Science.gov

Sample records for railway traction system

  1. Open coil traction system.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement. PMID:22567645

  2. 77 FR 56910 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Iowa Traction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Line... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35670, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  3. Study on the Constants of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Railway Vehicle Traction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Keiichiro; Kondo, Minoru

    We have been investigating to apply permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) to railway vehicle traction, because the efficiency of PMSMs are higher than that of induction motors and they are expected to enable the traction motor down sized. We have to consider peculiarity on the railway vehicle traction when we design the electrical constants of PMSMs. On this paper, we point out the particular points which we have to take into account on designing works and analyze how the constants of PMSMs affect the their performance. Through this study, we suggest how to design the constants and applied the method to assumed designing works to verify the method. We conclude that the suggested method is available for the designing of PMSMs’ constants and reluctance torque is essential to the performance PMSMs for railway vehicle traction purpose.

  4. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  5. Fabrication of Superconducting Traction Transformer for Railway Rolling Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamijo, H.; Hata, H.; Fujimoto, H.; Inoue, A.; Nagashima, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamada, H.; Sanuki, Y.; Tomioka, A.; Uwamori, K.; Yoshida, S.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K.

    2006-06-01

    We designed a floor type single-phase 4 MVA superconducting traction transformer for Shinkansen rolling stock. In this study, we fabricated a prototype superconducting traction transformer based on this design. This transformer of the core-type design has a primary winding, four secondary windings and a tertiary winding. The windings are wound by Bi2223 superconducting tapes and cooled by subcooled liquid nitrogen. The core is kept at room temperature. The cryostat is made of GFRP with two holes to pass core legs through. The outer dimensions are about 1.2m × 0.7m × 1.9m excluding the compressor. Its weight is 1.71t excluding that of refrigerator and compressor. The transformer was tested according to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)-E5007. We confirmed that the performance of transformer has been achieved almost exactly as planned. The rated capacity is equivalent to 3.5MVA in the superconducting state.

  6. Sliding mode observer based incipient sensor fault detection with application to high-speed railway traction device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers incipient sensor fault detection issue for a class of nonlinear systems with "observer unmatched" uncertainties. A particular fault detection sliding mode observer is designed for the augmented system formed by the original system and incipient sensor faults. The designed parameters are obtained using LMI and line filter techniques to guarantee that the generated residuals are robust to uncertainties and that sliding motion is not destroyed by faults. Then, three levels of novel adaptive thresholds are proposed based on the reduced order sliding mode dynamics, which effectively improve incipient sensor faults detectability. Case study of on the traction system in China Railway High-speed is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incipient senor faults detection schemes. PMID:27156675

  7. Re-adhesion control for a railway single wheelset test rig based on the behaviour of the traction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Liang, B.

    2013-08-01

    A method for detecting wheel slip/slide and re-adhesion control of AC traction motors in railway applications is presented in this paper. This enables a better utilisation of available adhesion and could also reduce wheel wear by reducing high creep values. With this method, the wheel-rail (roller) creepage, creep force and friction coefficient can be indirectly detected and estimated by measuring the voltage, current and speed of the AC traction motor and using an extended Kalman filter. The re-adhesion controller is designed to regulate the motor torque command according to the maximum available adhesion based on the estimated results. Simulations under different friction coefficients are carried out to test the proposed method.

  8. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  9. A Mathematical Model for Railway Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method for modeling safety aspects of railway control systems. Using our modeling method, one can progressively refine an abstract railway safety model, sucessively adding layers of detail about how a real system actually operates, while maintaining a safety property that refines the original abstract safety property. This method supports a top-down approach to specification of railway control systems and to proof of a variety of safety-related properties. We demonstrate our method by proving safety of the classical block control system.

  10. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  11. Experimental Study on a Voltage Source Inverter-fed Induction Motor Traction System Connected to Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Kondo, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    This paper describes the experimental results of a test to drive two induction motors through a VVVF inverter by 25kW class proton membrane type fuel cells (PEMFCs). The experiments are aimed at verifying the compatibility between the drive system for the railway vehicle traction and FCs. This paper describes test results of powering, powering-off procedure, and simulated slip-readhesion control test, respectively. Through the experiments, we obtained useful knowledge required in designing the fuel cell drive system.

  12. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  13. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  14. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  15. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  16. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions. PMID:25073166

  17. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  18. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  19. Algorithm for calculating torque base in vehicle traction control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhi; Li, Liang; Song, Jian; Wu, Kaihui; Qiao, Yanjuan; Liu, Xingchun; Xia, Yongguang

    2012-11-01

    Existing research on the traction control system(TCS) mainly focuses on control methods, such as the PID control, fuzzy logic control, etc, aiming at achieving an ideal slip rate of the drive wheel over long control periods. The initial output of the TCS (referred to as the torque base in this paper), which has a great impact on the driving performance of the vehicle in early cycles, remains to be investigated. In order to improve the control performance of the TCS in the first several cycles, an algorithm is proposed to determine the torque base. First, torque bases are calculated by two different methods, one based on states judgment and the other based on the vehicle dynamics. The confidence level of the torque base calculated based on the vehicle dynamics is also obtained. The final torque base is then determined based on the two torque bases and the confidence level. Hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) simulation and vehicle tests emulating sudden start on low friction roads have been conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. The control performance of a PID-controlled TCS with and without the proposed torque base algorithm is compared, showing that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the TCS over the first several cycles and enhances about 5% vehicle speed by contrast. The proposed research provides a more proper initial value for TCS control, and improves the performance of the first several control cycles of the TCS.

  20. Railgun power supply system utilizing traction motors and vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Parker, J.V.; Thullen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A railgun power supply has been designed that utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, which store approximately 75 MJ, energize the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a peak current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected directly to the railgun and require no opening switches. By staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform can be delivered to the railgun.

  1. Simplified and advanced modelling of traction control systems of heavy-haul locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Cole, Colin

    2015-05-01

    Improving tractive effort is a very complex task in locomotive design. It requires the development of not only mechanical systems but also power systems, traction machines and traction algorithms. At the initial design stage, traction algorithms can be verified by means of a simulation approach. A simple single wheelset simulation approach is not sufficient because all locomotive dynamics are not fully taken into consideration. Given that many traction control strategies exist, the best solution is to use more advanced approaches for such studies. This paper describes the modelling of a locomotive with a bogie traction control strategy based on a co-simulation approach in order to deliver more accurate results. The simplified and advanced modelling approaches of a locomotive electric power system are compared in this paper in order to answer a fundamental question. What level of modelling complexity is necessary for the investigation of the dynamic behaviours of a heavy-haul locomotive running under traction? The simulation results obtained provide some recommendations on simulation processes and the further implementation of advanced and simplified modelling approaches.

  2. Automatic railway wheelset inspection system by using ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaoyong; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jianping; Yang, Kai

    2011-12-01

    As one of the most important transportation, the safety of railway is paid much attention to. The quality of wheel should be checked periodically, especially in high-speed application. Normally, Non Destructive Testing (NDT), such as ultrasonic inspection method, is applied on wheels to find the defect. A stationary automatic railway wheelset inspection system by using ultrasonic technique is described in this paper. The phased array ultrasonic technique and wheel defect inspection method is described in detail. Specially designed line is installed for wheelset transportation. Wheelset lifting and rotating device is used for wheelset loading, unloading and rotating. A steel frame with complicated mechanical structure and ultrasonic devices are designed for wheelset defect detecting. System ultrasonic performance, system working flow, system control networking, data processing and results displaying are also described in the paper. Now, the system is installed in Chinese EMU maintenance center for disassembled wheelset inspection and the safety of wheels is well protected.

  3. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  4. Sizing criterial for traction drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified traction drive fatigue analysis which was derived from the Lundberg-Palmgren theory is measured and the effects of rotational speed, multiplicity of contacts, and variation in the available traction coefficient on traction drive system life, size, and power capacity was investigated. Simplified equations are provided for determining the 90% survival life rating of steel traction drive contacts of arbitrary geometry. References to life modifying factors for material, lubrication, and traction will be made.

  5. An Inverter Packaging Scheme for an Integrated Segmented Traction Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin; Ayers, Curtis William; Wiles, Randy H

    2013-01-01

    The standard voltage source inverter (VSI), widely used in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) traction drives, requires a bulky dc bus capacitor to absorb the large switching ripple currents and prevent them from shortening the battery s life. The dc bus capacitor presents a significant barrier to meeting inverter cost, volume, and weight requirements for mass production of affordable EVs/HEVs. The large ripple currents become even more problematic for the film capacitors (the capacitor technology of choice for EVs/HEVs) in high temperature environments as their ripple current handling capability decreases rapidly with rising temperatures. It is shown in previous work that segmenting the VSI based traction drive system can significantly decrease the ripple currents and thus the size of the dc bus capacitor. This paper presents an integrated packaging scheme to reduce the system cost of a segmented traction drive.

  6. GADEROS, a GAlileo Demonstrator for Railway Operation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urech, A.; Pérez Diestro, J.; González, O.

    2002-07-01

    GADEROS is a GALILEO Pilot Project developed under the EC FP5 Growth Programme. GADEROS is aimed at demonstrating the use of GNSS Integrity and Safety of Life characteristics for defining a satellite-based system to perform train location for safe railway applications, which is to be integrated into ERTMS/ETCS architecture. The system will offer an alternative to existing track-based systems, mainly for conventional and lowdensity traffic lines. The demonstration on a Low Density Traffic Line provides real-life implementation of train location based on a GNSS receiver with integrity and augmentation.

  7. Defining Strong State Accountability Systems: How Can Better Standards Gain Greater Traction? A First Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Eileen; Scull, Janie; Slicker, Gerilyn; Winkler, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    Rigorous standards and aligned assessments are vital tools for boosting education outcomes but they have little traction without strong accountability systems that attach consequences to performance. In this pilot study, Eileen Reed, Janie Scull, Gerilyn Slicker, and Amber Winkler lay out the essential features of such accountability systems,…

  8. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  9. [Railway medical hygiene and health protection system in Croatia between 1945 and 1953].

    PubMed

    Lajnert, Sinisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system of medical hygiene and health care adopted by the Croatian section of Yugoslav Railways in the aftermath of World War Two until 1953, based on archival information. In 1945, the human resources section of the Railway Administration in Zagreb included the Department of Social Welfare with offices that managed health insurance in cases of illness and accidents, workers' pension fund, and sanitary care‥ On 19 June 1947, the regional railway executive board established a medical section within the so called Secretariat and appointed Dr Marijan Derkos as its head. On 3 July 1948, central and regional healthcare offices for traffic staff were established to manage and oversee the activities of health institutions providing services for railway workers. The seat of the regional office in Zagreb was in Grgurova street. After the dismantlement of the central healthcare office in charge of railway health institutions in 1953, regional boards established new institutions, that were now self-financed. PMID:25310611

  10. METHODS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OLDER WORKERS IN THE FRENCH NATIONAL RAILWAYS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COQUERET, A.

    WHEN THE FRENCH NATIONAL RAILWAY CONVERTED FROM STEAM TO AN ELECTRIC AND DIESEL-ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEM, IT WAS NECESSARY TO RETRAIN OLDER (OVER 40) SKILLED WORKERS--DRIVERS, LOCOMOTIVE MAINTENANCE MEN AND SUPERVISORS OF WORKSHOPS AND DEPOTS. THE INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES OF OLDER PERSONS IN RETRAINING WERE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION…

  11. Application of Superconducting Power Cables to DC Electric Railway Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Lv, Zhen; Sekino, Masaki; Tomita, Masaru

    For novel design and efficient operation of next-generation DC electric railway systems, especially for their substantial energy saving, we have studied the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to them. In this paper it is assumed that a superconducting power cable is applied to connect substations supplying electric power to trains. An analysis model line was described by an electric circuit, which was analyzed with MATLAB-Simulink. From the calculated voltages and currents of the circuit, the regenerative brake and the energy losses were estimated. In addition, assuming the heat loads of superconducting power cables and the cryogenic efficiency, the energy saving of the total system was evaluated. The results show that the introduction of superconducting power cables could achieve the improved use of regenerative brake, the loss reduction, the decreased number of substations, the reduced maintenance, etc.

  12. Design of traction drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Traction drives are among the simplest of all speed-changing mechanisms. Because of their simplicity and their ability to smoothly and continuously adjust speed, they are excellent choices for many drive system applications. They have been used in industrial service for more than 100 years. Today's traction drives have power capacities which rival the best gear and belt drives due to modern traction fluids and highly fatigue-resistant bearing steels. This report summarizes methods to analyze and size traction drives. Lubrication principles, contact kinematics, stress, fatigue life, and performance prediction methods are presented. The effects of the lubricant's traction characteristics on life and power loss are discussed. An example problem is given which illustrates the effects of spin on power loss. Loading mechanism design and the design of nonlubricated friction wheels and rings are also treated.

  13. Energy and wear optimisation of train longitudinal dynamics and of traction and braking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, R.; Galardi, E.; Meli, E.; Nocciolini, D.; Pugi, L.; Rindi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Traction and braking systems deeply affect longitudinal train dynamics, especially when an extensive blending phase among different pneumatic, electric and magnetic devices is required. The energy and wear optimisation of longitudinal vehicle dynamics has a crucial economic impact and involves several engineering problems such as wear of braking friction components, energy efficiency, thermal load on components, level of safety under degraded or adhesion conditions (often constrained by the current regulation in force on signalling or other safety-related subsystem). In fact, the application of energy storage systems can lead to an efficiency improvement of at least 10% while, as regards the wear reduction, the improvement due to distributed traction systems and to optimised traction devices can be quantified in about 50%. In this work, an innovative integrated procedure is proposed by the authors to optimise longitudinal train dynamics and traction and braking manoeuvres in terms of both energy and wear. The new approach has been applied to existing test cases and validated with experimental data provided by Breda and, for some components and their homologation process, the results of experimental activities derive from cooperation performed with relevant industrial partners such as Trenitalia and Italcertifer. In particular, simulation results are referred to the simulation tests performed on a high-speed train (Ansaldo Breda Emu V250) and on a tram (Ansaldo Breda Sirio Tram). The proposed approach is based on a modular simulation platform in which the sub-models corresponding to different subsystems can be easily customised, depending on the considered application, on the availability of technical data and on the homologation process of different components.

  14. Power consumption of communication systems employing radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems for railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien Dat; Kanno, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Demand on high speed communication and broadband access connection for fast moving passengers is rapidly increasing. However, the current wireless access communication techniques for railway which are mainly based on GSM for rail, satellite, and macro-cell cellular networks cannot meet the requirement of communication on fast moving trains. Cellular networks with small cell size and high carrier frequencies can be realized as a promising solution to overcome the current obstacles. In that situation, a radio-over-fiber distributed antenna system using WDM technology can be an attractive means to connect small base stations along the railway track to the control centers. However, considering a huge number of base stations placed along the railway track, power consumption will become one of the main concerns. In this paper, we investigate and optimize power consumption and energy efficiency of a Radio-over-Fiber distributed antenna system (RoF DAS) for railway. Based on the model, optimum system design in terms of remote antenna cell size and number of cells in a WDM ring are derived with respect to system energy consumption and efficiency. From the model we can also determine an appropriate scheme to upgrade a currently deployed conventional cellular network to a system employing RoF DAS technology. The power consumption and energy efficiency of the conventional and the upgraded systems are compared. The results demonstrate a significant save of power consumption and remarkable enhancement of energy efficiency when using a RoF DAS system.

