be spatially and temporally coregistered to enable the comparison of changes in parameter maps at the voxel level. Methods: First, the authors aligned the PET and MR images at each time point rigidly and nonrigidly. To register the MR images longitudinally, the authors extended a nonrigid registration algorithm by including a tumor volume-preserving constraint in the cost function. After the PET images were aligned to the MR images at each time point, the authors then used the transformation obtained from the longitudinal registration of the MRI volumes to register the PET images longitudinally. The authors tested this approach on ten breast cancer patients by calculating a modified Dice similarity of tumor size between the PET and MR images as well as the bending energy and changes in the tumor volume after the application of the registration algorithm. Results: The median of the modified Dice in the registered PET and DCE-MRI data was 0.92. For the longitudinal registration, the median tumor volume change was −0.03% for the constrained algorithm, compared to −32.16% for the unconstrained registration algorithms (p = 8 × 10{sup −6}). The medians of the bending energy were 0.0092 and 0.0001 for the unconstrained and constrained algorithms, respectively (p = 2.84 × 10{sup −7}). Conclusions: The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately spatially align DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast images acquired at different time points during therapy while preventing the tumor from being substantially distorted or compressed.

  1. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device... using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purpose as set forth in... be hoisted as follows: (i) When hoisting containers by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device... using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purpose as set forth in... be hoisted as follows: (i) When hoisting containers by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device... using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purpose as set forth in... be hoisted as follows: (i) When hoisting containers by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the box is sound; (C) The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers... conducted when the wind speed exceeds the lesser of: (i) 55 km/h (34 mph or 30 knots) or (ii) The crane manufacturer's recommendation for maximum wind speed. (8) The employer shall ensure that each...

  5. 78 FR 63169 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Navy Base Intermodal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Carolina Department of Commerce Division of Public Railways d/b/a Palmetto Railways (Palmetto Railways... Engineers, 69-A Hagood Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29403. For inquiries from the media, please... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

  6. 49 CFR 390.46 - Are State and local laws and regulations on the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 31151(e)(1), unless otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, a State... determinations—(i) In general. Pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 31151(e)(2), and notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this... burden interstate commerce. (ii) Application required. Paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section applies to...

  7. Intermodal Perception of Fully Illuminated and Point Light Displays of Dynamic Facial Expressions by 7-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soken, Nelson; And Others

    This study considered two questions about infants' perception of affective expressions: (1) Can infants distinguish between happiness and anger on the basis of facial motion information alone? (2) Can infants detect a correspondence between happy and angry facial and vocal expressions by different people? A total of 40 infants of 7 months of age…

  8. Efficient anti-Stokes generation via intermodal stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Trabold, B M; Abdolvand, A; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2013-12-01

    A strong anti-Stokes Raman signal, from the vibrational Q(1) transition of hydrogen, is generated in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To be efficient, this process requires phase-matching, which is not automatically provided since the group velocity dispersion is typically non-zero and--inside a fiber--cannot be compensated for using a crossed-beam geometry. Phase-matching can however be arranged by exploiting the different dispersion profiles of higher-order modes. We demonstrate the generation of first and second anti-Stokes signals in higher-order modes by pumping with an appropriate mixture of fundamental and a higher-order modes, synthesized using a spatial light modulator. Conversion efficiencies as high as 5.3% are achieved from the pump to the first anti-Stokes band. PMID:24514522

  9. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the weight of the container and the cargo, in pounds. (b) No container shall be hoisted by any crane... charge of loading or discharging, or every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if... plainly marked so as to be visible to the crane or other hoisting equipment operator or signalman, or...

  10. Photon-pair generation by intermodal spontaneous four-wave mixing in birefringent, weakly guiding optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay-Palmett, K.; Cruz-Delgado, D.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; U'Ren, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the generation of photon pairs through the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a few-mode, birefringent fiber. Under these conditions, multiple SFWM processes are in fact possible, each associated with a different combination of transverse modes for the four waves involved. We show that in the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into conservation rules, which retain elements from azimuthal and rectangular symmetries: both OAM and parity must be conserved for a process to be viable. We have implemented a SFWM source based on a bowtie birefringent fiber, and have measured for a collection of pump wavelengths the SFWM spectra of each of the signal and idler photons in coincidence with its partner photon. We have used this information, together with knowledge of the transverse modes into which the signal and idler photons are emitted, as input for a genetic algorithm, which accomplishes two tasks: (i) the identification of the particular SFWM processes that are present in the source, and (ii) the characterization of the fiber used.

