Science.gov

Sample records for railroad system physical

  1. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  2. Some Physics at the Railroad Hump Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.

    1982-01-01

    Regrouping cars from incoming trains into blocks of cars for outgoing trains is accomplished in railroad "hump" classification yards. Discusses: hardware and software elements of such installations; physical models on which software is based; success in predicting/regulating car speeds; and results of recent research into factors affecting car…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  8. Electric railroads and trolley systems: past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, N.L.

    1984-03-01

    Because of its unique attributes, electricity has played and will continue to play an important role in the development of certain modes of transportation. Although dominated by fossil fuels as a direct source of energy for motive power, transportation has relied upon electricity for particular situations. This report discusses the role of electricity in transportation, including the history of electrified transportation, its current status, and prospects for the future. The historical coverage includes early city transit development, the evolution of the electric streetcar, and the progression of railroad electrification in the United States. Railroads are now the dominant mode of transportation that uses electricity; as such, most of the attention given to the current status of electrified transportation concerns this mode. Railroad electrifications throughout the world are compared, and the current situation regarding railroad electrification in the United States is noted. Future development of electrified transportation may include new rail rapid transit systems and reemployment of electric trolley buses. 43 references, 7 tables.

  9. Hollow shaft integrated health monitoring system for railroad wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenstein, B.; Hentschel, D.; Pridoehl, E.; Schubert, F.

    2005-05-01

    The economic efficiency and competitiveness of environment-friendly rail transportation depends on safety, availability and maintenance of single highly loaded structure components. Until now these components have been changed in fixed maintenance intervals irrespective of any usage related conditions. With the knowledge and evaluation of the component conditions, life cycle costs can be reduced by means of optimized maintenance and/or "fit for purpose" design. For example, rail-bound vehicle wheel sets are among the most highly stressed travelling gear components of the bogie. if such a component fails, a serious accident may occur. For this reason, a health monitoring system based on the interpretation of ultrasonic sound signatures has been developed. First, the ultrasonic waves generated by an artificial defect on the outer wheel tread of a railroad wheel towards an acoustic sensor, placed inside the hollow shaft of the railroad axis were simulated with a EFIT (Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique). The results achieved proved that relevant signals can be found in a frequency range up to 300 kHz. Based on this a diagnostic unit was designed and built for application under rotation conditions, which consists of a piezo-electric sensor, primary electronics, an analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal processor, a trigger unit, and a telemetric transmitter. This diagnostic unit was integrated in the hollow shaft of a railroad wheel axis, a component of a special laboratory test rig. Algorithms which allow for the rotation-synchronized processing of acoustic signals were implemented into the rotating diagnostic unit. After successfully completing a campaign for this test rig, a second test was performed inside the wheel/railroad simulation test rig of the Deutsche Bahn AG under railroad-like conditions. The data generated inside the hollow shaft of the railroad wheel axis by the diagnostic unit were telemetrically transmitted to an industrial computer

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  14. Report on audit of the use of Hanford site railroad system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-20

    The DOE in partnership with its contractors, strives to operate, maintain, and use existing physical assets to meet mission needs. Field offices have first line responsibility to ensure stewardship of the assets. Part of stewardship responsibility involves ensuring assets are fully evaluated for use in meeting the DOE`s mission. One of Richland`s oldest, yet well-maintained multi-million dollar physical assets, is the Hanford railroad system. This system, constructed in the 1940s, includes tracks, railcars, and locomotives and provides sitewide transportation. Because of the availability of this asset, the objective of the audit was to determine if Richland ensured that Hanford contractors were fully utilizing the railroad system.

  15. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  16. System for batch loading coal into railroad cars

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Baldwin, C.L.; Foley, D.J.; McHann, M.R.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described for loading particles into railroad cars wherein a control weight of a railroad car loaded with particles is established and wherein particles are discharged through a discharge end of a weight bin and wherein a weigh gate assembly is connected to the discharge end of the weigh bin having an opened and a closed position. The particles are dischargeable through the discharge end of the weigh bin in an opened position of the weigh gate assembly and are prevented from being discharged from the weigh bin in a closed position of the weigh gate assembly, the railroad cars continuously moving under the weigh bin in a direction of travel. The method comprises the steps of: weighing each railroad car prior to loading particles in the railroad car to determine an unfilled weight of each railroad car; comparing the unfilled weight of each railroad car with the control weight to determine an unfilled differential weight for each railroad car. The unfilled differential weight of each railroad car is stored along with an associated car identification determined sequentially prior to loading. The particular railroad car associated with each unfilled differential weight is uniquely identified. Loading particles into the weigh bin prior to unloading the particles from the weigh bin into the railroad cars; weighing the weigh bin as the particles are being loaded into the weigh bin and terminating the loading of particles into the weigh bin when a weight of particles has been loaded into the weigh bin about equal to and less than the unfilled differential weight associated with the railroad car to be loaded with that unfilled differential weight of particles.

  17. Financial and physical capacity of the Burlington Northern Railroad to move western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Studies conducted by the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, and the National Transportation Policy Study Commission (NTPSC) express concern about the ability of railroads both to carry projected coal traffic and to finance physical plant expansion to accommodate additional coal volumes. These studies, along with past experiences, have called into question the overall physical capacity of the Burlington Northern (BN) Railroad to meet future demands for the movement of coal out of its service areas. The conditions under which the BN could or could not meet projected levels of demand were identified. The study has relied upon secondary information provided by the BN and other sources without verifying such data. The achievement of any financial projection may be affected by possible fluctuating economic conditions and depends on the occurrence of future events which cannot be assured. Therefore, actual results achieved may vary from the projections and such variations could be material.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or employee... 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)), that is, an individual covered under the...

  19. 76 FR 4416 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company..., Omaha, Nebraska 68179. The Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) seeks approval of the...

  20. Integrated geographic information system over Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, W.H.; Lintz, J. Jr.; Perry, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential at Railroad Valley is a process involving the consolidation of different data sets acquired by multiple technologies. Previous studies have demonstrated correlation between fracture systems and geochemical anomalies with oil-producing fields. An integrated geographic information system (IGIS) is defined as the merging of spatially referenced data. Specifically, it is the consolidation of remotely sensed data in raster format with the vectorized representations of map features for spatial analysis. An IGIS is used to integrate the following data sets: Landsat thematic mapper, digital topography, digital gravity data, well log data, geochemical data, digital aeromagnetic data, seismic data, digitized geologic maps, and organic geochemical data. It is necessary to (1) analyze how these spatially referenced data sets interact as factors or variables, which may be extremely complex, and (2) establish the fundamental operations for data processing. First, interpreted information from the individual data sets is derived prior to the merging process. A one-way performed discriminant analysis on the multivariate classes follows.