  15. Production integrated laser-based measurement system for railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanke, Gerd; Kessler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) requires its suppliers to deliver concrete sleepers with high precision dimensions for critical sections. To meet these demands suppliers have to continuously monitor the production process. Critical dimensions are the track width and the widths of both rail supporting planes. Also their orientation must not exceed given tolerances. That demands measurements with a precision of 0.2 mm or better. The contactless measurement system developed uses the triangulation approach based on laser plane projection. It consists of two CCD-cameras and four lasers projecting planes under 45° each. A third camera serves for the recognition of the mould numbers. Software detects if a sleeper is in a measuring position, the camera images are frozen and the measurements are done using line approximation and subpixel accuracy. Additionally the measurement of the positions of peg holes is integrated, these data serve for the control of a screw-in robot. The system is added to the running production line in a harsh industrial environment. It works fully automatically. All measured data are transferred to the production monitoring for evaluation and archiving. The system has been working now for two years, more than half a million sleepers have been reliably monitored.

  16. Verification and validation in railway signalling engineering - an application of enterprise systems techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangxian; Wang, Dong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Verification and validation of a railway signalling system is a crucial part of the workflow in railway signalling enterprises. Typically, the verification and validation of this type of safety-critical system is performed by means of an on-site test, which leads to a low efficiency and high costs. A novel method for the verification and validation of a railway signalling system is proposed as an application of the enterprise information system (EIS) technique. In this application, the EIS and the simulation test platform are combined together, which enhances the coherence and consistency of the information exchange between the system development and the system verification, to improve the work efficiency. The simulation and auto-test technology used in the system verification also lowers the human and financial costs.

  17. An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  18. An intrusion detection system for the protection of railway assets using Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  19. Fault Detection of Railway Vehicle Suspension Systems Using Multiple-Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Tsunashima, Hitoshi; Marumo, Yoshitaka

    This paper demonstrates the possibility to detect suspension failures of railway vehicles using a multiple-model approach from on-board measurement data. The railway vehicle model used includes the lateral and yaw motions of the wheelsets and bogie, and the lateral motion of the vehicle body, with sensors measuring the lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the bogie, and lateral acceleration of the body. The detection algorithm is formulated based on the Interacting Multiple-Model (IMM) algorithm. The IMM method has been applied for detecting faults in vehicle suspension systems in a simulation study. The mode probabilities and states of vehicle suspension systems are estimated based on a Kalman Filter (KF). This algorithm is evaluated in simulation examples. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm effectively detects on-board faults of railway vehicle suspension systems.

  20. Lateral traction

    MedlinePlus

    ... be used to treat or reduce any joint dislocation or bone fracture by applying tension to the leg or arm with weights and pulleys to realign the bone. For example, it may be used to help keep a dislocated hip within the hip socket while it heals. Traction ...

  1. First-order system least squares for the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Parter, S.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will develop two first-order system least squares (FOSLS) approaches for the solution of the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity. Both are two-stage algorithms that first solve for the gradients of displacement, then for the displacement itself. One approach, which uses L{sup 2} norms to define the FOSLS functional, is shown under certain H{sup 2} regularity assumptions to admit optimal H{sup 1}-like performance for standard finite element discretization and standard multigrid solution methods that is uniform in the Poisson ratio for all variables. The second approach, which is based on H{sup -1} norms, is shown under general assumptions to admit optimal uniform performance for displacement flux in an L{sup 2} norm and for displacement in an H{sup 1} norm. These methods do not degrade as other methods generally do when the material properties approach the incompressible limit.

  2. Ac traction gets on track

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes inverter-based ac traction systems which give freight locomotives greater adhesion, pulling power, and braking capacity. In the 1940s, dc traction replaced the steam engine as a source of train propulsion, and it has ruled the freight transportation industry ever since. But now, high-performance ac-traction systems, with their unprecedented levels of pulling power and adhesion, are becoming increasingly common on America`s freight railroads. In thousands of miles of demonstration tests, today`s ac-traction systems have outperformed traditional dc-motor driven systems. Major railroad companies are convinced enough of the benefits of ac traction to have integrated it into their freight locomotives.

  3. Development of a novel liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer system.

    PubMed

    Soon, C F; Youseffi, M; Berends, R F; Blagden, N; Denyer, M C T

    2013-01-15

    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes. PMID:22809522

  4. Study of Method for Designing the Power and the Capacitance of Fuel Cells and Electric Double-Layer Capacitors of Hybrid Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    A hybrid railway traction system with fuel cells (FCs) and electric double layer-capacitors (EDLCs) is discussed in this paper. This system can save FC costs and absorb the regenerative energy. A method for designing FCs and EDLCs on the basis of the output power and capacitance, respectively, has not been reported, even though their design is one of the most important technical issues encountered in the design of hybrid railway vehicles. Such design method is presented along with a train load profile and an energy management strategy. The design results obtained using the proposed method are verified by performing numerical simulations of a running train. These results reveal that the proposed method for designing the EDLCs and FCs on the basis of the capacitance and power, respectively, and by using a method for controlling the EDLC voltage is sufficiently effective in designing efficient EDLCs and FCs of hybrid railway traction systems.

  5. The definition of the railway position control error in the plane and profile using the optical-electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Anton V.; Timofeev, Alexandr N.; Nekrylov, Ivan S.

    2015-05-01

    Continuous development of high-speed railway traffic in the world toughens requirements, including to the accuracy of installation and control of provision of a railway track. For the current technologies of service of a railway track using its absolute coordinates the perspective decision is creation along railway lines of a special fiducial network. In this case by means of optical-electronic systems, concerning reference points, obtaining the objective information on actual position of a railway track in a longitudinal cross-section and the plan with a margin error which isn't exceeding 1,5 mm in rather severe conditions of continuous operation of traveling machines at speeds up to 10 km/h is possible.

  6. Modeling on energy harvesting from a railway system using piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun; Song, Gangbing

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical models of piezoelectric energy harvesting from railway systems using patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers are studied. An infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation subjected to moving multi-loads is adopted to describe the dynamic behavior of railway track. The voltage and electric power of piezoelectric transducers installed at the bottom of a steel rail are derived analytically. Comparisons with earlier works and experimental results are given, indicating that the present solutions are reliable. Additionally, a parametric study is conducted to discuss the effects of axle loads, running velocity and load resistors on the solutions. The numerical results show that patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers can harvest the available energy from track vibration to supply power for a wireless sensor network node and can also serve as sensors to monitor basic train information, such as the running velocity, the location and the axle load. The present investigations provide a theoretical guide in the design of piezoelectric patch and stack energy harvesters used in railway systems, which can serve as power sources for distributed wireless sensor networks in remote areas. The research results also demonstrate the potential of piezoelectric patches and stack harvesters in designing self-powered wireless sensor networks used in railway systems to ensure train operation safety.

  7. Control system for maximum use of adhesive forces of a railway vehicle in a tractive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Lee, Kwan Soo; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2008-04-01

    The realization of maximum adhesive forces for a railway vehicle is a very difficult process, because it involves using tractive efforts and depends on friction characteristics in the contact zone between wheels and rails. Tractive efforts are realized by means of tractive torques of motors, and their maximum values can provide negative effects such as slip and skid. These situations usually happen when information about friction conditions is lacking. The negative processes have a major influence on wearing of contact bodies and tractive units. Therefore, many existing control systems for vehicles use an effect of a prediction of a friction coefficient between wheels and rails because measuring a friction coefficient at the moment of running vehicle movement is very difficult. One of the ways to solve this task is to use noise spectrum analysis for friction coefficient detection. This noise phenomenon has not been clearly studied and analyzed. In this paper, we propose an adhesion control system of railway vehicles based on an observer, which allows one to determine the maximum tractive torque based on the optimal adhesive force between the wheels (wheel pair) of a railway vehicle and rails (rail track) depending on weight load from a wheel to a rail, friction conditions in the contact zone, a lateral displacement of wheel set and wheel sleep. As a result, it allows a railway vehicle to be driven in a tractive mode by the maximum adhesion force for real friction conditions.

  8. A Novel Cell Traction Force Microscopy to Study Multi-Cellular System

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sandeep V.; Saif, Taher A.

    2014-01-01

    Traction forces exerted by adherent cells on their microenvironment can mediate many critical cellular functions. Accurate quantification of these forces is essential for mechanistic understanding of mechanotransduction. However, most existing methods of quantifying cellular forces are limited to single cells in isolation, whereas most physiological processes are inherently multi-cellular in nature where cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions determine the emergent properties of cell clusters. In the present study, a robust finite-element-method-based cell traction force microscopy technique is developed to estimate the traction forces produced by multiple isolated cells as well as cell clusters on soft substrates. The method accounts for the finite thickness of the substrate. Hence, cell cluster size can be larger than substrate thickness. The method allows computing the traction field from the substrate displacements within the cells' and clusters' boundaries. The displacement data outside these boundaries are not necessary. The utility of the method is demonstrated by computing the traction generated by multiple monkey kidney fibroblasts (MKF) and human colon cancerous (HCT-8) cells in close proximity, as well as by large clusters. It is found that cells act as individual contractile groups within clusters for generating traction. There may be multiple of such groups in the cluster, or the entire cluster may behave a single group. Individual cells do not form dipoles, but serve as a conduit of force (transmission lines) over long distances in the cluster. The cell-cell force can be either tensile or compressive depending on the cell-microenvironment interactions. PMID:24901766

  9. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  10. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure.

    PubMed

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  11. Smart current collector—fibre optic hit detection system for improved security on railway tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Kerstin; Ecke, Wolfgang; Kautz, Michael; Willett, Simon; Unterwaditzer, Hansjörg; Bosselmann, Thomas; Rothhardt, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    In a deregulated EU railway market, monitoring the vehicle and infrastructure interfaces is mandatory for the enhanced availability of operation and for reducing costs. Therefore, infrastructure managers need monitoring tools on overhead contact lines (OCLs). We know from earlier investigations that a measurement of contact forces alone is not sufficient (Schröder et al 2013 Opt. Lasers Eng. 51 172-9). In this study, we introduce a system which is fast enough to detect short disturbances and which can be used with regular trains. It is based on fibre optic sensors integrated with conventional current collectors (CCs). The system is designed to monitor hard and soft hits on the CC in horizontal (driving) and vertical (contact) direction. It was systematically tested in the laboratory as well as in test runs on commercial railways in several countries. With its help, a variety of minor as well as serious defects have been discovered and repaired at the CC-OCL interface.

  12. Fundamental Study on Saving Energy for Electrified Railway System Applying High Temperature Superconductor Motor and Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Taketsune; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    Induction motor instead of dc one has been applied widely for dc electric rolling stock because of the advantage of its utility and efficiency. However, further improvement of motor characteristics will be required to realize environment-friendly dc railway system in the future. It is important to study more efficient machine applying dc electric rolling stock for next generation high performance system. On the other hand, the methods to reuse regenerative energy produced by motors effectively are also important. Therefore, we carried out fundamental study on saving energy for electrified railway system. For the first step, we introduced the energy storage system applying electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC), and its control system. And then, we tried to obtain the specification of high temperature superconductor induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM), which performance is similar with that of the conventional induction motors. Furthermore, we tried to evaluate an electrified railway system applying energy storage system and HTS-ISM based on simulation. We succeeded in showing the effectiveness of the introductions of energy storage system and HTS-ISM in DC electrified railway system.

  13. Traction behavior of two traction lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    In the analysis of rolling-sliding concentrated contacts, such as gears, bearings and traction drives, the traction characteristics of the lubricant are of prime importance. The elastic shear modulus and limiting shear stress properties of the lubricant dictate the traction/slip characteristics and power loss associated with an EHD contact undergoing slip and/or spin. These properties can be deducted directly from the initial slope m and maximum traction coefficient micron of an experimental traction curve. In this investigation, correlation equations are presented to predict m and micron for two modern traction fluids based on the regression analysis of 334 separate traction disk machine experiments. The effects of contact pressure, temperature, surface velocity, ellipticity ratio are examined. Problems in deducing lubricant shear moduli from disk machine tests are discussed.

  14. Successful management of abdominal wound dehiscence using a vacuum assisted closure system combined with mesh-mediated medial traction

    PubMed Central

    Hompes, R; Venkatasubramaniam, A; Arnold, S

    2015-01-01

    Management of the open abdomen has advanced significantly in recent years with the increasing use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) techniques leading to increased rates of fascial closure. We present the case of a patient who suffered two complete abdominal wall dehiscences after an elective laparotomy, meaning primary closure was no longer possible. She was treated successfully with a VAC system combined with continuous medial traction using a Prolene® mesh. This technique has not been described before in the management of patients following wound dehiscence. PMID:25519257

  15. Successful management of abdominal wound dehiscence using a vacuum assisted closure system combined with mesh-mediated medial traction.

    PubMed

    Lord, A C; Hompes, R; Venkatasubramaniam, A; Arnold, S

    2015-01-01

    Management of the open abdomen has advanced significantly in recent years with the increasing use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) techniques leading to increased rates of fascial closure. We present the case of a patient who suffered two complete abdominal wall dehiscences after an elective laparotomy, meaning primary closure was no longer possible. She was treated successfully with a VAC system combined with continuous medial traction using a Prolene(®) mesh. This technique has not been described before in the management of patients following wound dehiscence. PMID:25519257

  16. Data configurations in railway signalling engineering - an application of enterprise systems techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangxian; Guan, Aiai; Qiu, Xinxi; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jiquan; Duan, Huilong

    2013-08-01

    Railway signalling system is a safety-critical system to ensure railway safety and its development cost is huge. It is of great economic value to apply the generic signalling systems in different environments through configuration of different application data. In this paper, a new method to configure the application data completely and accurately is illustrated; in particular, a technique called automatic generation technology is introduced to automatically configure the functional logic of safety-critical systems, i.e. computer-based interlocking (CBI) system and automatic train protection (ATP) system. All of the application data are collected from the workflow among various departments through the enterprise system (ES). Some application data are represented by models employing automatic generation technology, and the functional logic is then obtained through analysis using these models. A configuration platform based on the ES is developed in which both the efficiency and accuracy of the application data configuration are significantly improved. In addition, it is capable of reducing human errors to a maximal extent.

  17. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  18. Study on Dynamical Simulation of Railway Vehicle Bogie Parameters Test-bench Electro-hydraulic Servo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zhikun; Su, Jian; Xu, Guan; Cao, Xiaoning

    Dynamical mathematical model was established for accurately positioning, fast response and real-time tracing of electro-hydraulic servo control system in railway vehicle bog ie parameters test system with elastic load. The model could precisely control the output of position and force of the hydraulic cylinders. Induction method was proposed in the paper. Dynamical simulation verified the mathematical model by SIMULINK software. Meanwhile the key factors affecting the dynamical characteristics of the system were discussed in detail. Through the simulation results, high precision is obtained in application and the need of real-time control on the railway vehicle bogie parameters test-bench is realized.

  19. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  20. Optical-electronic system controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrygina, Margarita A.; Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Verezhinskaia, Ekaterina A.