  11. Examining Supply Chain Resilience for the Intermodal Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High Level Waste (HLW) in the United States, including shipments entering the country from locations outside U.S borders. In any shipment of SNF/HLW, there are multiple chains; a jurisdictional chain as the material moves between jurisdictions (state, federal, tribal, administrative), a physical supply chain (which mode), as well as a custody chain (which stakeholder is in charge/possession) of the materials being transported. Given these interconnected networks, there lies vulnerabilities, whether in lack of communication between interested stakeholders or physical vulnerabilities such as interdiction. By identifying key links and nodes as well as administrative weaknesses, decisions can be made to harden the physical network and improve communication between stakeholders. This paper examines the parallel chains of oversight and custody as well as the chain of stakeholder interests for the shipments of SNF/HLW and the potential impacts on systemic resiliency. Using the Crystal River shutdown location as well as a hypothetical international shipment brought into the United States, this paper illustrates the parallel chains and maps them out visually.

  12. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... comment (or of the person signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor... published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 82132) . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... System (URS) final rule (78 FR 52608); \\1\\ ] and test development and delivery. FMCSA asks...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... weighmaster on a certified scale) from the gross weight of the vehicle (determined by having the loaded vehicle with a full tank of fuel weighed by a certified weighmaster on a certified scale). (b)...

  14. 78 FR 36723 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Restrictions on International Transportation of Freight and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... cargo under the provisions of the ``Fly America Act.'' This proposed rule would additionally update the... the Department of Transportation has determined meets the requirements of the Fly America Act. As... agreements. Additionally, this proposed rule would incorporate language regarding other exceptions to the...

  15. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    .... 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...). The update provides clearer guidance on when Transportation Service Providers (TSP) may charge...

  16. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of a freight train operating through a car dumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, R.; Sakalo, A.; Yazykov, V.; Shamdani, A.; Bowey, R.; Wakeling, C.

    2016-06-01

    A heavy haul train and car dumper model was created to analyse train longitudinal dynamics during dumping. Influence of such factors as performance curve of draft gears, total free slack in couplers, operating mode of train positioner and braking of last two cars of train on the in-train forces was considered.

  17. 46 CFR 502.271 - Special docket application for permission to refund or waive freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at which the cargo was loaded. An application is filed when it is placed in the mail, delivered to a courier, or, if delivered by another method, when it is received by the Commission. Filings by mail or...) The Secretary in his discretion shall either forward an application to the Office of Consumer...

  18. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... with Trailer Tracking Service (DCS). The change also updates Item 111, Satellite Motor Surveillance... is a Transportation Protective Service (TPS) that is no longer used. Trailer Tracking Service...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-16 - Contractor Responsibility for Returning Undelivered Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... no fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall contact the shipper... shall maintain a record of the goods that, through no fault of the Contractor, could not be delivered... fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall return the shipment to...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-16 - Contractor Responsibility for Returning Undelivered Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... no fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall contact the shipper... shall maintain a record of the goods that, through no fault of the Contractor, could not be delivered... fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall return the shipment to...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-16 - Contractor Responsibility for Returning Undelivered Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... no fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall contact the shipper... shall maintain a record of the goods that, through no fault of the Contractor, could not be delivered... fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall return the shipment to...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-16 - Contractor Responsibility for Returning Undelivered Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... no fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall contact the shipper... shall maintain a record of the goods that, through no fault of the Contractor, could not be delivered... fault of the Contractor, a shipment cannot be delivered, the Contractor shall return the shipment to...

  3. Assessment of diesel particulate matter exposure in the workplace: freight terminals†

    PubMed Central

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Marr, Linsey C.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-01-01

    A large study has been undertaken to assess the exposure to diesel exhaust within diesel trucking terminals. A critical component of this assessment is an analysis of the variation in carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) across trucking terminal locations; consistency in the primary sources can be effectively tracked by analyzing trends in elemental carbon (EC) and organic molecular marker concentrations. Ambient samples were collected at yard, dock and repair shop work stations in 7 terminals in the USA and 1 in Mexico. Concentrations of EC ranged from 0.2 to 12 μg m−3 among the terminals, which corresponds to the range seen in the concentration of summed hopanes (0.5 to 20.5 ng m−3). However, when chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment results were presented as percent contribution to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, the contribution of mobile sources to OC are similar among the terminals in different cities. The average mobile source percent contribution to OC was 75.3 ± 17.1% for truck repair shops, 65.4 ± 20.4% for the docks and 38.4 ± 9.5% for the terminal yard samples. A relatively consistent mobile source impact was present at all the terminals only when considering percentage of total OC concentrations, not in terms of absolute concentrations. PMID:18392272

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bolsters: 1. A bolster with one of the following pattern numbers listed according to manufacturer: A.S.F... identification mark or pattern number. I.1.Truck side frames: A side frame with one of the following pattern... identification mark or pattern number. 4. Side frame with an “I”, “T”, or “L” section compression or...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bolsters: 1. A bolster with one of the following pattern numbers listed according to manufacturer: A.S.F... identification mark or pattern number. I.1.Truck side frames: A side frame with one of the following pattern... identification mark or pattern number. 4. Side frame with an “I”, “T”, or “L” section compression or...