  1. Simulation and control system of a power harvesting device for railroad track health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kyle J.; Nelson, Carl A.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    With the vastness of existing railroad infrastructure, there exist numerous road crossings which are lacking warning light systems and/or crossing gates due to their remoteness from existing electrical infrastructure. Along with lacking warning light systems, these areas also tend to lack distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications. With the power consumption required by these systems being minimal, extending electrical infrastructure into these areas would not be an economical use of resources. This motivated the development of an energy harvesting solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes a computer simulation created to validate experimental on-track results for different mechanical prototypes designed for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic. Using the Winkler model for beam deflection as its basis, the simulation determines the maximum power potential for each type of prototype for various railcar loads and speeds. Along with calculating the maximum power potential of a single device, the simulation also calculates the optimal number and position of the devices needed to power a standard railroad crossing light signal. A control system was also designed to regulate power to a battery, monitor and record power production, and make adjustments to the duty cycle of the crossing lights accordingly. On-track test results are compared and contrasted with results from the simulation, discrepancies between the two are examined and explained, and conclusions are drawn regarding suitability of the device for powering high-efficiency LED lights at railroad crossings and powering track-health sensor networks.

  2. Mutual design of overhead transmission lines and railroad communications and signal systems. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    Objective was to develop mutual design methods and criteria for overhead ac transmission lines and adjacent railroad systems. This project has addressed basic engineering issues which govern the operation of railroad communications and signal (C and S) systems under conditions of interference from nearby transmission lines. Data and techniques have been compiled and developed to contribute to the achievement of electromagnetic compatibility in a manner that is acceptable to both the power and railroad industries.

  3. 76 FR 8992 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1152 National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY... railbanking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). DATES: Comments are due... railbanking and interim trail use under Section 8(d) of the National Trails System Act (Trails Act), 16...

  4. 78 FR 77786 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... (ABS) system on Track Number 2; the installation of a traffic control system (TCS) on Track Number 2... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations and 49...

  5. 75 FR 5638 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... discontinuance and removal of the Automatic Block Signal System (ABS) on the entire railroad line between, but... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... Railroad Signal System or Relief From the Requirements of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part...

  6. 77 FR 65935 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S.C. 20502(a), this document...

  7. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... removal of the diamond crossing at the interlocking, the westbound home signal and the start of traffic... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety... Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations and 49...

  8. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, this document provides the public...

  9. 78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... by the Engineering and System Safety Task Forces. This agenda is subject to change, including the... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  10. Acoustic leak-detection system for railroad transportation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, P. C.; Spadaro, J.; Harrison, M. A.; Barzilov, A.; Harper, D.; Hopper, L.; Houchins, E.; Lemoff, B.; Martin, R.; McGrath, C.; Moore, R.; Novikov, I.; Paschal, J.; Rogers, S.

    2007-04-01

    Pressurized rail tank cars transport large volumes of volatile liquids and gases throughout the country, much of which is hazardous and/or flammable. These gases, once released in the atmosphere, can wreak havoc with the environment and local populations. We developed a system which can non-intrusively and non-invasively detect and locate pinhole-sized leaks in pressurized rail tank cars using acoustic sensors. The sound waves from a leak are produced by turbulence from the gas leaking to the atmosphere. For example, a 500 μm hole in an air tank pressurized to 689 kPa produces a broad audio frequency spectrum with a peak near 40 kHz. This signal is detectable at 10 meters with a sound pressure level of 25 dB. We are able to locate a leak source using triangulation techniques. The prototype of the system consists of a network of acoustic sensors and is located approximately 10 meters from the center of the rail-line. The prototype has two types of acoustic sensors, each with different narrow frequency response band: 40 kHz and 80 kHz. The prototype is connected to the Internet using WiFi (802.11g) transceiver and can be remotely operated from anywhere in the world. The paper discusses the construction, operation and performance of the system.

  11. CONNECTICUT RAILROAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer that includes all of the railroads that appear on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut. It includes railroad tracks, sidings, underpasses, stations, etc. Since this datalaye...

  12. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR... Administration (FRA) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system as detailed... modification of the signal system on the Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line from milepost (MP) 1.4 Swift...

  13. 76 FR 18623 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system, as detailed below. Applicant: Elgin... the proposed modification of the traffic control system on the Leithton Subdivision. The...

  14. 76 FR 21943 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...) seeks approval of the proposed discontinuance and removal of the automatic block signal system (ABS) on... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system, as detailed below. Docket Number...

  15. 77 FR 9296 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... 112. The reason given is that the ABS system is not needed for efficient and safe operation of trains... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...

  16. 77 FR 31429 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... approval of the proposed discontinuance of an automatic block signal (ABS) system and a traffic control... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the...

  17. Field testing of prototype systems for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Choros, John

    2014-03-01

    In both high speed and freight rail systems, the modern construction method is Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The purpose of the CWR method is to eliminate joints in order to reduce the maintenance costs for both the rails and the rolling stock. However the elimination of the joints increases the risk of rail breakage in cold weather and buckling in hot weather. In order to predict the temperature at which the rail will break or buckle, it is critical to have knowledge of the temperature at which the rail is stress free, namely, the Rail Neutral Temperature (Rail-NT).The University of California at San Diego has developed an innovative technique based on non-linear ultrasonic guided waves, under FRA research and development grants for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks. Through the licensing of this technology from the UCSD and under the sponsorship of the FRA Office of Research and Development, a field deployable prototype system has been developed and recently field tested at cooperating railroad properties. Three prototype systems have been deployed to the Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and AMTRAK railroads for field testing and related data acquisition for a comprehensive evaluation of the system, with respect to both performance and economy of operation. The results from these tests have been very encouraging. Based on the lessons learned from these field tests and the feedback from the railroads, it is planned develop a compact 2nd generation Rail-NT system to foster deployment and furtherance of FRA R&D grant purpose of potential contribution to the agency mission of US railroad safety. In this paper, the results of the field tests with the railroads in summer of 2013 are reported.

  18. 77 FR 22840 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477, or online at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC, on April 11... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system or relief from the requirements of 49...

  19. The Crisis in Railroad Collective Bargaining: A Study of the Institutional Impediments to Change in the Industrial Relations System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W., Jr.

    The rapid technological and employment changes have had a serious impact on the railroad industrial relations system and its manpower. The organization of the collective bargaining system and the Railway Labor Act have seriously impeded rather than aided the meeting of the challenges of these developments. This study recommends a recasting of the…

  20. 76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number... track 1. The Method of Operation on the running track, currently ABS-261 and CPS-261, will become...

  1. 77 FR 40700 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition... in General Code of Operating Rules 6.21, when a severe weather event is encountered during the...

  2. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  4. Sulphite Railroad Bridge1896, Title Sheet Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sulphite Railroad Bridge-1896, Title Sheet - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  5. Method for loading coal into railroad cars

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.L.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1984-07-17

    A system for loading coal or other particles into railroad cars wherein every other railroad car is designated an EVEN railroad car and the remaining every other railroad cars are designated ODD railroad cars. Each EVEN railroad car is weighed after being filled with coal and before the initiation of the loading of coal into the next EVEN railroad car to determine a filled weight. The filled weight of each EVEN railroad car is compared to a predetermined control weight and, in response to this determination, the termination of the loading of coal into the next EVEN railroad car controllably is varied to bring the filled weight closer to control weight. In a like manner, each ODD railroad car is weighed after being filled with coal and before the initiation of the loading of coal into the next ODD railroad car to determine a filled weight. The filled weight of each ODD railroad car is compared to the predetermined control weight and, in response to this determination, the termination of the loading of coal into the next ODD railroad car controllably is varied to bring the filled weight closer to the control weight.

  6. Railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Research report, September 1996--November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, S.S.; Warner, J.E.; Rosa, D.; Dickinson, R.W.

    1998-11-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in the Texas transportation system. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. The study is documented in three reports, produced in coordinated and parallel efforts by the Center for Transportation Research and the Texas Transportation Institute. This report documents the work performed by TTI, whereby a rail planning framework is presented which formalizes the planning process and presents the key elements as a series of discrete and logical steps. These steps may be used to guide TxDOT in the formation of goals, identification of issues and affected parties, selection of appropriate analytical methodologies, location of data sources, and implementation of results. The report also presents an in-depth discussion of several key issues facing transportation agencies. These include rail line abandonment, intermodal service planning, and urban rail rationalization. A discussion of the Texas rail system covers the Class 1 railroads, shortline railroads, Amtrak, and the Mexican rail system.

  7. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  8. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  9. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  10. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  11. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  13. An overview of the Railroad Retirement program.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In the 1930s, amidst concern about the ability of existing pension programs to provide former railroad workers with adequate assistance in old age, Congress established a national Railroad Retirement system. This system is primarily administered by the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), which is an independent federal agency charged with providing benefits to eligible employees of the railroad industry and their families. Today, the Railroad Retirement program is closely tied to the far better-known Social Security program, and although the Railroad Retirement program and Social Security share a number of common elements, key differences also exist between the two in areas such as funding and benefit structure. This article aims to increase awareness and understanding of the Railroad Retirement program and its relationship with Social Security by examining the parallel development of these two retirement programs while illuminating areas where the two diverge. The history of the Railroad Retirement program, the benefits provided by the program, and RRB's financial operations are reviewed, using elements of the Social Security system as points of reference. PMID:19102137

  14. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). 236.905 Section 236.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP)....

  15. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). 236.905 Section 236.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP)....

  16. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). 236.905 Section 236.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP)....

  17. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). 236.905 Section 236.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP)....

  18. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC...-2013-0130. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad, Mr. Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal,...

  19. 77 FR 48204 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or online at www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington... FRA-2012-0064. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. Phillip A. Danner, AVP...

  20. 75 FR 29805 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC... Number: FRA-2010-0088. Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van Trump,...

  1. 78 FR 71710 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety... will be provided at all CPs in the event of an onboard cab failure while in route. The reason given...

  2. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad... Class III railroads: North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company,...

  3. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  4. Design of a smart, survivable sensor system for enhancing the safe and secure transportation of hazardous or high-value cargo on railroads

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.R.; Rey, D.; Faas, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    An application of smart sensor technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use in the safe and secure transportation of high value of hazardous materials is proposed for a railroad application. The Green Box would be capable of surviving most typical railroad accidents. In an accident, the system would send a distress signal notifying authorities of the location and condition of the cargo; permitting them to respond in the most effective manner. The concept proposes a strap-on sensor package, the Green Box, that could be attached to any railroad car or cargo container. Its primary purpose is to minimize the number, severity and consequences of accidents and to reduce losses due to theft. The system would also be capable of recognizing component failure conditions, notifying the operators and logging sensor data for use in directing preventative maintenance. The modular implementation, which facilitates system integration in a number of applications including the Advanced Train Control System (ACTS), is discussed. The methodology for determining the environmental specification for accident survivability is presented. A test plan for evaluating hardware performance in both normal operating and accident conditions is described.

  5. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  6. Coal transportation: slurry pipelines vs the railroads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Increased demand for coal has caused coal producers to consider new methods of transporting it via slurry pipelines. The railroads currently transport most of the coal. Today there is a controversy between the railroads and slurry pipeline proponents, and slurry proponents argue that federal eminent domain legislation is needed to make pipelines feasible. Not all anti-slurry opposition is from the railroads. Because these systems require large amounts of water to push the coal through the lines, questions arise as to the harm this might do to the water table. This is a particularly critical issue in the West, where water is a precious resource.

  7. 78 FR 9106 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on February 4, 2013. Robert C. Lauby... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or... these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments. FRA does not anticipate scheduling...

  8. 78 FR 77785 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC... Docket Number FRA-2013-0125. Applicants: Union Pacific Railroad, Mr. Phillip A. Danner, AVP Engineering-Signal, 1400 Douglas Street, MS 0910, Omaha, NE 68179 BNSF Railway, Mr. James G. Levere, AVP Signal,...

  9. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  10. Railroad routing and costing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.; Sherman, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This research has the objective of providing reliable tools for forecasting the costs of transporting coal from the coal supply regions to the coal demand regions of the United States. The present work was devoted primarily to improving and updating the Railroad Routing Model (RRM) and related data base developed earlier. The railroad network data were modified to incorporate the extensive structural changes which occurred during the period 1980 to 1982. All of the rail time, energy, and cost functions were completely reestimated, taking advantage of improved railrod operations and cost simulators and recent research on railroad costs. After a review of the latest research on railroad routing in large networks, the RRM was refined and tailored to the problem of finding likely routes and estimating fully allocated carrier costs for coal shipments. A new RRM routing algorithm finds routes which satisfy the dual railroad objectives of maximizing the carrier's share of total shipment revenue and minimizing cost. Five utilities tested and demonstrated the new RRM and data base in a series of case studies. These utilities provided data on 38 coal moves with haul distances of 200 to 1700 miles, including a mixture of both existing and prospective movements. The RRM was found to produce credible results. Full and effective use of these improved tools for railroad routing and costing has been facilitated through additional work to develop an interactive system with improved data base management capabilities and expanded cost estimating features.

  11. Physics of mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies.

  12. 1994 ASME/IEEE Joint Railroad Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains 21 papers. Topics discussed include railroad transportation, signal systems, computer systems, control systems, power supply system, vehicle suspensions, vehicle wheels, traction, failure (mechanical) and sensors. Some papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  14. Physics of the Circulatory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some calculations and demonstrations illustrating the role of physics in cardiovascular system. Describes a model for the system, work done by the heart, pressure in blood vessel, and gravitational effects. (YP)

  15. Thermodynamic similarity of physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccariello, Salvino

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical systems A and B are said to be thermodynamically similar if one of the thermodynamic potentials of system A is proportional to the corresponding potential of B after expressing the state variables of system A in terms of those of B by a transformation reversible throughout the state variables' domain. The thermodynamic similarity has a transitive nature so that physical systems divide into classes of thermodynamically similar systems that have similar phase diagrams. Considering the simplest physical systems, one finds that a class of thermodynamically similar systems is formed by the ideal classical gas, the Fermi and the Bose ideal quantum gases, whatever the dimensions of the confining spaces, and the one dimensional hard rod gas. Another class is formed by the physical systems characterized by interactions that coincide by a scaling of the distance and the coupling constant.

  16. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  17. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  18. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  19. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  20. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  1. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  2. Three ways to bore under roads, railroads and canals

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, K.G.

    1983-06-01

    Dry boring, wet boring, and tunneling are three generally accepted ways for crossing under roads, railroads, and canals. Dry boring is the major method for installing lengthy, large-diameter pipelines under roads or railroads. Smaller diameter pipe crossings are implemented by means of wet boring. Tunneling is an effective means of crossing under roads and railroads when rock is encountered or the working space is too limited to accommodate conventional boring equipment. It can be used only on crossings large enough for a man to enter the pipe and physically remove the soil or rock.

  3. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  4. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued an advisory bulletin in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  5. Railroad deregulation: impact on coal

    SciTech Connect

    Tukenmez, E.

    1983-08-01

    Recent railroad legislation exemplified by the Staggers Rail Act has aimed generally at improving the profitability of the railroads through pricing flexibility and operating changes. The evolution of railroad legislation through the 1970's has indicated a concern about the revenue adequacy of the railroads and the regulatory burden under which the railroads were forced to operate for many years. Over the past two-and-a-half years the railroads generally have been pleased with the results of the Staggers Act. Coal producers and consumers, however, are dissatisfied with the ICC's implementation of the Act. In April 1982, bills were introduced in Congress to clarify provisions of the Staggers Act dealing with market dominance, revenue adequacy, and establishment of coal rate guidelines, in order to protect captive shippers.

  6. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  7. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  8. 57. Credit LRC. West elevation during construction. Note narrowgauge railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Credit LRC. West elevation during construction. Note narrow-gauge railroad entering main door of powerhouse. Photo c. 1910. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. 75 FR 20038 - Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Funds Availability, Railroad Safety Technology... (Volume 75, Number 59; March 29, 2010) for the Railroad Safety Technology Program, in the...

  10. All purpose railroad car

    SciTech Connect

    Terlecky, B.S.

    1987-01-13

    An all purpose railroad car is described for transporting wheeled trailers and containers, the car comprising an elongated frame supported by wheel trucks, combined hitch and bolster means adjacent one end of the frame for selectively receiving and releasably retaining a trailer king pin and one end of a container. A means is spaced from the combined hitch and bolster means for selectively receiving and supporting the wheels of a wheeled trailer and the other end of a container. The combined hitch and bolster means is an integral rigid structure with the hitch fixed in spaced relationship to the bolster with both the hitch and the bolster permanently disposed in operative position to respectively receive and retain a trailer king pin and a container.

  11. Railroad management planning. 1974-October, 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1974-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Studies are presented of railroad planning concerning operating costs, yard operations, intermodal systems, railway abandonment and consolidation, efficiency in operations and services, freight car utilization systems, forecasting future railroad freight and passenger market and the potential of energy conservation in railroad transportation. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 79 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  13. Coming of the Railroad, Unit V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the coming of the railroad in Wyoming provides concepts, activities, resource lists, and maps. Concepts stress the coming of the railroad in 1867-69, routes which were considered, towns owing their origin to the railroad, the railroad ownership of southern Wyoming, and the relationship between…

  14. 75 FR 11224 - Albany & Eastern Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Albany & Eastern Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Willamette & Pacific Railroad, Inc. Albany & Eastern Railroad...) Acquire the rail freight easement from Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP), the current owner of the...

  15. 77 FR 75701 - Landisville Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Buckeye East Chicago Railroad LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Landisville Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Buckeye East Chicago Railroad LLC Landisville Railroad, LLC (Landisville), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of... railroad right-of-way, and bulk liquid transloading facilities owned by Buckeye East Chicago Railroad,...

  16. Computational capabilities of physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper strong limits on the accuracy of real-world physical computation are established. To derive these results a non-Turing machine formulation of physical computation is used. First it is proven that there cannot be a physical computer C to which one can pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. Next it is proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out every computational task in the subset of such tasks that could potentially be posed to C. This means in particular that there cannot be a physical computer that can be assured of correctly ``processing information faster than the universe does.'' Because this result holds independent of how or if the computer is physically coupled to the rest of the universe, it also means that there cannot exist an infallible, general-purpose observation apparatus, nor an infallible, general-purpose control apparatus. These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or nonclassical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one could use an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing machine (TM). After deriving these results analogs of the TM Halting theorem are derived for the novel kind of computer considered in this paper, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analog of algorithmic information complexity, ``prediction complexity,'' is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different reference universal physical computers used to solve that task. This is analogous to the ``encoding'' bound governing how much the algorithm information complexity of a TM calculation can differ for two reference universal TMs. It is proven that either the Hamiltonian of our universe proscribes a certain type of computation, or prediction complexity is unique (unlike

  17. Computational capabilities of physical systems.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, David H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper strong limits on the accuracy of real-world physical computation are established. To derive these results a non-Turing machine formulation of physical computation is used. First it is proven that there cannot be a physical computer C to which one can pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. Next it is proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out every computational task in the subset of such tasks that could potentially be posed to C. This means in particular that there cannot be a physical computer that can be assured of correctly "processing information faster than the universe does." Because this result holds independent of how or if the computer is physically coupled to the rest of the universe, it also means that there cannot exist an infallible, general-purpose observation apparatus, nor an infallible, general-purpose control apparatus. These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or nonclassical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one could use an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing machine (TM). After deriving these results analogs of the TM Halting theorem are derived for the novel kind of computer considered in this paper, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analog of algorithmic information complexity, "prediction complexity," is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different reference universal physical computers used to solve that task. This is analogous to the "encoding" bound governing how much the algorithm information complexity of a TM calculation can differ for two reference universal TMs. It is proven that either the Hamiltonian of our universe proscribes a certain type of computation, or prediction complexity is unique (unlike

  18. Summary of the railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Project summary report, September 1997--August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Boske, L.B.; Roop, S.; Harrison, R.

    1998-12-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in moving domestic and international freight through Texas, contributing to economic growth in the state. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. In order to accomplish this, successful rail planning processes at other US departments of transportation were evaluated and exemplary programs identified. Three reports were published addressing a variety of findings. The first, published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides an overview and examination of 32 state rail policies, plans, and programs for both passenger and freight traffic. The second report, also published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides information on exemplary state rail programming and planning based on case studies of California, Florida, North Carolina, and the state of Washington. The third report, published by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A and M University, provides (1) a framework for rail planning in Texas, (2) identification of current rail issues in Texas, (3) a case study on urban rail rationalization, and (4) a characterization of the rail system in Texas. In each report, detailed appendices are provided to complement the findings and recommendations. In this project summary report, an implementation schedule is recommended to institute rail planning in the Texas Department of Transportation.

  19. Physical approach to complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  20. Mutual design: Overhead transmission lines and railroad facilities: Susceptibility program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1989-07-01

    The sharing of common corridors by electric power transmission lines and railroad facilities can result in the coupling of unwanted electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. The coupling can result in voltage being induced onto the railroad system conductors that may compromise the inherent safety and reliability of the railroad signalling system. This broad-scoped research program, which is co-sponsored by EPRI and the AAR, is addressing the problem from two directions. This two volume report describes a Phase 1 effort to develop the methods and techniques for quantifying the signal system response to interference. 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 1.49 (c), (d), (f), (g), and (m). Those statutes include the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970... are found at 49 CFR parts 213 through 236. The Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988 (Pub. L. No. 100... transportation. E.g., 49 CFR 214.3 (railroad workplace safety). By “general railroad system of...

  2. 78 FR 59754 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... signal (ABS) system between Southaven, MS, Milepost (MP) 403.0, and Grenada, MS, MP 617.4. The reasons... track warrant control, making the ABS system redundant as well as expensive to maintain, with... (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory and...

  3. 78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... discontinuance of the automatic block signal (ABS) system on Main Line 1 and 2, from Milepost (MP) 1.2 Bliss to... that the ABS system is no longer needed for freight switching operations. There are no through freight... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for...

  4. 78 FR 71709 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477...: CSX Transportation, Mr. David B. Olson, Chief Engineer Communications and Signals, 500 Water Street... traffic control system (TCS) on main tracks between Control Point (CP) Beck, Milepost (MP) CH-27.0 and...

  5. 78 FR 68146 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate... Control Point (CP) Oak and the discontinuance of the traffic control system (TCS) between CP Maumee..., Toledo, OH. TCS will also be discontinued on the Oakdale Connection Track between CP 286, MP XA...

  6. 78 FR 68147 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... discontinuance of a traffic control system (TCS) on main tracks between Control Point (CP) Mount Morris, Milepost (MP) CC-26.2, and CP Middle River, MP CC-80.6, on the Saginaw Subdivision, Chicago Division,...

  7. 78 FR 25344 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on... traffic control system from Control Point (CP) South Olean at Milepost (MP) BR73.0 up to and including CP...-397.86, which crosses the Buffalo Line at grade at CP Olean in Olean, NY. All power-operated...

  8. 77 FR 74736 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... signal system without wayside signals on the NS Pittsburgh Line, from Harrisburg, Milepost (MP) PT 104.90 to Pittsburgh, PA, MP PT 353.35. All existing automatic signals on this line will be retired. The discontinuance will include automatic signals: PT 107.5, PT 116.1, PT 121.3, PT 124.1, PT 126.4, PT 128.6, PT...

  9. 78 FR 21185 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... signal system without wayside signals on the NS Pittsburgh Line, from Milepost (MP) PT 352.2 (CP Solomon) to MP PT 353.35/PC 0.0, and on its Fort Wayne Line from MP PT 353.35/PC 0.0 to MP PC 15.0 (CP...

  10. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 77 FR 64185 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2011 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2011 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... the 2011 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  13. 78 FR 62940 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2012 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2012 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2012 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  14. 8. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER BETWEEN EAST APPROACH AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. 7. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER BETWEEN HIGHWAY AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  16. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, RAILROAD SPAN, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. 78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC. Issued in Washington, DC, on... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  18. The role of active and ancient geothermal systems in evolution of Grant Canyon oil field, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Bereskin, S.R. ); Bortz, L.C.

    1991-06-01

    Since discovery in 1983, the Grant Canyon field has been among the most prolific oil producers (on a per-well basis) in the US. Production through June 1990 was 12,935,630 bbl of oil, principally from two wells which in tandem have consistently yielded more than 6,000 bbl of oil per day. The field is hosted by highly porous Devonian dolomite breccia loosely cemented with hydrothermal quartz. Results of fluid-inclusion and petrographic research in progress at Grant Canyon suggest that paleogeothermal and perhaps currently circulating geothermal systems may have played a major role in oil-reservoir evolution. For example, as previously reported, the breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary aqueous, aqueous/oil, and oil fluid inclusions which were trapped at about 120C (average homogenization temperature) and document initial oil migration and entrapment as droplets or globules dispersed in dilute (< 2.2 wt.% equivalent NaCl) aqueous solutions. Additional evidence of geothermal connection is that the horst-block trap at Grant Canyon is top and side sealed by valley-fill clastic and volcanic rocks which are locally hydrothermally altered and calcite flooded. These secondary seals are enhanced by disseminated, solid asphaltic residues locally accounting for 23% (volume) of the rock. Current reservoir temperatures at Grant Canyon (120C) and the adjacent Bacon Flat field (171C) attest to vigorous contemporary geothermal activity. Based on results of the authors' Grant Canyon work to date, they suggest that active and paleohydrothermal systems could be viable petroleum exploration targets in otherwise favorable terrain elsewhere in the Basin and Range.

  19. Railroad safety program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Since 1981, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has annually prepared a National Inspection Plan (NIP) whose purpose is to summarize regional efforts to improve railroad transportation safety. The research concluded on the following tasks including the problems, conclusions and recommendations associated with these tasks is summarized: (1) the preparation of the 1983 NIP, with recommended procedures for improving future NIPs; (2) the development of an outline for the 1984 NIP, including a methodology for the allocation of inspection resources and other specialized regional activities; (3) the management and development of the 1984 NIP; and (4) the development of an instruction manual to be used in the preparation of future NIPs.

  20. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVR) has agreed to grant local trackage rights to Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD)...

  1. 76 FR 50326 - Tyburn Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Tyburn Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Tyburn Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Tyburn Railroad Company Tyburn Railroad, LLC (Tyburn), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Tyburn Railroad Company and operate approximately 0.9 miles of rail lines...

  2. 78 FR 23633 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), pursuant to a written agreement dated December 18, 2012, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over...

  3. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  4. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  5. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  6. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  8. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  9. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  12. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  16. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  18. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  20. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  7. Railroad safety program, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Aspects of railroad safety and the preparation of a National Inspection Plan (NIP) for rail safety improvement are examined. Methodology for the allocation of inspection resources, preparation of a NIP instruction manual, and recommendations for future NIP, are described. A statistical analysis of regional rail accidents is presented with causes and suggested preventive measures included.

  8. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  9. Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems

    DOEpatents

    Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.

  10. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Spin physics with the PHENIX detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.; PHENIX Collaboration

    1997-12-31

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has extended its scope to cover spin physics using polarized proton beams. The major goals of the spin physics at RHIC are elucidation of the spin structure of the nucleon and precision tests of the symmetries. Sensitivities of the spin physics measurements with the PHENIX detector system are reviewed.

  12. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  13. Railroad Routing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  14. Cyber-Physical Systems: A New Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Lui; Gopalakrishnan, Sathish; Liu, Xue; Wang, Qixin

    The report of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has placed cyber-physical systems on the top of the priority list for federal research investment in the United States of America in 2008. This article reviews some of the challenges and promises of cyber-physical systems.

  15. When does a physical system compute?

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Clare; Stepney, Susan; Wagner, Rob C.; Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Computing is a high-level process of a physical system. Recent interest in non-standard computing systems, including quantum and biological computers, has brought this physical basis of computing to the forefront. There has been, however, no consensus on how to tell if a given physical system is acting as a computer or not; leading to confusion over novel computational devices, and even claims that every physical event is a computation. In this paper, we introduce a formal framework that can be used to determine whether a physical system is performing a computation. We demonstrate how the abstract computational level interacts with the physical device level, in comparison with the use of mathematical models in experimental science. This powerful formulation allows a precise description of experiments, technology, computation and simulation, giving our central conclusion: physical computing is the use of a physical system to predict the outcome of an abstract evolution. We give conditions for computing, illustrated using a range of non-standard computing scenarios. The framework also covers broader computing contexts, where there is no obvious human computer user. We introduce the notion of a ‘computational entity’, and its critical role in defining when computing is taking place in physical systems. PMID:25197245

  16. 76 FR 79271 - Genesee & Wyoming Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... with 3 rail lines controlled by GWI: Chattahoochee Bay Railroad (CHAT), Chattahoochee Industrial Railroad, and Georgia Southwestern Railroad, and indirectly with a fourth, the Bay Line Railroad (via...

  17. Monte Carlo tests of small-world architecture for coarse-grained networks of the United States railroad and highway transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, Preston R.; El-Zabet, Jermeen; Hassan, Seerat; Briguglio, Joseph; Aliaj, Enela; Radcliffe, Maria; Mirza, Taha; Comar, Timothy; Nadolski, Jeremy; Huebner, Cynthia D.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have shown that human transportation networks exhibit small-world structure, meaning they have high local clustering and are easily traversed. However, some have concluded this without statistical evaluations, and others have compared observed structure to globally random rather than planar models. Here, we use Monte Carlo randomizations to test US transportation infrastructure data for small-worldness. Coarse-grained network models were generated from GIS data wherein nodes represent the 3105 contiguous US counties and weighted edges represent the number of highway or railroad links between counties; thus, we focus on linkage topologies and not geodesic distances. We compared railroad and highway transportation networks with a simple planar network based on county edge-sharing, and with networks that were globally randomized and those that were randomized while preserving their planarity. We conclude that terrestrial transportation networks have small-world architecture, as it is classically defined relative to global randomizations. However, this topological structure is sufficiently explained by the planarity of the graphs, and in fact the topological patterns established by the transportation links actually serve to reduce the amount of small-world structure.

  18. Modeling Physical Systems Using Vensim PLE Systems Dynamics Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmark, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many physical systems are described by time-dependent differential equations or systems of such equations. This makes it difficult for students in an introductory physics class to solve many real-world problems since these students typically have little or no experience with this kind of mathematics. In my high school physics classes, I address…

  19. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT BAY, SHOWING RAILROAD TRACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT BAY, SHOWING RAILROAD TRACKS LEADING TO THE MASSIVE STEEL-LINED CONCRETE ENTRANCE DOOR. PART OF THE INTRICATE HVAC SYSTEM IS WEST (RIGHT) OF THE DOOR. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  1. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  2. East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the left, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the right. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  3. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  4. West (trackside) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West (trackside) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the right, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the left. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  6. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  7. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  8. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  9. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  10. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  11. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  12. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  13. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  14. 75 FR 47678 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Soo Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Soo Line Railroad Company... authority to determine whether to issue notices of exemption for lease transactions under 49 U.S.C. 10902... notice of lease and operation exemption should be issued, and does so here. Northern Plains Railroad,...

  15. 77 FR 23321 - Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C.-Trackage Rights Exemption-WFEC Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C.--Trackage Rights Exemption--WFEC Railroad Company... agreed to grant limited nonexclusive overhead trackage rights to Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C. (KRR), over...

  16. Supercoherent states and physical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatyga, B. W.; Kostelecky, V. Alan; Nieto, Michael Martin; Truax, D. Rodney

    1992-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The presented approach is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described.

  17. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  18. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. 9. DETAIL OF CONCRETE OF THE B & O RAILROAD'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF CONCRETE OF THE B & O RAILROAD'S BASCULE SPAN, LOOKING SOUTH - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Chicago Terminal Railroad, South Branch of Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  2. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  3. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 1996, 61 FR 9740, for additional information about the RSAC. Dated: Issued... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter...

  4. 76 FR 68830 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2010 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2010 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2010 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. One carrier, Union Pacific Railroad Company, was found to be revenue adequate. DATES: Effective Date: This decision...

  5. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall...

  12. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  13. How railroads are making it happen

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of the US railroad industry and the regulation of this industry. It presents this regulatory background to show how the Staggers Act of 1980 has helped revitalize the railroads by deregulation and allowing them to compete with barge and truck traffic. It also discusses the impact it has on coal producers and consumers.

  14. Railroad Lines as Study Sites in Plant Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents reasons for utilizing abandoned railroad tracks in ecology field trip studies. Explanations are given for the factors influencing railroad vegetation. Activities for students are suggested. (SA)

  15. RAILROAD DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of railroads for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using US Geological Survey transportation digital line ...

  16. Collective systems:physical and information exergies.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D. III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2007-04-01

    Collective systems are typically defined as a group of agents (physical and/or cyber) that work together to produce a collective behavior with a value greater than the sum of the individual parts. This amplification or synergy can be harnessed by solving an inverse problem via an information-flow/communications grid: given a desired macroscopic/collective behavior find the required microscopic/individual behavior of each agent and the required communications grid. The goal of this report is to describe the fundamental nature of the Hamiltonian function in the design of collective systems (solve the inverse problem) and the connections between and values of physical and information exergies intrinsic to collective systems. In particular, physical and information exergies are shown to be equivalent based on thermodynamics and Hamiltonian mechanics.

  17. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  18. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  19. Are America's coal users being railroaded

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.F.

    1984-02-13

    Government energy and transportation policies could result in consumers paying higher electric bills and becoming more dependent on foreign oil because of the Staggers Rail Act, which helped to bring the railroad into a strong financial conditions. The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) claims to be balancing the needs of shippers, carriers, and the public, but has been erecting a new structure of regulation that denies captive shippers, such as coal-fired utilities, future protection from unrestrained monopolistic rate setting by railroads for coal transportation. Congress feels that the ICC has ignored the intent of the Staggers Act of ensuring competition as well as improving the economic health of the railroads.

  20. 76 FR 41555 - Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Environmental Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR... Federal Railroad Administration Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Environmental Impact Statement and public hearing for the Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation...

  1. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... found in the grant application guidance, FR-RSTG-13-001, or this solicitation on Grants.gov... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... applications. SUMMARY: The Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program was first authorized under the Rail...

  2. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  3. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  4. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  5. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  6. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  7. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  8. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  9. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  10. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  11. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  12. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  13. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  14. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  15. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  16. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  17. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  18. 77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ....gov/ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  19. 77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    .../ . Please refer to the notice published in the Federal Register on March 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  20. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  1. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  2. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  3. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  4. 13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE IS FROM THE HETCH HETCHY RAILROAD. CABOOSE IS FROM THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. FOREST ROAD IN FOREGROUND IS THE ALIGNMENT OF THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. LOOKING W. GIS: N-37 40 27.0 / W-119 47 10.5 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the U.S. Code, ch. 201-213. Regulations implementing the Federal rail safety laws are found at 49 CFR... CFR 225.3(a)(3) (accident reporting) and 234.3(c) (grade crossing signal safety). Other regulations... lines of, the general railroad system of transportation. E.g., 49 CFR 214.3 (railroad workplace...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the U.S. Code, ch. 201-213. Regulations implementing the Federal rail safety laws are found at 49 CFR... CFR 225.3(a)(3) (accident reporting) and 234.3(c) (grade crossing signal safety). Other regulations... lines of, the general railroad system of transportation. E.g., 49 CFR 214.3 (railroad workplace...

  7. The physics of distributed information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to introduce Distributed Systems as a field where the ideas and methods of physics can potentially be applied, and to provide entry points to a wide literature. The contributions of Leslie Lamport, inspired by Relativity Theory, and of Edsger Dijkstra, which has the flavor of a growth process, are discussed at some length. The intent of the author is primarily to stimulate interest in the statistical physics community, and the discussions are therefore framed in a non-technical language; the author apologizes in advance to readers from the computer science side for the unavoidable impreciseness and ambiguities.

  8. Learning Physics of Living Systems from Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Unlike a new generation of scientists that are being trained directly to work on the physics of living systems, most of us more senior members of the community had to find our way from other research areas. We all have our own stories as to how we made this transition. Here, I describe how a chance encounter with the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum led to a decades-long research project and taught me valuable lessons about how physics and biology can be mutually supportive disciplines. PMID:25294248

  9. Learning physics of living systems from Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Unlike a new generation of scientists that are being trained directly to work on the physics of living systems, most of us more senior members of the community had to find our way from other research areas. We all have our own stories as to how we made this transition. Here, I describe how a chance encounter with the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum led to a decades-long research project and taught me valuable lessons about how physics and biology can be mutually supportive disciplines.

  10. 78 FR 69746 - Buckeye Railroad Holdings, LLC-Continuance in Control-Buckeye Hammond Railroad, LLC, and Buckeye...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Railroad, LLC, and Buckeye East Chicago Railroad, LLC Buckeye Railroad Holdings, LLC (BRH), has filed a..., LLC (BHRR), and Buckeye East Chicago Railroad, LLC (BECRR), both Class III rail carriers. In November... right-of-way, and bulk liquid transloading facilities in East Chicago, Ind. Buckeye E. Chi....

  11. 77 FR 50762 - Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Line of Union Pacific Railroad Company Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc. (AOK), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease from Union Pacific Railroad...

  12. 77 FR 67442 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Soo Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Soo Line Railroad Company Soo Line Railroad Company (Soo Line), pursuant to a written agreement dated October 4, 2012, has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Northern Plains Railroad, Inc....

  13. 77 FR 38884 - Wyoming Connect Railroad LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wyoming Connect Railroad LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Wyoming Connect Railroad LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire by lease from Union Pacific Railroad Company and to...

  14. Current nitrogen dioxide exposures among railroad workers

    SciTech Connect

    Woskie, S.R.; Hammond, S.K.; Smith, T.J.; Schenker, M.B. )

    1989-07-01

    As part of a series of epidemiologic studies of the mortality patterns of railroad workers, various air contaminants were measured to characterize the workers' current exposures to diesel exhaust. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), which is a constituent of diesel exhaust, was examined as one possible marker of diesel exposure. An adaptation of the Palmes personal passive sampler was used to measure the NO{sub 2} exposures of 477 U.S. railroad workers at four railroads. The range of NO{sub 2} exposures expressed as the arithmetic average +/- two standard errors for the five career job groups were as follows: signal maintainers, 16-24 parts per billion (ppb); clerks/dispatchers/station agents, 23-43 ppb; engineers/firers, 26-38 ppb; brakers/conductors, 50-74 ppb; and locomotive shop workers, 95-127 ppb. Variations among railroads and across seasons were not significant for most job groups.

  15. Transportation: North American railroads couple up

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-19

    Recent mergers and acquisitions in the railroad industry are having a definite impact on chemical shippers. The U.S. chemical rail traffic is expected to undergo drastic changes as a result. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  17. The ALADDIN atomic physics database system

    SciTech Connect

    Hulse, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    ALADDIN is an atomic physics database system which has been developed in order to provide a broadly-based standard medium for the exchange and management of atomic data. ALADDIN consists of a data format definition together with supporting software for both interactive searches as well as for access to the data by plasma modeling and other codes. 8AB The ALADDIN system is designed to offer maximum flexibility in the choice of data representations and labeling schemes, so as to support a wide range of atomic physics data types and allow natural evolution and modification of the database as needs change. Associated dictionary files are included in the ALADDIN system for data documentation. The importance of supporting the widest possible user community was also central to be ALADDIN design, leading to the use of straightforward text files with concatentated data entries for the file structure, and the adoption of strict FORTRAN 77 code for the supporting software. This will allow ready access to the ALADDIN system on the widest range of scientific computers, and easy interfacing with FORTRAN modeling codes, user developed atomic physics codes and database, etc. This supporting software consists of the ALADDIN interactive searching and data display code, together with the ALPACK subroutine package which provides ALADDIN datafile searching and data retrieval capabilities to user's codes.

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  19. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  20. Government and the midwest railroads: notes on the demise of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Co. declared bankruptcy in 1975. Reorganization efforts after entering bankruptcy are reported. The company sought federal and private funds and revamped its operating procedures to reduce the capital intensiveness of railroad activities. Railroad labor unions balked at the company's new policy to reduce personnel in order to operate a light-density railroad. Strikes created more cash flow problems, and the federal government directed another railroad company to take over operations of the line. Such federal favoring of unions over railroads poses a bleak future for the future maintenance of individual railroad companies.

  1. Testing for Classicality of a Physical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Often quantum logics are algebraically modelled by orthomodular posets. The physical system described by such a quantum logic is classical if and only if the corresponding orthomodular poset is a Boolean algebra. We provide an easy testing procedure for this case. Moreover, we characterize orthomodular posets which are lattices and consider orthomodular posets which admit a full set of states and hence represent so-called spaces of numerical events. This way further test procedures are obtained.

  2. Physics of low-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The physics of low-dimensional systems has developed in a remarkable way over the last decade and has accelerated over the last few years, in particular because of the discovery of the new high temperature superconductors. The new developments started more than fifteen years ago with the discovery of the unexpected quasi-one-dimensional character of the TTF-TCNQ. Since then the field of conducting quasi-one-dimensional organic system have been rapidly growing. Parallel to the experimental work there has been an important theoretical development of great conceptual importance, such as charge density waves, soliton-like excitations, fractional charges, new symmetry properties etc. A new field of fundamental importance was the discovery of the Quantum Hall Effect in 1980. This field is still expanding with new experimental and theoretical discoveries. In 1986, then, came the totally unexpected discovery of high temperature superconductivity which started an explosive development. The three areas just mentioned formed the main themes of the Symposium. They do not in any way exhaust the progress in low-dimensional physics. We should mention the recent important development with both two-dimensional and one-dimensional and even zero-dimensional structures (quantum dots). The physics of mesoscopic systems is another important area where the low dimensionality is a key feature. Because of the small format of this Symposium we could unfortunately not cover these areas.

  3. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  4. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  5. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  6. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  7. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  8. 75 FR 66421 - HC Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Honey Creek Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board HC Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Honey Creek... 1150.31 to acquire from the Honey Creek Railroad (HCR), and to operate 6.4 miles of HCR's rail...

  9. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  10. The physics of power systems operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohler, C.

    2015-08-01

    The article explains the operation of power systems from the point of view of physics. Physicists imagine things, rather than in terms of impedances and circuits, in terms of fields and energy conversions. The account is concrete and simple. The use of alternating current entails the issue of reactive power. Reactive power consists of energy that oscillates between electrical and magnetic fields, it flows on top of the active power which carries the useful energy. The control of active and reactive power is essential for the power system's reliable operation. The frequency of a power system is the same everywhere. The stability of the frequency indicates that generation and demand of active power are equal, a decline in frequency indicates a lack of generation relative to the demand. Adapting the electrical power injected into the system is the way of frequency control. Because of the parasitic inductances and capacitances of overhead lines, cables, and transformers, the voltage at different locations of the power system depends on the load. The voltage is regulated by the combined action of generator excitation, transformer tap changers and series compensation in order to provide consumers with a stable voltage supply. The integration of solar cells and wind turbines into the power system poses some challenges. But the power system is able to accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable power generation if the right complementary measures are taken.