    2016-04-01

    Rail transport is the largest rail network worldwide. If you compare the number of passengers and of goods transported by different modes of transport, it appears that the share of rail transport represents a very tangible part of them. Ensuring a high level of rail safety is currently one of the primary tasks of States and organizations involved in rail. In order to contain a railway and to provide its performance, you must ensure a high quality of the Railway, so the establishment of systems to control the position of the path is relevant, especially in the field of optical-electronic instrument making. The purpose of work is development and research of optical-electronic system for controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks.

  1. A study on Data Transmission Scheme for High Functional Railway Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Sano, Minoru; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Railway signaling systems that transmit control information via rails have been deployed in many applications, for example, digital automatic train control (ATC) systems for controlling train speed. Since the performance of digital ATC systems depends on the signal transmission speed, recently there have been many studies aimed at realizing high-speed data transmission. However, it is difficult to increase the transmission speed because rails have strong attenuation in proportion to an increase of the frequency. In this paper, we aimed to increase the transmission speed by improving the modulation scheme to overcome these limitations. We proposed CDMA-QAM method that is combined code-division multiple access (CDMA) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). And we evaluated in a field trial the CDMA-QAM rail transmission device developed using DSP. On the other hand, an analog ATC based on an amplitude modulation (AM) is still employed in some railway lines. It is difficult for their lines to introduce the digital signal due to track circuit configurations and interoperability conditions. So we studied a data transmission scheme that makes it possible to mix an analog signal and a digital signal, and evaluated the influence given to both signals using a developed device that generates the mixed signal of analog and digital signal.

  2. Propulsion system for Kwachon line of Korean National Railways (application of PWM converter to commuter car)

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Miyazaki, A.

    1994-12-31

    With the development of the Korean economy and the population concentration in metropolitan areas, metropolitan Seoul is suffering from heavy traffic jams and needs to urgently expand its railway network as a mass transit system. In connection with this, the Kwachon Line is to be constructed to connect the Korean National Railways (KNR) line and Seoul Subway (SMSC) Line No. 4, and new dual-voltage electric multiple units (EMU) have been produced to offer a run-through service to the KNR line having an aerial power line of 25 kV AC and 60 Hz and the SMSC line having an aerial power line of 1500 V DC. This dual-voltage electric car is the first commuter-train adopting a PWM power converter-PWM inverter method to provide high frequency and power factor and to reduce high frequency. A reverse conducting GTO is adopted for the main circuit switching elements to miniaturize and reduce the number of components. Since this system is the first PWM power converter-PWM inverter method in Korea, it is structured with particular attention to its maintenance and handling. This paper introduces the outline and characteristics of this system.

  3. Erosion and sediment control on a light railway system

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, T. )

    1993-06-01

    Cities throughout the country are developing light rail systems to provide environmentally friendly, hassle-free transportation for future commuters. Designed to appease growing transportation problems in metropolitan St. Louis, a light rail system was recently constructed between East St. Louis, Illinois and the St. Louis International Airport. Spatial limitations for right-of-way construction through downtown St. Louis proposed special challenges for both the design engineering firm, Sverdrup Engineering, St. Louis, and the general contractor, McCarthy Brothers, also of St. Louis. Over 14 miles of existing right-of-ways once used by passenger and freight trains would have to be utilized by the light rail system. Many sections of these vacant right-of-ways would be excavated into large depressions to allow the light rail cars to pass beneath existing bridges, eliminating rail car exposure to the surrounding environment and reducing noise pollution. However, the width of these relic right-of-ways did not provide sufficient space for modern light rail tracks. To solve this problem, designs called for the excavation of 2:1, 80-ft side slopes along the track cut to provide adequate space on the bottom for light rail track beds. This article describes the actions taken to stabilize the slopes.

  4. A Method to Apply Friction Modifier in Railway System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kosuke; Suda, Yoshihiro; Iwasa, Takashi; Fujii, Takeshi; Tomeoka, Masao; Tanimoto, Masuhisa; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Nakai, Takuji

    Controlling the friction between wheel and rail is direct and very effective measures to improve the curving performances of bogie trucks, because the curving performances of bogie truck depend much on friction characteristics. Authors have proposed a method, “friction control”, which utilizes friction modifier (KELTRACKTM HPF) with onboard spraying system. With the method, not only friction coefficient, but also friction characteristics are able to be controlled as expected. In this paper, results of fundamental experiments are reported which play an important role to realize the new method.

  5. System for diagnosis of rolling profiles of the railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medianu, Silviu Octavian; Rimbu, Gimi Aurelian; Lipcinski, Daniel; Popovici, Iuliu; Strambeanu, Dumitru

    2014-10-01

    A computerized system for monitoring and diagnosis (Profilograph), which is capable to predict the wheel profile evolution, was developed. The S78 and UIC-ORE types of profiles were tested, for which the wear parameters are monitored. The main parameters that characterize the wear profiles were measured and analyzed: Sh-flange height, Sd-flange thickness and qR-flange slope quota. The tests were executed on the basis of UIC norms and regulations. The diagnosis, gives technical information about the wheel profile, based on which, the following corrective mechanical actions should be taken: re-profiling, invalidation or parts replacement (in case of bandage wheel profile).

  6. A machine vision assisted system for fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of railway wheelsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Sun, Zhenguo; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent magnetic particle inspection is a conventional non-destructive evaluation process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface cracks of the wheelsets. Using machine vision instead of workers' direct observation could remarkably improve the working condition and repeatability of the inspection. This paper presents a machine vision assisted automatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection system for surface defect inspection of railway wheelsets. The system setup of it is composed of a semiautomatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection machine, a vision system and an industrial computer. The detection of magnetic particle indications of quantitative quality indicators and cracks is studied: the detection of quantitative quality indicators is achieved by mathematical morphology, Otsu's thresholding and a RANSAC based ellipse fitting algorithm; the crack detection algorithm is a multiscale algorithm using Gaussian blur, mathematical morphology and several shape and color descriptors. Tests show that the algorithms are able to detect the indications of the quantitative quality indicators and the cracks precisely.

  7. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  8. The effect of a twin tunnel on the propagation of ground-borne vibration from an underground railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate predictions of ground-borne vibration levels in the vicinity of an underground railway are greatly sought after in modern urban centres. Yet the complexity involved in simulating the underground environment means that it is necessary to make simplifying assumptions about this system. One such commonly made assumption is to ignore the effects of neighbouring tunnels, despite the fact that many underground railway lines consist of twin-bored tunnels, one for the outbound direction and one for the inbound direction. This paper presents a unique model for two tunnels embedded in a homogeneous, elastic fullspace. Each of these tunnels is subject to both known, dynamic train forces and dynamic cavity forces. The net forces acting on the tunnels are written as the sum of those tractions acting on the invert of a single tunnel, and those tractions that represent the motion induced by the neighbouring tunnel. By apportioning the tractions in this way, the vibration response of a two-tunnel system is written as a linear combination of displacement fields produced by a single-tunnel system. Using Fourier decomposition, forces are partitioned into symmetric and antisymmetric modenumber components to minimise computation times. The significance of the interactions between two tunnels is quantified by calculating the insertion gains, in both the vertical and horizontal directions, that result from the existence of a second tunnel. The insertion-gain results are shown to be localised and highly dependent on frequency, tunnel orientation and tunnel thickness. At some locations, the magnitude of these insertion gains is greater than 20 dB. This demonstrates that a high degree of inaccuracy exists in any surface vibration prediction model that includes only one of the two tunnels. This novel two-tunnel solution represents a significant contribution to the existing body of research into vibration from underground railways, as it shows that the second tunnel has a significant

  9. Some developments in community response research since the second international workshop on railway and tracked transit system noise in 1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, R. G.

    1983-03-01

    As far as human responses to railway noise are concerned, knowledge has increased considerably since the Second International Workshop on Railway and Tracked Transit System Noise was held in Lyon, France, in October 1978. Only some developments are mentioned in this article. Concerning land use planning some evidence became available that in maintaining or recovering a certain amount of well-being the concept of noise zoning deserves most attention, and that applying heavier sound insulation measures is not sufficient in solving the problem of noise annoyance. About the influence of background noise on annoyance, data from railway noise surveys are not conclusive. Whether or not habituation to noise occurs seems to be dependent on the way it has been made operational. Neither the often used self-reported habituation nor length of residence appears to have a clear relation with annoyance. Noise from shunting yards appears to be very annoying, compared with noise from through trains, road traffic and aircraft. The characteristics of the noise causing this relatively high degree of annoyance are still subject to study. "Normal" through trains cause less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft, the noise levels being equal. Some specific disturbances, however, like for instance being disturbed while watching television or having a conversation, occur at lower noise levels with railway noise than with road traffic noise.

  10. Principles of traction.

    PubMed

    Osmond, T

    1999-02-01

    Traction has been the mainstay of orthopaedic management for thousands of years, with its use recorded by the Aztecs and ancient Egyptians. In more recent times, however, the advances in surgical reductions of fractures and muscutoskeletal disruptions, coupled with the economic imperatives of reducing hospital bed stay days has seen a reduction the use of prolonged periods of traction. PMID:10205405

  11. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  12. An Analytical Design Method for a Regenerative Braking Control System for DC-electrified Railway Systems under Light Load Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tatsuhito; Kondo, Keiichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

    A DC-electrified railway system that is fed by diode rectifiers at a substation is unable to return the electric power to an AC grid. Accordingly, the braking cars have to restrict regenerative braking power when the power consumption of the powering cars is not sufficient. However, the characteristics of a DC-electrified railway system, including the powering cars, is not known, and a mathematical model for designing a controller has not been established yet. Hence, the object of this study is to obtain the mathematical model for an analytical design method of the regenerative braking control system. In the first part of this paper, the static characteristics of this system are presented to show the position of the equilibrium point. The linearization of this system at the equilibrium point is then performed to describe the dynamic characteristics of the system. An analytical design method is then proposed on the basis of these characteristics. The proposed design method is verified by experimental tests with a 1kW class miniature model, and numerical simulations.

  13. Multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS) for dynamic high-accuracy 3D measurements of railway tunnels.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dong; Yu, Long; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Tanglong

    2015-01-01

    Railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel 3D clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV) of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on dynamic railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS). First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results. PMID:25875190

  14. The design and validation of an optical coherence tomography-based classification system for focal vitreomacular traction.

    PubMed

    Steel, D H W; Downey, L; Greiner, K; Heimann, H; Jackson, T L; Koshy, Z; Laidlaw, D A H; Wickham, L; Yang, Y

    2016-02-01

    PurposeTo develop and validate a classification system for focal vitreomacular traction (VMT) with and without macular hole based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), intended to aid in decision-making and prognostication.MethodsA panel of retinal specialists convened to develop this system. A literature review followed by discussion on a wide range of cases formed the basis for the proposed classification. Key features on OCT were identified and analysed for their utility in clinical practice. A final classification was devised based on two sequential, independent validation exercises to improve interobserver variability.ResultsThis classification tool pertains to idiopathic focal VMT assessed by a horizontal line scan using SD-OCT. The system uses width (W), interface features (I), foveal shape (S), retinal pigment epithelial changes (P), elevation of vitreous attachment (E), and inner and outer retinal changes (R) to give the acronym WISPERR. Each category is scored hierarchically. Results from the second independent validation exercise indicated a high level of agreement between graders: intraclass correlation ranged from 0.84 to 0.99 for continuous variables and Fleiss' kappa values ranged from 0.76 to 0.95 for categorical variables.ConclusionsWe present an OCT-based classification system for focal VMT that allows anatomical detail to be scrutinised and scored qualitatively and quantitatively using a simple, pragmatic algorithm, which may be of value in clinical practice as well as in future research studies. PMID:26768921

  15. A Multiobjective Optimal Design of a Hybrid Power Source System for a Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Wakao, Shinji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    In this paper, we study an optimal design for a hybrid power source railway vehicle as an alternative to diesel railway vehicles. The hybrid power source railway vehicle is assumed to be composed of the fuel cell and the electric double layer capacitor. We apply the multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm for the vehicle design, aiming at reduction of both initial cost and energy consumption. The pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the multiobjective optimization. First we develop a simulation model of the hybrid power source railway vehicle and its electric power control methods. Next we derive the pareto optimal solutions as a result of the multiobjective optimization. Finally, we categorize the pareto optimal solutions to some groups, which enables us to elucidate characteristics of the pareto optimal solutions. Consequently, using the multiobjective optimization approach we effectively comprehend the problem characteristics and can obtain the plural valuable solutions.

  16. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities. PMID:27018939

  17. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, M.; Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed.

  18. A novel fuzzy logic correctional algorithm for traction control systems on uneven low-friction road conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Ran, Xu; Wu, Kaihui; Song, Jian; Han, Zongqi

    2015-06-01

    The traction control system (TCS) might prevent excessive skid of the driving wheels so as to enhance the driving performance and direction stability of the vehicle. But if driven on an uneven low-friction road, the vehicle body often vibrates severely due to the drastic fluctuations of driving wheels, and then the vehicle comfort might be reduced greatly. The vibrations could be hardly removed with traditional drive-slip control logic of the TCS. In this paper, a novel fuzzy logic controller has been brought forward, in which the vibration signals of the driving wheels are adopted as new controlled variables, and then the engine torque and the active brake pressure might be coordinately re-adjusted besides the basic logic of a traditional TCS. In the proposed controller, an adjustable engine torque and pressure compensation loop are adopted to constrain the drastic vehicle vibration. Thus, the wheel driving slips and the vibration degrees might be adjusted synchronously and effectively. The simulation results and the real vehicle tests validated that the proposed algorithm is effective and adaptable for a complicated uneven low-friction road.

  19. Diagnostic System Based on the Human AUDITORY-BRAIN Model for Measuring Environmental NOISE—AN Application to Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAKAI, H.; HOTEHAMA, T.; ANDO, Y.; PRODI, N.; POMPOLI, R.

    2002-02-01

    Measurements of railway noise were conducted by use of a diagnostic system of regional environmental noise. The system is based on the model of the human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the interplay of autocorrelators and an interaural crosscorrelator acting on the pressure signals arriving at the ear entrances, and takes into account the specialization of left and right human cerebral hemispheres. Different kinds of railway noise were measured through binaural microphones of a dummy head. To characterize the railway noise, physical factors, extracted from the autocorrelation functions (ACF) and interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) of binaural signals, were used. The factors extracted from ACF were (1) energy represented at the origin of the delay, Φ (0), (2) effective duration of the envelope of the normalized ACF, τe, (3) the delay time of the first peak, τ1, and (4) its amplitude,ø1 . The factors extracted from IACF were (5) IACC, (6) interaural delay time at which the IACC is defined, τIACC, and (7) width of the IACF at the τIACC,WIACC . The factor Φ (0) can be represented as a geometrical mean of energies at both ears as listening level, LL.

  20. An analysis of traction drive torsional stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    The tangential compliance of elastic bodies in concentrated contact applied to traction drive elements to determine their torsional stiffness was analyzed. Static loading and rotating conditions are considered. The effects of several design variables are shown. The theoretical torsional stiffness of a fixed ratio multiroller drive is computed and compared to experimental values. It is shown that the torsional compliance of the traction contacts themselves is a relatively small portion of the overall drive system compliance.