  6. Demand Analysis of Logistics Information Matching Platform: A Survey from Highway Freight Market in Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao

    With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.

  7. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the..., magnesium, and their alloys are specifically prohibited as materials of construction of portable tanks....

  8. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed..., magnesium, and their alloys are specifically prohibited as materials of construction of portable tanks....

  9. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470... purchased that is determined is necessary and practicable to meet 46 U.S.C. 55314(c)(3) and cargo preference... preference requirements. Examples of extenuating circumstances are events such as internal strife at...

  10. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... top and bottom side rails, top and bottom end rails, door sill and header, floor cross members, corner... structural members; (iii) More than one splice or an improper splice (such as a lapped splice) in top or bottom end rails or door headers; (iv) More than two splices in any one top or bottom side rail; (v)...

  11. Preliminary study of tug-glider freight systems utilizing a Boeing 747 as the tug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, H. H.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Performance of the tug-glider system was severely limited by ground run. In most cases studied, additional engines were necessary. Except at short ranges for which additional payload were carried in the tow plane, the productivity of the basic aircraft was degraded by a reduction in cruise speed necessitated by the glider drag. Excessive aspect ratios did not improve system performance because of the increase in glider wing weight. Powered gliders using a tow plane only for takeoff and climb had the potential for a major reduction in fuel consumption. Uncertainty of restrictive regulatory action and the apparently increased airborne investment per unit productivity are obstacles to commercial development.

  12. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... force than is necessary to complete the coupling; or (3) Struck by any car moving under its own momentum... its own momentum may be permitted to strike any placarded flatcar or any flatcar carrying a...

  13. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... additional information may be sent by e-mail to: chad.t.privett@us.army.mil or cory.dearolf@us.army.mil or george.alie@us.army.mil . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Chad Privett, (618) 220-6901, or Mr....

  14. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... residue of a Division 2.1 material, may not be: (1) Cut off while in motion; (2) Coupled into with more force than is necessary to complete the coupling; or (3) Struck by any car moving under its own momentum... bulk packaging under this subchapter may not be cut off while in motion. (d) No rail car moving...

  15. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... residue of a Division 2.1 material, may not be: (1) Cut off while in motion; (2) Coupled into with more force than is necessary to complete the coupling; or (3) Struck by any car moving under its own momentum... bulk packaging under this subchapter may not be cut off while in motion. (d) No rail car moving...

  16. 78 FR 78472 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... FR 3316). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Legal Basis Section 13541 of title 49 of the United States Code... Requirements-Request for Public Comments, 68 FR 48987 (Aug. 15, 2003). The Secretary may ``specify the period.... On September 5, 2013, FMCSA published guidance (78 FR 54720) ``concerning the implementation...

  17. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... guidance (78 FR 54720) ``concerning the implementation of certain provisions of . . . (MAP-21) concerning... Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Legal Basis Section 13541 of title 49... FR 48987 (Aug. 15, 2003). The Secretary may ``specify the period of time during which an...

  18. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 45611 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a... notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 22768, on April 17, 2012. No comments were received... instructions provided at the ``Submit a Comment'' screen. Please include your name, company name (if any),...

  20. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    .... 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26... Motor Surveillance (SNS) (and DDP and PSS) for 1.1 to 1.3 Ammunition and Explosives (A&E) to Section...

  1. 78 FR 67210 - National Freight Advisory Committee: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). DATES: The meeting will be held on... the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (Pub. L. 112-141); (2) establishment of...

  2. Betatron Application in Mobile and Relocatable Inspection Systems for Freight Transport Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhlov, S. V.; Kasyanov, S. V.; Kasyanov, V. A.; Osipov, S. P.; Stein, M. M.; Stein, A. M.; Xiaoming, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators with energy level up to 4 MeV having high level of penetration ability by steel equivalent are the popular to control oversize cargo transported by road, by railway and by river. Betatron's usage as cyclic induction accelerator has some advantages in comparison with linear accelerators and other sources. Tomsk Polytechnic University has developed many types of betatrons, most of them are being produced by separate affiliated company " Foton ". Article is shown the results of application of the betatrons in inspection custom systems.