  1. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. PMID:25956609

  2. Regression analysis of traction characteristics of traction fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction data for Santotrac 50 and TDF-88 over a wide range of operating conditions were analyzed. An eight term correlation equation to predict the maximum traction coefficient and a six term correlation equation to predict the initial slope of the traction curve were developed. The slope correlation was corrected for size effect considering the compliance of the disks. The effects of different operating conditions on the traction performance of each traction fluid were studied. Both fluids exhibited a loss in traction with increases in spin, but the losses with the TDF-88 fluid were not as severe as those with Santotrac 50. Overall, both fluids exhibited similar performance, showing an increase in traction with contact pressure up to about 2.0 GPa, and a reduction in traction with higher surface speeds up to about 100 m/sec. The apparent stiffness of the traction contact, that is, film disk combination, increases with contact pressure and decreases with speed.

  3. Home cervical traction: evaluation of alternate equipment.

    PubMed

    Waylonis, G W; Tootle, D; Denhart, C; Pope Grattan, M M; Wapenski, J A

    1982-08-01

    Overhead intermittent cervical traction is often utilized to control the symptoms of cervical radiculopathy associated with osteoarthritis. The long-term home use of presently available counterweight systems has often presented problems including: (1) lack of patient compliance, (2) difficulty with application by elderly or debilitated patients, (3) tensing of both the cervical paraspinalis and upper extremity muscles while maneuvering the counterweights, and (4) discomfort while using the device. A prototype home pneumatic traction device was developed, which has many of the advantages of the expensive hydraulic units in common use in physical therapy departments. The initial favorable responses of 17 patients led to the development of a prototype commercial unit in cooperation with the Jobst Company. Of 36 patients who used the pneumatic traction device at home, 29 (81%) preferred it to the conventional counterweight system. Typical reasons were that it was easier to use, more "workable" and provided a steadier pull with more gradual onset of traction. Disadvantages most commonly mentioned were minor air pressure loss in the hand pump model and the complexity of the unit. The most rational approach to the use of these new pneumatic devices would be to initiate a home traction program using conventional counterweight units and then to switch to the pneumatic unit for long-term patients or those who are unable to apply conventional traction systems unassisted. PMID:7115034

  4. Determining damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire system for finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dong; Zhang, Wei Hua; Li, Rui Ping; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Gui Ming

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire systems, we propose herein an approach based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and two existing formulas concerning Rayleigh damping coefficients (RDCs). In the proposed process, the displacement histories of a real catenary are first obtained by using a set of noncontact photogrammetric devices, following which an exclusive catenary damping ratio related to the first dominant modal component in the catenary response is identified through a complex Morlet CWT. Thereafter, iterative finite-element analysis is conducted to find the optimal RDCs, which involves using two related formulas and the similarity between the catenary displacements obtained by simulation and experimentation. The results of our study demonstrate that this combined approach is constructive, especially for structures with closely spaced modes, such as catenaries. For the case studied herein, the catenary modal damping ratio at 1.19 Hz is approximately 1%, and the mass and stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping coefficients are approximately 0.02845 and 0.00274, respectively.

  5. Control system with magnetorheological fluid device for mitigation of the railway vehicle hunting oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiasu, D.; Ghita, G.; Sebesan, I.

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the opportunity of using a magnetorheological device to control the lateral oscillations of a passenger railway vehicle to increase its comfort and speed features. High speed generates large amplitude oscillations in horizontal plan at the axles, bogies and carbody levels which beyond a specific value - the critical speed - leads to unstable movement of the vehicle. The lateral dynamics of the vehicle is simulated using the multibody method. It is build a model with 17 degrees of freedom considering the lateral, yawing and rolling oscillations. An original device with magnetorheological fluid based on the balance logic strategy to control the anti-yaw damper is integrated in the secondary suspension of the railway vehicle. The conception and the design of the magnetorheological device are presented. It is demonstrated that the magnetorheological semi-active suspension improves the safety and the comfort of the railway vehicle.

  6. Mobile Laser Scanning Systems for Measuring the Clearance Gauge of Railways: State of Play, Testing and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Mikrut, Sławomir; Kohut, Piotr; Pyka, Krystian; Tokarczyk, Regina; Barszcz, Tomasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains a survey of mobile scanning systems for measuring the railway clearance gauge. The research was completed as part of the project carried out for the PKP (PKP Polish Railway Lines S.A., Warsaw, Poland) in 2011–2013. The authors conducted experiments, including a search for the latest solutions relating to mobile measurement systems that meet the basic requirement. At the very least, these solutions needed to be accurate and have the ability for quick retrieval of data. In the paper, specifications and the characteristics of the component devices of the scanning systems are described. Based on experiments, the authors did some examination of the selected mobile systems to be applied for measuring the clearance gauge. The Riegl (VMX-250) and Z+F (Zoller + Fröhlich) Solution were tested. Additional test measurements were carried out within a 30-kilometer section of the Warsaw-Kraków route. These measurements were designed so as to provide various elements of the railway infrastructure, the track geometry and the installed geodetic control network. This ultimately made it possible to reduce the time for the preparation of geodetic reference measurements for the testing of the accuracy of the selected systems. Reference measurements included the use of the polar method to select profiles perpendicular to the axis of the track. In addition, the coordinates selected were well defined as measuring points of the objects of the infrastructure of the clearance gauge. All of the tested systems meet the accuracy requirements initially established (within the range of 2 cm as required by the PKP). The tested systems have shown their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27187400

  7. Mobile Laser Scanning Systems for Measuring the Clearance Gauge of Railways: State of Play, Testing and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Mikrut, Sławomir; Kohut, Piotr; Pyka, Krystian; Tokarczyk, Regina; Barszcz, Tomasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains a survey of mobile scanning systems for measuring the railway clearance gauge. The research was completed as part of the project carried out for the PKP (PKP Polish Railway Lines S.A., Warsaw, Poland) in 2011-2013. The authors conducted experiments, including a search for the latest solutions relating to mobile measurement systems that meet the basic requirement. At the very least, these solutions needed to be accurate and have the ability for quick retrieval of data. In the paper, specifications and the characteristics of the component devices of the scanning systems are described. Based on experiments, the authors did some examination of the selected mobile systems to be applied for measuring the clearance gauge. The Riegl (VMX-250) and Z+F (Zoller + Fröhlich) Solution were tested. Additional test measurements were carried out within a 30-kilometer section of the Warsaw-Kraków route. These measurements were designed so as to provide various elements of the railway infrastructure, the track geometry and the installed geodetic control network. This ultimately made it possible to reduce the time for the preparation of geodetic reference measurements for the testing of the accuracy of the selected systems. Reference measurements included the use of the polar method to select profiles perpendicular to the axis of the track. In addition, the coordinates selected were well defined as measuring points of the objects of the infrastructure of the clearance gauge. All of the tested systems meet the accuracy requirements initially established (within the range of 2 cm as required by the PKP). The tested systems have shown their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27187400

  8. Traction Drives for Zero Stick-Slip Robots, and Reaction Free, Momentum Balanced Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William; Newman, Wyatt

    1995-01-01

    Two differential (dual input, single output) drives (a roller-gear and a pure roller), and a momentum balanced (single input, dual output) drive (pure roller ) were designed, fabricated, and tested. The differential drives are each rated at 295 rad/sec (2800 rpm) input speed, 450 N-m (4,000 in-lbf) output torque. The momentum balanced drive is rated at 302 rad/sec (2880 rpm) input speed, and dual output torques of 434N-m (3840 in-lbf). The Dual Input Differential Roller-Gear Drive (DC-700) has a planetary roller-gear system with a reduction ratio (one input driving the output with the second input fixed) of 29.23: 1. The Dual Input Differential Roller Drive (DC-500) has a planetary roller system with a reduction ratio of approximately 24:1. Each of the differential drives features dual roller-gear or roller arrangements consisting of a sun, four first row planets, four second row planets, and a ring. The Momentum Balanced (Grounded Ring) Drive (DC-400) has a planetary roller system with a reduction ratio of 24:1 with both outputs counterrotating at equal speed. Its single roller cluster consists of a sun, five first and five second row planets, a roller cage or spider and a ring. Outputs are taken from both the roller cage and the ring which counterrotate. Test results reported for all three drives include angular and torque ripple (linearity and cogging), viscous and Coulomb friction, and forward and reverse power efficiency. Of the two differential drives, the Differential Roller Drive had better linearity and less cogging than did the Differential Roller-Gear Drive, but it had higher friction and lower efficiency (particularly at low power throughput levels). Use of full preloading rather than a variable preload system in the Differential Roller Drive assessed a heavy penalty in part load efficiency. Maximum measured efficiency (ratio of power out to power in) was 95% for the Differential Roller-Gear Drive and 86% for the Differential Roller Drive. The Momentum

  9. Dynamics of aircraft antiskid braking systems. [conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Dreher, R. C.; Smith, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    A computer study was performed to assess the accuracy of three brake pressure-torque mathematical models. The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The investigation indicates that the performance of aircraft antiskid braking systems is strongly influenced by tire characteristics, dynamic response of the antiskid control valve, and pressure-torque response of the brake. The computer study employed an average torque error criterion to assess the accuracy of the models. The results indicate that a variable nonlinear spring with hysteresis memory function models the pressure-torque response of the brake more accurately than currently used models.

  10. Simplified fatigue life analysis for traction drive contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified fatigue life analysis for traction drive contacts of arbitrary geometry is presented. The analysis is based on the Lundberg-Palmgren theory used for rolling-element bearings. The effects of torque, element size, speed, contact ellipse ratio, and the influence of traction coefficient are shown. The analysis shows that within the limits of the available traction coefficient, traction contacts exhibit longest life at high speeds. Multiple, load-sharing roller arrangements have an advantageous effect on system life, torque capacity, power-to-weight ratio and size.

  11. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component’s purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  12. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component's purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  13. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  14. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  15. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, L. M. Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  16. Traction calculations and design data for two traction fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological properties of the fluid under these certain conditions which precludes the use of most of the conventional instruments for steady state measurement were studied. The only suitable type of instrument is a disk machine where most of the conditions are the same of similar to those in traction drives. From the resulting traction tests, certain models are inferred. To the designer of traction drives, the traction behavior of the fluid under the severe conditions is of utmost importance because of the direct influence that it has on the efficiency, size, and life of a given drive.

  17. Patchy Traction Alopecia Mimicking Areata

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Aline Blanco; Donati, Aline; Valente, Neusa S; Romiti, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Acute traction alopecia is a diagnostic challenge when the external factor is not suspected or admitted. We report two female patients with non-scarring patchy alopecia resulting from traction of video-electroencephalogram electrodes in which the clinical diagnosis of alopecia areata was suspected. Associated diffuse hair disorders might be implicated in these cases. The correct diagnosis of traction alopecia is important in order to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:26903751

  18. Advances in traction drive technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  19. In situ health monitoring for bogie systems of CRH380 train on Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Qiang; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li

    2014-04-01

    Based on the authors' research efforts over the years, an in situ structural health monitoring (SHM) technique taking advantage of guided elastic waves has been developed and deployed via an online diagnosis system. The technique and the system were recently implemented on China's latest high-speed train (CRH380CL) operated on Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The system incorporated modularized components including active sensor network, active wave generation, multi-channel data acquisition, signal processing, data fusion, and results presentation. The sensor network, inspired by a new concept—"decentralized standard sensing", was integrated into the bogie frames during the final assembly of CRH380CL, to generate and acquire bogie-guided ultrasonic waves, from which a wide array of signal features were extracted. Fusion of signal features through a diagnostic imaging algorithm led to a graphic illustration of the overall health state of the bogie in a real-time and intuitive manner. The in situ experimentation covered a variety of high-speed train operation events including startup, acceleration/deceleration, full-speed operation (300 km/h), emergency braking, track change, as well as full stop. Mock-up damage affixed to the bogie was identified quantitatively and visualized in images. This in situ testing has demonstrated the feasibility, effectiveness, sensitivity, and reliability of the developed SHM technique and the system towards real-world applications.

  20. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 15 to September 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. 14 refs.

  1. A clamping force measurement system for monitoring the condition of bolted joints on railway track joints and points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfa, B.; Horler, G.; Thobiani, F. Al; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    Many industrial structures associated with railway infrastructures rely on a large number of bolted joint connections to ensure safe and reliable operation of the track and trackside furniture. Significant sums of money are spent annually to repair the damage caused by bolt failures and to maintain the integrity of bolted structures. In the UK, Network Rail (the organization responsible for rail network maintenance and safety) conducts corrective and preventive maintenance manually on 26,000 sets of points (each having approximately 30 bolted joints per set), in order to ensure operational success and safety for the travelling public. Such manual maintenance is costly, disruptive, unreliable and prone to human error. The aim of this work is to provide a means of automatically measuring the clamping force of each individual bolted joint, by means of an instrumented washer. This paper describes the development of a sensor means to be used in the washer, which satisfies the following criteria. Sense changes in the clamping force of the joint and report this fact. Provide compatibility with the large dynamic range of clamping force. Satisfy the limitations in terms of physical size. Provide the means to electronically interface with the washer. Provide a means of powering the washer in situ. Provide a solution at an acceptable cost. Specifically the paper focuses on requirements 1, 2 and 3 and presents the results that support further development of the proposed design and the realization of a pre-prototype system. In the paper, various options for the force sensing element (strain gage, capacitor, piezo-resistive) have been compared, using design optimization techniques. As a result of the evaluation, piezo-resistive sensors in concert with a proprietary force attenuation method, have been found to offer the best performance and cost trade-off The performance of the novel clamping force sensor has been evaluated experimentally and the results show that a smart washer

  2. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention". PMID:24989806

  3. A local active noise control system based on a virtual-microphone technique for railway sleeping vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J.; Egaña, J. M.; Viñolas, J.

    2006-11-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated on a railway vehicle by the wheel-rail interaction could be a big annoyance for passengers in sleeping cars. Low-frequency acoustic radiation is extremely difficult to attenuate by using passive devices. In this article, an active noise control (ANC) technique has been proposed for this purpose. A three-dimensional cabin was built in the laboratory to carry out the experiments. The proposed scheme is based on a Filtered-X Least Mean Square (FXLMS) control algorithm, particularised for a virtual-microphone technique. Control algorithms were designed with the Matlab-Simulink tool, and the Real Time Windows Target toolbox of Matlab was used to run in real time the ANC system. Referring to the results, different simulations and experimental performances were analysed to enlarge the silence zone around the passenger's ear zone and along the bed headboard. Attenuations of up to 20 and 15 dB(A) (re:20 μPa) were achieved at the passenger's ear in simulations and in experimental results, respectively.

  4. THE CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE SYSTEM THAT UTILIZES TECHINICAL PROPOSALS IN THE IMPROVEMENT CONSTRUCTION OF THE RAILWAY STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yutaka

    JR East has been made start as a new railway company in line with the reform policy of the Japan national railway in 1987. Along with it, JR have beam required the management emphasizing on the efficiency and quickness as a private enterprise. On the other hand, construction companies have remarkably made progress on the construction technology in recent years. Under the circumstance, we tried to establish the construction cost estimates of the railway improvements utilizing the technical proposals based on high technologies by innovative construction companies. In conclusion, we obtained a construction cost reduction and process speeded by the number of technical proposals and we also had acquired the effect of quality and efficiency in the construction cost estimates.

  5. Dynamics of railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwnicki, S. D.; Stichel, S.; Orlova, A.; Hecht, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper summarises the historical development of railway freight vehicles and how vehicle designers have tackled the difficult challenges of producing running gear which can accommodate the very high tare to laden mass of typical freight wagons whilst maintaining stable running at the maximum required speed and good curving performance. The most common current freight bogies are described in detail and recent improvements in techniques used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles are summarised and examples of how these have been used to improve freight vehicle dynamic behaviour are included. A number of recent developments and innovative components and sub systems are outlined and finally two new developments are presented in more detail: the LEILA bogie and the SUSTRAIL bogie.

  6. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  7. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm) and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air. PMID:25872016

  8. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-08-06

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts.

  9. Super-Resolved Traction Force Microscopy (STFM)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Measuring small forces is a major challenge in cell biology. Here we improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of force reconstruction of the well-established technique of traction force microscopy (TFM) using STED microscopy. The increased spatial resolution of STED-TFM (STFM) allows a greater than 5-fold higher sampling of the forces generated by the cell than conventional TFM, accessing the nano instead of the micron scale. This improvement is highlighted by computer simulations and an activating RBL cell model system. PMID:26923775

  10. Super-Resolved Traction Force Microscopy (STFM).

    PubMed

    Colin-York, Huw; Shrestha, Dilip; Felce, James H; Waithe, Dominic; Moeendarbary, Emad; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Fritzsche, Marco

    2016-04-13

    Measuring small forces is a major challenge in cell biology. Here we improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of force reconstruction of the well-established technique of traction force microscopy (TFM) using STED microscopy. The increased spatial resolution of STED-TFM (STFM) allows a greater than 5-fold higher sampling of the forces generated by the cell than conventional TFM, accessing the nano instead of the micron scale. This improvement is highlighted by computer simulations and an activating RBL cell model system. PMID:26923775

  11. Traction contact performance evaluation at high speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of traction tests performed on two fluids are presented. These tests covered a pressure range of 1.0 to 2.5 GPa, an inlet temperature range of 30 'C to 70 'C, a speed range of 10 to 80 m/sec, aspect ratios of .5 to 5 and spin from 0 to 2.1 percent. The test results are presented in the form of two dimensionless parameters, the initial traction slope and the maximum traction peak. With the use of a suitable rheological fluid model the actual traction curves measured can now be reconstituted from the two fluid parameters. More importantly, the knowledge of these parameters together with the fluid rheological model, allow the prediction of traction under conditions of spin, slip and any combination thereof. Comparison between theoretically predicted traction under these conditions and those measured in actual traction tests shows that this method gives good results.

  12. Application of traction drives as servo mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of traction drives for a wide class of aerospace control mechanisms is examined. Potential applications include antenna or solar array drive positioners, robotic joints, control moment gyro (CMG) actuators and propeller pitch change mechanisms. In these and similar applications the zero backlash, high torsional stiffness, low hysteresis and torque ripple characteristics of traction drives are of particular interest, as is the ability to run without liquid lubrication in certain cases. Wear and fatigue considerations for wet and dry operation are examined along with the tribological performance of several promising self lubricating polymers for traction contracts. The speed regulation capabilities of variable ratio traction drives are reviewed. A torsional stiffness analysis described suggests that traction contacts are relatively stiff compared to gears and are significantly stiffer than the other structural elements in the prototype CMG traction drive analyzed. Discussion is also given of an advanced turboprop propeller pitch change mechanism that incorporates a traction drive.

  13. Embedded security system for multi-modal surveillance in a railway carriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaoui, Rhalem; Audigier, Romaric; Ambellouis, Sébastien; Capman, François; Benhadda, Hamid; Joudrier, Stéphanie; Sodoyer, David; Lamarque, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Public transport security is one of the main priorities of the public authorities when fighting against crime and terrorism. In this context, there is a great demand for autonomous systems able to detect abnormal events such as violent acts aboard passenger cars and intrusions when the train is parked at the depot. To this end, we present an innovative approach which aims at providing efficient automatic event detection by fusing video and audio analytics and reducing the false alarm rate compared to classical stand-alone video detection. The multi-modal system is composed of two microphones and one camera and integrates onboard video and audio analytics and fusion capabilities. On the one hand, for detecting intrusion, the system relies on the fusion of "unusual" audio events detection with intrusion detections from video processing. The audio analysis consists in modeling the normal ambience and detecting deviation from the trained models during testing. This unsupervised approach is based on clustering of automatically extracted segments of acoustic features and statistical Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) modeling of each cluster. The intrusion detection is based on the three-dimensional (3D) detection and tracking of individuals in the videos. On the other hand, for violent events detection, the system fuses unsupervised and supervised audio algorithms with video event detection. The supervised audio technique detects specific events such as shouts. A GMM is used to catch the formant structure of a shout signal. Video analytics use an original approach for detecting aggressive motion by focusing on erratic motion patterns specific to violent events. As data with violent events is not easily available, a normality model with structured motions from non-violent videos is learned for one-class classification. A fusion algorithm based on Dempster-Shafer's theory analyses the asynchronous detection outputs and computes the degree of belief of each probable event.

  14. Parameter Optimization and Operating Strategy of a TEG System for Railway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heghmanns, A.; Wilbrecht, S.; Beitelschmidt, M.; Geradts, K.

    2016-03-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) system demonstrator for diesel electric locomotives with the objective of reducing the mechanical load on the thermoelectric modules (TEM) is developed and constructed to validate a one-dimensional thermo-fluid flow simulation model. The model is in good agreement with the measurements and basis for the optimization of the TEG's geometry by a genetic multi objective algorithm. The best solution has a maximum power output of approx. 2.7 kW and does not exceed the maximum back pressure of the diesel engine nor the maximum TEM hot side temperature. To maximize the reduction of the fuel consumption, an operating strategy regarding the system power output for the TEG system is developed. Finally, the potential consumption reduction in passenger and freight traffic operating modes is estimated under realistic driving conditions by means of a power train and lateral dynamics model. The fuel savings are between 0.5% and 0.7%, depending on the driving style.

  15. Modelling, validation and analysis of a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track system model with linear and nonlinear track properties in the presence of wheel flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.

  16. Traction-drive force transmission for telerobotic joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kuban, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    A mechanism which meets the requirements of a teleoperated manipulator and those of an autonomous robot is discussed. The mechanism is a traction-drive differential that uses variable preload mechanisms. The differential provides compact design, with dextrous motion range and torque density similar to geared systems. The traction drive offers high stiffness to backlash for good robotic performance. The variable-loading mechanism (VLM) minimizes the drive-train friction for improved teleoperation. This combination provides a mechanism to allow advanced manipulation with either teleoperated control or autonomous robotic operation. The design principles of both major components of the joint mechanism are described.

  17. [Wiplash injury and "railway spine"].

    PubMed

    Thomann, K D; Rauschmann, M

    2004-09-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder was only recently admitted into the international classification systems, psychological reactions to traumatic incidents have been frequently described for more than 100 years. The article deals with the mental reactions to a trauma in different historical situations. Included are the "railway spine" injuries of the 19th century, victims of accidents where third party liability could be claimed, accident insurance, the psychological consequences of National Socialism and whiplash injury. The analysis suggests that different reactions don't describe an identical disorder. It seems that reactions to injuries are mainly influenced by the historical and social background and the fact of beeing insured. PMID:15487336

  18. Life analysis of multiroller planetary traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A contact fatigue life analysis was performed for a constant ratio, Nasvytis Multiroller Traction Drive. The analysis was based on the Lundberg-Palmgren method for rolling element bearing life prediction. Life adjustment factors for materials, processing, lubrication and traction were included. The 14.7 to 1 ratio drive consisted of a single stage planetary configuration with two rows of stepped planet rollers of five rollers per row, having a roller cluster diameter of approximately 0.21 m, a width of 0.06 m and a weight of 9 kg. Drive system 10 percent life ranged from 18,800 hours at 16.6 kW (22.2 hp) and 25,000 rpm sun roller speed, to 305 hours at maximum operating conditions of 149 kw (200 hp) and 75,000 rpm sun roller speed. The effect of roller diameter and roller center location on life were determined. It was found that an optimum life geometry exists.

  19. All Aboard the Information Super...Railway!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New information technology is viewed as analogous to a railway network that serves many, in diverse areas, and leads users to new frontiers. It is suggested that higher education can contribute to this system by developing useful new applications, providing guidelines for appropriate "passenger" behavior, and enhancing quality. (MSE)

  20. Spin analysis of concentrated traction contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Spin, the result of a mismatch in contact radii on either side of the point of rolling, has a detrimental effect on traction contact performance. It occurs in concentrated contacts having conical or contoured rolling elements, such as those in traction drives or angular contact bearings, and is responsible for an increase in contact heating and power loss. The kinematics of spin producing contact geometries and the subsequent effect on traction and power loss are investigated. The influence of lubricant traction characteristics and contact geometries that minimize spin are also addressed.

  1. Development of Automatic Testing Tool for `Design & Coding Standard' for Railway Signaling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-gyu; Jo, Hyun-jeong

    2009-08-01

    In accordance with the development of recent computer technology, the dependency of railway signaling system on the computer software is being increased further, and accordingly, the testing for the safety and reliability of railway signaling system software became more important. This thesis suggested an automated testing tool for coding rules on this railway signaling system software, and presented its result of implementation. The testing items in the implemented tool had referred to the international standards in relation to the software for railway system and MISRA-C standards. This automated testing tool for railway signaling system can be utilized at the assessment stage for railway signaling system software also, and it is anticipated that it can be utilized usefully at the software development stage also.

  2. Analysis of railway track vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, K.; Yamada, M.

    1989-04-01

    Analytical formulae are developed for estimating the amplitudes of the vibrations generated in railway tracks by wheels and rail discontinuities or by unevennesses on their surfaces. Rails are assumed to be supported elastically on concrete sleepers by resilient rail-pads inserted between them. The elasticities and the masses of track materials and those of the roadbed are also taken into consideration. It is shown that after an impulse is applied to the track, not only is a vibration with a comparatively low natural frequency generated, but also traveling waves with higher frequencies, and the latter propagate lengthwise along the track or downwards into the roadbed. With the assumption that the power spectral density of the unevennesses on the rail surface is in proportion to the third power of the wavelength, or to (wavenumber) -3, the amplitudes of the vibrations in railway tracks supported by rail-pads and roadbeds with various magnitudes of elastic constants are analyzed and the values for each one-third octave band are estimated. The velocity of the vibration takes on a maximum value for the band with a center frequency of 63 Hz, which corresponds to the resonant frequency of the system composed of the wheel and the track. As the frequency increases beyond this value, the velocity of the vibration takes on a second maximum value at a frequency of about 1000 Hz. These estimates are compared with the data obtained from field measurements and reasonably good correlations are found between them.

  3. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  4. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  5. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  6. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  8. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  9. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  10. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  11. Candidate Coatings and Dry Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert; Oswald, Fred B.

    2002-01-01

    Robert Fusaro and Fred Oswald of the Mechanical Components Branch discussed 'Candidate Coatings and Dry Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicles'. Vehicles to be designed for exploration of planets and moons of the solar system will require reliable mechanical drives to operate efficiently. Long-term operation of these drives will be challenging because of extreme operating conditions. These extreme conditions include: very high and/or very cold temperatures, wide temperature ranges, dust, vacuum or low-pressure atmospheres, and corrosive environments. Most drives used on Earth involve oil-lubricated gears. However, due to the extreme conditions on planetary surfaces, it may not be advisable or even possible to use oil lubrication. Unfortunately, solid lubricants do not work well when applied to gears because of the high contact stress conditions and large sliding motion between the teeth, which cause wear and limit life. We believe traction drives will provide an attractive alternative to gear drives. Traction drives are composed of rollers that provide geometry more conducive to solid lubrication. Minimal slip occurs in this contact geometry and thus there is very low wear to the solid lubricant. The challenge for these solid-lubricated drives is finding materials or coatings that provide the required long-life while also providing high traction. We seek materials that provide low wear with high friction.

  12. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  13. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphaël; Joanny, Jean-François; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Cécile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  14. Recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome, epineural fibrous fixation, and traction neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1991-08-01

    This article has reviewed recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome, epineural fibrous fixation, and traction neuropathy of the median nerve. The problems surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent CTS have been discussed at length. The percent of failures from traditional open ligament surgery is observed to be high, and will become more prevalent as more casual treatments are carried out. This article makes a positive statement with reference to mobilization of the median nerve and anatomic restoration of the transverse carpal ligament. Fibrous fixation of the median nerve is a product of life and function. All cases are different, reflecting the strength, abilities, and personalities of the patients. A bottom line is drawn on these patients, where the summation of the problems of life become symptomatic and disabling. Epineural fibrous fixations induce median nerve traction, governed by hand, wrist, and forearm movements. Traction and tension suggest the intermittent disturbance of nerve nutrition and nerve conduction as the elastic limits of the nerve are approached. These factors accumulate and, in time, cause traction neuropathies with pain. This is followed by a reduced work capability. This impairment can be reversed by surgical nerve mobilization followed by functional nerve gliding therapy. A background history injury to the hand and wrist may be significant, as well as factors such as overuse and misuse of the hand and extremity. Prior to surgery, the careful application of diagnostic stress tests are essential, for the differential diagnosis of fixation traction and positional peripheral neuropathies. Nerve mobilization supported by magnification and the techniques of hand surgery has been successful by the methods discussed and has permitted, importantly, the restoration of the anatomic retinaculum for the flexor tendon system. This can be restored in carpal tunnel surgery and reconstructed with basic ligament material in recurrent carpal tunnel

  15. Modelling Of Random Vertical Irregularities Of Railway Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podwórna, M.

    2015-08-01

    The study presents state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modelling of random vertical irregularities of continuously welded ballasted railway tracks. The common model of railway track irregularity vertical profiles is applied, in the form of a stationary and ergodic Gaussian process in space. Random samples of track irregularity vertical profiles are generated with the Monte-Carlo method. Based on the numerical method developed in the study, the minimum and recommended sampling number required in the random analysis of railway bridges and number of frequency increments (harmonic components) in track irregularity vertical profiles simulation are determined. The lower and upper limits of wavelengths are determined based on the literature studies. The approach yields track irregularity random samples close to reality. The track irregularity model developed in the study can be used in the dynamic analysis of railway bridge / track structure / highspeed train systems.

  16. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  17. Community response to railway noise: A review of social surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, U.

    1988-01-01

    The many studies on the effects of railway noise on the neighbourhood differ greatly in their design, acoustic and sociological measurement and in their evaluation methods. As the influence of these factors on the sometimes differing results is not quantifiable, only qualitative results can be summarized and commented on. There are only a few studies with special emphasis on the effects of shunting yards, high-speed trains and urban train systems, and therefore only the results concerning free-flow railway traffic are summarized. The LAeq measured outside was shown in almost all the studies to be the most suitable for predicting general annoyance and most of the disturbance reactions compared with other acoustic data, e.g., peak level, pass-by frequency, etc. It is not possible to deduce from the studies in question a limiting value beyond which railway noise is no longer tolerable. Compared to other areas of interference, it is generally agreed that railway noise is at its most annoying in the area of communication. Sleep interference, on the other hand, was only seldomly mentioned and was not considered to be so serious. In addition to the noise level, non-acoustic factors such as attitude towards the railway, neighbourhood environment, etc., obviously considerably affect the annoyance reaction to railway noise too. The question of habituation to railway noise cannot be conclusively answered from the studies analyzed. At the same LAeq, railway noise gives rise to less annoyance than does road-traffic noise. These differences vary according to whether the reference time is day or night, the noise level range is high or low, and according to which annoyance and disturbance reaction is considered.