  3. POD curves for non-maximizable ultrasonic responses: Statistical derivation and application to solid freight axles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, Michele; Cantini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The most relevant standards on ultrasonic testing, and an effective inspection practice, require the maximization of echo responses due to indications before their evaluation in terms of amplitude and size. This is achieved effectively pointing the acoustic axis of the sound beam to the indication, in a way to get back the maximum possible sound energy. Considering some operative cases, however, such a response maximization is not always feasible, mainly due to geometrical constraints impeding the inspection of the whole control area with a constant sensitivity. The traditional end inspection of solid railway axles by a rotating probe mounting conventional sensors falls back into this kind of inspections. In particular, inspection angles are fixed and the probe holder cannot move along the axle allowing response maximization of in-service damages located, for example, along the cylindrical body. It follows some control areas cannot be inspected using the maximum sound pressure. The present research shows how the derivation of "Probability of Detection" curves for non-maximizable ultrasonic responses cannot be carried out by the traditional statistical approach and a novel one, of the "Model-Assisted Probability of Detection" kind, is consequently proposed based on experiments and numerical simulations.

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation, ultimately the Government's obligation, is prepaid by the... distinguished from switching, local drayage, or other terminal service) will begin; (ii) To, and placed on,...

  5. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... the tier above and below it; (9) When security devices, beacons or other tracking or...

  6. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 176.76, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... the tier above and below it; (9) When security devices, beacons or other tracking or...

  7. Estimation of an origin–destination table for U.S. imports of waterborne containerized freight

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Gearhart, Jared; Jones, Katherine; Frazier, Christopher; Nozick, Linda; Levine, Brian; Jones, Dean

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a probabilistic origin–destination table for waterborne containerized imports. The analysis makes use of 2012 Port Import/Export Reporting Service data, 2012 Surface Transportation Board waybill data, a gravity model, and information on the landside transportation mode split associated with specific ports. This analysis suggests that about 70% of the origin–destination table entries have a coefficient of variation of less than 20%. This 70% of entries is associated with about 78% of the total volume. This analysis also makes evident the importance of rail interchange points in Chicago, Illinois; Memphis, Tennessee; Dallas, Texas; and Kansas City, Missouri, in supporting the transportation of containerized goods from Asia through West Coast ports to the eastern United States.

  8. Estimation of an origin–destination table for U.S. imports of waterborne containerized freight

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hao; Gearhart, Jared; Jones, Katherine; Frazier, Christopher; Nozick, Linda; Levine, Brian; Jones, Dean

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a probabilistic origin–destination table for waterborne containerized imports. The analysis makes use of 2012 Port Import/Export Reporting Service data, 2012 Surface Transportation Board waybill data, a gravity model, and information on the landside transportation mode split associated with specific ports. This analysis suggests that about 70% of the origin–destination table entries have a coefficient of variation of less than 20%. This 70% of entries is associated with about 78% of the total volume. This analysis also makes evident the importance of rail interchange points in Chicago, Illinois; Memphis, Tennessee; Dallas, Texas; and Kansas City, Missouri, in supportingmore » the transportation of containerized goods from Asia through West Coast ports to the eastern United States.« less

  9. Innovative relocation system for enclosures for MROI array telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes. Each of these ten telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which can be relocated, with the telescope inside, to any of 28 stations arranged in a "Y" configuration. These stations comprise fixed foundations with utility and data connections. There are four standard array configurations, the most compact of which one has less than 350 mm of space between the enclosures. This paper describes the relocation systems that were evaluated, including a rail based system, wheels or trolley fixed to the bottom of the enclosure, and various lifting mechanisms, all of which were analyzed to determine their performances related to the requirements. Eventually a relocation system utilizing a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) has been selected. The reachstacker is capable of manoeuvring between and around the enclosures, is capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (40tons), and can manoeuvre the enclosure with minimal vibrations. A rigorous testing procedure has been performed to determine the vibrations induced in a dummy load in order to guarantee the safety of optics that must remain on the nasmyth table during the relocation. Finally we describe the lifting system, constituted by hydraulic jacks and locating pins, designed to lift and lower the enclosure and telescope during the precise positioning of the telescopes in the various stations.

  10. The Foundations of Communication: A Theoretical Approach to Imitation, Intermodality and Suggestion in the Child's Early Communicative Actions. Research Bulletin, Vol. XII:III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmlund, Carin

    A newborn child can identify impressions by means of the sense organs with the help of "non-visible" sensory impressions such as tactile and kinesthetic. A communication arises early between different modalities and muscle activities, which make possible an early synchronization, and identity between the infant and its surroundings. Studies…

  11. Intramodality and Intermodality Comparisons of Storage Phosphor Computed Radiography and Conventional Film-Screen Radiography in the Recognition of Small Pneumoconiotic Opacities

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Attfield, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Digital radiography systems are replacing traditional film for chest radiographic monitoring in the recognition of pneumoconiosis. Methods: To further investigate previous findings regarding the equivalence of film-screen radiographs (FSRs) and storage phosphor computed radiographs (CRs), FSRs and CRs from 172 underground coal miners were classified independently by seven National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved B readers, using the International Labor Office (ILO) classification of radiographs of pneumoconiosis. Results: More CRs were classified as “good” quality compared with FSRs (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4-1.6; P , .001). B readers showed good overall agreement on scoring small opacity profusion using CRs vs FSRs (weighted κ, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Significantly more irregular opacities (compared with rounded) were classified using CR images compared with FSR (PR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; P = .01). Similarly, the smallest sized opacities (width < 1.5 mm, p and s type) were reported more frequently using CR vs FSR images (PR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; P < .001). Interreader and intrareader agreement was lower with respect to the classification of shape and size than for small opacity profusion. Overall, interreader and intrareader variability did not differ significantly using CR vs FSR. Conclusions: Under optimal conditions, using standardized methods and equipment, reader visualization of small pneumoconiotic opacities does not appear to differ meaningfully, whether using CR or FSR. Variability in ILO classifications between imaging modalities appears to be considerably lower than variability among readers. The well-documented challenge of reader variability does not appear to be resolved through the use of digital imaging alone, and additional approaches must be evaluated. PMID:21622551

  12. Coal handling and distribution: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lema, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    Reliable, timely and efficient transportation service for distribution of coal from mines and processing plants to power producers, industrial facilities, and port terminals is a key factor in achieving full utilization of US coal in domestic and international markets. Transportation service must meet standards of performance which not only cover the amount of coal traffic to be handled, but also the quality of the service, especially as expressed in units of time, e.g. train arrival times at mines and processing plants, transit times for coal shipments, and cycle times for trains in dedicated coal transportation service. Although the focus of this presentation is handling and distribution of coal, an important commodity produced by the mining industry, what is said will apply likewise to other mined commodities which, similar to coal, often must be transported as heavy bulk freight in large amounts utilizing railroad and marine services. Turning now to handling and distribution of coal, in particular, five major points will be addressed: (1) coal traffic flows have changed significantly since 1980; (2) the railroad network is under severe pressure with regard to the adequacy of transportation service experienced since 1997; (3) a fresh look is needed to determine what steps are needed to ensure adequate railroad service today and in years ahead; (4) the nation`s inland waterways system is a vital component of the bulk freight distribution network that should be upgraded; (5) intermodalism is a hallmark of coal distribution which should be enhanced by focusing on improving short-line and regional railroad/Class 1 railroad, railroad/barge line, truck/railroad, and truck/barge line connectivity and access to coal terminals.

  13. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  14. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Industrial Lead); Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier Obligation Exemption--in Alameda County, Cal. (San Jose Industrial Lead) On December 12, 2012, Union Pacific... line, to abandon its residual common carrier obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-65 - F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight-Small Package Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-65 F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight—Small Package Shipments. As... do not have a security classification shall move on prepaid commercial bills of lading or...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-65 - F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight-Small Package Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-65 F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight—Small Package Shipments. As... do not have a security classification shall move on prepaid commercial bills of lading or...

  17. 78 FR 70396 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Renewal of Exemption for Con-Way Freight, TK...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ..., 2010 (73 FR 82132) or you may visit http://edocket/ access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER... asked for public comment (75 FR 33666). Section 393.60(e)(1) of the FMCSRs prohibits the obstruction of... report described above. 2011 Notice of Final Disposition On November 18, 2011 (76 FR 71619),...

  18. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ..., CA (San Jose Industrial Lead) On April 4, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) and Santa Clara... petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10903 for UP to abandon its... obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial Lead between milepost 7.35 near Warm Springs...

  19. 77 FR 50090 - Update to the 26 September 2011 Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and... Regulation (FAR) exempt transportation service contracts. Miscellaneous: This publication, as well as...

  20. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. A rail car placarded in Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... moving or standing train must be next to and ahead of any car occupied by the guards or technical escorts accompanying the placarded rail car. However, if a rail car occupied by the guards or technical escorts...