  18. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  19. The Effects of Shoe Traction and Obstacle Height on Lower Extremity Coordination Dynamics during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Leslie; Houser, Jeremy J.; Noble, John M.; Karst, Gregory M.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of shoe traction and obstacle height on lower extremity relative phase dynamics (analysis of intralimb coordination) during walking to better understand the mechanisms employed to avoid slippage following obstacle clearance. Ten participants walked at a self-selected pace during eight conditions: four obstacle heights (0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% of limb length) while wearing two pairs of shoes (low and high traction). A coordination analysis was used and phasing relationships between lower extremity segments were examined. The results demonstrated that significant behavioral changes were elicited under varied obstacle heights and frictional conditions. Both decreasing shoe traction and increasing obstacle height resulted in a more in-phase relationship between the interacting lower limb segments. The higher the obstacle and the lower the shoe traction, the more unstable the system became. These changes in phasing relationship and variability are indicators of alterations in coordinative behavior, which if pushed further may have lead to falling. PMID:19187929

  20. Cyclic traction machine for long-term culture of fibroblast-populated collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Langelier, E; Rancourt, D; Bouchard, S; Lord, C; Stevens, P P; Germain, L; Auger, F A

    1999-01-01

    Our research group has been investigating the effect of cyclic deformations on the evolution of fibroblast populated collagen gels (FPCG). Since existing traction machines are not designed for such an application, we had to design a cyclic traction machine adapted to tissue culture inside an incubator over an extended period of time. Biocompatible materials were used for fabrication to allow for easy sterilization and to prevent any adverse reaction from the tissue. The traction machine is based on a computer-controlled stepping motor system for easy adjustment of the deformation amplitude and frequency. The maximum stretching speed achieved is around 1 mm/s. The traction machine can measure FPCG mechanical properties and perform rupture tests to determine its ultimate strength. Several FPCGs have been successfully cultured with the machine for up to four weeks without any adverse reaction. PMID:9916762

  1. Influence of uneven rail irregularities on the dynamic response of the railway track using a three-dimensional model of the vehicle-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi, Meysam; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Esmaeili, Morteza; Shadfar, Morad

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the vehicle-track interaction is developed to investigate the coupled behaviour of vehicle-track system, in the presence of uneven irregularities at left/right rails. The railway vehicle is simplified as a 3D multi-rigid-body model, and the track is treated as the two parallel beams on a layered discrete support system. Besides the car-body, the bogies and the wheel sets, the sleepers are assumed to have roll degree of freedom, in order to simulate the in-plane rotation of the components. The wheel-rail interface is treated using a nonlinear Hertzian contact model, coupling the mathematical equations of the vehicle-track systems. The dynamic interaction of the entire system is numerically studied in time domain, employing Newmark's integration method. The track irregularity spectra of both the left/right rails are taken into account, as the inputs of dynamic excitations. The dynamic responses of the track system induced by such irregularities are obtained, particularly in terms of the vertical (bounce) and roll displacements. The numerical model of the present research is validated using several benchmark models reported in the literature, for both the smooth and unsmooth track conditions. Four sample profiles of the measured rail irregularities are considered as the case studies of excitation sources, examining their influences on the dynamic behaviour of the coupled system. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the motion of track system is significantly influenced by the presence of uneven irregularities in left/right rails. Dynamic response of the sleepers in the roll direction becomes more sensitive to the rail irregularities, as the unevenness severity of the parallel profiles (quantitative difference between left and right rail spectra) is increased. The severe geometric deformation of the track in the bounce-pitch-roll directions is mainly related to such profile unevenness (cross-level) in left/right rails.

  2. Galileo Safety-of-Life Service Utilization for Railway Non-Safety and Safety Critical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocek, Hynek; Filip, Aleš; Bazant, Lubor

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo is expected to play an essential role in railway transport with view to reduce operational, investment and maintenance costs. However, quality requirements of the GNSS originate mainly from the aviation suggestions. Different safety philosophies used in aviation domain and in railway signaling complicate direct employment of the GNSS quality measures to the railway telematic applications. The objective of this paper is to outline the conception of railway requirements specification for the GNSS in order to cover a large amount of the appropriate applications in the non-safety and safety related domains. The elaborated methodology enables to provide specification of minimal quantitative requirements for GNSS system by means of railway attributes RAMS. This process generally represents contribution for GNSS system certification, when it is necessary to demonstrate that the GNSS system meets requirements, and the system outputs are correct. In the second level, certification of the specific GNSS application must follow subsequently.

  3. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable "resting" or "traction" performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction. PMID:26957767

  4. Microglia mechanics: immune activation alters traction forces and durotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Lars; Koser, David E.; Shahapure, Rajesh; Gautier, Hélène O. B.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Gather, Malte C.; Ulbricht, Elke; Franze, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are key players in the primary immune response of the central nervous system. They are highly active and motile cells that chemically and mechanically interact with their environment. While the impact of chemical signaling on microglia function has been studied in much detail, the current understanding of mechanical signaling is very limited. When cultured on compliant substrates, primary microglial cells adapted their spread area, morphology, and actin cytoskeleton to the stiffness of their environment. Traction force microscopy revealed that forces exerted by microglia increase with substrate stiffness until reaching a plateau at a shear modulus of ~5 kPa. When cultured on substrates incorporating stiffness gradients, microglia preferentially migrated toward stiffer regions, a process termed durotaxis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune-activation of microglia led to changes in traction forces, increased migration velocities and an amplification of durotaxis. We finally developed a mathematical model connecting traction forces with the durotactic behavior of migrating microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that microglia are susceptible to mechanical signals, which could be important during central nervous system development and pathologies. Stiffness gradients in tissue surrounding neural implants such as electrodes, for example, could mechanically attract microglial cells, thus facilitating foreign body reactions detrimental to electrode functioning. PMID:26441534

  5. Design study of toroidal traction CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Kraus, J.; Bell, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An existing computer simulation program was modified and used to compare the performance of five CVT design configurations. Based on this analysis, a dual-cavity full-toroidal drive with regenerative gearing is selected for the CVT design configuration. Three areas are identified that will require some technological development: the ratio control system, the traction fluid properities, and evaluation of the traction contact performance. Finally, the suitability of the selected CVT design concept for alternate electric and hybrid vehicle applications and alternate vehicle sizes and maximum output torques is determined. In all cases the toroidal traction drive design concept is applicable to the vehicle system. The regenerative gearing could be eliminated in the electric powered vehicle because of the reduced ratio range requirements. In other cases the CVT with regenerative gearing would meet the design requirements after appropriate adjustments in size and reduction gearing ratio.

  6. Rolling, slip and traction measurements on low modulus materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Traction and wear tests were performed on six low modulus materials (LMM). Three different traction tests were performed to determine the suitability of the material for use as traction rollers. These were the rolling, slip and endurance traction tests. For each material the combination LMM on LMM and LMM on steel were evaluated. Rolling traction test were conducted to determine the load - velocity limits, the rolling traction coefficient of the materials and to establish the type of failures that would result when loading beyond the limit. It was found that in general a simple constant rolling traction coefficient was enough to describe the results of all the test. The slip traction tests revealed that the peak traction coefficients were considerably higher than for lubricated traction contacts. The endurance traction tests were performed to establish the durability of the LMM under conditions of prolonged traction. Wear measurements were performed during and after the test. Energetic wear rates were determined from the wear measurements conducted in the endurance traction tests. These values show that the roller wear is not severe when reasonable levels of traction are transmitted.

  7. Rotational equations usable for railway wheelsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Jean-Pierre; Marquis, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The Euler equation is a correct way for writing rotational moments of solids. But it is simple only if written in rotating frames. Applying it to railway wheelsets is difficult because it necessitates using the Euler angles, or Euler parameters, combined to rotation matrices or, numerically more stable, quaternions. Euler angles can be avoided in railway specific codes, by writing dynamical equations in track frames. However, academic literature [Landau LD, Lifshitz EM. Mechanics (Institute of Physical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Vol. 1, Course of theoretical physics. 21st English ed. Oxford (UK): Elsevier; 1960; Shabana AA, Zaazaa KE, Sugiyama H. Railroad vehicle dynamics. CRC Press; 2008.] does not provide simple solutions as to how properly writing equations of gyroscopic moments in no rotating frames. This paper describes how it is possible, owing to an approximation validated for railway applications, to avoid Euler angles and rotation matrices, while correctly taking into account gyroscopic effects. Using a most severe example, emphasising gyroscopic effects, it is demonstrated that a fast specific code using the approximation provides results equivalent to those of an multi body system generalised code with no approximation.

  8. Traction characteristics of high-temperature powder-lubricated ceramics (Si3N4/alpha SiC)

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, Hooshang; Dill, J.F. )

    1992-04-01

    As part of a development program for a high-temperature, dry-lubricated bearing technology and lubricant system, a high-speed high-temperature disk-on-disk tribometer was utilized and a matrix of traction data covering a range of load, speed, and temperature was obtained. The influence of dry powder lubricants, TiO2 and MoS2, on the traction coefficients between two ceramic materials, Si3N4 and SiC, was investigated. The results of this investigation are characteristic curves for the traction coefficient vs the slide/roll ratio with dry powders which are reminiscent of fluids, and the observation of dry powder lubricants' lower traction coefficients and wear. Measured tractions are found to be a strong function of powder-lubricant type, and values decrease moderately with slide-to-roll ration and load. The data show a weak sensitivity to temperature. 9 refs.

  9. Traction reveals mechanisms of wall-effects for microswimmers near boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhui; Marcos, -; Fu, Henry C.

    2015-11-01

    Swimming of microorganism near solid boundaries plays an important role in various biological processes, such as biofilm formation and the early stage of infection. The influence of a plane boundary on low-Reynolds number swimmers has frequently been studied using image systems for flow singularities. However, the effect of a boundary can also be expressed in terms of the flow caused by the force or traction exerted by the boundary on the fluid. Here we show that examining the traction pattern on the boundary caused by a nearby swimmer can yield physical insight into the effect of the boundary on swimming velocities. To illustrate this point, we investigate a three-sphere swimmer initially placed parallel to a solid planar wall. The three spheres are modelled as three stokeslets and the method of images for a stokeslet is employed to solve for the traction on the wall. When the swimmer is close to the boundary, the middle sphere and end spheres produce a quadrupolar and dipolar time-averaged traction, respectively, reflecting the internal structure of the swimmer. Far away from the boundary, the time-averaged traction of the swimmer is similar to that of a pure far-field quadrupole. Thus the traction patterns reveal how close the swimmer must be to the boundary for the internal structure of the swimmer to influence the boundary effects.

  10. Advanced endoscopic submucosal dissection with traction.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Naoki; Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Tai; Yahagi, Naohisa; Kanai, Takanori; Ogata, Haruhiko

    2014-07-16

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been established as a standard treatment for early stage gastric cancer (EGC) in Japan and has spread worldwide. ESD has been used not only for EGC but also for early esophageal and colonic cancers. However, ESD is associated with several adverse events, such as bleeding and perforation, which requires more skill. Adequate tissue tension and clear visibility of the tissue to be dissected are important for effective and safe dissection. Many ESD methods using traction have been developed, such as clip-with-line method, percutaneous traction method, sinker-assisted method, magnetic anchor method, external forceps method, internal-traction method, double-channel-scope method, outerroute method, double-scope method, endoscopic-surgical-platform, and robot-assisted method. Each method has both advantages and disadvantages. Robotic endoscopy, enabling ESD with a traction method, will become more common due to advances in technology. In the near future, simple, noninvasive, and effective ESD using traction is expected to be developed and become established as a worldwide standard treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasias. PMID:25031787

  11. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately 1... approximately 600 feet north of the Chicago SAG Canal on the southern end in Chicago, Ill. Under the lease,...

  12. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and...

  13. Condition Monitoring of Railway Vehicle Suspension Using Multiple Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hirotaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This paper demonstrates the possibility to detect suspension failures of railway vehicles using a multiple-model approach from on-board measurement data. The railway vehicle model used in this study includes lateral and yaw motions of wheelsets and bogie, and the lateral motion of the vehicle body. These motions are measured by on-board sensors for lateral acceleration and yaw rate. The detection algorithm is formulated based on the interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithm adding a method updating estimation model. The IMM method has been applied for detecting faults in vehicle suspension systems in a simulation study. The mode probabilities and states of vehicle suspension systems are estimated based on a Kalman filter (KF). This algorithm is evaluated in simulation examples. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm effectively detects on-board faults of railway vehicle suspension systems in realistic situation.

  14. Modeling traction forces in collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Basan, Markus; Hayes, Ryan L.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is an important process in embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. We have developed a particle-based simulation for collective cell migration that describes flow patterns and finger formation at the tissue edge observed in wound healing experiments. We can apply methods for calculating intercellular stress to our simulation model, and have thereby provided evidence for the validity of a stress reconstitution method from traction forces used in experiments. To accurately capture experimentally measured traction forces and stresses in the tissue, which are mostly tensile, we have to include intracellular acto-myosin contraction into our simulation. We can then reproduce the experimentally observed behavior of cells moving around a circular obstacle, and suggest underlying mechanisms for cell-cell alignment and generation of traction force patterns.

  15. Recent traction methods for endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Doyama, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is problematic with regard to en bloc and curable resection rates. Advancements in endoscopic techniques have enabled novel endoscopic approaches such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which has overcome some EMR problems, and has become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal tumors. However, ESD is technically difficult. Procedure time is longer and complications such as intraoperative perforation and bleeding occur more frequently than in EMR. Recently various traction methods have been introduced to facilitate ESD procedures, such as clip with line, external forceps, clip and snare, internal traction, double scope, and magnetic anchor. Each method must be used appropriately according to the anatomical characteristics. In this review we discuss recently proposed traction methods for ESD based on the characteristics of various anatomical sites. PMID:27468186

  16. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable “resting” or “traction” performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction. PMID:26957767

  17. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.

  18. Traction boundary conditions for molecular static simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiantao; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a consistent approach to prescribe traction boundary conditions in atomistic models. Due to the typical multiple-neighbor interactions, finding an appropriate boundary condition that models a desired traction is a non-trivial task. We first present a one-dimensional example, which demonstrates how such boundary conditions can be formulated. We further analyze the stability, and derive its continuum limit. We also show how the boundary conditions can be extended to higher dimensions with an application to a dislocation dipole problem under shear stress.

  19. TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE TRACTION CABLE BULL WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE TRACTION CABLE BULL WHEEL AND DEPARTING BUCKET "12," STILL ON RAIL AND JUST PRIOR TO ENGAGING TRACTION CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  20. Three single wheel machines for traction and soil compaction research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three single wheel machines for traction and soil compaction research have been developed in recent years at the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory. The Traction Research Vehicle has been used extensively for soil bin traction and soil compaction experiments. The vehicle uses feedback comp...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with...

  6. Effects of strong geomagnetic storms on Northern railways in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroshenko, E. A.; Belov, A. V.; Boteler, D.; Gaidash, S. P.; Lobkov, S. L.; Pirjola, R.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2010-11-01

    Seventeen severe magnetic storms occurred in the period 2000 through 2005. In addition there was a major magnetic storm in March 1989. During each of these storms there was an anomaly in the operation of the system of Signalization, Centralization and Blockage (SCB) in some divisions of the high-latitude (˜58 to 64°N) Russian railways. This anomaly was revealed as false traffic light signals about the occupation of the railways. These signals on the Northern railways appeared exactly during the main phases of the strongest part of the geomagnetic storms characterized by high geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp (Ap). Moreover, the durations of these anomalies coincided with the period of the greatest geomagnetic disturbances in a given event. Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) during significant strengthening of geomagnetic activity are concluded as the obvious reasons for such kind of anomalies.

  7. Automatic Railway Power Line Extraction Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhuang; Chen, Yiping; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis) combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  8. Micropatterning tractional forces in living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Ostuni, Emanuele; Whitesides, George M.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe a method for quantifying traction in cells that are physically constrained within micron-sized adhesive islands of defined shape and size on the surface of flexible polyacrylamide gels that contain fluorescent microbeads (0.2-microm diameter). Smooth muscle cells were plated onto square (50 x 50 microm) or circular (25- or 50-microm diameter) adhesive islands that were created on the surface of the gels by applying a collagen coating through microengineered holes in an elastomeric membrane that was later removed. Adherent cells spread to take on the size and shape of the islands and cell tractions were quantitated by mapping displacement fields of the fluorescent microbeads within the gel. Cells on round islands did not exhibit any preferential direction of force application, but they exerted their strongest traction at sites where they formed protrusions. When cells were confined to squares, traction was highest in the corners both in the absence and presence of the contractile agonist, histamine, and cell protrusions were also observed in these regions. Quantitation of the mean traction exerted by cells cultured on the different islands revealed that cell tension increased as cell spreading was promoted. These results provide a mechanical basis for past studies that demonstrated a similar correlation between spreading and growth within various anchorage-dependent cells. This new approach for analyzing the spatial distribution of mechanical forces beneath individual cells that are experimentally constrained to defined sizes and shapes may provide additional insight into the biophysical basis of cell regulation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. 77 FR 56911 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Continuance in Control Exemption-Iowa Traction Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Progressive Rail Incorporated--Continuance in Control Exemption-- Iowa... No. FD 35671, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington,...

  10. Tracking traction force changes of single cells on the liquid crystal surface.

    PubMed

    Soon, Chin Fhong; Tee, Kian Sek; Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C T

    2015-03-01

    Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT) system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM) software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration. PMID:25808839

  11. Traction studies of northeast corridor rail passenger service: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macie, T. W.; Stallkamp, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The enabling legislation of 1976 for improvement of service in the Northeast corridor (NEC) requires a schedule of 2 h 40 min between Washington and New York City by 1981 and 3 h 40 min between NYC and Boston, when the electrification is completed. Various options of the NEC operation that may satisfy the legislation were investigated, particularly in terms of travel time and energy consumption. NEC operations were compared with overseas systems and practices. The emerging new technology of AC traction was also evaluated.

  12. Influences on lifetime of wire ropes in traction lifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, W.

    2016-05-01

    Traction lifts are complex systems with rotating and translating moving masses, springs and dampers and several system inputs from the lifts and the users. The wire ropes are essential mechanical elements. The mechanical properties of the ropes in use depend on the rope construction, the load situation, nonlinearities and the lift dimensions. The mechanical properties are important for the proper use in lifts and the ride quality. But first of all the wire ropes (for all other suspension means as well) have to satisfy the safety relevant requirements sufficient lifetime, reliable determination of discard and sufficient and limited traction capacity. The lifetime of the wire ropes better the number of trips until rope discard depends on a lot of parameters of the rope and the rope application eg use of plastic deflection sheaves and reverse bending layouts. New challenges for rope lifetime are resulting from the more or less open D/d-ratio limits possible by certificates concerning the examination of conformity by notified bodies. This paper will highlight the basics of wire rope technology, the endurance and lifetime of wire ropes running over sheaves, and the different influences from the ropes and more and more important from the lift application parameters. Very often underestimated are the influences of transport, storage, installation and maintenance. With this background we will lead over to the calculation methods of wire rope lifetime considering the actual findings of wire rope endurance research. We'll show in this paper new and innovative facts as the influence of rope length and size factor in the lifetime formular, the reduction of lifetime caused by traction grooves, the new model for the calculation in reverse bending operations and the statistically firmed possibilities for machine roomless lifts (MRL) under very small bending conditions.

  13. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  14. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  15. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  16. Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456

  17. Intercellular Stress Reconstitution from Traction Force Data

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Hayes, Ryan L.; Basan, Markus; Onuchic, José N.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Cells migrate collectively during development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Recently, a method has been developed to recover intercellular stress in monolayers from measured traction forces upon the substrate. To calculate stress maps in two dimensions, the cell sheet was assumed to behave like an elastic material, and it remains unclear to what extent this assumption is valid. In this study, we simulate our recently developed model for collective cell migration, and compute intercellular stress maps using the method employed in the experiments. We also compute these maps using a method that does not depend on the traction forces or material properties. The two independently obtained stress patterns agree well for the parameters we have probed and provide a verification of the validity of the experimental method. PMID:25099794

  18. Perioperative lower extremity peripheral nerve traction injuries.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Chhatre, Akhil; Kotcharian, Ashot S

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve traction injuries may occur after surgical care and can involve any of the lower extremity large peripheral nerves. In this review, the authors discuss injuries after knee or hip surgical intervention. The diagnosis, including electrodiagnostic studies, is time sensitive and also relies on a detailed history and physical examination. Successful prevention and treatment involve familiarity with risk and predisposing factors as well as prophylactic measures. PMID:24267207

  19. Traction Slip Ratio Control Based on Fuzzy DSMC for Independent AWD EV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guangcai; Luo, Yugong; Li, Keqiang

    A traction slip ratio control method using fuzzy dynamical sliding mode strategy (Fuzzy DSMC) is proposed to reduce the slip ratio oscillations in the independent AWD EV traction control. The slip ratios are also accurately estimated in a new way to support this control process. Firstly in this control method, the fuzzy logic method is applied respectively to regulate the switching surface and the reaching law of DSMC with the estimated slip ratios, which are used to weaken the chattering and improve the convergence rate to some extent. Furthermore the control structure of DSMC is designed to obtain the smooth torque outputs from all independent traction motors, which are implemented in the anti-skid control for EV in the end. The mathematics analysis for the controller parameters choosing and simulation experiments show that the method can greatly avoid the drawback of control chattering occurred in the classical sliding mode control. Moreover, the robustness of systems for parameter uncertainties is also guaranteed.

  20. Traction in smooth muscle cells varies with cell spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Wang, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cell shape regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been suggested that the regulation of cell function by the cell shape is a result of the tension in the cytoskeleton and the distortion of the cell. Here we explore the association between cell-generated mechanical forces and the cell morphology. We hypothesized that the cell contractile force is associated with the degree of cell spreading, in particular with the cell length. We measured traction fields of single human airway smooth muscle cells plated on a polyacrylamide gel, in which fluorescent microbeads were embedded to serve as markers of gel deformation. The traction exerted by the cells at the cell-substrate interface was determined from the measured deformation of the gel. The traction was measured before and after treatment with the contractile agonist histamine, or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The relative increase in traction induced by histamine was negatively correlated with the baseline traction. On the contrary, the relative decrease in traction due to isoproterenol was independent of the baseline traction, but it was associated with cell shape: traction decreased more in elongated than in round cells. Maximum cell width, mean cell width, and projected area of the cell were the parameters most tightly coupled to both baseline and histamine-induced traction in this study. Wide and well-spread cells exerted larger traction than slim cells. These results suggest that cell contractility is controlled by cell spreading.

  1. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  2. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  3. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  4. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway Company....\\1\\ \\1\\ NSR has requested expedited handling, asserting that the proposed lease and upgrade of...

  5. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4-...

  6. Fibroblast traction as a mechanism for collagen morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Albert K.; Stopak, David; Wild, Patricia

    1981-03-01

    To make visible the traction forces exerted by individual cells, we have previously developed a method of culturing them on thin distortable sheets of silicone rubber1. We have now used this method to compare the forces exerted by various differentiated cell types and have examined the effects of cellular traction on re-precipitated collagen matrices. We find that the strength of cellular traction differs greatly between cell types and this traction is paradoxically weakest in the most mobile and invasive cells (leukocytes and nerve growth cones). Untransformed fibroblasts exert forces very much larger than those actually needed for locomotion. This strong traction distorts collagen gels dramatically, creating patterns similar to tendons and organ capsules. We propose that this morphogenetic rearrangement of extracellular matrices is the primary function of fibroblast traction and explains its excessive strength.

  7. Traction forces at solid-lubricated rolling/sliding contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A single-element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at a solid-lubricated contact of a ball against a flat disk at room temperature under combine rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. Traction vs slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data were used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. The data showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested. The lubricants, should, therefore, be selected on the basis of their ability to limit the wear of contact surfaces.

  8. Effect of Traction Angle on the External Work Performed During Running in Weightlessness on a Treadmill Equipped with a Subject Loading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosseye, T. P.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    2008-06-01

    During long duration spaceflight, astronauts regularly run on a treadmill-gravity simulator to mitigate bone and muscle loss. This study compares the biomechanics of running on a treadmill-gravity simulator during parabolic flights with the biomechanics of running on Earth. We designed a treadmill equipped with a gravity-like subject pull-down system (SLS) and transducers that measure ground reaction forces and pull-down forces. From these signals we calculate the external work (Wext) to sustain the movements of the center of mass (COM) of the body. In weightlessness, most subjects spontaneously tilt backwards while running. This posture imitates running down a ~2° slope on Earth. Consequently, the Wext is ~15% smaller on the simulator than during level running on Earth. This effect can be avoided by mounting the SLS on mobile chariots that maintain the pull-down force vertical (as in gravity).

  9. Traction-drive force transmission for telerobotic joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Program is providing many technological developments to meet the increasing demands of designing such a facility. One of the key areas of research is that of telerobotics for space station assembly and maintenance. Initial implementation will be teleoperated, but long-term plans call for autonomous robotics. One of the essential components for making this transition successful is the manipulator joints mechanism. Historically, teleoperated manipulators and industrial robotics have had very different mechanisms for force transmission. This is because the design objectives are almost mutually exclusive. A teleoperator must have very low friction and inertia to minimize operator fatigue; backlash and stiffness are of secondary concern. A robot, however, must have minimum backlash, and high stiffness for accurate and rapid positioning. A joint mechanism has yet to be developed that can optimize these divergent performance objectives. A joint mechanism that approaches this optimal performance was developed for NASA Langley, Automation Technology Branch. It is a traction-drive differential that uses variable preload mechanisms. The differential provides compact, dexterous motion range with a torque density similar to geared systems. The traction drive offers high stiffness and zero backlash, for good robotic performance, and the variable loading mechanism (VLM) minimizes the drive-train friction, for improved teleoperation.

  10. Traction force and tension fluctuations in growing axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Polackwich, Jamie; Koch, Daniel; McAllister, Ryan; Geller, Herbert

    Actively generated mechanical forces play a central role in axon growth and guidance during nervous system development. We describe the dynamics of traction stresses from growth cones of actively advancing axons from postnatal rat DRG neurons. By tracking the movement of the growth cone and analyzing the traction stresses in a co-moving reference frame, we show that there is a clear and consistent average stress field underlying the complex spatial stresses present at any one time. The average stress field has strong maxima on the sides of the growth cone, directed inward toward the growth cone neck. This pattern represents a Contractile stress contained within the growth cone, and a net force that is balanced by the axon tension. In addition, using high time-resolution measurements, we show that the stress field is composed of fluctuating local stress peaks, with a population of peaks whose lifetime distribution follows an exponential decay, and a small number of very long-lived peaks. We also find that the tension appears to vary randomly over short time scales, roughly consistent with the lifetime of the stress peaks, suggesting that the tension fluctuations originate from stochastic adhesion dynamics.

  11. Grain Boundary Traction Signatures: Quantitative Predictors of Dislocation Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng

    2016-08-01

    We introduce the notion of continuum-equivalent traction fields as local quantitative descriptors of the grain boundary interface. These traction-based descriptors are capable of predicting the critical stresses to trigger dislocation emissions from ductile ⟨110 ⟩ symmetrical-tilt nickel grain boundaries. We show that Shockley partials are emitted when the grain boundary tractions, in combination with external tensile loading, generate a resolved shear stress to cause dislocation slip. The relationship between the local grain boundary tractions and the grain boundary energy is established.

  12. Grain Boundary Traction Signatures: Quantitative Predictors of Dislocation Emission.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng

    2016-08-19

    We introduce the notion of continuum-equivalent traction fields as local quantitative descriptors of the grain boundary interface. These traction-based descriptors are capable of predicting the critical stresses to trigger dislocation emissions from ductile ⟨110⟩ symmetrical-tilt nickel grain boundaries. We show that Shockley partials are emitted when the grain boundary tractions, in combination with external tensile loading, generate a resolved shear stress to cause dislocation slip. The relationship between the local grain boundary tractions and the grain boundary energy is established. PMID:27588865

  13. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  14. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  15. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  16. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenca, R. M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains, are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  17. Progressive Release of Vitreomacular Traction With Aflibercept.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-05-01

    A patient with combined diabetic macular edema (DME) and vitreomacular traction (VMT) was treated with a series of intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY) injections. The VMT progressively released during the course of the five intravitreal injections. This release may have been spontaneous, due to a nonspecific mechanical effect from the injections, or due to a pharmacologic effect from the aflibercept. While treating DME, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents may have an additional benefit in releasing VMT. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:477-481.]. PMID:27183554

  18. Long-Life, Lightweight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard C.; Fusaro, Robert L.; Dimofte, Florin

    2012-01-01

    NASA s initiative for Lunar and Martian exploration will require long lived, robust drive systems for manned vehicles that must operate in hostile environments. The operation of these mechanical drives will pose a problem because of the existing extreme operating conditions. Some of these extreme conditions include operating at a very high or very cold temperature, operating over a wide range of temperatures, operating in very dusty environments, operating in a very high radiation environment, and operating in possibly corrosive environments. Current drive systems use gears with various configurations of teeth. These gears must be lubricated with oil (or grease) and must have some sort of a lubricant resupply system. For drive systems, oil poses problems such as evaporation, becoming too viscous and eventually freezing at cold temperatures, being too thin to lubricate at high temperatures, being degraded by the radiation environment, being contaminated by the regolith (soil), and if vaporized (and not sealed), it will contaminate the regolith. Thus, it may not be advisable or even possible to use oil because of these limitations. An oil-less, compact traction vehicle drive is a drive designed for use in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary surfaces. Initially, traction roller tests in vacuum were conducted to obtain traction and endurance data needed for designing the drives. From that data, a traction drive was designed that would fit into a prototype lunar rover vehicle, and this design data was used to construct several traction drives. These drives were then tested in air to determine their performance characteristics, and if any final corrections to the designs were necessary. A limitation with current speed reducer systems such as planetary gears and harmonic drives is the high-contact stresses that occur at tooth engagement and in the harmonic drive wave generator interface. These high stresses induce high wear of solid

  19. Monitoring abandoned dreg fields of high-speed railway construction with UAV remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yangchun; Lin, Yi; Du, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    High-speed railway construction will produce a large amount of abandoned dregs, so it is necessary to build enough dreg deposition fields along the railway. The task of the department of soil and water conservation is to monitor the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields according to the design in the whole process of railway construction. As long linear construction projects, many high-speed railways go through regions of complex terrain, which poses great difficulties to monitoring current status of abandoned dreg fields. With the advantages of low cost, flexible launch and landing, safety, under-cloud-flying, hyperspatial image resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very suitable for obtaining remote sensing imagery along the railway. One segment of the high-speed railway from Chongqing to Wanzhou and its neighborhood was chosen as the study area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of monitoring abandoned dreg fields using the UAV system. The UAV system and its components are introduced along with the flight trajectories, acquired UAV imagery, and attitude data. Image preprocessing and generation of DEM and DOM are described in detail followed by image-based measurement accuracy assessment and abandoned dreg field status investigation on the resulting DOM and DEM. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed wing UAV system to rapidly monitoring the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields

  20. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  1. High speed railway environment safety evaluation based on measurement attribute recognition model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Gao, Ningbo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety. PMID:25435866

  2. Traction and nonequilibrium phase behavior of confined sheared liquids at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattinoni, Chiara; Heyes, David M.; Lorenz, Christian D.; Dini, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined model liquids under pressure and sheared by the relative sliding of the boundary walls have been carried out. The relationship between the time-dependent traction coefficient, μ(t), and the state of internal structure of the film is followed from commencement of shear for various control parameters, such as applied load, global shear rate, and solid-liquid atom interaction parameters. Phase diagrams, velocity and temperature profiles, and traction coefficient diagrams are analyzed for pure Lennard-Jones (LJ) liquids and a binary LJ mixture. A single component LJ liquid is found to form semicrystalline arrangements with high-traction coefficients, and stick-slip behavior is observed for high pressures and low-shear velocities, which is shown to involve periodic deformation and stress release of the wall atoms and slip in the solid-liquid boundary region. A binary mixture, which discourages crystallization, gives a more classical tribological response with the larger atoms preferentially adsorbing commensurate with the wall. The results obtained are analyzed in the context of tribology: the binary mixture behaves like a typical lubricant, whereas the monatomic system behaves like a traction fluid. It is discussed how this type of simulation can give insights on the tribological behavior of realistic systems.

  3. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  4. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  5. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  6. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  7. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  8. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed. PMID:25826875

  9. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  10. DETAIL OF TRACTION CABLE ENGAGEMENT DEVICE. SMALL, KNOBBED LEVER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TRACTION CABLE ENGAGEMENT DEVICE. SMALL, KNOBBED LEVER ON BUCKET HANGER WAS PULLED DOWN BY A CAMEL (FIXED CAM RAIL AT CENTER) AS BUCKET ROLLED PAST IT, CAUSING A CLAMP TO CLOSE AGAINST TRACTION CABLE. A SIMILAR CAMEL (NO LONGER EXTANT) DISENGAGED CLAMP ON RECEIVING SIDE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. Finding suspects in multiple cameras for improved railway protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marck, Jan Willem; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; de Oliveira Filho, Julio; van den Brink, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The capability to find individuals using CCTV cameras is important for surveillance applications at large areas such as railway stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras post incident. In this paper, we describe the live demonstration of our interactive re-identification system in a railway station. The system performs real-time track generation in multiple cameras and live re-identification and refinding of suspects which was live demonstrated in Poland. The system allows fast interactive retrieval of an individual by showing only similar candidates. An operator can find the origin or destination of a person more efficiently, especially over large time and space intervals.

  12. 47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, and drive equipment for Railways #l and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse, ground floor, north end, drive gears in foreground, pulling gears for Railway # 1 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  13. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  14. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  15. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  16. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  17. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  18. Red-light traffic enforcement at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic witih smart vision systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Embedded loop sensors can detect and count passing vehicles, radar can measure speed and presence of vehicles, and embedded vision systems or stationary camera systems can count vehicles and estimate the state of traffic along the road. This work presents a vision system which is targeted at detecting and reporting incidents at unsecured railways crossings. These crossings, even when guarded by automated barriers, pose a threat to drivers day and night. Our system is designed to detect and record vehicles which pass over the railway crossing by means of real-time motion analysis after the red light has been activated. We implement sparse optical flow in conjunction with motion clustering in order to detect critical events. We describe some modifications of the original Lucas Kanade optical flow method which makes our implementation faster and more robust compared to the original concept. In addition, the results of our optical flow method are compared with a HOG based vehicle detector which has been implemented and tested as an alternative methodology. The embedded system which is used for detection consists of a smart camera which observes one street lane as* well as the red light at the crossing. The camera is triggered by an electrical signal from the railway as soon ss a vehicle moves over th this line, image sequences are recorded and stored onboard the device.

  19. Bilinear Robust Control for Vertical Vibration in Railway Vehicle with Semi-Active Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Ryuichi; Otsuki, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    It is well known that the vibration control problem for automobiles and railway vehicles with semi-active suspensions is classified as a control problem in a bilinear system. Bullet trains and railway vehicles have lighter body in order to improve acceleration; these vibrations in the body are easily induced by various disturbances due to rigid and elastic dynamics. Currently, passive dampers such as air suspensions and axle springs are installed on railway vehicle trucks as countermeasures for such vibrations. This study presents an effective controller, based on the H∞ theory, for vibration suppression in railway vehicles and describes a method of synthesizing this robust controller by considering unstructured and structured uncertainties that are applicable to a bilinear system. The performance of the proposed controller and its robustness toward uncertainties are examined by numerical calculations that simulate a railway vehicle subjected to disturbances due to vertical uneven railway tracks, the variations in its mass due to boarding passengers, and the modeling errors caused by non-controlled modes. This enables a comparison of the proposed control method with the conventional one in terms of the robustness toward parameter variation. Thus, this result shows the high robustness and usefulness of the proposed controller.

  20. Towards Single Cell Traction Microscopy within 3D Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell-ECM and cell-cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cells migration within collagen gels. PMID:23806281

  1. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus. PMID:26268253

  2. Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime

    A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.

  3. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  4. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  5. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  6. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  7. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  8. Concept for a Differential Lock and Traction Control Model in Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukul, A. K.; Hansra, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is a complex integration of electronics and mechanical components. One of the major components is the differential which is limited due to its shortcomings. The paper proposes a concept of a cost effective differential lock and traction for passenger cars to sports utility vehicles alike, employing a parallel braking mechanism coming into action based on the relative speeds of the wheels driven by the differential. The paper highlights the employment of minimum number of components unlike the already existing systems. The system was designed numerically for the traction control and differential lock for the world's cheapest car. The paper manages to come up with all the system parameters and component costing making it a cost effective system.

  9. A Fast Estimation Method of Railway Passengers' Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Yusaku; Asuka, Masashi; Komaya, Kiyotoshi

    To evaluate a train schedule from the viewpoint of passengers' convenience, it is important to know each passenger's choice of trains and transfer stations to arrive at his/her destination. Because of difficulties of measuring such passengers' behavior, estimation methods of railway passengers' flow are proposed to execute such an evaluation. However, a train schedule planning system equipped with those methods is not practical due to necessity of much time to complete the estimation. In this article, the authors propose a fast passengers' flow estimation method that employs features of passengers' flow graph using preparative search based on each train's arrival time at each station. And the authors show the results of passengers' flow estimation applied on a railway in an urban area.

  10. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  11. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  12. Mechanical Lumbar Traction: What Is Its Place in Clinical Practice?

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Summary evidence concludes that mechanical lumbar traction is not effective for treating acute or chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). However, many physical therapists continue to use it, primarily as an additional modality. Indeed, expert clinical opinion, theoretical models, and some research evidence suggest that certain patients with LBP respond positively to traction. A study published in the March 2016 issue of JOSPT investigates the effectiveness of traction in prone as an adjunct to an extension-oriented exercise program in patients with LBP and leg pain and explores whether a previously identified set of patient characteristics is associated with better outcomes from traction. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating these patients. PMID:26928736

  13. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  14. Control performance evaluation of railway vehicle MR suspension using fuzzy sky-ground hook control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, S. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, G. S.; Yoo, W. H.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of railway vehicle featured by semi-active suspension system using magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. In order to achieve this goal, a nine degree of freedom of railway vehicle model, which includes car body and bogie, is established. The wheel-set data is loaded from measured value of railway vehicle. The MR damper system is incorporated with the governing equation of motion of the railway vehicle model which includes secondary suspension. To illustrate the effectiveness of the controlled MR dampers on suspension system of railway vehicle, the control law using the sky-ground hook controller is adopted. This controller takes into account for both vibration control of car body and increasing stability of bogie by adopting a weighting parameter between two performance requirements. The parameters appropriately determined by employing a fuzzy algorithm associated with two fuzzy variables: the lateral speed of the car body and the lateral performance of the bogie. Computer simulation results of control performances such as vibration control and stability analysis are presented in time and frequency domains.

  15. Investigations of the factors causing performance losses of lead/acid traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberger, H.; Fabjan, Ch.; Gofas, N.

    A failure analysis is carried out with a lead/acid traction battery after a two-years' test run in an electric passenger car. A survey of the operational data, in combination with laboratory tests and chemical and physical analyses, reveals the main causes of battery damage and performance loss: insufficiencies of the charging procedure, inadequate maintainance (water-refilling system), antimony-contamination and loss of the active material due to grid corrosion and shedding of PbO 2.

  16. Keratocytes generate traction forces in two phases.

    PubMed

    Burton, K; Park, J H; Taylor, D L

    1999-11-01

    Forces generated by goldfish keratocytes and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts have been measured with nanonewton precision and submicrometer spatial resolution. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to visualize deformations produced by traction forces in elastic substrata, and interference reflection microscopy revealed sites of cell-substratum adhesions. Force ranged from a few nanonewtons at submicrometer spots under the lamellipodium to several hundred nanonewtons under the cell body. As cells moved forward, centripetal forces were applied by lamellipodia at sites that remained stationary on the substratum. Force increased and abruptly became lateral at the boundary of the lamellipodium and the cell body. When the cell retracted at its posterior margin, cell-substratum contact area decreased more rapidly than force, so that stress (force divided by area) increased as the cell pulled away. An increase in lateral force was associated with widening of the cell body. These mechanical data suggest an integrated, two-phase mechanism of cell motility: (1) low forces in the lamellipodium are applied in the direction of cortical flow and cause the cell body to be pulled forward; and (2) a component of force at the flanks pulls the rear margins forward toward the advancing cell body, whereas a large lateral component contributes to detachment of adhesions without greatly perturbing forward movement. PMID:10564269

  17. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Railway Point Machines by Sound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Choi, Heesu; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Yoon, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    Railway point devices act as actuators that provide different routes to trains by driving switchblades from the current position to the opposite one. Point failure can significantly affect railway operations, with potentially disastrous consequences. Therefore, early detection of anomalies is critical for monitoring and managing the condition of rail infrastructure. We present a data mining solution that utilizes audio data to efficiently detect and diagnose faults in railway condition monitoring systems. The system enables extracting mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) from audio data with reduced feature dimensions using attribute subset selection, and employs support vector machines (SVMs) for early detection and classification of anomalies. Experimental results show that the system enables cost-effective detection and diagnosis of faults using a cheap microphone, with accuracy exceeding 94.1% whether used alone or in combination with other known methods. PMID:27092509

  18. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Railway Point Machines by Sound Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonguk; Choi, Heesu; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Yoon, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    Railway point devices act as actuators that provide different routes to trains by driving switchblades from the current position to the opposite one. Point failure can significantly affect railway operations, with potentially disastrous consequences. Therefore, early detection of anomalies is critical for monitoring and managing the condition of rail infrastructure. We present a data mining solution that utilizes audio data to efficiently detect and diagnose faults in railway condition monitoring systems. The system enables extracting mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) from audio data with reduced feature dimensions using attribute subset selection, and employs support vector machines (SVMs) for early detection and classification of anomalies. Experimental results show that the system enables cost-effective detection and diagnosis of faults using a cheap microphone, with accuracy exceeding 94.1% whether used alone or in combination with other known methods. PMID:27092509

  19. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN CENTER, RAILWAY RIVER TRUSS ON LEFT, HIGHWAY TRUSSES IN BACKGROUND - White Rock Bridge, Spanning Pawcatuck River & White Rock Canal, Westerly, Washington County, RI

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain is in front of electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  3. 1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST DOWN MARKET STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER MARKET STREET AND DESCENDS TO MEET SUBWAY AT 44TH STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug Sam on the ways seen from Port Bow. This was first railway built by BBW on site (Ca.1936). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  6. 40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly building. Note BBW Tug Sam on railway and BBW-Built Stardust (#1) at end of dock. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  7. 57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun Sam on the ways seen from Starboard Bow. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  8. Advantages of diabetic tractional retinal detachment repair

    PubMed Central

    Sternfeld, Amir; Axer-Siegel, Ruth; Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas; Weinberger, Dov; Ehrlich, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes and complications of patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment (TRD) treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Patients and methods We retrospectively studied a case series of 24 eyes of 21 patients at a single tertiary, university-affiliated medical center. A review was carried out on patients who underwent PPV for the management of TRD due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy from October 2011 to November 2013. Preoperative and final visual outcomes, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and medical background were evaluated. Results A 23 G instrumentation was used in 23 eyes (95.8%), and a 25 G instrumentation in one (4.2%). Mean postoperative follow-up time was 13.3 months (4–30 months). Visual acuity significantly improved from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) 1.48 to LogMAR 1.05 (P<0.05). Visual acuity improved by ≥3 lines in 75% of patients. Intraoperative complications included iatrogenic retinal breaks in seven eyes (22.9%) and vitreal hemorrhage in nine eyes (37.5%). In two eyes, one sclerotomy was enlarged to 20 G (8.3%). Postoperative complications included reoperation in five eyes (20.8%) due to persistent subretinal fluid (n=3), vitreous hemorrhage (n=1), and dislocated intraocular lens (n=1). Thirteen patients (54.2%) had postoperative vitreous hemorrhage that cleared spontaneously, five patients (20.8%) required antiglaucoma medications for increased intraocular pressure, seven patients (29.2%) developed an epiretinal membrane, and two patients (8.3%) developed a macular hole. Conclusion Patients with diabetic TRD can benefit from PPV surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications can be attributed to the complexity of this disease. PMID:26604667

  9. Optimization of piezoelectric energy harvester for wireless smart sensors in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensor network is one of the prospective methods for railway monitoring due to the long-term operation and low-maintenance performances. How to supply power to the wireless sensor nodes has drawn much attention recently. In railway monitoring, the idea of converting ambient vibration energy from vibration of railway track induced by passing trains to electric energy has made it a potential way for powering the wireless sensor nodes. Nowadays, most of vibration based energy harvesters are designed at resonance. However, as railway vibration frequency is a wide band range, how to design an energy harvester working at that range is critical. In this paper, the energy consumption of the wireless smart sensor platform, Imote2, at different working states were investigated. Based on the energy consumption, a design of a bimorph cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester has been optimized to generate maximum average power between a wide-band frequency range. Significant power and current outputs have been increased after optimal design. Finally, the rechargeable battery life for supplying the Imote2 for railway monitoring is predicted by using the optimized piezoelectric energy harvesting system.

  10. 56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse, south end: hole in foreground is where gear now installed in Headhouse for Marine Railway #3 was removed. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT