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Sample records for rallus longirostris obsoletus

  1. Effects of predation, flooding, and contamination on reproductive success of California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarzbach, S.E.; Albertson, J.D.; Thomas, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the reproductive success of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered subspecies restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the relative importance of predation, flooding, and contaminants as factors affecting that success. Our study was conducted in six tidal marshes in the northern and southern reaches of San Francisco Bay. This assessment, conducted in four breeding seasons (1991, 1992, 1998, 1999), determined that productivity of California Clapper Rails was much reduced over the natural potential. Only 69% of clapper rail eggs whose viability could be assessed were viable. Hatchability of eggs in North Bay and South Bay marshes was 65% and 70%, respectively. Only 45% of the nests successfully hatched at least one egg. Despite mean clutch sizes of 6.7 and 6.9 in the North and South bays, respectively, clapper rails produced only 1.9 and 2.5 young per nesting attempt. Flooding was a minor factor, reducing the number of eggs available to hatch by only 2.3%. Predation on eggs was a major factor affecting nest success, reducing productivity by a third. Failed eggs were examined for abnormal development and contaminant concentrations. Contamination appeared to adversely influence California Clapper Rail reproductive success, as evidenced by deformities; embryo hemorrhaging; embryo malpositions; a depressed rate of hatchability; excess concentrations of mercury, barium, and chromium over known avian embryotoxic thresholds; and a correlation of deformities with elevated concentrations of some trace elements in eggs that failed to hatch. Mercury was the only significant contaminant common to all marshes. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  2. Recovery strategies for the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in the heavily-urbanized San Francisco estuarine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foin, T.C.; Garcia, E.J.; Gill, R.E.; Culberson, S.D.; Collins, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), a Federal- and State-listed endangered marsh bird, has a geographic range restricted to one of the most heavily-urbanized estuaries in the world. The rail population has long been in a state of decline, although the exact contribution of each of the many contributing causes remains unclear. The rail is one of the key targets of emerging plans to conserve and restore tidal marshlands. Reduction of tidal marsh habitat, estimated at 85-95%, has been the major historical cause of rail decline. Increased predation intensity may be the more important present problem, because habitat fragmentation and alteration coupled with the invasion of the red fox have made the remaining populations more vulnerable to predators. Population viability analysis shows that adult survivorship is the key demographic variable; reversals in population fate occur over a narrow range of ecologically realistic values. Analysis of habitat requirements and population dynamics of the clapper rail in the San Francisco Estuary shows that decreased within-marsh habitat quality, particularly reduction of tidal flows and alteration of drainage, is an important barrier to population recovery. Management and restoration activities should emphasize the development of well-channelized high tidal marsh, because this is the key requirement of rail habitat. Developing effective restoration programs depends upon having information that field research will not provide. The effect of spatial pattern of reserves requires accurate estimation of the effects of predation and inter-marsh movement, both of which are practically impossible to measure adequately. It will be necessary to develop and use simulation models that can be applied to geographic data to accomplish this task.

  3. 75 FR 6697 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Yuma Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., 1967 (32 FR 4001). It was not included on the list of foreign species established under the Endangered... selenium to the species is completed and protective measures implemented if needed; and a secure...

  4. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ........... U.S.A. (CA)....... 67 FR 10101; 3/6/ relictus. 2002. California clapper rail......... Rallus Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ longirostris 1970. obsoletus. California least tern Sternula (Sterna) Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 35 FR 8495; 06/02/ antillarum browni....

  5. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  6. Seasonal abundance of Culicoides imicola and C. obsoletus in the Balearic islands.

    PubMed

    Miranda, M A; Rincón, C; Borràs, D

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bluetongue (BT) was declared on the Balearic islands of Spain in September and October 2000. In 2001 and 2002, an intensive survey was conducted on cattle farms in Majorca and Minorca for the principal vectors in the Mediterranean Basin, Culicoides imicola and C. obsoletus. Adult Culicoides were collected once a week between June 2001 and December 2002 using CDC light traps. The results from 348 light-trap collections revealed that, in addition to other species of the genus Culicoides, both C. imicola and C. obsoletus appear to be well established on both Majorca and Minorca. Furthermore, both species showed a different seasonal abundance pattern: peak adult populations of C. obsoletus occurred in July, while those of C. imicola peaked in October. These findings indicate that the principal vector in the outbreak of BT in the Balearic islands in 2000 was probably C. imicola. PMID:20419681

  7. Identification of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as a vector of bluetongue virus in central Italy.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, C; Scavia, G; Lorenzetti, R; Scaramozzino, P; Amaddeo, D; Cardeti, G; Scicluna, M; Ferrari, G; Autorino, G L

    2005-03-01

    In 2001 and 2002, 235 outbreaks of bluetongue were observed in the Lazio and Tuscany regions of central Italy. During entomological surveillance Culicoides imicola, the main vector of bluetongue virus in the Mediterranean region, was detected in only 14 of 28 municipalities affected by outbreaks; Culicoides obsoletus was the most abundant species, contributing 83 per cent of individuals in catches, whereas C. imicola contributed only 2 per cent. In affected municipalities the maximum catch of C. obsoletus was 18,000 specimens, compared with 54 of C. imicola. In October 2002 bluetongue virus serotype 2 was isolated from a single pool of wild-caught, non-blood-engorged parous C. obsoletus inoculated on to BHK-21 cells. Its identity was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. PMID:15786918

  8. A revision of the Cautires obsoletus species group from Java (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocak, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Javanese fauna of the species group Cautires obsoletus is revised. Altogether, eight Javanese species were classified in the group; five of them are proposed to be junior subjective synonyms: Cautires fruhstorferi Dudkova & Bocak, 2010, a replacement name of Bulenides lineatus Pic, 1921, Cautires javanicus Bourgeois, 1883, Cautires inhumeralis (Pic, 1921), Cautires nigromaculatus (Pic, 1925), and Cautires pudicus (Kleine, 1931) (all synonymized to Cautires obsoletus Waterhouse, 1879). Three Javanese species are redescribed: Cautires apicalis (Pic, 1925), Cautires obsoletus (Waterhouse, 1878), and Cautires singularithorax (Pic, 1925). Cautires apicalis (Pic, 1925) is removed from the synonymy of Cautires corporaali (Pic, 1921) and reinstated as a valid name. Three new species are proposed: Cautires walteri sp. n., Cautires taoi sp. n., and Cautires sukosarensis sp. n. All species are keyed and principal diagnostic characters are illustrated. The distribution and relationships to Cautires fauna of other Great Sundas islands are briefly discussed. PMID:23372413

  9. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  10. Development and characterization of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Landínez-García, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: prochilodontidae) is a short-distance migratory species endemic to Colombia. This study developed for the first time a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci by using next-generation sequencing to explore the population genetics of this commercially exploited species. Nineteen of these loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 193 I. longirostris in three Colombian rivers of the Magdalena basin. Results showed that a single genetic stock circulates in the Cauca River, whereas other single different genetic stock is present in the rivers Samaná Norte and San Bartolomé-Magdalena. Additionally, I. longirostris was genetically different among and across rivers. This first insight about the population genetic structure of I. longirostris is crucial for monitoring the genetic diversity, the management and conservation of its populations, and complement the genetic studies in Prochilodontidae.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of DLB, a Dyella-Like Bacterium from the Planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus

    PubMed Central

    Lahav, Tamar; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Naor, Vered; Freilich, Shiri

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of the uncultivable mollicute bacterium “Candidatus Phytoplasma.” This isolate inhibits Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable mollicute. The draft genome of DLB consists of 4,196,214 bp, with a 68.6% G+C content, and 3,757 genes were predicted. PMID:27445378

  12. Emergence of Culicoides obsoletus group species from farm-associated habitats in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Balczun, C; Kiel, E

    2016-06-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) may transmit several arboviruses to ruminant livestock. The species of the Obsoletus group are considered to be among the most important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe. As agricultural environments offer suitable habitats for the development of their immature stages, the emergence of adult Culicoides from potential breeding sites was investigated at 20 cattle farms throughout Germany in 2012 and 2013. In analyses of species-specific habitat preferences and relationships between Culicoides abundance in breeding substrates and their physicochemical characteristics, dungheaps emerged as the most important substrate for the development of Culicoides obsoletus sensu stricto (s.s.) (Meigen), whereas Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen) and Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer were generally restricted to cowpats. A decreasing pH value was associated with a higher abundance or a higher probability of observing these three species. Furthermore, the abundance of C. obsoletus s.s. was positively related to increasing moisture. Dungheaps were very productive breeding sites for this species and are therefore suggested as a target for potential control measures. PMID:26744290

  13. Genetic Variability of Stolbur Phytoplasma in Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and its Main Host Plants in Vineyard Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Landi, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Nardi, Sandro; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-08-01

    Bois noir is an economically important grapevine yellows that is induced by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and principally vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). This study explores the 'Ca. P. solani' genetic variability associated to the nettle-H. obsoletus and bindweed-H. obsoletus systems in vineyard agroecosystems of the central-eastern Italy. Molecular characterization of 'Ca. P. solani' isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism to investigate the nonribosomal vmp1 gene. Seven phytoplasma vmp-types were detected among the host plants- and insect-associated field-collected samples. The vmp1 gene showed the highest polymorphism in the bindweed-H. obsoletus system, according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which is in agreement with nucleotide sequence analysis. Five vmp-types were associated with H. obsoletus from bindweed, of which one was solely restricted to planthoppers, with one genotype also in planthoppers from nettle. Type V12 was the most prevalent in both planthoppers and bindweed. H. obsoletus from nettle harbored three vmp-types, of which V3 was predominant. V3 was the only type detected for nettle. Our data demonstrate that planthoppers might have acquired some 'Ca. P. solani' profiles from other plant hosts before landing on nettle or bindweed. Overall, the different vmp1 gene rearrangements observed in these two plant hosts-H. obsoletus systems might represent different adaptations of the pathogen to the two host plants. Molecular information about the complex of vmp-types provides useful data for better understanding of Bois noir epidemiology in vineyard agroecosystem. PMID:26470289

  14. First occurrence of Culicoides obsoletus-transmitted Bluetongue virus epidemic in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Jahn, Birgit; Jaeger, Friedhelm; Eschweiler, Josef; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2007-06-01

    In August 2006, Bluetongue virus disease (BTD) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Northern France. Serological tests as well as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) proved the occurrence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in diseased sheep and cattle, and the virus was identified as serotype 8. Therefore, the search for possible vectors was immediately initiated in the outbreak region in Germany. Traps with automatically regulated ultraviolet light lamps were placed at two different farms with sero-positive cattle, and insect monitoring was done from August 2006 until January 2007. The caught arthropods were weekly determined, and it could be observed that midges of the dipteran family Ceratopogonidae occurred in large numbers, sometimes representing up to 40% of all individuals. The microscopical analysis of the wing morphology showed that the species (complex) Culicoides obsoletus was most abundant covering about 97% of the analysed midges. On the second place ranged C. pulicaris, while C. nubeculosus and C. festivipennis were found only as single individuals. Fed and unfed females were separated, sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue disease (Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Isle of Riems, Germany) and investigated with a BTV-8-specific real-time RT-PCR. It could be demonstrated that at both farms both fed and unfed C. obsoletus were tested positive for BTV-8 genomes, while none of the other species scored positive. This finding strongly supports that the BTD-epidemic, which reached in the meantime wide regions of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany and of the neighbouring countries with several hundreds of affected farms, is initiated by virus transmission during the blood meal of midges of the C. obsoletus complex. Since they were captured still at the 21st of December close to cattle with clinical signs, it must be feared that BTV-8 is now established in Central Europe, where it had been absent

  15. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the "Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum" group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae." Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii." Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As "Ca. Sulcia" is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between "Ca. Sulcia" and "Ca. Purcelliella," "Ca. Vidania," or both. PMID:21183640

  16. Bacterial Endosymbiont Localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the Insect Vector of Bois Noir in Vitis vinifera▿

    PubMed Central

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani” and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the “Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum” group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name “Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae.” Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and “Candidatus Cardinium hertigii.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As “Ca. Sulcia” is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between “Ca. Sulcia” and “Ca. Purcelliella,” “Ca. Vidania,” or both. PMID:21183640

  17. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    PubMed

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of 'Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus, respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated 'Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica. Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri, rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples. PMID:25309042

  18. Presence in the Balearic Islands (Spain) of the midges Culicoides imicola and Culicoides obsoletus group.

    PubMed

    Miranda, M A; Borràs, D; Rincón, C; Alemany, A

    2003-03-01

    An outbreak of the livestock viral disease bluetongue (BT) was detected during September and October 2000 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Due to the lack of information about the species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) reported in the affected area, six farms in Majorca, four in Minorca and one in Ibiza were selected to carry out surveillance of Culicoides adults using light traps. Here, for the first time, we report the presence in the Balearic Islands of Culicoides imicola Keiffer, the main vector of BT, and the Culicoides obsoletus Meigen group. PMID:12680925

  19. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van der Lugt, Jaco J; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Willemse, Ton; Rutten, Victor P M G; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus). We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder. PMID:25901733

  20. Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals on larval development of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Blasco, Julian; Nieto, Elena; Hampel, Miriam; Le Vay, Lewis; Giménez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies incorporate within the experimental design environmental variability and mixture effects when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We have studied the combined effects of selected pharmaceutical compounds and environmental variability in terms of salinity and temperature on survival, development and body mass of larvae of the estuarine shrimp Palaemon longirostris. Drug residues found in coastal waters occur as mixture, and the evaluation of combined effects of simultaneously occurring compounds is indispensable for their environmental risk assessment. All larval stages of P. longirostris were exposed to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium (DS: 40 and 750 μg L(-1)), the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: 17 and 361 μg L(-1)) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: 0.14 and 4 μg L(-1)). We observed no effect on larval survival of P. longirostris with the tested pharmaceuticals. However, and in contrast to previous studies on larvae of the related marine species Palaemon serratus, CA affected development through an increase in intermoult duration and reduced growth without affecting larval body mass. These developmental effects in P. longirostris larvae were similar to those observed in the mixture of DS and CA confirming the toxic effects of CA. In the case of CLZ, its effects were similar to those observed previously in P. serratus: high doses affected development altering intermoult duration, tended to reduce the number of larval instars and decreased significantly the growth rate. This study suggests that an inter-specific life histories approach should be taken into account to assess the effect of emergent compounds in coastal waters. PMID:26163379

  1. PCR identification of culicoid biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) of the Obsoletus complex including putative vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biting midges of the Obsoletus species complex of the ceratopogonid genus Culicoides were assumed to be the major vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern and central Europe during the 2006 outbreak of bluetongue disease (BT). Most recently, field specimens of the same group of species have also been shown to be infected with the newly emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. A reliable identification of the cryptic species of this group is fundamental for both understanding the epidemiology of the diseases and for targeted vector control. In the absence of classical morphological characters unambiguously identifying the species, DNA sequence-based tests have been established for the distinction of selected species in some parts of Europe. Since specificity and sensitivity of these tests have been shown to be in need of improvement, an alternative PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was developed for the identification of the three Obsoletus complex species endemic to Germany (C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. chiopterus) plus the isomorphic species C. dewulfi. Methods Biting midges of the genus Culicoides caught by UV light traps all over Germany were morphologically pre-identified to species or complex level. The COI region was amplified from their extracted DNA and sequenced. Final species assignment was done by sequence comparison to GenBank entries and to morphologically identified males. Species-specific consensus sequences were aligned and polymorphisms were utilized to design species-specific primers to PCR-identify specimens when combined with a universal primer. Results The newly developed multiplex PCR assay was successfully tested on genetically defined Obsoletus complex material as well as on morphologically pre-identified field material. The intended major advantage of the assay as compared to other PCR approaches, namely the production of only one single characteristic band for each species

  2. Terminal airway embryology of the delphinid porpoises, Stenella attenuata and S. longirostris.

    PubMed

    Drabek, C M; Kooyman, G L

    1983-01-01

    A light microscopic investigation of the histological development of the terminal airways of 18 Stenella attenuata and two S. longirostris showed the lungs to be in a glandular stage of development until 3 months postimplantation (p.i.) age. By 3.5 months (p.i.) the lung was at the canalicular stage. At 4 months mesenchymal rings and muscular bands were in a sphincterlike arrangement around terminal bronchioles. At 7 months (p.i.) the alveolar stage occurred. About 8-9 months cartilaginous rings were present and in association with myoelastic sphincters. Their function remains an enigma, even though many hypotheses as to function have been proposed. We suggest that the presence of well-developed sphincters and cartilage in the neonate may give clues to their function as well as offer potential experiments that would not be as suitable in the adult porpoise. PMID:6842612

  3. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  4. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  5. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  6. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  7. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) stock.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Julian A; Pollock, Kenneth H; Johnston, David W; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this Hawai'i Island

  8. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  9. Morphometric and molecular analyses for populations of Palaemon longirostris and Palaemon garciacidi (Crustacea, Palaemonidae): Evidence for a single species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaxana, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Authors have disagreed on the taxonomic status of the white prawns along the coasts of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The present study compares variation in morphology and mtDNA in populations of white prawns, identified as Palaemon longirostris and P. garciacidi, from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and Tunisia. Differences in morphology among populations were tested using a multiple discriminant analyses (DA) on morphometric data. In order to resolve variation in mtDNA, 16S and COI mitochondrial (mt) genes were used. The morphometric analyses do not support their separation into distinct species, since individual prawns could not be assigned unequivocally to one of the various studied populations and a geographic pattern could be detected only in females. Molecular data corroborate the morphological analyses, since no geographic structure was found and the levels of sequence divergence observed among haplotypes from distinct populations (0.1-0.8%) are consistent with other 16S and COI intraspecific divergences of decapod crustaceans. Therefore, findings from this study do not support the distinction of P. longirostris and P. garciacidi as different species.

  10. A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Clark, L S; Cowan, D F; Pfeiffer, D C

    2008-04-01

    The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). In both species, the cortex was pseudolobulated and contained a typical mammalian zonation. Medullary protrusions (0-3 per section) and a medullary band were identified in both species. For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity. The mean CM ratio for S. attenuata was 2.34 and the PCA was 64.4% cortex, 29.4% medulla and 6.2%'other'. 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself. For S. longirostris, there was no statistical difference in the CM ratio compared with sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the CM ratio and sex, suggesting sexual dimorphism (female CM ratio = 2.46 and males = 3.21). No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the PCA by sex. Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'. PMID:18070242

  11. Do seasonal patterns of rat snake (Pantherophis obsoletus) and black racer (Coluber constrictor) activity predict avian nest predation?

    PubMed

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Ward, Michael P; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2016-04-01

    Avian nest success often varies seasonally and because predation is the primary cause of nest failure, seasonal variation in predator activity has been hypothesized to explain seasonal variation in nest success. Despite the fact that nest predator communities are often diverse, recent evidence from studies of snakes that are nest predators has lent some support to the link between snake activity and nest predation. However, the strength of the relationship has varied among studies. Explaining this variation is difficult, because none of these studies directly identified nest predators, the link between predator activity and nest survival was inferred. To address this knowledge gap, we examined seasonal variation in daily survival rates of 463 bird nests (of 17 bird species) and used cameras to document predator identity at 137 nests. We simultaneously quantified seasonal activity patterns of two local snake species (N = 30 individuals) using manual (2136 snake locations) and automated (89,165 movements detected) radiotelemetry. Rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus), the dominant snake predator at the site (~28% of observed nest predations), were most active in late May and early June, a pattern reported elsewhere for this species. When analyzing all monitored nests, we found no link between nest predation and seasonal activity of rat snakes. When analyzing only nests with known predator identities (filmed nests), however, we found that rat snakes were more likely to prey on nests during periods when they were moving the greatest distances. Similarly, analyses of all monitored nests indicated that nest survival was not linked to racer activity patterns, but racer-specific predation (N = 17 nests) of filmed nests was higher when racers were moving the greatest distances. Our results suggest that the activity of predators may be associated with higher predation rates by those predators, but that those effects can be difficult to detect when nest predator communities

  12. Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) an early warning indicator species of global warming in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colloca, Francesco; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Ligas, Alessandro; Sartor, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The effect of temperature increase on the stock of the deep-sea pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was analysed along the western coasts of Italy (North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea: Geographical Sub-Area 9). This crustacean is currently one of the most important commercial species of the trawl fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Landings of the species in the North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea have grown consistently during the last years following a rapid increase in the stock size. Since the deep-sea pink shrimp stock is exploited on the same fishing ground of other heavily overexploited stocks in a full mixed and poorly selective fishery, its condition seems to be largely independent of the current fishing exploitation pattern suggesting a positive role of climate change on the dynamic of the stock. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) on density and distribution of P. longirostris by means of general additive models (GAMs). Two different models were developed for the whole stock and for the recruits (CL < 20 mm) using time series of MEDITS (International bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean) survey density indices (n km- 2) covering the period 1995-2010. Predictors included were geographical coordinates, quarterly averaged minimum SST, sampling depth and year. Spawners density was included as predictor into the GAM for recruits. The best GAM for the whole stock explained 67.1% of the total deviance, showing a clear increase in density in concomitance with the expansion of the stock northward. We found a significant positive effect of the min SST of all seasons, as expected considering that P. longirostris spawn all year round, with the highest influence played by summer min SST, either in the same or previous year. The best model for recruits explained 64.9% of the total deviance. Recruitment increased linearly with the density of spawners showing a positive temporal trend and an expansion northward. The observed

  13. Horizontal distribution and population dynamics of the dominant mysid Hyperacanthomysis longirostris along a temperate macrotidal estuary (Chikugo River estuary, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keita W.; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) that develops in the lower salinity areas of macrotidal estuaries has been considered as an important nursery for many fish species. Mysids are one of the dominant organisms in the ETM, serving as a key food source for juvenile fish. To investigate the horizontal distribution and population dynamics of dominant mysids in relation to the fluctuation of physical conditions (temperature, salinity, turbidity, and freshwater discharge), we conducted monthly sampling (hauls of a ring net in the surface water) along the macrotidal Chikugo River estuary in Japan from May 2005 to December 2006. Hyperacanthomysis longirostris was the dominant mysid in the estuary, usually showing peaks of density and biomass in or close to the ETM (salinity 1-10). In addition, intra-specific differences (life-cycle stage, sex, and size) in horizontal distribution were found along the estuary. Larger males and females, particularly gravid females, were distributed upstream from the center of distribution where juveniles were overwhelmingly dominant. Juveniles increased in size toward the sea in marked contrast with males and females. The findings suggest a possible system of population maintenance within the estuary; gravid females release juveniles in the upper estuary, juveniles grow during downstream transport, young males and females mature during the upstream migration. Density and biomass were primarily controlled by seasonal changes of temperature, being high at intermediate temperatures (ca. 15-25 °C in late spring and fall) and being low at the extreme temperatures (ca. 10 °C in midwinter and 30 °C in midsummer). High density (up to 666 ind. m -3) and biomass (up to 168 mg dry weight m -3) of H. longirostris were considered to be comparable with those of copepods in the estuary.

  14. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... to take (survey by pursuit) the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) and an... (Rallus longirostris yumanensis); take (survey by pursuit) the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas... (survey by pursuit) the El Segundo blue butterfly (Euphilotes battoides allyni) in conjunction...

  15. High genetic differentiation of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) populations in southern Brazil revealed by multi-loci microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartholomei-Santos, M L; Roratto, P A; Santos, S

    2011-01-01

    Species with a broad distribution rarely have the same genetic make-up throughout their entire range. In some cases, they may constitute a cryptic complex consisting of a few species, each with a narrow distribution, instead of a single-, widely distributed species. These differences can have profound impacts for biodiversity conservation planning. The genetic differentiation of four populations of Aegla longirostri, a freshwater crab found in two geographically isolated basins in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, was investigated by analyzing pentanucleotide multi-loci microsatellites in a heteroduplex assay. Although no morphological differences were evident, we found significant genetic differentiation among the four populations, based on F(ST) values and clustering analysis. This high level of differentiation may be indicative of cryptic species in these populations. If this hypothesis is correct, then the species occurring in the Ibicuí-Mirim River, at the southern limit of the Atlantic Rain Forest, would be under threat, considering its very restricted distribution. PMID:22179994

  16. The use of ESR spectroscopy for the identification and dose assessment of irradiated pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydaş, Canan; Tepe Çam, Semra; Engin, Birol; Aydın, Talat; Polat, Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    Turkish pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) samples were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy for identification and dose assessment purposes. In this work, the calcified shells of shrimps were used as a sample material. Before irradiation, all shrimp shell samples exhibit one weak ESR singlet with a g-factor of 2.0047. After irradiation, all samples exhibit two asymmetric ESR signal components centered at g-values of 2.0013 and 1.9959. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to gamma radiations were found to be described well by a single saturation exponential function. Variation of ESR signal intensity of irradiated samples at room and-20 °C temperatures with time in a long-term showed that free radicals responsible from the ESR spectrum of shrimp shells were not stable but still detectable after 87 days. Also, the kinetic behavior of signal at g=2.0013 was studied and the additive dose method was used to evaluate the dose in the product.

  17. Rolling stones and stable homes: social structure, habitat diversity and population genetics of the Hawaiian spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Karczmarski, Leszek; Au, Whitlow W L; Rickards, Susan H; Vanderlip, Cynthia A; Bowen, Brian W; Gordon Grau, E; Toonen, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) exhibit different social behaviours at two regions in the Hawaiian Archipelago: off the high volcanic islands in the SE archipelago they form dynamic groups with ever-changing membership, but in the low carbonate atolls in the NW archipelago they form long-term stable groups. To determine whether these environmental and social differences influence population genetic structure, we surveyed spinner dolphins throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago with mtDNA control region sequences and 10 microsatellite loci (n = 505). F-statistics, Bayesian cluster analyses, and assignment tests revealed population genetic separations between most islands, with less genetic structuring among the NW atolls than among the SE high islands. The populations with the most stable social structure (Midway and Kure Atolls) have the highest gene flow between populations (mtDNA Phi(ST) < 0.001, P = 0.357; microsatellite F(ST) = -0.001; P = 0.597), and a population with dynamic groups and fluid social structure (the Kona Coast of the island of Hawai'i) has the lowest gene flow (mtDNA 0.042 < Phi(ST) < 0.236, P < 0.05; microsatellite 0.016 < F(ST) < 0.040, P < 0.001). We suggest that gene flow, dispersal, and social structure are influenced by the availability of habitat and resources at each island. Genetic comparisons to a South Pacific location (n = 16) indicate that Hawaiian populations are genetically depauperate and isolated from other Pacific locations (mtDNA 0.216 < F(ST) < 0.643, P < 0.001; microsatellite 0.058 < F(ST) < 0.090, P < 0.001); this isolation may also influence social and genetic structure within Hawai'i. Our results illustrate that genetic and social structure are flexible traits that can vary between even closely-related populations. PMID:20089122

  18. A New 13 Million Year Old Gavialoid Crocodylian from Proto-Amazonian Mega-Wetlands Reveals Parallel Evolutionary Trends in Skull Shape Linked to Longirostry

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Claude, Julien; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gavialoid crocodylians are the archetypal longirostrine archosaurs and, as such, understanding their patterns of evolution is fundamental to recognizing cranial rearrangements and reconstructing adaptive pathways associated with elongation of the rostrum (longirostry). The living Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus is the sole survivor of the group, thus providing unique evidence on the distinctive biology of its fossil kin. Yet phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary ecology spanning ~70 million-years of longirostrine crocodylian diversification remain unclear. Analysis of cranial anatomy of a new proto-Amazonian gavialoid, Gryposuchus pachakamue sp. nov., from the Miocene lakes and swamps of the Pebas Mega-Wetland System reveals that acquisition of both widely separated and protruding eyes (telescoped orbits) and riverine ecology within South American and Indian gavialoids is the result of parallel evolution. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses show that, in association with longirostry, circumorbital bone configuration can evolve rapidly for coping with trends in environmental conditions and may reflect shifts in feeding strategy. Our results support a long-term radiation of the South American forms, with taxa occupying either extreme of the gavialoid morphospace showing preferences for coastal marine versus fluvial environments. The early biogeographic history of South American gavialoids was strongly linked to the northward drainage system connecting proto-Amazonian wetlands to the Caribbean region. PMID:27097031

  19. A New 13 Million Year Old Gavialoid Crocodylian from Proto-Amazonian Mega-Wetlands Reveals Parallel Evolutionary Trends in Skull Shape Linked to Longirostry.

    PubMed

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Claude, Julien; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gavialoid crocodylians are the archetypal longirostrine archosaurs and, as such, understanding their patterns of evolution is fundamental to recognizing cranial rearrangements and reconstructing adaptive pathways associated with elongation of the rostrum (longirostry). The living Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus is the sole survivor of the group, thus providing unique evidence on the distinctive biology of its fossil kin. Yet phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary ecology spanning ~70 million-years of longirostrine crocodylian diversification remain unclear. Analysis of cranial anatomy of a new proto-Amazonian gavialoid, Gryposuchus pachakamue sp. nov., from the Miocene lakes and swamps of the Pebas Mega-Wetland System reveals that acquisition of both widely separated and protruding eyes (telescoped orbits) and riverine ecology within South American and Indian gavialoids is the result of parallel evolution. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses show that, in association with longirostry, circumorbital bone configuration can evolve rapidly for coping with trends in environmental conditions and may reflect shifts in feeding strategy. Our results support a long-term radiation of the South American forms, with taxa occupying either extreme of the gavialoid morphospace showing preferences for coastal marine versus fluvial environments. The early biogeographic history of South American gavialoids was strongly linked to the northward drainage system connecting proto-Amazonian wetlands to the Caribbean region. PMID:27097031

  20. Role of sulfites and 4-hexylresorcinol in microbial growth and melanosis prevention of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) using a controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, O; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2005-01-01

    A controlled atmosphere containing 48% CO2 and 7% O2 was used in association with refrigeration for storage of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris). Shrimp were treated with two different concentrations of sodium metabisulfite or 4-hexylresorcinol and subjected to the controlled atmosphere immediately after capture onboard ship or on arrival in port. Total volatile basic nitrogen, total viable counts, enterobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and luminescent bacteria were determined, and black spot progression was evaluated. The combined effect of controlled atmosphere and melanosis inhibitors was used to delay black spot development as compared to the shrimp stored in ice alone. Storage under the controlled atmosphere without ice limited microbiological quality, namely, total viable counts, but enterobacterial growth was lower. PMID:15690809

  1. The evolving male: spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes are divergent at Y chromosome but not mtDNA or autosomal markers.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Perrin, William F; Oremus, Marc; Karczmarski, Leszek; Bowen, Brian W; Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    The susceptibility of the Y chromosome to sexual selection may make this chromosome an important player in the formation of reproductive isolating barriers, and ultimately speciation. Here, we investigate the role of the Y chromosome in phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes. This species contains six known ecotypes (grouped into four subspecies) that exhibit striking differences in morphology, habitat and mating system, despite having adjacent or overlapping ranges and little genetic divergence at previously studied mtDNA and autosomal markers. We examined the phylogeographic structure for all six ecotypes across the species range (n = 261, 17 geographic locations) using DNA sequences from three Y chromosome markers, two maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, and a biparentally inherited autosomal intron. mtDNA and autosomal analyses revealed low divergence (most Φ(ST) values <0.1) between ecotypes and geographic regions, concordant with previous studies. In contrast, Y intron analyses revealed fixed differences amongst the three most phenotypically divergent groups: S. l. longirostris vs. S. l. roseiventris vs. combined S. l. orientalis/S. l. centroamericana/Tres Marias ecotypes). Another ecotype (whitebelly), previously postulated to be a hybrid between the two phenotypically most divergent ecotypes, had Y haplotypes from both putative parent ecotypes, supporting a hybrid designation. Reduced introgression of the Y chromosome has previously been observed in other organisms ranging from insects to terrestrial mammals, and here we demonstrate this phenomenon in a marine mammal with high dispersal capabilities. These results indicate that reduced introgression of the Y chromosome occurs in a wide taxonomic range of organisms and support the growing body of evidence that rapid evolution of the Y chromosome is important in evolutionary diversification. PMID:23551274

  2. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Overton, Cory T; Casazza, Michael L; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Keister, Robin A; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-03-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15-1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37-22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68-20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15-2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R(2) = 0.58-0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20-22 g (5-7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. PMID:22243896

  3. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Michael L; Ricca, Mark A; Overton, Cory T; Takekawa, John Y; Merritt, Angela M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-09-15

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09-0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2-0.7), Laumeister (0.2-0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3-1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails. PMID:25066452

  4. Wetland Accretion Rate Model of Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER) and its application to habitat sustainability for endangered species in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Thorne, Karen M.; Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Callaway, John C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh faunas are constrained by specific habitat requirements for marsh elevation relative to sea level and tidal range. As sea level rises, changes in relative elevation of the marsh plain will have differing impacts on the availability of habitat for marsh obligate species. The Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER) is a 1-D model of elevation that incorporates both biological and physical processes of vertical marsh accretion. Here, we use WARMER to evaluate changes in marsh surface elevation and the impact of these elevation changes on marsh habitat for specific species of concern. Model results were compared to elevation-based habitat criteria developed for marsh vegetation, the endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), and the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) to determine the response of marsh habitat for each species to predicted >1-m sea-level rise by 2100. Feedback between vertical accretion mechanisms and elevation reduced the effect of initial elevation in the modeled scenarios. Elevation decreased nonlinearly with larger changes in elevation during the latter half of the century when the rate of sea-level rise increased. Model scenarios indicated that changes in elevation will degrade habitat quality within salt marshes in the San Francisco Estuary, and degradation will accelerate in the latter half of the century as the rate of sea-level rise accelerates. A sensitivity analysis of the model results showed that inorganic sediment accumulation and the rate of sea-level rise had the greatest influence over salt marsh sustainability.

  5. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Merritt, Angela M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09–0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2–0.7), Laumeister (0.2–0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3–1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails.

  6. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Overton, C.T.; Casazza, M.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Keister, R.A.; Herzog, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 ??g/g ww in blood (range: 0.15-1.43), 9.87 ??g/g fw in head feathers (3.37-22.0), 9.04 ??g/g fw in breast feathers (3.68-20.2), and 0.57 ??g/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15-2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58-0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20-22 g (5-7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 mg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20e22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  8. Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar. PMID:18210221

  9. Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Giuseppe, Lembo; Porzia, Maiorano; Francesca, Capezzuto; Alessandra, Marano Chiara; Letizia, Sion; Teresa, Spedicato Maria; Nicola, Ungaro; Angelo, Tursi; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits/km 2) and R/Tot (fraction of recruits on the total sampled population). The structural analysis showed a spatial pattern of both variables characterized by continuity on a small scale. Predictions of nursery area localization with probability of finding recruits at different threshold values were obtained through median indicator kriging. For the red mullet the nurseries were mainly identified in the South Adriatic Sea off the Gargano peninsula and between Molfetta and Monopoli within 50 m in depth. The main concentration of hake juveniles was found to be between 100 and 200 m in depth along the Gargano peninsula and between Otranto and Santa Maria di Leuca, where a nursery of deep-water rose shrimp was also detected. An overlapping depth, between 100 and 200 m, was identified for hake and deep-water rose shrimp nurseries. Protection of these areas through limitations of fishing pressure is discussed.

  10. Accumulations of total metal in dominant shrimp species (Palaemon adspersus, Palaemon serratus, Parapenaeus longirostris) and bottom surface sediments obtained from the Northern Inner Shelf of the Sea of Marmara.

    PubMed

    Kurun, A; Balkis, H; Balkis, N

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the total metal (aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, mercury) contents of dominant shrimp species and sediments present at 1-50 m depths of the Northern Inner Shelf of the Sea of Marmara. Shrimp and sediment samples were collected from four regions (Büyükçekmece, Silivri, Tekirdağ, Sarköy) and from different depths (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 m) at each region in September and November of 2003. Three shrimp species [Palaemon adspersus (Rathke, 1937), Palaemon serratus (Pennant, 1777), Parapenaeus longirostris (H. Lucas, 1846)] were identified to be dominant as a result of the examination on the obtained samples. Heavy metal contents of these three species were determined and the results were compared with the acceptable treshold values of the Seafood Standards and also with available literatures. The Cu contents were found to be higher than the treshold limits in all samples except P. longirostris from Silivri, also the Cd contents in all samples except P. adspersus from Büyükçekmece, the Zn contents only in P. adspersus and P. longirostris from Tekirdağ, and the Pb contents in all species from all regions. These high values are the indicator of industrial pollution. There is not any data in the Seafood Standards about Mn, Ni, Fe and Al contents in shrimp species. The values of these metal contents were given in the present study. The examination of total metal distributions in bottom surface sediment samples in the Northern Inner Shelf of the Sea of Marmara showed that the determined values were higher than the shale average at some depths of examined stations. PMID:17406997

  11. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and 3D structural analysis of the MHC class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris).

    PubMed

    Shen, Tong; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Mei; Pang, Shuying; Yang, Guang

    2011-05-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules encode glycoproteins which mediate the specificity of the vertebrate adaptive immune response. In this study, MHC class IIB gene from the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris) was cloned and sequenced, which encoded a predicted protein of 248 amino acids (28.06 kDa) containing a signal peptide, a beta 1 domain, a beta 2 domain, a connecting peptide, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using PCR with primers designed from known fish MHC class IIB sequences followed by elongation of the 5' and 3' ends using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full-length cDNA of longsnout catfish MHC class IIB was identified to be 1293 bp, consisting of a 26 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 520 bp 3'-UTR, and a 747 bp open reading frame (ORF) bearing characteristics of the immunoglobulin C-type 1 (IGc1) family. The deduced amino acid sequences of the Chinese longsnout catfish MHC class IIB gene had 58-75% identity with those of other fishes. Six class IIB alleles were identified from five individuals. At most two different alleles observed in each individual may infer the existence of a single locus of class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish genome. An extensive study of polymorphism was examined in 60 individuals. A total of 11 haplotypes of exon 2 were detected in the sampled Chinese longsnout catfish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a higher frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), suggesting the polymorphism of exon 2 seemed to be maintained by the balancing selection. By using long PCR technique, the genomic sequence was further identified to be 2345 bp in length, which contained six exons and five introns. Interestingly, a 98 bp intron 5 cut the 3'-UTR into two parts. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated high expression of MHC IIB in gills, spleen, head kidney, and intestine, moderate expression in liver and

  12. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    She, Jianwen; Holden, Arthur; Adelsbach, Terrence L; Tanner, Manon; Schwarzbach, Steven E; Yee, Julie L; Hooper, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n=78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n=76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n=11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n=4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of SigmaPBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median SigmaPBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. PMID:18466953

  13. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  14. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K.; Drexler, J. Z.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Thorne, K.; Spragens, K.; Takekawa, J.

    2010-12-01

    The San Francisco Estuary contains the largest extent of tidal marsh in the western United States. It is home to several state and federally listed species that are threatened or endangered. Climate change is a potential threat to these tidal marsh habitats through accelerated sea-level rise. The Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience, or WARMER, is a 1-D vertical model of elevation at a point representative of target wetland habitat. WARMER incorporates both biological and physical components of vertical marsh accretion processes based on previous wetland models and is modified to incorporate mechanistic organic matter and inorganic deposition and the predicted SLR curve for San Francisco Estuary. Processes that are currently being modified include relative sea-level rise, inorganic sediment deposition, organic matter production, decomposition, and compaction. The model will be applied to marshes across the San Francisco Estuary and results will be used to evaluate the extent sea-level rise will reduce the functional habitat of the threatened black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus), the endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), and the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Here we present a sensitivity analysis of key model parameters. Previous studies have noted that inorganic sediment deposition, initial elevation and pore space are the most sensitive parameters. Consistent with these studies, sensitivity analysis shows that pore space is the most sensitive parameter in the current model and the modified inorganic sediment deposition subroutine is particularly sensitive to the parameterization of settling velocity. Perturbations to initial elevation, the rate of sea level rise, organic matter input rates and percent refractory organic matter had small impacts on the modeled final elevation. Proper characterization of marsh sediment pore space and temporally variable sediment

  16. Development of a data-driven numerical model for San Francisco Bay marsh habitat sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K.; Drexler, J. Z.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Thorne, K.; Spragens, K.; Takekawa, J.

    2011-12-01

    vegetation, the endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) and the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) to determine potential habitat response due to predicted 124-cm sea-level rise in the coming century. Feedbacks between accretion mechanisms and elevation reduce the effect of initial elevation, but elevation decreases non-linearly mirroring the temporal variability of sea-level rise. Model scenarios indicate that changes in elevation will degrade habitat quality within San Francisco Bay marshes and that degradation will accelerate in the latter half of this century as the rate of sea-level rise accelerates.

  17. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Many species of marsh birds (rails, bitterns, grebes, etc.) rely exclusively on emergent marsh vegetation for all phases of their life cycle, and many organizations have become concerned about the status and persistence of this group of birds. Yet, marsh birds are notoriously difficult to monitor due to their secretive habits. We synthesized the published and unpublished literature and summarized the factors that influence detection probability of secretive marsh birds in North America. Marsh birds are more likely to respond to conspecific than heterospecific calls, and seasonal peak in vocalization probability varies among co-existing species. The effectiveness of morning versus evening surveys varies among species and locations. Vocalization probability appears to be positively correlated with density in breeding Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), Soras (Porzana carolina), and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris). Movement of birds toward the broadcast source creates biases when using count data from callbroadcast surveys to estimate population density. Ambient temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phase affected detection probability in some, but not all, studies. Better estimates of detection probability are needed. We provide recommendations that would help improve future marsh bird survey efforts and a list of 14 priority information and research needs that represent gaps in our current knowledge where future resources are best directed. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  18. Constraints on nest site selection: a comparison of predator and flood avoidance in four species of marsh-nesting birds (genera: Catoptrophorus, Larus, Rallus, and Sterna).

    PubMed

    Storey, A E; Montevecchi, W A; Andrews, H F; Sims, N

    1988-03-01

    Nest site characteristics associated with flood and predator avoidance were compared for four nonpasserine species of marsh-nesting birds: clapper rails, willets, laughing gulls, and common terns. Species with short nests, willets and terns, minimized flood damage by nesting on higher ground than did gulls and rails that build tall nests. Species with dispersed, cryptic nests had taller surrounding grass than did open-nesting colonial species. Total nest height was similar for species with tall nests and for terns whose short nests were elevated by placement on mats of dead Spartina grass. Willets had lower nest heights than the other species, probably because the inverse relation between grass height and ground height in the salt marsh makes it difficult for willets to find sites with high enough ground for flood avoidance while still retaining high enough grass for nest crypticity. Ground height for common terns and grass height for gulls and rails appear to be cues used in nest site selection. Nests of each species in which these characteristics were maximized were more successful in a major tidal flood. Laughing gulls and clapper rails appear to be more specialized salt marsh nesters than the other two species. PMID:3365941

  19. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  20. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  1. Sea-level rise and refuge habitats for tidal marsh species: can artificial islands save the California Ridgway's rail?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Casazza, Michael L.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Holyoak, Marcel; Strong, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial species living in intertidal habitats experience refuge limitation during periods of tidal inundation, which may be exacerbated by seasonal variation in vegetation structure, tidal cycles, and land-use change. Sea-level rise projections indicate the severity of refuge limitation may increase. Artificial habitats that provide escape cover during tidal inundation have been proposed as a temporary solution to alleviate these limitations. We tested for evidence of refuge habitat limitation in a population of endangered California Ridgway's rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter California rail) through use of artificial floating island habitats provided during two winters. Previous studies demonstrated that California rail mortality was especially high during the winter and periods of increased tidal inundation, suggesting that tidal refuge habitat is critical to survival. In our study, California rail regularly used artificial islands during higher tides and daylight hours. When tide levels inundated the marsh plain, use of artificial islands was at least 300 times more frequent than would be expected if California rails used artificial habitats proportional to their availability (0.016%). Probability of use varied among islands, and low levels of use were observed at night. These patterns may result from anti-predator behaviors and heterogeneity in either rail density or availability of natural refuges. Endemic saltmarsh species are increasingly at risk from habitat change resulting from sea-level rise and development of adjacent uplands. Escape cover during tidal inundation may need to be supplemented if species are to survive. Artificial habitats may provide effective short-term mitigation for habitat change and sea-level rise in tidal marsh environments, particularly for conservation-reliant species such as California rails.

  2. Passive acoustic monitoring of coastally associated Hawaiian spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris, ground-truthed through visual surveys.

    PubMed

    Heenehan, Heather L; Tyne, Julian A; Bejder, Lars; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Johnston, David W

    2016-07-01

    Effective decision making to protect coastally associated dolphins relies on monitoring the presence of animals in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins forage at night and rest during the day in shallow bays. Due to their predictable presence, they are targeted by dolphin-tourism. In this study, comparisons of presence were made between passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) and vessel-based visual surveys in Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays. DSG-Ocean passive acoustic recording devices were deployed in four bays along the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island between January 8, 2011 and August 30, 2012. The devices sampled at 80 kHz, making 30-s recordings every four minutes. Overall, dolphins were acoustically detected on 37.1% to 89.6% of recording days depending on the bay. Vessel-based visual surveys overlapped with the PAM surveys on 202 days across the four bays. No significant differences were found between visual and acoustic detections suggesting acoustic surveys can be used as a proxy for visual surveys. Given the need to monitor dolphin presence across sites, PAM is the most suitable and efficient tool for monitoring long-term presence/absence. Concomitant photo-identification surveys are necessary to address changes in abundance over time. PMID:27475147

  3. Mercury in Caribbean dolphins (Stenella longirostris and Stenella frontalis) caught for human consumption off St. Vincent, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Russell; Evans, David W

    2014-12-15

    The island of St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles supports an ongoing, legal cetacean hunt, which targets several species for human consumption. Little is known regarding the healthfulness and potential health risks of these foods in this setting. Following established methodologies we analyzed 39 raw muscle tissue samples and 38 raw blubber samples from two cetacean species for total mercury and methyl-mercury. We also analyzed samples of muscle tissue from an unknown cetacean species prepared for consumption. We report high concentrations of total mercury and methyl-mercury in these tissues as compared to published data for other seafood products. Further, our findings indicate that the traditional preparation method most often used locally in St. Vincent yields a finished food product with a much higher mercury concentration than the unprocessed tissue. Our results highlight the potential for negative human health effects related to the consumption of these food products in St. Vincent. PMID:25455368

  4. Characterization of pathogenic Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii associated with ulcerative syndrome from chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Günther)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuang-Hu; Wu, Zao-He; Jian, Ji-Chang; Lu, Yi-Shan; Tang, Ju-Feng

    2012-01-01

    273 bacterial strains were isolated from 20 Chinese longsnout catfish samples. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii on the basis of Vitek GNI+ card. Furthermore, 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences of the representative strain PY50 were sequenced and showed high similarity with A. veronii bv. veronii in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of the representative strain PY50 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 13 and 4 of the 21 antimicrobial agents tested. Extracellular products of strain PY50 contained gelatinase, lecithinase, elastase, most of lipase and lipopolysaccharide. Virulence of strain PY50 and extracellular products to Chinese longsnout catfish were also tested, and LD50 were about 3.47×104 CFU per fish and 11.22 μg per fish in intraperitoneal injection respectively. This is the first report that A. veronii bv. veronii was the pathogenic agent of ulcerative syndrome in Chinese longsnout catfish. PMID:24031843

  5. Maximizing detection probability of Wetland-dependent birds during point-count surveys in northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, C.P.; Conway, C.J.; Smith, B.S.; Lewis, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted 262 call-broadcast point-count surveys (1-6 replicate surveys on each of 62 points) using standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocols between 31 May and 7 July 2006 on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, an island off the northwest coast of Florida. We conducted double-blind multiple-observer surveys, paired morning and evening surveys, and paired morning and night surveys to examine the influence of call-broadcast and time of day on detection probability. Observer detection probability for all species pooled was 75% and was similar between passive (69%) and call-broadcast (65%) periods. Detection probability was higher on morning than evening (t = 3.0, P = 0.030) or night (t = 3.4, P = 0.042) surveys when we pooled all species. Detection probability was higher (but not significant for all species) on morning compared to evening or night surveys for all five focal species detected on surveys: Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and American Coot (Fulica americana). We detected more Least Bitterns (t = 2.4, P = 0.064) and Common Moorhens (t = 2.8, P = 0.026) on morning than evening surveys, and more Clapper Rails (t = 5.1, P = 0.014) on morning than night surveys.

  6. Waterbirds (other than Laridae) nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E

    2008-03-01

    Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor), Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea), Green Heron (Butorides virescens), Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla), Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus), Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica), Forster's Terns (S. forsteri), Least Terns (Sternula antillarum), and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status. PMID:18624252

  7. Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Linscombe, J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

  8. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  9. Multi-species call-broadcast improved detection of endangered Yuma clapper rail compared to single-species call-broadcast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Piest, Linden; Burger, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Broadcasting calls of marsh birds during point-count surveys increases their detection probability and decreases variation in the number of birds detected across replicate surveys. However, multi-species monitoring using call-broadcast may reduce these benefits if birds are reluctant to call once they hear broadcasted calls of other species. We compared a protocol that uses call-broadcast for only one species (Yuma clapper rail [Rallus longirostris yumanensis]) to a protocol that uses call-broadcast for multiple species. We detected more of each of the following species using the multi-species protocol: 25 % more pied-billed grebes, 160 % more American bitterns, 52 % more least bitterns, 388 % more California black rails, 12 % more Yuma clapper rails, 156 % more Virginia rails, 214 % more soras, and 19 % more common gallinules. Moreover, the coefficient of variation was smaller when using the multi-species protocol: 10 % smaller for pied-billed grebes, 38 % smaller for American bitterns, 19 % smaller for least bitterns, 55 % smaller for California black rails, 5 % smaller for Yuma clapper rails, 38 % smaller for Virginia rails, 44 % smaller for soras, and 8 % smaller for common gallinules. Our results suggest that multi-species monitoring approaches may be more effective and more efficient than single-species approaches even when using call-broadcast.

  10. Clapper rails as indicators of mercury and PCB bioavailability in a Georgia saltmarsh system.

    PubMed

    Cumbee, J C; Gaines, K F; Mills, G L; Garvin, N; Stephens, W L; Novak, J M; Brisbin, I L

    2008-08-01

    Clapper rails (Rallus longirostris) were used as an indicator species of estuarine marsh habitat quality because of their strong site fidelity and predictable diet consisting of mostly benthic organisms. Mercury (Hg) and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 concentrations were determined for sediments, crabs, as well as clapper rail adults and chicks collected from salt marshes associated with the LCP Superfund site in Brunswick, Georgia. Home ranges were established for adult rails, and sediment and crab samples were taken from each individual's range. The study was designed to minimize the spatial variability associated with trophic transfer studies by choosing an endpoint species with a potentially small home range and specifically sampling its foraging range. The mean home range for clapper rails was 1.2 ha with a median of 0.28 ha. Concentrations of Hg and Aroclor 1268 were shown to increase with each trophic level. Transfer factors between media followed the same pattern for both contaminants with the highest between fiddler crabs and clapper rail liver. Hg and PCB transfer factors were similar between sediment to fiddler crab and fiddler crab to muscle, however the PCB transfer factor from fiddler crabs to liver was over twice as large as for Hg. PCB congener profiles did not significantly differ between media types. PMID:18389370

  11. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  12. Are southern California's fragmented saltmarshes capable of sustaining endemic bird populations?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of coastal saltmarshes in southern California has been estimated at 75-90% since presettlement times. The remaining wetlands are mostly fragmented and degraded, and most frequently have harsh edges adjacent to urban landscapes. Non-migratory Belding's Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi) and Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) are endemic to saltmarshes in southern California and Baja California, Mexico. Population sizes of Belding's Savannah Sparrows show a positive relationship with saltmarsh area, but few large wetland fragments remain within their range in California. Belding's Savannah Sparrows are sensitive to fragmentation and isolation, with small isolated marshes acting as population sinks. In addition, this subspecies shows low genetic variability, limited dispersal, and small effective population sizes. Light-footed Clapper Rails are habitat specialists, found in marshes with good tidal flushing that support California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) habitats. Light-footed Clapper rails also show low genetic variability and limited dispersal and the remnant populations of clapper rails are relatively isolated from one another. Large wetland complexes may serve as population sources for both species, while small, isolated marshes may act as population sinks but more research is needed to estimate and model the dynamics of these two metapopulations. Mitigation for wetland loss and restoration projects should not be evaluated simply by presence of rare bird species alone, but instead efforts should be made to determine population sustainability.

  13. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  14. 78 FR 56218 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba... dolphins (Tursiops truncates), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphins...

  15. Marsh birds and the North American Breeding Bird Survey: judging the value of a landscape level survey for habitat specialist species with low detection rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    relative abundance. Examples include Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) (T=12 %/yr; P= 0.0085; N =28; routes; RA=0.05; Power=0.37; Needed samples=85), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) (No trend data or power information available, N =8), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris) (T=1.9%/yr; P=0.55; N =64; RA=0.31; Power=0.35; Needed samples=590), King Rail (Rallus elegans) (T=-4.2 %/yr; P= 0.03; N =76; Power=0.41; Needed samples=159), Sora (Porzana carolina) (T=0.98 %/yr; P= 0.24; N =720; RA= 0.92; Power=0.69; Needed samples= 377), and Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) (T=-0.24 %/yr; P= 0.54; N =1412; RA= 2.19; Power=0.98; Needed samples=205). With regard to quality of BBS data, marsh birds fall into 3 categories: (1) almost never encountered on BBS routes; (2) encountered at extremely low abundances on BBS routes; and (3) probably fairly well sampled by BBS roadside counts. BBS data can provide useful information for many marsh bird species, but users should be aware of the limitations of the BBS sample for monitoring species that have low visibility from point counts and prefer habitats not often encountered on roadsides.

  16. Modeling the Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckelbridge, K. H.; Hidalgo, H.; Dracup, J.; Ibarra Obando, S. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Cienega de Santa Clara is a created wetland located in the Colorado River Delta (CRD), in Sonora, Mexico. It is sustained by agricultural return flows from the Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation District in Arizona and the Mexicali Valley in Mexico. As one of the few wetlands remaining in the CRD, it provides critical habitat for several species of fish and birds, including several endangered species such as the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) and the Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis). However, this habitat may be in jeopardy if the quantity and quality of the agricultural inflows are significantly altered. This study seeks to develop a model that describes the dynamics of wetland hydrology, vegetation, and water quality as a function of inflow variability and salinity loading. The model is divided into four modules set up in sequence. For a given time step, the sequence begins with the first module, which utilizes basic diffusion equations to simulate mixing processes in the shallow wetland when the flow and concentration of the inflow deviate from the baseline. The second module develops a vegetated-area response to the resulting distribution of salinity in the wetland. Using the new area of vegetation cover determined by the second module and various meteorological variables, the third module calculates the evapotranspiration rate for the wetland, using the Penman-Montieth equation. Finally, the fourth module takes the overall evapotranspiration rate, along with precipitation, inflow and outflow and calculates the new volume of the wetland using a water balance. This volume then establishes the initial variables for the next time step. The key outputs from the model are salinity concentration, area of vegetation cover, and wetland volume for each time step. Results from this model will illustrate how the wetland's hydrology, vegetation, and water quality are altered over time under various inflow scenarios. These outputs can ultimately be used

  17. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira. PMID:26701473

  18. Flightlessness and phylogeny amongst endemic rails (Aves:Rallidae) of the New Zealand region.

    PubMed

    Trewick, S A

    1997-04-29

    The phylogenetic relationships of a number of flightless and volant rails have been investigated using mtDNA sequence data. The third domain of the small ribosomal subunit (12S) has been sequenced for 22 taxa, and part of the 5' end of the cytochrome-b gene has been sequenced for 12 taxa. Additional sequences were obtained from outgroup taxa, two species of jacana, sarus crane, spur-winged plover and kagu. Extinct rails were investigated using DNA extracted from subfossil bones, and in cases where fresh material could not be obtained from other extant taxa, feathers and museum skins were used as sources of DNA. Phylogenetic trees produced from these data have topologies that are, in general, consistent with data from DNA-DNA hybridization studies and recent interpretations based on morphology. Gallinula chloropus moorhen) groups basally with Fulica (coots), Amaurornis (= Megacrex) ineptus falls within the Gallirallus/Rallus group, and Gallinula (= Porphyrula) martinica is basal to Porphyrio (swamphens) and should probably be placed in that genus. Subspecies of Porphyrio porphyrio are paraphyletic with respect to Porphyrio mantelli (takahe). The Northern Hemisphere Rallus aquaticus is basal to the south-western Pacific Rallus (or Gallirallus) group. The flightless Rallus philippensis dieffenbachii is close to Rallus modestus and distinct from the volant Rallus philippensis, and is evidently a separate species. Porzana (crakes) appears to be more closely associated with Porphyrio than Rallus. Deep relationships among the rails remain poorly resolved. Rhynochetus jubatus (kagu) is closer to the cranes than the rails in this analysis. Genetic distances between flightless rails and their volant counterparts varied considerably with observed 12S sequence distances, ranging from 0.3% (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus and P. mantelli mantelli) to 7.6% (Rallus modestus and Rallus philippensis). This may be taken as an indication of the rapidity with which flightlessness can

  19. Flightlessness and phylogeny amongst endemic rails (Aves:Rallidae) of the New Zealand region.

    PubMed Central

    Trewick, S A

    1997-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of a number of flightless and volant rails have been investigated using mtDNA sequence data. The third domain of the small ribosomal subunit (12S) has been sequenced for 22 taxa, and part of the 5' end of the cytochrome-b gene has been sequenced for 12 taxa. Additional sequences were obtained from outgroup taxa, two species of jacana, sarus crane, spur-winged plover and kagu. Extinct rails were investigated using DNA extracted from subfossil bones, and in cases where fresh material could not be obtained from other extant taxa, feathers and museum skins were used as sources of DNA. Phylogenetic trees produced from these data have topologies that are, in general, consistent with data from DNA-DNA hybridization studies and recent interpretations based on morphology. Gallinula chloropus moorhen) groups basally with Fulica (coots), Amaurornis (= Megacrex) ineptus falls within the Gallirallus/Rallus group, and Gallinula (= Porphyrula) martinica is basal to Porphyrio (swamphens) and should probably be placed in that genus. Subspecies of Porphyrio porphyrio are paraphyletic with respect to Porphyrio mantelli (takahe). The Northern Hemisphere Rallus aquaticus is basal to the south-western Pacific Rallus (or Gallirallus) group. The flightless Rallus philippensis dieffenbachii is close to Rallus modestus and distinct from the volant Rallus philippensis, and is evidently a separate species. Porzana (crakes) appears to be more closely associated with Porphyrio than Rallus. Deep relationships among the rails remain poorly resolved. Rhynochetus jubatus (kagu) is closer to the cranes than the rails in this analysis. Genetic distances between flightless rails and their volant counterparts varied considerably with observed 12S sequence distances, ranging from 0.3% (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus and P. mantelli mantelli) to 7.6% (Rallus modestus and Rallus philippensis). This may be taken as an indication of the rapidity with which flightlessness can

  20. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  1. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Klimstra, Jon D; Stebbins, Katherine R; Kondrad, Shannon L; Erwin, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC(50)). Based on the dose-response curves and LC(50)s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC(50 )was 1.79 microg/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC(50)s were 1 microg/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC(50)s were greater than 0.25 microg/g mercury but less than 1 microg/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (Sterna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC(50)s were less than 0.25 microg/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we

  2. Characterizing the species composition of European Culicoides vectors by means of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biting midges of the genus Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors for the Bluetongue virus, the African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. Here, species of the C. obsoletus complex, the C. pulicaris complex and C. imicola were considered. The objective was to compile a map of these Culicoides species and their relation to the popular climate classification defined by Wladimir Köppen and Rudolf Geiger to provide a quick view on the species composition in Europe. Findings Major parts of Central and Northern Europe are covered by a warm temperate fully humid climate, characterized by warm summers. For this so-called Cfb climate fractions of 89% C. obsoletus complex and 11% C. pulicaris complex were estimated. Further investigations comprise the continental climate Dfb (76% C. obsoletus, 24% C. pulicaris), the warm temperate climate with hot summers Cfa (35% C. obsoletus, 65% C. pulicaris), the warm temperate dry climate, characterized by warm summers Csb (38% C. obsoletus, 51% C. pulicaris, 11% C. imicola) and the warm temperate dry climate with hot summers Csa of the Mediterranean area (11% C. obsoletus, 12% C. pulicaris, 77% C. imicola). Conclusions A highly significant association coefficient of RV = 0.64 (Cramer’s V) confirms the correlation between Culicoides spp. and climate zones. Moreover, climate projections for the end of the century give an impression on expected changes in the European Culicoides spp. composition. PMID:24267276

  3. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  4. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  5. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  6. Two new crayfishes of the genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Northern Alabama and South Central Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Jones, Danny R; Eversole, Arnold G

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses of morphometric data and examination of morphological characters of the crayfish species Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) longirostris revealed the existence of two undescribed species from populations previously considered to be C. longirostris in tributaries of the Tennessee River in north Alabama and central south Tennessee. Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni and Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) diupalma differed from C. longirostris and from each other in aspects of chela morphometrics and in the presence or absence of qualitative characters. Cambarus andersoni has a corneous spine on the base of the ventral surface of the rostrum that is absent in the other two species; C. diupalma abdominal pleura are acute whereas they are subtruncate in C. andersoni and in C. longirostris. The known range of both of the new species is restricted to northern tributaries of the Tennessee River in south Tennessee and north Alabama. Cambarus diupalma is considered Endangered and C. andersoni is considered Vulnerable using American Fisheries Society conservation categorization. PMID:26701517

  7. Comparative neuroanatomy of the antennal lobes of 2 homopteran species.

    PubMed

    Rossi Stacconi, Marco Valerio; Hansson, Bill S; Rybak, Jürgen; Romani, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We compared the morphology of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), in 2 homopteran insects, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera: Cixiidae) and Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera: Cicadomorpha). The comparison between the ALs of the 2 species is particularly interesting considering that, although both use volatile cues to locate their host plants, their feeding behavior differs considerably: specifically, H. obsoletus is a highly polyphagous species, whereas S. titanus is strictly monophagous (on grapevine). Our investigation of the AL structure using immunocytochemical staining and antennal backfills did not reveal any sexual dimorphism in either the size of the ALs or in the size of individual glomeruli for either species. Instead, the AL of H. obsoletus displayed numerous and well-delineated glomeruli (about 130 in both sexes) arranged in a multilayered structure, whereas the smaller AL of S. titanus contained fewer than 15 glomerular-like structures. This difference is likely to reflect the comparatively reduced olfactory abilities in S. titanus, probably as a consequence of the reduced number of volatiles coming from the single host plant. Instead, in H. obsoletus, the ability to distinguish among several host plants may require a more complex olfactory neuronal network. PMID:24443423

  8. Biting rates of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on sheep in northeastern Spain in relation to midge capture using UV light and carbon dioxide-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Alec C; Sarto i Monteys, V; Moreno Vidal, J O; Francino, O; Mullens, Bradley A

    2009-05-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected near sunset by direct aspiration from sheep in northeastern Spain to determine species-specific biting rates and crepuscular activity. Midges were also collected by UV-baited light traps and CO2-baited traps over the same period to compare species diversity and abundance using these common surveillance methods to actual sheep attack rates. Culicoides aspirated from sheep included C. obsoletus, C. parroti, C. scoticus, C. punctatus, and C. imicola. Peak host-seeking activity during the time period examined for the two most commonly collected species (C. obsoletus and C. parroti) occurred just before sunset and activity ceased within 1 h after sunset. Host attack rates near sunset averaged 0.9 midges/min for both species with maximum attack rates of 3/min for C. obsoletus and 4/min for C. parroti. For both species, approximately 35% of midges collected from the sheep were engorged, giving a maximum biting rate of 1.1/min for C. obsoletus and 1.5/min for C. parroti. Traps baited with CO2 collected fewer midges of each species relative to other collection methods. Traps baited with UV light provided a good indication of species richness but significantly underestimated the host attack rate of C. obsoletus and C. parroti while overestimating the host attack rate of C. imicola. Animal-baited collecting is critical to interpret the epidemiological significance of light trap collections used for surveillance of the midge vectors of bluetongue virus and African horse sickness virus. PMID:19496435

  9. Report on two deep-water caridean shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae, Acanthephyridae) from the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    Two deep-water species of caridean shrimps collected during recent dives by the Chinese manned submersible "Jiaolong" represents new records for the South China Sea: Alvinocaris longirostris Kikuchi & Ohta, 1995 (Alvinocarididae) and Acanthephyra faxoni Calman, 1939 (Acanthephyridae). Specimens of these two species were collected from Jiaolong Cold Seep I, off Guangdong Province, China (depth 1138 m). Alvinocaris longirostris is known to be associated with chemosynthetic community, whereas Acanthephyra faxoni is a bathypelagic inhabitant, of which the occurrence in seep site is merely opportunistic. An identification key to species of Alvinocaris is provided.  PMID:25661601

  10. 78 FR 33811 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... INFORMATION: On March 22, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 17639) that a request for... bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins. ADDRESSES: The permit and... consists of helicopter flights over Florida Bay to film bottlenose dolphins mud-ring feeding. A maximum...

  11. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... annually). (G) Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis)—5385 (an average of 1077 annually). (H) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3670 ( an average of 734 annually). (I) Pan-tropical dolphins (Stenella attenuata)—10995 (an average of 2199 annually). (J) Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris)—2105...

  12. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  13. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  14. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... annually). (G) Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis)—5385 (an average of 1077 annually). (H) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3670 (an average of 734 annually). (I) Pan-tropical dolphins (Stenella attenuata)—10995 (an average of 2199 annually). (J) Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris)—2105...

  15. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  16. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... annually). (G) Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis)—5385 (an average of 1077 annually). (H) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3670 (an average of 734 annually). (I) Pan-tropical dolphins (Stenella attenuata)—10995 (an average of 2199 annually). (J) Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris)—2105...

  17. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  18. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  19. 78 FR 17639 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17941

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... photography on bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins. DATES: Written... Florida Bay to capture bottlenose dolphins mud-ring feeding. A maximum of 400 dolphins may be harassed during the filming. The second project would focus on areas where spinner dolphins and humans interact...

  20. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... annually). (G) Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis)—5385 (an average of 1077 annually). (H) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3670 ( an average of 734 annually). (I) Pan-tropical dolphins (Stenella attenuata)—10995 (an average of 2199 annually). (J) Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris)—2105...

  1. 77 FR 17458 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... to conduct commercial or educational photography ] on spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). DATES... authorization to film spinner dolphins near Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. Dolphins would be approached... underwater camera, and a waterproof camera used by a snorkeling cameraman. Up to 1,300 dolphins could...

  2. 76 FR 37065 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14502

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... FR 27286) that a request for a permit to import specimens for scientific research had been submitted... from Risso's (Grampus griseus), spinner (Stenella longirostris), and spotted (S. frontalis) dolphins... muscle, blubber, and teeth samples from Risso's, spinner, and spotted dolphins and short-finned...

  3. 78 FR 69049 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... INFORMATION: On September 12, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 56218) that a request... ez, PR 00682, to conduct commercial or educational photography of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), false...

  4. 77 FR 33198 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 26, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 17458) that a request for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography on spinner dolphins had been submitted... conduct commercial or educational photography on spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). ADDRESSES:...

  5. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  6. Quantifying Dispersal of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Vectors between Farms Using a Novel Mark-Release-Recapture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, René; Stockmarr, Anders; Lind, Peter; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as marking agent without anaesthesia. Using a plate scanner, this detection technique can be used to analyse thousands of individual Culicoides specimens per day at a reasonable cost. We marked and released an estimated 853 specimens of the Pulicaris group and 607 specimens of the Obsoletus group on a cattle farm in Denmark. An estimated 9,090 (8,918–9,260) Obsoletus group specimens and 14,272 (14,194–14,448) Pulicaris group specimens were captured in the surroundings and subsequently analysed. Two (0.3%) Obsoletus group specimens and 28 (4.6%) Pulicaris group specimens were recaptured. The two recaptured Obsoletus group specimens were caught at the release point on the night following release. Eight (29%) of the recaptured Pulicaris group specimens were caught at a pig farm 1,750 m upwind from the release point. Five of these were recaptured on the night following release and the three other were recaptured on the second night after release. This is the first time that movement of Culicoides vectors between farms in Europe has been directly quantified. The findings suggest an extensive and rapid exchange of disease vectors between farms. Rapid movement of vectors between neighboring farms may explain the the high rate of spatial spread of Schmallenberg and bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe. PMID:23630582

  7. A survey of Culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern Spain, with a brief review of immature habitats of European species.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; López, Sergio; Mullens, Bradley A; Baldet, Thierry; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris groups are considered to be the main vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in non Mediterranean Europe. Selected terrestrial microhabitats (n=17) on a farm in northern Spain were sampled repeatedly over a year-long period and characterized for use by Culicoides species for immature development. Concurrent use of CDC light traps showed the presence of 37 species and 66,575 specimens of adult Culicoides. A total of 28 species and 11,396 individuals emerged from laboratory-maintained soil samples. Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (pooled as Obsoletus complex) were particularly abundant (comprising 58.6% and 74.5% of the total collections in light traps and emergence traps respectively). Potential key vectors of animal viruses (such as BTV) were found in two main terrestrial types of microhabitats. In the case of C. obsoletus, different types of manure (old and composted manure, manure mixed with organic matter, and fresh manure) produced most of the specimens. In contrast, larvae of C. scoticus and Culicoides lupicaris were associated with soil substantially comprised of rotting leaf litter that included the parasitic plant Lathraea clandestina. Several species, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides punctatus and Culicoides brunnicans, were very common in mud at pond margins. Indeed, pond microhabitats and runoff below barn rooflines supported the greatest species richness. In the pond habitat, 49.4% of Culicoides specimens emerged from mud at the water edge, as opposed to 50 cm above (32.4%) and 1 meter above waterline (18%). Similar species richness, but statistically significant differences in abundance, were observed among the four pond microhabitats. Overall, the majority of the specimens were found in the upper layer (0-3 cm), except in manure, where they preferred deeper layers (>6 cm). Maximum peaks of abundance occurred in both light traps and soil samples in summer

  8. A New Crayfish of the Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) From the Flint River Drainage in Northern Alabama and South Central Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Jones, Danny R

    2016-01-01

    Examination of specimens of the crayfish species Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) longirostris and two recently described crayfish revealed the existence of an undescribed species from the Flint River watershed in northern Alabama and southern Tennessee. Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) lentiginosus differs from C. longirostris, C. (Hiaticambarus) andersoni, and C. (Hiaticambarus) diupalma in aspects of carapace and chela morphology and pigmentation pattern. Cambarus (H.) lentiginosus possesses a median carina on the dorsal surface of the acumen of the rostrum, a distinctly enlarged tubercle near the base of the opposable surface of the dactyl, and a speckled pigmentation pattern over a light base color; these characters are lacking in other known Hiaticambarus species. The known range of the species is restricted to the Flint River watershed. Cambarus (H.) lentiginosus is considered Endangered using American Fisheries Society conservation categorization. PMID:27394612

  9. Cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in cetacean skin biopsies from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric; Fontaine, Michaël; Kiszka, Jeremy; Sarlet, Michael; Coignoul, Freddy

    2011-06-01

    The study describes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYPA1) expression in the skin of different cetacean species (Megaptera novaeangliae, n=15; Stenella attenuata, n=7 and Stenella longirostris, n=24) from the Mozambique Channel island of Mayotte. Immunohistochemical examination was performed with a monoclonal antibody against scup cytochrome CYPA1. The sex was determined using a molecular approach consisting in the genotyping sex-specific genes. CYPA1 was detected at the junction between epidermis and blubber on dolphins only, mostly in the endothelial cells. Similar observation was obtained in the dermis of one M. novaeangliae. Immunohistochemical slides were scored to evaluate the expression of the CYPA1 and a higher expression was observed in S. longirostris, suggesting a higher exposure to pollutants for this species. The difference of expression between sexes was not significant. PMID:21565363

  10. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ(15)N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. PMID:26775007

  11. Prey capture in long-jawed butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): the functional basis of novel feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Ferry-Graham, L A.; Wainwright, P C.; Bellwood, D R.

    2001-01-31

    Several species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) possess extremely elongate jaws, and feed mostly by probing the benthos and biting off pieces of attached invertebrates. In contrast, Forcipiger longirostris, the longest-jawed chaetodontid, exhibits a novel pattern of prey use, feeding almost exclusively on small caridean shrimp, a mobile and highly elusive prey type that lives within the structure of coral reefs. We explored the functional basis of this novel pattern of prey use by comparing prey capture kinematics in this and four other butterflyfish species, including two other species that possess elongate jaws. High speed video recordings of feeding events on live adult brine shrimp were analyzed from individuals of five species: Forcipiger longirostris, F. flavissimus, Chelmon rostratus, Heniochus acuminatus, and Chaetodon xanthurus. We focused on a comparison among species of the relative contribution of "suction", measured as the amount of movement of the prey toward the predator's mouth, and "ram", measured as the distance moved by the predator toward the prey during the strike. All five species utilized a combination of suction and ram while feeding on brine shrimp. The contribution of suction did not differ significantly among species. However, F. longirostris exhibited a ram contribution to the strike that was more than twice that seen in any of the other species, permitting this species to initiate strikes from the greatest initial predator-prey distance. F. longirostris is known to possess a major structural novelty in the feeding mechanism that permits anterior movement of the entire jaw apparatus. The ability of this species to feed successfully on elusive prey appears to be related to exceptional jaw protrusion, resulting in greater use of ram during prey capture. This ability to protrude long, slender jaws toward the prey may allow it to move the jaws without detection within close enough proximity of the prey to then permit the effective use of

  12. Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. ); Yan, N.D. ); Keller, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation. PMID:12211697

  14. Coevolutionary elaboration of pollination-related traits in an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and a tabanid fly in the Nepalese Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Babu Ram; Shrestha, Mani; Burd, Martin; Adhikari, Subodh; Sun, Yong-Shuai; Li, Qing-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Geographical variation in the interacting traits of plant-pollinator mutualism can lead to local adaptive differentiation. We tested Darwin's hypothesis of reciprocal selection as a key driving force for the evolution of floral traits of an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and proboscis length of a tabanid fly (Philoliche longirostris). We documented the pattern of trait variation in R. purpurea and P. longirostris across five populations. At each site, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection on floral display area, inflorescence height and corolla length of R. purpurea by comparing selection gradients for flowers exposed to natural pollination and to supplemental hand pollination. Reciprocal selection between plant and fly was examined at two sites via the relationship between proboscis length and nectar consumption (fly benefit) and corolla length and pollen deposition (plant benefit). Local corolla tube length was correlated with local fly proboscis length among the five sites. We found strong linear selection imposed by pollinators on corolla tube length at all sites, but there was no consistent relationship of fitness to inflorescence height or floral display area. Selection between corolla length and proboscis length was reciprocal at the two experimental sites examined. The geographical pattern of trait variation and the evidence of selection is consistent with a mosaic of local, species-specific reciprocal selection acting as the major driving force for the evolution of corolla length of R. purpurea and proboscis length of P. longirostris. PMID:27112321

  15. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  16. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, A; McCarter, P; Baylis, M

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study was undertaken to investigate how the number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female Culicoides obsoletus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) caught. As the number of sheep increased from zero to three, the number of midges caught increased, but there appeared to be no further increase when six sheep were used. The lack of increase between three and six sheep is attributable to different activity rates on certain nights, perhaps in response to weather, and suggests, therefore, that catches in light traps increase linearly with sheep numbers, at least for small host numbers. PMID:20704653

  17. Modelling the distribution of outbreaks and Culicoides vectors in Sicily: towards predictive risk maps for Italy.

    PubMed

    Purse, B V; Caracappa, S; Marino, A M F; Tatem, A J; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Baylis, M; Torina, A

    2004-01-01

    Vector (911 light-trap catches from 269 sites) and serological surveillance data were obtained during recent bluetongue (BT) outbreaks in Sicily. The distributions of Culicoides vectors are compared with that of bluetongue virus (BTV) to determine the relative role of different vectors in BTV transmission in Sicily. The 'best' climatic predictors of distribution for each vector species were selected from 40 remotely-sensed variables and altitude at a 1 km spatial resolution using discriminant analysis. These models were used to predict species presence in unsampled pixels across Italy. Although Culicoides imicola, the main European vector, was found in only 12% of sites, there was close correspondence between its spatial distribution and that of the 2000 and 2001 outbreaks. All three candidate vectors C. pulicaris, C. newsteadi and C. obsoletus group were widespread across 2002 outbreak sites but C. newsteadi was significantly less prevalent in outbreak versus non-outbreak sites in Messina and BTV has been isolated from wild-caught adults of both C. pulicaris and C. obsoletus in Italy. The yearly distribution and intensity of outbreaks is attributable to the distribution and abundance of the vectors operating in each year. Outbreaks were few and coastal in 2000 and 2001 due to the low abundance and prevalence of the vector, C. imicola. They were numerous and widespread in 2002, following hand-over of the virus to more prevalent and abundant novel vector species, C. pulicaris and C. obsoletus. Climatic determinants of distribution were species-specific, with those of C. obsoletus group and C. newsteadi predicted by temperature variables, and those of C. pulicaris and C. imicola determined mainly by normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), a variable correlated with soil moisture, vegetation biomass and productivity. The predicted continuous presence of C. pulicaris along the Appenine mountains, from north to south Italy, suggests BTV transmission may be

  18. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period. PMID:26701798

  19. Further contributions to the longhorn beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Webster, Vincent L.; CoryC. Hughes; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sixteen species of Cerambycidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada; Arhopalus obsoletus (Randall), Atimia confusa confusa (Say), Callidium frigidum Casey, Phymatodes amoenus (Say), Phymatodes testaceus (Linnaeus), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius), Xylotrechus aceris Fisher, Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus (Germar), Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman, Lepturges angulatus (LeConte), Lepturges symmetricus (Haldeman), Urgleptes querci (Fitch), Oplosia nubila (LeConte), Eupogonius subarmatus (LeConte), Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), and Pogonocherus parvulus LeConte. Urgleptes signatus (LeConte) and Urgleptes querci are newly recorded from Nova Scotia. All but two specimens were collected in 12-funnel Lindgren traps. Xylotrechus aceris, Tylonotus bimaculatus, Lepturges angulatus, Lepturges symmetricus, Urgleptes signatus (NS), and Pogonocherus parvulus were detected exclusively in traps deployed in the forest canopy, and most individuals of Oplosia nubila and Monochamus carolinensis were captured in canopy traps. Arhopalus obsoletus, Atimia confusa confusa, Callidium frigidum, Phymatodes testaceus, and Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus were captured almost exclusively in traps near (1 m above) the forest floor. These results highlight the importance of sampling both the understory and upper canopy when using traps for surveying diversity of Cerambycidae. PMID:26865818

  20. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide)/PMD (para-menthane-3,8-diol) repellent-treated mesh increases Culicoides catches in light traps.

    PubMed

    Murchie, A K; Clawson, S; Rea, I; Forsythe, I W N; Gordon, A W; Jess, S

    2016-09-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. Treatment of mesh barriers is a common method for preventing insect-vectored diseases and has been proposed as a means of limiting Culicoides ingression into buildings or livestock transporters. Assessments using animals are costly, logistically difficult and subject to ethical approval. Therefore, initial screening of test repellents/insecticides was made by applying treatments to mesh (2 mm) cages surrounding Onderstepoort light traps. Five commercial treatments were applied to cages as per manufacturers' application rates: control (water), bendiocarb, DEET/p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) repellent, Flygo (a terpenoid based repellent) and lambda-cyhalothrin. The experimental design was a 5 × 5 Latin square, replicated in time and repeated twice. Incongruously, the traps surrounded by DEET/PMD repellent-treated mesh caught three to four times more Obsoletus group Culicoides (the commonest midge group) than the other treatments. A proposed hypothesis is that Obsoletus group Culicoides are showing a dose response to DEET/PMD, being attracted at low concentrations and repelled at higher concentrations but that the strong light attraction from the Onderstepoort trap was sufficient to overcome close-range repellence. This study does not imply that DEET/PMD is an ineffective repellent for Culicoides midges in the presence of an animal but rather that caution should be applied to the interpretation of light trap bioassays. PMID:27179956

  1. Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtinë region of Kosova.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Betim; Goga, Izedin; Hulaj, Beqë; Çaushi, Driton; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Wilsmore, Anthony J; Taylor, William P

    2010-01-01

    Clinical bluetongue (BT) caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV-9) was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtinë to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotted against temperature data. Samples contained Obsoletus and Pulicaris Complexes but not C. imicola. The first specimens of Culicoides were collected in April and they continued to be detected until November. Generally, Obsoletus Complex was present in the largest numbers, with the exception of the middle of the year when the Pulicaris Complex predominated. The number of Culicoides trapped was directly linked to temperature (p<0.05) and records indicated that Culicoides activity ceased when minimum temperatures fell below 0°C; activity recommenced when minimum temperatures rose to approximately 6°C. These results indicate that there was a lack of a vector for BTV during winter for a period lasting approximately five months. PMID:21132628

  2. Culicoides monitoring in Belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and Schmallenberg virus detection.

    PubMed

    DE Regge, N; DE Deken, R; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Deblauwe, I; Madder, M; Vantieghem, P; Tomme, M; Smeets, F; Cay, A B

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. However, consistently higher numbers of Culicoides midges were collected at some sites compared with others. When species abundance and diversity were analysed at regional level, between-site variation disappeared. Overall, species belonging to the subgenus Avaritia together with Culicoides pulicaris (subgenus Culicoides) were the most abundant, accounting for 80% and 96% of all midges collected with RSTs and OVI traps, respectively. Culicoides were present during most of the year, with Culicoides obsoletus complex midges found from 9 February until 27 December. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening for Schmallenberg virus in the heads of collected midges resulted in the first detection of the virus in August 2011 and identified C. obsoletus complex, Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi midges as putative vector species. At Libramont in the south of Belgium, no positive pools were identified. PMID:25761054

  3. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  4. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi. PMID:26129664

  5. Bluetongue disease in Germany (2007-2008): monitoring of entomological aspects.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schaub, Günter; Kiel, Ellen; Focke, René; Liebisch, Gabriele; Liebisch, Arndt; Werner, Doreen; Bauer, Christian; Clausen, Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Geier, Martin; Hörbrand, Thomas; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2009-08-01

    In the summer of 2006, a bluetongue epidemic started in the border area of Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, spread within 2 years over large areas of Western and Central Europe, and caused substantial losses in farm ruminants. Especially sheep and cattle were severely affected, leading to a case-fatality ratio of nearly 40% in sheep (Conraths et al., Emerg Inf Dis 15(3):433-435, 2009). The German federal ministry of food, agriculture, and consumer protection (BMELV) established a countrywide monitoring on the occurrence of the vectors of this virus, i.e., midges (family Ceratopogonidae) of the genus Culicoides. The monitoring was done on 91 sites, most of which were localized in the 150-km restriction zone that existed in December 2006. A grid consisting of 45 x 45 km(2) cells was formed that covered the monitoring area. As a rule, one trap was placed into each grid cell. The monitoring program started at the end of March 2007 and lasted until May 2008. It included the catching of midges by ultraviolet light traps-done each month from days 1 until 8, the selection of midges of the Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides pulicaris group, and other Culicoides spp., the testing of midges for bluetongue virus (BTV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the daily registration of weather data at each trap site for the whole monitoring period. The following main results were obtained: (1) Members of the C. obsoletus group were most commonly found in the traps, reaching often 3/4 of the catches. The African and South European vector of BTV-the species Culicoides imicola-was never found. (2) Members of the C. obsoletus group were most frequently found infected with BTV besides a few cases in the C. pulicaris group and other species. (3) Members of the C. obsoletus group were also found in winter. Their numbers were reduced, however, and they were caught mostly close to stables. Therefore, a true midge-free period does not exist during the year in Germany. (4) The amounts

  6. Digital playback and improved trap design enhance capture of migrant soras and Virginia rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kearns, G.D.; Kwartin, N.B.; Brinker, D.F.; Haramis, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used playback of rail vocalizations and improved trap design to enhance capture of fall migrant Soras (Porzana carolina) and Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola) in marshes bordering the tidal Patuxent River, Maryland. Custom-fabricated microchip message repeating sound systems provided digitally recorded sound for long-life, high-quality playback. A single sound system accompanied each 30-45 m long drift fence trap line fitted with 1-3 cloverleaf traps. Ramped funnel entrances improved retention of captured rails and deterred raccoon (Procyon lotor) predation. Use of playback and improved trap design increased trap success by over an order of magnitude and resulted in capture and banding of 2315 Soras and 276 Virginia Rails during September and October 1993-1997. The Sora captures more than doubled the banding records for the species in North America. This capture success demonstrates the efficacy of banding large numbers of Soras and Virginia Rails on migration and winter concentration areas.

  7. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

  8. Status and distribution of breeding secretive marshbirds in the Delta of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budd, Michael J.; Krementz, David G.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas ("the Delta") during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 using the national marshbird monitoring protocol for secretive marshbirds. We detected and documented breeding by Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe), Ixobrychus exilis (Least Bittern), Rallus elegans (King Rail), and Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen). We detected but did not document breeding by Botaurus lentiginosus (American Bittern), Porphyrula martinica (Purple Gallinule), and Fulica americana (American Coot), all of which have been documented to breed in the Delta. Our estimated occupancy rates for breeding marshbirds in the study area ranged from a low of 6% for the King Rail in 2006 to a high of 27% for the Least Bittern in 2005. The range of these occupancy rates are low and reflect the rarity of secretive marshbirds in the Delta. Secretive marshbird occupancy rates were higher in the southern third of the Delta, probably because wetlands were more abundant or of higher quality there.

  9. Roles of predation, food, and temperature in structuring the epilimnetic zooplankton populations in Lake Ontario, 1981-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We sampled phytoplankton, zooplankton, and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and measured water temperature in Lake Ontario during 1981–1986. Through the use of general linear regression models we then sought evidence of control of the eplimnetic zooplankton community (mid-July to mid-October) by producers, consumers, and temperature. Our measures of the zooplankton community were total biomass, cladoceran biomass, and the ratio of large to small Daphnia spp. (D. galeata mendotae andD. retrocurva). Zooplankton population variables assessed were abundance, egg ratio, and productivity. Through factor analysis, factors were created from the standardized, transformed independent variables for use in the regression analyses. Regression models showed significant inverse relationships (P < 0.05) between alewives and Bosmina longirostris (abundance, production, and egg ratio), Ceriodaphnia lacustris (egg ratio), andDaphnia retrocurva (egg ratio). Bosmina longirostris and D. retrocurva egg ratios were inversely related to algae biomass (<20 μm), thus the smaller algae might be controlled in part by the zooplankton community. Production of C. lacustris was directly related to temperature, as was the production and abundance of Tropocyclops prasinus. The annual size-frequency distributions of B. longirostris and D. retrocurva were inversely related to yearling alewife abundance and directly related to adult alewife abundance, which suggested that yearlings use a particulate-feeding mode on these zooplankton species more frequently than adults. We found no significant negative correlations among the zooplankton species, which suggested that interzooplankton predation and competition were not as important in structuring the community as were planktivory and temperature.

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  11. The Importance of Zostera marina to a Local Food Web Based on the Analysis of Compound Specific Isotopes in Maquoit Bay, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doolittle, H. A.; Johnson, B. J.; Ambrose, W. G.; Locke, W.; Harris, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Zostera marina (also known as eelgrass) is an important primary producer in near shore ecosystems in the Gulf of Maine, providing both habitat and nutrients for a variety of organisms (e.g., crustaceans, polychaetes, gastropods, and fish). The purpose of this study is to use compound specific δ13C analyses of essential amino acids to determine the degree to which organic matter derived from isotopically distinct primary producers (e.g., eelgrass, phytoplankton, and epiphytic algae) contribute to the diets of snails, shrimp, and fish in an eelgrass system in Casco Bay. Maquoit Bay, located in northwestern Casco Bay, in the Gulf of Maine, is a shallow estuarine system that is characterized by silt and clay sized sediments and the presence of extensive eelgrass beds. Amino acid concentrations and δ13C compositions were determined for a variety of sample-types collected in July-August, 2010, from three sites in the study area, including muscle tissue from Tautogolabrus adspersus (cunner), Gasterosteus aculeatus (3-spined stickleback), Nassarius obsoletus (snail), and Mysis spp. (shrimp), seston (i.e., phytoplankton), Z. marina, and epiphytic algae. TFAA amino acid derivatives of the total hydrolyzate were analyzed by GC-FID for amino acid concentration, and by GC-c-IRMS- for carbon isotope composition. Muscle tissue was dominated by glutamic and aspartic acids, and leucine, whereas Zostera marina was dominated by aspartic and glutamic acids, and proline. Phenylalanine and leucine in Z. marina are approximately 10 ‰ enriched in 13C relative to these same amino acids in the seston. The carbon isotope values of these essential amino acids are significantly more enriched in 13C for N. obsoletus than for T. adspersus, G. aculeatus, and Mysis spp. These data suggest that organic matter derived from Z. marina and/or epiphytic algae is more important in the diets of N. obsoletus, and organic matter derived from seston is more important for the diets of T. adspersus, G

  12. Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Ziller, Mario; Kampen, Helge; Gauly, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bauer, Christian; Werner, Doreen

    2015-12-15

    Palearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), in particular of the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, were identified as putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) on ruminant farms during the epizootic in Germany from 2006 to 2009. BTV may cause severe morbidity and mortality in ruminants and sporadically in South American camelids (SAC). However, the fauna of Culicoides spp. on SAC farms has not been investigated. Therefore, the ceratopogonid fauna was monitored on three farms with BTV-seropositive SAC in Germany. Black-light traps were set up on pastures and in stables from summer 2008 to autumn 2009. Additionally, ceratopogonids were caught in emergence traps mounted on llama dung and dung-free pasture from spring to autumn 2009. After morphological identification, selected Culicoides samples were analysed for BTV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The effects of the variables 'location', 'temperature' and 'humidity' on the number of Culicoides caught in black-light traps were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression. In total, 26 species of Culicoides and six other genera of biting midges were identified. The most abundant Culicoides spp. collected both outdoors and indoors with black-light traps belonged to the Obsoletus (77.4%) and Pulicaris (16.0%) complexes. The number of Culicoides peaked in summer, while no biting midges were caught during the winter months. Daily collections of Culicoides were mainly influenced by the location and depended on the interaction of temperature and humidity. In the emergence traps, species of the Obsoletus complex predominated the collections. In summary, the absence of BTV-RNA in any of the analysed Culicoides midges and in the BTV-seropositive SAC on the three farms together with the differences in the pathogenesis of BTV-8 in SAC compared to ruminants suggests a negligible role of SAC in the spread of the virus. Although SAC farms may provide similar suitable habitats for putative Culicoides

  13. Do invaders always perform better? Comparing the response of native and invasive shrimps to temperature and salinity gradients in south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Latchere, Oïhana; Petit, Nicolas; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are often thought to benefit from climate change, outcompeting native species as temperatures increase. However, the physiological tolerance has been little explored as a potential mechanism explaining biological invasion success. In this study, we used empirical data from both invasive and native estuarine species as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1) invasive species show a better resistance to acute thermal stress, (2) invasive species present lower oxygen consumption rates owing to greater resistance to environmental stressors, and (3) native species have lower survival rates under chronic temperature and salinity stress. We conducted various comparative experiments on three sympatric and syntopic closely related shrimp species (one invasive Palaemon macrodactylus, and two natives Palaemon longirostris and Palaemonetes varians). We evaluated their critical temperature maxima, their oxygen consumption rates under different salinities and temperatures, and their survival rates under chronic salinity and temperature. We found that the invasive species was the most tolerant to rapid increase in temperature, and consistently consumed less oxygen over a broad range of temperatures and salinities. Palaemon macrodactylus also had lower mortality rates at high temperatures than P. longirostris. These results support previously reported differences in physiological tolerance between native and invasive species, with the invasive species always performing better. The consistently higher tolerance of the non-indigenous species to temperature variation suggests that climate change will increase the success of invaders.

  14. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Munday, Philip L.; Chivers, Douglas P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to ‘blend in’ with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is ‘chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate. PMID:25621328

  15. Effect of light, prey density, and prey type on the feeding rates of Hemimysis anomala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpin, Kathleen E.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Mureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala is a near-shore mysid native to the Ponto-Caspian region that was discovered to have invaded Great Lakes ecosystems in 2006. We investigated feeding rates and prey preferences of adult and juvenile Hemimysis in laboratory experiments to gain insight on the potential for Hemimysis to disrupt food webs. For both age groups (AGs), we measured feeding rates as a function of prey abundance (Bosmina longirostris as prey), prey type (B. longirostris, Daphnia pulex, and Mesocyclops sp.), and light levels (no light and dim light). Mean feeding rates on Bosmina increased with prey density and reached 23 ind. (2 h)−1 for adults and 17 ind. (2 h)−1 for juveniles. Dim light had little effect on prey selection or feeding rate compared to complete darkness. When feeding rates on alternate prey were compared, both AGs fed at higher rates on Bosmina than Daphnia, but only juveniles fed at significantly higher rates on Bosmina relative to Mesocyclops. No significant differences were observed between feeding rates on Mesocyclops and on Daphnia. Hemimysis feeding rates were on the order of 30–60% of their body weight per day, similar to predatory cladocerans that have been implicated in zooplankton declines in Lakes Huron and Ontario.

  16. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  17. Variation in acoustic behavior of delphinids in the Pacific Ocean based on school size and species composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2005-04-01

    Variation in acoustic behavior based on school size and species composition was examined for surveys in the eastern tropical Pacific (2000), along the U.S. West Coast (2001), and in the U.S. EEZ surrounding Hawaii (2002). Sounds were monitored using a towed hydrophone array, and vocal schools were defined as those producing any combination of whistles, burst pulses, and/or echolocation clicks. Delphinid schools containing mixed species were consistently more vocal than single species schools. Vocal schools of Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, Delphinus delphis, and Lissodelphis borealis were significantly larger than non-vocal schools. Vocal schools of Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus were somewhat larger than non-vocal schools, although this relationship was not significant. There was no relationship between group size and vocal activity for S. coeruleoalba, Steno bredanensis, and Globicephala spp. For species without a strong group size effect, all but T. truncatus were more vocal in the Hawaiian waters. The ability to use acoustic techniques in dolphin population estimation depends on their effectiveness in consistently detecting dolphin schools. This study suggests that small single-species schools of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, D. delphis, and L. borealis are more likely to be missed during acoustic monitoring in these regions.

  18. Chromosomal variation and constitutive heterochromatin in three porpoise species (genus Stenella).

    PubMed

    Stock, A D

    1981-01-01

    Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two Pacific porpoise species, Stenella attenuata and S. longirostris, and one Atlantic species, S. dubia, were compared to test the feasibility of using variation in constitutive heterochromatin and other chromosomal characteristics for analyses of population relationships and defining stocks of endangered porpoises. The G-band karyotypes of the three species were identical except for minor band differences resulting from heterochromatin variation. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the same two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes in all three species, although individual variation occurred in the number of active NORs present. Differences in the distribution and amount of C-band heterochromatin were observed between the three species. Stenella attenuata and S. dubia were very similar in C-band pattern, while S. longirostris was distinctly different. Conspicuous heteromorphism between the C-heterochromatin of the homologs of several pairs of chromosomes was noted in all individuals examined. In addition, variation in the amount of heterochromatin was observed between the four S.attenuata individuals studied. Of the chromosomal characteristics studied, only C-heterochromatin variation holds promise for distinguishing interspecific populations of porpoises. The final decision regarding the feasibility of using C-band heterochromatin to distinguish interspecific populations of porpoises must await comparison of morphologically differing populations within what is currently regarded as a single species. PMID:7307585

  19. Automatic classification of delphinids based on the representative frequencies of whistles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hao; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-08-01

    Classification of odontocete species remains a challenging task for passive acoustic monitoring. Classifiers that have been developed use spectral features extracted from echolocation clicks and whistle contours. Most of these contour-based classifiers require complete contours to reduce measurement errors. Therefore, overlapping contours and partially detected contours in an automatic detection algorithm may increase the bias for contour-based classifiers. In this study, classification was conducted on each recording section without extracting individual contours. The local-max detector was used to extract representative frequencies of delphinid whistles and each section was divided into multiple non-overlapping fragments. Three acoustical parameters were measured from the distribution of representative frequencies in each fragment. By using the statistical features of the acoustical parameters and the percentage of overlapping whistles, correct classification rate of 70.3% was reached for the recordings of seven species (Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis, Delphinus capensis, Peponocephala electra, Grampus griseus, Stenella longirostris longirostris, and Stenella attenuata) archived in MobySound.org. In addition, correct classification rate was not dramatically reduced in various simulated noise conditions. This algorithm can be employed in acoustic observatories to classify different delphinid species and facilitate future studies on the community ecology of odontocetes. PMID:26328716

  20. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    PubMed

    Brandley, Matthew C; Wang, Yuezhao; Guo, Xianguang; Nieto Montes de Oca, Adrián; Fería Ortíz, Manuel; Hikida, Tsutomu; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2010-01-01

    Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism). The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces) longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard. PMID:20614024

  1. Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

    2014-02-15

    Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in μg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

  2. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  3. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  4. Culicoides hypersensitivity in the horse: 15 cases in southwestern british columbia.

    PubMed

    Kleider, N; Lees, M J

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal.The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. PMID:17422351

  5. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  6. Natural phytoplasma infection of four phloem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha across vineyard agroecosystems in central-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Landi, L; Isidoro, N; Rioloi, P

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal variations of grapevine yellow phytoplasma were investigated in four phloem-feeding planthopper and leafhopper species that are vectors of plant disease agents. In total, 1,148 wild specimens were collected from three vineyard agroecosystems in the Marche region (central-eastern Italy), from May to September 2008, and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Of 525 Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, 25.1% were positive for aster yellow phytoplasma (16SrI-C, 16SrI-B subgroups) and stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A subgroup; Vergilbungskrankheit type I [VK-I]). Of 368 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 19.3% were positive for the 16SrXII-A subgroup (VK-I, VK-II; mainly according to their host plant). Of 146 Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer), 15.1% were positive for the 16SrI-C and 16SrI-B subgroups, and 7.3% of 109 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) were positive for the 16SrI-B subgroup. The total inoculation efficiency in the feeding medium assays was 57.1% for P. alienus, 44.7% for E. lineolatus, 44.4% for N. fenestratus and 33.9% for H. obsoletus. All of the phytoplasma subgroups identified in the insect bodies were also detected in their feeding media. Detection of stolbur phytoplasma in E. lineolatus feeding media strengthens the hypothesis that it is a candidate vector of Bois noir disease causal agent. The phytoplasma subgroups detected in the Auchenorrhyncha species showed variations according to season and/or vineyard agroecosystem. This study highlights the different specificities of these phytoplasma-Auchenorrhyncha species relationships, and suggests a primary role of the entire vineyard agroecosystem in the epidemiology of grapevine yellow phytoplasma diseases. PMID:23786045

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Culicoides Species in Mainland Portugal (2005–2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme

    PubMed Central

    Ramilo, David W.; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M.; Harrup, Lara E.; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern. PMID:25906151

  8. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  9. Responses of Mammalian Insectivores, Amphibians, and Reptiles to Broad-Scale Manipulation of Coarse Woody Debris

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, T.S.; Forschler, B.T.; Komoroski, M.J.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-03-10

    Sampled shrews at 9.3 ha plots from logs manually removed and control plots in loblolly pine forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which deadwood was removed whereas capture rates of Blarina cavolinensis and Sorex longirostris did not differ between control and removal plots. Cryptotis may have been most sensitive to removal plots due to low population density, hence poor ability to move into areas of low reproduction. (Second Abstract, p. 37)Presentation of evidence that juvenile amphibians including Ambystomatid salamanders may disperse hundreds of meter from their natal wetlands within the weeks to months following metamorphosis. Data indicates Ambystoma trigrinum metamorphs can take at least six months to disperse and en route use non-polar lipid reserves garnished as larvae. Report suggests a land management regime that allows for both juvenile amphibian dispersal and also the consumptive use of the surrounding landscape.

  10. Within-colony feeding selectivity by a corallivorous reef fish: foraging to maximize reward?

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-01-01

    Foraging theory predicts that individuals should choose a prey that maximizes energy rewards relative to the energy expended to access, capture, and consume the prey. However, the relative roles of differences in the nutritive value of foods and costs associated with differences in prey accessibility are not always clear. Coral-feeding fishes are known to be highly selective feeders on particular coral genera or species and even different parts of individual coral colonies. The absence of strong correlations between the nutritional value of corals and prey preferences suggests other factors such as polyp accessibility may be important. Here, we investigated within-colony feeding selectivity by the corallivorous filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, and if prey accessibility determines foraging patterns. After confirming that this fish primarily feeds on coral polyps, we examined whether fish show a preference for different parts of a common branching coral, Acropora nobilis, both in the field and in the laboratory experiments with simulated corals. We then experimentally tested whether nonuniform patterns of feeding on preferred coral species reflect structural differences between polyps. We found that O. longirostris exhibits nonuniform patterns of foraging in the field, selectively feeding midway along branches. On simulated corals, fish replicated this pattern when food accessibility was equal along the branch. However, when food access varied, fish consistently modified their foraging behavior, preferring to feed where food was most accessible. When foraging patterns were compared with coral morphology, fish preferred larger polyps and less skeletal protection. Our results highlight that patterns of interspecific and intraspecific selectivity can reflect coral morphology, with fish preferring corals or parts of coral colonies with structural characteristics that increase prey accessibility. PMID:24324862

  11. Distinctive stable isotope ratios in important zooplankton species in relation to estuarine salinity gradients: Potential tracer of fish migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keita W.; Kasai, Akihide; Isoda, Takane; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

    2008-07-01

    To assess the potential of stable isotope ratios as an indicator of fish migration within estuaries, stable isotope ratios in important zooplankton species were analyzed in relation to estuarine salinity gradients. Gut contents from migratory juveniles of the euryhaline marine fish Lateolabrax japonicus were examined along the Chikugo River estuary of the Ariake Sea, which has the most developed estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) in Japan. Early juveniles in March and April preyed primarily on two copepod species; Sinocalanus sinensis at lower salinities and Acartia omorii at higher salinities. Late juveniles (standard length > 40 mm) at lower salinities preyed exclusively on the mysid Acanthomysis longirostris until July and complementarily on the decapod Acetes japonicus in August. These prey species were collected along the estuary during the spring-summer seasons of 2003 and 2004, and their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( δ13C and δ15N) were evaluated. The δ13C values of prey species were distinct from each other and were primarily depleted within and in close proximity to the ETM (salinity < 10); S. sinensis (-26.6‰) < Acanthomysis longirostris (-23.3‰) < Acartia omorii (-21.1‰) < Acetes japonicus (-18.5‰). The overall gradient of δ13C with salinity occurred for all prey species and showed minor temporal fluctuations, while it was not directly influenced by the δ13C values in particulate organic matter along the estuary. In contrast to δ13C, the δ15N values of prey species did not exhibit any clear relationship with salinity. The present study demonstrated that δ13C has the potential for application as a tracer of fish migration into lower salinity areas including the ETM.

  12. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons. PMID:27228621

  13. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

    1987-02-01

    Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

  14. Distribution and habitat associations of breeding secretive marsh birds in Louisiana's Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valente, J.J.; King, S.L.; Wilson, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Populations of many North American secretive marsh birds (SMBs) have declined in recent decades, partially as a function of wetland loss. Protecting and restoring appropriate habitat for these species is contingent upon understanding the habitat features they utilize. We investigated breeding distributions of SMBs in northeast Louisiana at 118 wetlands in 2007 and 2008 and modeled species occupancy (??) as a function of habitat variables measured at local (???100 m) and landscape (???1 km) scales. Common Moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), Least Bitterns (Ixobrychus exilis), and Purple Gallinules (Porphyrula martinica) were the most commonly detected species, whereas breeding King Rails (Rallus elegans) and American Coots (Fulica americana) were rare. Local habitat features consistently played a greater role in predicting ?? than landscape features for the three most common species. The proportion of local wetland area dominated by robust emergent vegetation (i.e., Typha spp. and Zizaniopsis miliacea) positively influenced ?? for all species, while other wetland vegetation types tended to have a minimal or negative effect. Our results suggest the habitat characteristics preferred by breeding SMBs differ from those used by migrating shorebirds and wintering waterfowl and management and restoration objectives for those species may be inadequate for enhancing SMB habitat. ?? 2011 US Government.

  15. Population status and habitat associations of the King Rail in the midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolenbaugh, Jason R.; Cooper, Tom; Brady, Ryan S.; Willard, Karen L.; Krementz, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The migratory population of the King Rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 50 years, emphasizing the need to document the distribution and status of this species to help guide conservation efforts. In an effort to guide King Rail breeding habitat protection and restoration, a landscape suitability index (LSI) model was developed for the Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Region Joint Venture (JV). To validate this model, 264 sites were surveyed across the JV region in 2008 and 2009 using the National Marshbird Monitoring protocol. Two other similarly collected data sets from Wisconsin (250 sites) and Ohio (259 sites) as well as data from the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology's eBird database were added to our data set. Sampling effort was not uniform across the study area. King Rails were detected at 29 sites with the greatest concentration in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. Too few detections were made to validate the LSI model. King Rail detection sites tended to have microtopographic heterogeneity, more emergent herbaceous wetland vegetation and less woody vegetation. The migrant population of the King Rail is rare and warrants additional conservation efforts to achieve stated conservation population targets.

  16. Expert knowledge as a foundation for the management of secretive species and their habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, C. Ashton; Collazo, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we share lessons learned during the elicitation and application of expert knowledge in the form of a belief network model for the habitat of a waterbird, the King Rail (Rallus elegans). A belief network is a statistical framework used to graphically represent and evaluate hypothesized cause and effect relationships among variables. Our model was a pilot project to explore the value of such a model as a tool to help the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) conserve species that lack sufficient empirical data to guide management decisions. Many factors limit the availability of empirical data that can support landscape-scale conservation planning. Globally, most species simply have not yet been subject to empirical study (Wilson 2000). Even for well-studied species, data are often restricted to specific geographic extents, to particular seasons, or to specific segments of a species’ life history. The USFWS mandates that the agency’s conservation actions (1) be coordinated across regional landscapes, (2) be founded on the best available science (with testable assumptions), and (3) support adaptive management through monitoring and assessment of action outcomes. Given limits on the available data, the concept of “best available science” in the context of conservation planning generally includes a mix of empirical data and expert knowledge (Sullivan et al. 2006).

  17. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for Campesterol Overproduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao-Xing; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Campesterol is an important precursor for many sterol drugs, e.g. progesterone and hydrocortisone. In order to produce campesterol in Yarrowia lipolytica, C-22 desaturase encoding gene ERG5 was disrupted and the heterologous 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) encoding gene was constitutively expressed. The codon-optimized DHCR7 from Rallus norvegicus, Oryza saliva and Xenapus laevis were explored and the strain with the gene DHCR7 from X. laevis achieved the highest titer of campesterol due to D409 in substrate binding sites. In presence of glucose as the carbon source, higher biomass conversion yield and product yield were achieved in shake flask compared to that using glycerol and sunflower seed oil. Nevertheless, better cell growth rate was observed in medium with sunflower seed oil as the sole carbon source. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation under carbon source restriction strategy, a titer of 453±24.7 mg/L campesterol was achieved with sunflower seed oil as the carbon source, which is the highest reported microbial titer known. Our study has greatly enhanced campesterol accumulation in Y. lipolytica, providing new insight into producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:26751680

  18. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for Campesterol Overproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Campesterol is an important precursor for many sterol drugs, e.g. progesterone and hydrocortisone. In order to produce campesterol in Yarrowia lipolytica, C-22 desaturase encoding gene ERG5 was disrupted and the heterologous 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) encoding gene was constitutively expressed. The codon-optimized DHCR7 from Rallus norvegicus, Oryza saliva and Xenapus laevis were explored and the strain with the gene DHCR7 from X. laevis achieved the highest titer of campesterol due to D409 in substrate binding sites. In presence of glucose as the carbon source, higher biomass conversion yield and product yield were achieved in shake flask compared to that using glycerol and sunflower seed oil. Nevertheless, better cell growth rate was observed in medium with sunflower seed oil as the sole carbon source. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation under carbon source restriction strategy, a titer of 453±24.7 mg/L campesterol was achieved with sunflower seed oil as the carbon source, which is the highest reported microbial titer known. Our study has greatly enhanced campesterol accumulation in Y. lipolytica, providing new insight into producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:26751680

  19. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  1. Exceptionally well preserved late Quaternary plant and vertebrate fossils from a blue hole on Abaco, The Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Franz, Richard; Morgan, Gary S; Albury, Nancy A; Kakuk, Brian; Broad, Kenneth; Franz, Shelley E; Tinker, Keith; Pateman, Michael P; Lott, Terry A; Jarzen, David M; Dilcher, David L

    2007-12-11

    We report Quaternary vertebrate and plant fossils from Sawmill Sink, a "blue hole" (a water-filled sinkhole) on Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas. The fossils are well preserved because of deposition in anoxic salt water. Vertebrate fossils from peat on the talus cone are radiocarbon-dated from approximately 4,200 to 1,000 cal BP (Late Holocene). The peat produced skeletons of two extinct species (tortoise Chelonoidis undescribed sp. and Caracara Caracara creightoni) and two extant species no longer in The Bahamas (Cuban crocodile, Crocodylus rhombifer; and Cooper's or Gundlach's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii or Accipiter gundlachii). A different, inorganic bone deposit on a limestone ledge in Sawmill Sink is a Late Pleistocene owl roost that features lizards (one species), snakes (three species), birds (25 species), and bats (four species). The owl roost fauna includes Rallus undescribed sp. (extinct; the first Bahamian flightless rail) and four other locally extinct species of birds (Cooper's/Gundlach's Hawk, A. cooperii/gundlachii; flicker Colaptes sp.; Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva; and Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna) and mammals (Bahamian hutia, Geocapromys ingrahami; and a bat, Myotis sp.). The exquisitely preserved fossils from Sawmill Sink suggest a grassy pineland as the dominant plant community on Abaco in the Late Pleistocene, with a heavier component of coppice (tropical dry evergreen forest) in the Late Holocene. Important in its own right, this information also will help biologists and government planners to develop conservation programs in The Bahamas that consider long-term ecological and cultural processes. PMID:18077421

  2. Exceptionally well preserved late Quaternary plant and vertebrate fossils from a blue hole on Abaco, The Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Franz, Richard; Morgan, Gary S.; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian; Broad, Kenneth; Franz, Shelley E.; Tinker, Keith; Pateman, Michael P.; Lott, Terry A.; Jarzen, David M.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We report Quaternary vertebrate and plant fossils from Sawmill Sink, a “blue hole” (a water-filled sinkhole) on Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas. The fossils are well preserved because of deposition in anoxic salt water. Vertebrate fossils from peat on the talus cone are radiocarbon-dated from ≈4,200 to 1,000 cal BP (Late Holocene). The peat produced skeletons of two extinct species (tortoise Chelonoidis undescribed sp. and Caracara Caracara creightoni) and two extant species no longer in The Bahamas (Cuban crocodile, Crocodylus rhombifer; and Cooper's or Gundlach's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii or Accipiter gundlachii). A different, inorganic bone deposit on a limestone ledge in Sawmill Sink is a Late Pleistocene owl roost that features lizards (one species), snakes (three species), birds (25 species), and bats (four species). The owl roost fauna includes Rallus undescribed sp. (extinct; the first Bahamian flightless rail) and four other locally extinct species of birds (Cooper's/Gundlach's Hawk, A. cooperii/gundlachii; flicker Colaptes sp.; Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva; and Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna) and mammals (Bahamian hutia, Geocapromys ingrahami; and a bat, Myotis sp.). The exquisitely preserved fossils from Sawmill Sink suggest a grassy pineland as the dominant plant community on Abaco in the Late Pleistocene, with a heavier component of coppice (tropical dry evergreen forest) in the Late Holocene. Important in its own right, this information also will help biologists and government planners to develop conservation programs in The Bahamas that consider long-term ecological and cultural processes. PMID:18077421

  3. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Olson, Storrs L; Hearty, Paul J

    2010-12-23

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  4. Spatio-temporal occurrence of Culicoides biting midges in the climatic regions of Switzerland, along with large scale species identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides biting midges are incriminated as biological vectors of a number of viruses, e.g. bluetongue virus. In order to define vector-free periods/areas and to assess the vectorial role of the various Culicoides species, a comprehensive knowledge on their spatio-temporal occurrence is required. Methods Biting midges were monitored on farm sites with livestock in the defined climatic regions, including high altitudes, of Switzerland by overnight trapping at 12 locations once a week over three years using UV-light traps. Based on morphological features, they were separated into three groups (i.e. Obsoletus, Pulicaris, other Culicoides spp.), and identification to the species level was achieved by protein profiling using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results Around 550,000 biting midges in total were collected, revealing a dominance (82 to 99%) of the Obsoletus group species up to an altitude of 1,200 m and of the Pulicaris group species above 1,500 m (85% at the highest trapping site at 2,130 m). The maximum number of midges collected in a summer night (756 to 19,682) as well as the total number of midges caught over three years (from 6,933 to 149,439) varied highly among the sites, whereas the annual variation in total midge abundance at the locations was statistically insignificant. MALDI-TOF MS of 100 randomly selected individual biting midges per trapping site yielded high quality spectra for 1,187 of the 1,200 (98.9%) specimens of which 1,173 could be assigned to one of the 15 Culicoides species for which biomarker mass sets are available in the reference database. Conclusions There are no biting midge-free zones in all of the agriculturally utilized areas (including alpine summer pastures) of Switzerland. Annual variations of midge numbers at the sampled locations were low, indicating that monitoring of midges should preferably be done by investigating a large number of sites for one season instead of few locations for extended periods of time

  5. Feeding behaviour of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on cattle and sheep in northeast Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Culicoides spp. play an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in Europe. To better understand the biology of local Culicoides species, a study divided into three parts was performed in northeast Germany to elucidate the feeding activity patterns (study A), preferential landing and feeding sites (study B) and host feeding preferences (study C) of Culicoides spp. using cattle and sheep as baits. Methods In study A, the activity of Culicoides spp. was monitored over a 72 h period by collecting insects at regular intervals from the interior of drop traps with cattle or sheep standing inside. In study B, Culicoides spp. were directly aspirated from the coat and fleece of cattle and sheep during the peak activity period of Culicoides. In study C, Culicoides spp. were collected using drop traps with either cattle or sheep standing inside and located 10 m apart. Results In study A, 3,545 Culicoides midges belonging to 13 species were collected, peak activity was observed at sunset. In study B, 2,024 Culicoides midges were collected. A significantly higher number of midges was collected from the belly and flank of cattle in comparison to their head region. In study C, 3,710 Culicoides midges were collected; 3,077 (83%) originated from cattle and 633 (17%) from sheep. Nearly half (46.7%) of the midges collected from cattle were engorged, significantly more than the number of engorged midges collected from sheep (7.5%). Culicoides from the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) were the most common Culicoides species encountered, followed by C. punctatus. Other species identified were C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus, C. pulicaris, C. lupicaris, C. pallidicornis, C. subfascipennis, C. achrayi, C. stigma, C. griseidorsum and C. subfagineus, the last two species are reported for the first time in Germany. Engorged C. chiopterus were collected in relatively high numbers from sheep

  6. Modelling the distributions of Culicoides bluetongue virus vectors in Sicily in relation to satellite-derived climate variables.

    PubMed

    Purse, B V; Tatem, A J; Caracappa, S; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Baylis, M; Torina, A

    2004-06-01

    Surveillance data from 268 sites in Sicily are used to develop climatic models for prediction of the distribution of the main European bluetongue virus (BTV) vector Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and of potential novel vectors, Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus, Culicoides obsoletus group Meigen and Culicoides newsteadi Austen. The models containing the 'best' climatic predictors of distribution for each species, were selected from combinations of 40 temporally Fourier-processed remotely sensed variables and altitude at a 1 km spatial resolution using discriminant analysis. Kappa values of around 0.6 for all species models indicated substantial levels of agreement between model predictions and observed data. Whilst the distributions of C. obsoletus group and C. newsteadi were predicted by temperature variables, those of C. pulicaris and C. imicola were determined mainly by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a variable correlated with soil moisture and vegetation biomass and productivity. These models were used to predict species presence in unsampled pixels across Italy and for C. imicola across Europe and North Africa. The predicted continuous presence of C. pulicaris along the appenine mountains, from north to south Italy, suggests BTV transmission may be possible in a large proportion of this region and that seasonal transhumance (seasonal movement of livestock between upland and lowland pastures) even in C. imicola-free areas should not generally be considered safe. The predicted distribution of C. imicola distribution shows substantial agreement with observed surveillance data from Greece and Iberia (including the Balearics) and parts of mainland Italy (Lazio, Tuscany and areas of the Ionian coast) but is generally much more restricted than the observed distribution (in Sardinia, Corsica and Morocco). The low number of presence sites for C. imicola in Sicily meant that only a restricted range of potential C. imicola habitats were

  7. A new species and new records of Molophilus Curtis, 1833 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from the Western Palaearctic Region

    PubMed Central

    Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molophilus Curtis, 1833 is the most species-rich Limoniidae genus with a total number of 1006 species and subspecies, from which 97 are recorded in the Western-Palaearctic region so far. However new species are still expected from less investigated regions, like the Balkans or the Eastern Europe. New information In the present article, we desrcibe a new limonid crane fly species, Molophilus balcanicus Kolcsár sp. n. from the Central Balkan area (Bulgaria). This new taxa is closely related to M. serpentiger Edwards, 1938 and M. variispinus Starý​, 1971 based on the external male genital structures, but differs from its siblings mostly in the structure of the inner and outer gonostylus. Additionally, a number of species are reported for the first time from various European countries, like M. variispinus Starý, 1971 and M. occultus de Meijere, 1918 from Romania; M. crassipygus de Meijere 1918, M. obsoletus Lackschewitz, 1940 and M. medius de Meijere, 1918 from Greece; M. flavus Goetghebuer, 1920 from Andorra; M. cinereifrons de Meijere, 1920 from Bulgaria and M. corniger Meijere, 1920 from Spain. PMID:26379460

  8. Quantifying the spatial dependence of Culicoides midge samples collected by Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps: an experimental approach to infer the range of attraction of light traps.

    PubMed

    Rigot, T; Gilbert, M

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of bluetongue disease in Europe has led several countries to rapidly establish large-scale entomological surveys of its vectors, which are midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). These surveys have largely been based on the use of Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps. However, the range of attraction of the traps and the spatial dependence of the samples they provide are unknown, which somewhat complicates subsequent analyses. This paper investigates spatial interaction between Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps based on catches at a central trap placed close to two traps set in consecutive on/off modes. The spatial interaction is inferred from the drop in the number of midges collected in the central trap when nearby traps positioned at 50 m, 100 m or 200 m are turned on. The results showed a significant spatial interaction between traps separated by 50 m for female Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides dewulfi. No significant interaction was found for female Culicoides of other species, for male Culicoides, or for traps spaced at ≥100 m. Based on the experimental design geometry and on simple assumptions on the distribution of Culicoides midges in the neighbourhood of the traps, the paper also presents a method to infer the range of attraction of the traps. PMID:22098421

  9. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat relationships of breeding birds were examined in northwestern Colorado in pinyon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland and in openings where most overstory trees had been knocked down by anchor chaining. Vegetation characteristics and physical habitat features were measured in 233 0.04-ha circular plots around singing males of 13 species of birds from 15 May to 15 July 1980. Thirteen-group discriminant function analysis ordinated bird species along three habitat dimensions described by (1) canopy height; (2) slope, shrub size, and shrub species diversity; and (3) percentage canopy cover, large tree density, distance from a habitat edge, litter cover, and green cover. Woodland, open-area, and intermediate edge species were clearly segregated along the first discriminant axis, and species' associations with shrubs, inclination, ground cover, and edges were revealed by the ordinations along the second and third discriminant axes. Two-group discriminant analyses comparing occupied and available plots identified additional and more specific habitat associations. For example, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) were associated with mature forested habitats and forest interiors, Virginia's Warblers (Vermivora virginiae) favored steep, oak-covered draws, Rock Wrens (Salpinctes obsoletus) selected areas where percentage log cover and small tree density were high, and Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) preferred shrubby slopes with scattered large trees near woodland edges.

  10. Does covering of farm-associated Culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the United Kingdom?☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Gubbins, S.; Barber, J.; Denison, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Purse, B.V.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Culicoides species in the subgenus Avaritia (in the UK: Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides chiopterus Meigen) have been implicated in BTV transmission in northern Europe and to a varying degree utilise cattle dung as a larval development substrate. The collection of cattle dung into heaps on farms provides a localised source of Culicoides emergence in close proximity to livestock. This study assesses the impact of covering dung heaps prior to the onset of adult Culicoides activity with the aim of reducing recruitment to the local adult populations at four livestock farms in England. Light suction trap catches of adult Culicoides from these farms were compared with those from four untreated control farms from a wide geographic range across the UK. It was demonstrated that implementing control of emergence from dung heaps did not have a significant impact upon the local adult subgenus Avaritia abundance at the treated farm holdings and that the onset of Culicoides activity was similarly unaffected. Use of this method in isolation is unlikely to have an effect in reducing the risk of BTV and SBV transmission. The implications of these results for control of farm-associated Culicoides in Europe are discussed. PMID:24472769

  11. [Nocturnal flight activities of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species in Konya].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Ergül, Recep

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the nocturnal flight activities of Culicoides species during July, 1997 in Konya. Light traps were used for the collection of Culicoides specimens. They were placed in or nearby pens of poultry, sheep and cattle between the hours 20:00-22:00, 22:00-24:00, 24:00-02:00, 02:00-04:00, 04:00-06:00, and 06:00-08:00. A total of 4084 specimens were caught. Twelve species (C. puncticollis, C. maritimus, C. circumscriptus, C. punctatus, C. newsteadi, C. flavipulicaris, C. obsoletus, C. pulicaris, C. simulator, C. gejgelensis, C. salinarius, and C. vexans) were identified. C. puncticollis, C. maritimus, C. circumscriptus and C. punctatus were the most abundant species. It was found that the Culicoides species fly at night and their numbers decrease in the morning. The different species were observed to have different flight activities. A maximum number of C. puncticollis was captured in between the hours 20:00-22:00. A relatively high number of C. maritimus were caught between the hours of 20.00-22.00. Flight activity of this species peaked between the hours 22:00-24:00. The maximum number of C. circumscriptus was captured between the hours of 22:00-24:00 and 24:00-02:00. Flight activity of C. punctatus increased regularly from the hours of 20:00-22:00 until 02:00-04:00. PMID:17160855

  12. Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S

    1981-02-01

    This study continues an investigation of an anatomical abnormality, named 'imposex', which consists of a superimposition of male characteristics on to a functionally normal female reproductive anatomy of the dioecious snail Nassarius obsoletus Say. Imposex is prevalent in natural populations living near yacht basins and rarely found distant from them. In the current study caged snails were transferred between a yacht basin and a distant 'clean' locality where the natural population of snails was normal. Imposex was induced in some normal snails kept at the marina and suppressed, but not lost in abnormal snails kept at the clean locality. A similar positive result was obtained in the laboratory by exposing normal snails to organotin-containing antifouling paints and abnormal snails to clean sea water. Results were negative in parallel tests of various marina-associated materials which did not contain organotin. The laboratory studies have thus identified a causative factor for the anatomical abnormalities common near yacht basins in the natural environment. They also provide a rare, if not unique, example of a chemical agent which causes the appearance of superfluous anatomical features in an animal. PMID:7185870

  13. Schmallenberg virus in Germany 2011-2014: searching for the vectors.

    PubMed

    Kameke, Daniela; Werner, Doreen; Hoffmann, Bernd; Lutz, Walburga; Kampen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    Following the emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in 2011, 21,397 culicoid biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from targeted and non-targeted sampling activities carried out during the summer months of 2011 to 2013 and in late 2014 in various regions in Germany were analyzed for the virus by real-time RT-PCR. While no SBV was found in biting midges collected during 2011 and 2013, 2 out of 334 pools including 20 and 22 non-engorged females of the Obsoletus complex sampled in 2012 tested positive for the SBV S-segment with C(t) values of 42.46 and 35.45. In addition, 673 black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) captured during the same studies were screened for the presence of SBV and proved negative. In late autumn 2014, biting midges were collected again in a limited study in eastern Germany after some cases of SBV infection had occurred in a quarantine station for cattle. Due to the unfavorable seasonal weather conditions, only few specimens were caught, and these were also negative for SBV. The German experience suggests that biting midge collections launched only after an outbreak and are not locally targeted may be ineffective as to virus detection. It rather might be advisable to collect biting midges at sentinel farms on a permanent basis so to have material available to be examined in the case of a disease outbreak. PMID:26462800

  14. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  15. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps. PMID:27514882

  16. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    C.Livezey, B.

    1998-01-01

    analytical impacts of homoplasy related to flightlessness in a number of rallid lineages. A strict consensus tree of 20,000 shortest trees compiled (length = 1232, CI = 0.463) confirmed the interfamilial relationships resolved in the ordinal analysis and established a number of other, variably supported groups within the Rallidae. Groupings within the Rallidae included: monophyly of Rallidae exclusive of Himantornis and a clade comprising Porphyrio (including Notornis) and Porphyrula; a poorly resolved, basal group of genera including Gymnocrex, Habroptila, Eulabeornis, Aramides, Canirallus and Mentocrex; an intermediate grade comprising Anurolimnas, Amaurolimnas, and Rougetius; monophyly of two major subdivisions of remaining rallids, one comprising Rallina (paraphyletic), Rallicula, and Sarothrura, and the other comprising the apparently paraphyletic 'long-billed' rails (e.g. Pardirallus, Cyanolimnas, Rallus, Gallirallus and Cabalus and a variably resolved clade comprising 'crakes' (e.g. Atlantisia, Laterallus and Porzana, waterhens (Amaurornis), moorhens (Gallinula and allied genera) and coots (Fulica). Relationships among 'crakes' remain poorly resolved; Laterallus may be paraphyletic, and Porzana is evidently polyphyletic and poses substantial challenges for reconciliation with current taxonomy. Relationships among the species of waterhens, moorhens and coots, however, were comparatively well resolved, and exhaustive, fine-scale analyses of several genera (Grus, Porphyrio, Aramides, Rallus, Laterallus and Fulica) and species complexes (Porphyrio porphyrio -group,Gallirallus philippensis -group and Fulica americana -group) revealed additional topological likelihoods. Many nodes shared by a majority of the shortest trees under equal weighting were common to all shortest trees found following one or two iterations of successive weighting of characters. Provisional placements of selected subfossil rallids (e.g. Diaphorapteryx, Aphanapteryx and Capellirallus ) were based on

  17. Linking multi-temporal satellite imagery to coastal wetland dynamics and bird distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems are characterized by dynamic ecological processes, such as flooding and fires, but spatial models are often limited to a single measurement in time. The characterization of direct, fine-scale processes affecting animals is potentially valuable for management applications, but these are difficult to quantify over broad extents. Direct predictors are also expected to improve transferability of models beyond the area of study. Here, we investigated the ability of non-static and multi-temporal habitat characteristics to predict marsh bird distributions, while testing model generality and transferability between two coastal habitats. Distribution models were developed for king rail (Rallus elegans), common gallinule (Gallinula galeata), least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), and purple gallinule (Porphyrio martinica) in fresh and intermediate marsh types in the northern Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas, USA. For model development, repeated point count surveys of marsh birds were conducted from 2009 to 2011. Landsat satellite imagery was used to quantify both annual conditions and cumulative, multi-temporal habitat characteristics. We used multivariate adaptive regression splines to quantify bird-habitat relationships for fresh, intermediate, and combined marsh habitats. Multi-temporal habitat characteristics ranked as more important than single-date characteristics, as temporary water was most influential in six of eight models. Predictive power was greater for marsh type-specific models compared to general models and model transferability was poor. Birds in fresh marsh selected for annual habitat characterizations, while birds in intermediate marsh selected for cumulative wetness and heterogeneity. Our findings emphasize that dynamic ecological processes can affect species distribution and species-habitat relationships may differ with dominant landscape characteristics.

  18. Multiscale habitat selection of wetland birds in the northern Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial scale of habitat selection has become a prominent concept in ecology, but has received less attention in coastal ecology. In coastal marshes, broad-scale marsh types are defined by vegetation composition over thousands of hectares, water-level management is applied over hundreds of hectares, and fine-scale habitat is depicted by tens of meters. Individually, these scales are known to affect wetland fauna, but studies have not examined all three spatial scales simultaneously. We investigated wetland bird habitat selection at the three scales and compared single- and multiscale models. From 2009 to 2011, we surveyed marsh birds (i.e., Rallidae, bitterns, grebes), shorebirds, and wading birds in fresh and intermediate (oligohaline) coastal marsh in Louisiana and Texas, USA. Within each year, six repeated surveys of wintering, resident, and migratory breeding birds were conducted at > 100 points (n = 304). The results revealed fine-scale factors, primarily water depth, were consistently better predictors than marsh type or management. However, 10 of 11 species had improved models with the three scales combined. Birds with a linear association with water depth were, correspondingly, most abundant with deeper fresh marsh and permanently impounded water. Conversely, intermediate marsh had a greater abundance of shallow water species, such as king rail Rallus elegans, least bittern Ixobrychus exilis, and sora Porzana carolina. These birds had quadratic relationships with water depth or no relationship. Overall, coastal birds were influenced by multiple scales corresponding with hydrological characteristics. The effects suggest the timing of drawdowns and interannual variability in spring water levels can greatly affect wetland bird abundance.

  19. Two-species occupancy models: A new parameterization applied to co-occurrence of secretive rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, O.M.W.; Hines, J.E.; Beissinger, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two-species occupancy models that account for false absences provide a robust method for testing for evidence of competitive exclusion, but previous model parameteriza-tions were inadequate for incorporating covariates. We present a new parameterization that is stable when covariates are included: the conditional two-species occupancy model, which can be used to examine alternative hypotheses for species' distribution patterns. This new model estimates the probability of occupancy for a subordinate species conditional upon the presence of a dominant species. It can also be used to test if the detection of either species differs when one or both species are present, and if detection of the subordinate species depends on the detection of the dominant species when both are present. We apply the model to test if the presence of the larger Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) affects probabilities of detection or occupancy of the smaller California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) in small freshwater marshes that range in size from 0.013 to 13.99 ha. We hypothesized that Black Rail occupancy should be lower in small marshes when Virginia Rails are present than when they are absent, because resources are presumably more limited and interference competition should increase. We found that Black Rail detection probability was unaffected by the detection of Virginia Rails, while, surprisingly, Black and Virginia Rail occupancy were positively associated even in small marshes. The average probability of Black Rail occupancy was higher when Virginia Rails were present (0.74 ?? 0.053, mean ?? SE) than when they were absent (0.36 ?? 0.069), and for both species occupancy increased with marsh size. Our results contrast with recent findings from patchy forest systems, where small birds were presumed to be excluded from small habitat patches by larger competitors. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Secretive marsh aird species co-eccurrences and habitat associations across the midwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolenbaugh, Jason R.; Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Because secretive marsh birds are difficult to detect, population status and habitat use for these birds are not well known. We conducted repeated surveys for secretive marsh birds across 264 sites in the Upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes Joint Venture region to estimate abundance, occupancy, and detection probabilities during the 2008 and 2009 breeding seasons. We identified species groups based on observed species co-occurrences. Two species, least bittern Ixobrychus exilis and American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus, co-occurred with other species less often than expected by chance, and two species groups, rails (Virginia rail Rallus limicola and sora Porzana carolina) and open-water birds (pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps, common moorhen Gallinula chloropus, and American coot Fulica americana; coots were only surveyed in 2009), co-occurred more often than expected by chance. These groupings were consistent between years. We then estimated the relation of these species and groups to landscape and local site characteristics by using zero-inflated abundance models that accounted for incomplete detection. At the landscape level (5-km radius), the amount of emergent herbaceous wetland was positively associated with least bittern occupancy, whereas the amount of woody wetland was negatively associated with least bittern, rail, and open-water bird occupancy. At the local level, habitat variables that were associated with abundance were not consistent among groups or between years, with the exception that both least bitterns and open-water birds had a strong positive association between abundance and water-vegetation interspersion. Land managers interested in marsh bird management or conservation may want to consider focusing efforts on landscapes with high amounts of emergent herbaceous wetland and low amounts of woody wetland, and managing for high amounts of water-vegetation interspersion within the wetland.

  1. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  2. Breeding ecology and nesting habitat associations of five marsh bird species in western New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lor, S.; Malecki, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nesting habitats and nest success of five species of marsh birds were studied during 1997 and 1998 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and the adjacent Oak Orchard and Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) located in western New York. Nest searches located 18 American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 117 Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), 189 Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), 23 Sora (Porzana carolina), and 72 Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) nests. Average nest densities in 1998, our best nest searching year, ranged from 0.01/ha for Soras (N = 8) to 0.28/ha for Pied-billed Grebes (N = 160). Mayfield nest success estimates for Least Bittern were 80% (N = 16) in 1997 and 46% (N = 37) in 1998. Nest success estimates were 72% (N = 55) for Pied-billed Grebe, 43% (N = 6) for Sora, and 38% (N = 20) for Virginia Rail. Nests of all five species were located in ???70% emergent vegetation with a mean water depth of 24-56 cm and an average vegetation height that ranged from 69-133 cm. Logistic regression models were developed for each species using habitat variables at nest and random site locations. Each model was ranked with Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample size (AICc). In general, our best models indicated that increased emergent vegetation and horizontal cover with shallow water depths improved the odds of encountering marsh bird nests in the wetlands of western New York. We suggest that managing wetlands as a complex, at different stages of succession, would best benefit marsh bird species.

  3. Identification of kin structure among Guam rail founders: a comparison of pedigrees and DNA profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Ballou, J.D.; Casna, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Kin structure among founders can have a significant effect on subsequent population structure. Here we use the correlation between DNA profile similarity and relatedness calculated from pedigrees to test hypotheses regarding kin structure among founders to the captive Guam rail (Rallus owstoni) population. Five different pedigrees were generated under the following hypotheses: (i) founders are unrelated; (ii) founders are unrelated except for same-nest chicks; (iii) founders from the same major site are siblings; (iv) founders from the same local site are siblings; and (v) founders are related as defined by a UPGMA cluster analysis of DNA similarity data. Relatedness values from pedigrees 1, 2 and 5 had the highest correlation with DNA similarity but the correlation between relatedness and similarity were not significantly different among pedigrees. Pedigree 5 resulted in the highest correlation overall when using only relatedness values that changed as a result of different founder hypotheses. Thus, founders were assigned relatedness based on pedigree 5 because it had the highest correlations with DNA similarity, was the most conservative approach, and incorporated all field data. The analyses indicated that estimating relatedness using DNA profiles remains problematic, therefore we compared mean kinship, a measure of genetic importance, with mean DNA profile similarity to determine if genetic importance among individuals could be determined via use of DNA profiles alone. The significant correlation suggests this method may provide more information about population structure than was previously thought. Thus, DNA profiles can provide a reasonable explanation for founder relatedness and mean DNA profile similarity may be helpful in determining relative genetic importance of individuals when detailed pedigrees are absent.

  4. Proximate and ultimate aspects of acoustic and multimodal communication in butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Kelly S.

    Communication in social animals is shaped by natural selection on both sender and receiver. Diurnal butterflyfishes use a combination of visual cues like bright color patterns and motor pattern driven displays, acoustic communication, and olfactory cues that may advertise territorial behavior, facilitate recognition of individuals, and provide cues for courtship. This dissertation examines proximate and multimodal communication in several butterflyfishes, with an emphasis on acoustic communication which has recently garnered attention within the Chaetodontidae. Sound production in the genus Forcipiger involves a novel mechanism with synchronous contractions of opposing head muscles at the onset of sound emission and rapid cranial rotation that lags behind sound emission. Acoustic signals in F. flavissimus provide an accurate indicator of body size, and to a lesser extent cranial rotation velocity and acceleration. The closely related Hemitaurichthys polylepis produces rapid pulse trains of similar duration and spectral content to F. flavissimus, but with a dramatically different mechanism which involves contractions of hypaxial musculature at the anterior end of the swim bladder that occur with synchronous muscle action potentials. Both H. polylepis sonic and hypaxial trunk muscle fibers have triads at the z-line, but sonic fibers have smaller cross-sectional areas, more developed sarcoplasmic reticula, longer sarcomere lengths, and wider t-tubules. Sonic motor neurons are located along a long motor column entirely within the spinal cord and are composed of large and small types. Forcipiger flavissimus and F. longirostris are site attached and territorial, with F. flavissimus engaged in harem polygyny and F. longirostris in social monogamy. Both produce similar pulse sounds to conspecifics during territoriality that vary little with respect to communicative context. Chaetodon multicinctus can discriminate between mates and non-mate intruders, but require combined

  5. Bayesian spatiotemporal analysis of zero-inflated biological population density data by a delta-normal spatiotemporal additive model.

    PubMed

    Arcuti, Simona; Pollice, Alessio; Ribecco, Nunziata; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the spatiotemporal changes in the density of a particular species of crustacean known as deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, based on biological sample data collected during trawl surveys carried out from 1995 to 2006 as part of the international project MEDITS (MEDiterranean International Trawl Surveys). As is the case for many biological variables, density data are continuous and characterized by unusually large amounts of zeros, accompanied by a skewed distribution of the remaining values. Here we analyze the normalized density data by a Bayesian delta-normal semiparametric additive model including the effects of covariates, using penalized regression with low-rank thin-plate splines for nonlinear spatial and temporal effects. Modeling the zero and nonzero values by two joint processes, as we propose in this work, allows to obtain great flexibility and easily handling of complex likelihood functions, avoiding inaccurate statistical inferences due to misclassification of the high proportion of exact zeros in the model. Bayesian model estimation is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, suitably specifying the complex likelihood function of the zero-inflated density data. The study highlights relevant nonlinear spatial and temporal effects and the influence of the annual Mediterranean oscillations index and of the sea surface temperature on the distribution of the deep-water rose shrimp density. PMID:26418888

  6. Food of blueback herring and threadfin shad in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Foltz, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis were introduced into Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina, in the early 1970s as prey for large piscivores. To assess the potential for trophic competition between these clupeids, we examined their diets and the extent of diet overlap in May, August, and December 1982 and February 1983. The diet of blueback herring consisted mainly of large species of cladocerans and copepods supplemented in August with Chaoborus punctipennis and young fish. Mean length of the organisms eaten by blueback herring was 1.4 mm. Threadfin shad fed on smaller species of cladocerans and copepods, as well as on rotifers and copepod nauplii. The mean length of the organisms eaten by threadfin shad was 0.4 mm, which differed significantly from the mean length of the zooplankton population in Jocassee Reservoir (0.6 mm). Phytoplankton contributed 24 and 32% of the stomach contents of threadfin shad in August and December. Bosmina longirostris was important in the diet of both species, although blueback herring showed negative selection for it. Diet overlap between the two clupeids was low on all four dates. Although we found no evidence of trophic competition between the two species in Jocassee Reservoir, we do not recommend stocking them together, because both species are voracious planktivores and blueback herring are piscivorous.

  7. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  8. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  9. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  10. Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1970-01-01

    The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

  11. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  12. Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Cadun, Asli; Kışla, Duygu; Çaklı, Şükran

    2008-07-01

    The effect of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract on marinated deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1846) stored at 1°C was investigated. Chemical, physical, instrumental, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate the quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of marinated shrimps. Chemical composition of the shrimp was determined and no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between the control group (without rosemary extract) and the experimental group (with rosemary extract). Both groups contained 2% citric acid. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the sensory analysis of control and experimental groups on storage days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 while rancidity was noted by the panelists in the control group on day 75. The TBA value of the control group reached the consumption limit on day 75 but it was still 'very good' for the experimental group. Although the bacterial load of both groups were lower than the consumption limits on storage day 75, TBA value limited the shelf-life of the control group but the experimental group was still of good quality for consumption after 75 days. PMID:26054267

  13. Testing mitochondrial sequences and anonymous nuclear markers for phylogeny reconstruction in a rapidly radiating group: molecular systematics of the Delphininae (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Delphinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Sarah E; Adams, Lara D; Rosel, Patricia E

    2009-01-01

    Background Many molecular phylogenetic analyses rely on DNA sequence data obtained from single or multiple loci, particularly mitochondrial DNA loci. However, phylogenies for taxa that have undergone recent, rapid radiation events often remain unresolved. Alternative methodologies for discerning evolutionary relationships under these conditions are desirable. The dolphin subfamily Delphininae is a group that has likely resulted from a recent and rapid radiation. Despite several efforts, the evolutionary relationships among the species in the subfamily remain unclear. Results Here, we compare a phylogeny estimated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences to a multi-locus phylogeny inferred from 418 polymorphic genomic markers obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The two sets of phylogenies are largely incongruent, primarily because the mtDNA tree provides very poor resolving power; very few species' nodes in the tree are supported by bootstrap resampling. The AFLP phylogeny is considerably better resolved and more congruent with relationships inferred from morphological data. Both phylogenies support paraphyly for the genera Stenella and Tursiops. The AFLP data indicate a close relationship between the two spotted dolphin species and recent ancestry between Stenella clymene and S. longirostris. The placement of the Lagenodelphis hosei lineage is ambiguous: phenetic analysis of the AFLP data is consistent with morphological expectations but the phylogenetic analysis is not. Conclusion For closely related, recently diverged taxa, a multi-locus genome-wide survey is likely the most comprehensive approach currently available for phylogenetic inference. PMID:19811651

  14. A tool for real-time acoustic species identification of delphinid whistles.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Julie N; Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay; Lammers, Marc O

    2007-07-01

    The ability to identify delphinid vocalizations to species in real-time would be an asset during shipboard surveys. An automated system, Real-time Odontocete Call Classification Algorithm (ROCCA), is being developed to allow real-time acoustic species identification in the field. This Matlab-based tool automatically extracts ten variables (beginning, end, minimum and maximum frequencies, duration, slope of the beginning and end sweep, number of inflection points, number of steps, and presence/absence of harmonics) from whistles selected from a real-time scrolling spectrograph (ISHMAEL). It uses classification and regression tree analysis (CART) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to identify whistles to species. Schools are classified based on running tallies of individual whistle classifications. Overall, 46% of schools were correctly classified for seven species and one genus (Tursiops truncatus, Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Steno bredanensis, Delphinus species, Pseudorca crassidens, and Globicephala macrorhynchus), with correct classification as high as 80% for some species. If classification success can be increased, this tool will provide a method for identifying schools that are difficult to approach and observe, will allow species distribution data to be collected when visual efforts are compromised, and will reduce the time necessary for post-cruise data analysis. PMID:17614515

  15. The effect of recording and analysis bandwidth on acoustic identification of delphinid species.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Julie N; Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2004-11-01

    Because many cetacean species produce characteristic calls that propagate well under water, acoustic techniques can be used to detect and identify them. The ability to identify cetaceans to species using acoustic methods varies and may be affected by recording and analysis bandwidth. To examine the effect of bandwidth on species identification, whistles were recorded from four delphinid species (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata, S. coeruleoalba, and S. longirostris) in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean. Four spectrograms, each with a different upper frequency limit (20, 24, 30, and 40 kHz), were created for each whistle (n = 484). Eight variables (beginning, ending, minimum, and maximum frequency; duration; number of inflection points; number of steps; and presence/absence of harmonics) were measured from the fundamental frequency of each whistle. The whistle repertoires of all four species contained fundamental frequencies extending above 20 kHz. Overall correct classification using discriminant function analysis ranged from 30% for the 20-kHz upper frequency limit data to 37% for the 40-kHz upper frequency limit data. For the four species included in this study, an upper bandwidth limit of at least 24 kHz is required for an accurate representation of fundamental whistle contours. PMID:15603163

  16. A preliminary study of habitat and resource partitioning among co-occurring tropical dolphins around Mayotte, southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Alexandra; Kiszka, Jeremy; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Richard, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    Mayotte in the southwest Indian Ocean is characterized by high dolphin diversity. They may coexist within a fairly small area around the island because they exploit neither the same preferential habitats nor the same resources. This preliminary study aimed to investigate ecological niche segregation among these delphinid communities: the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, the spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, and the melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra. Two approaches were used. Habitat preferences were investigated by analysing dolphin sighting data and associated physiographical characteristics. Resource partitioning was explored by analysing C and N stable isotopes in skin and blubber biopsies. Only T. aduncus, which showed clear association with coastal habitats in the lagoon, differed from the others in terms of habitat preferences, characterised by shallow depth and slope, and proximity to the coast. All other species shared similar oceanic habitats immediately outside the lagoon, these being of higher depth and slope, greater distance from the coast and were not discernable by discriminant analysis. The two Stenella species and the melon-headed whale displayed very high overlap in habitat physiographic variables. The analysis of stable isotopes confirmed the ecological isolation of T. aduncus and revealed a clear segregation of P. electra compared to the two Stenella that was not apparent in the habitat analysis. This may reflect ecological differences that were not observable from diurnal surface observations.

  17. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  18. Redefining Microascus, Scopulariopsis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, M; Gené, J; Sutton, D A; Cano-Lira, J F; de Hoog, G S; Decock, C A; Wiederhold, N P; Guarro, J

    2016-06-01

    The genera Microascus and Scopulariopsis comprise species commonly isolated from soil, decaying plant material and indoor environments. A few species are also recognised as opportunistic pathogens of insects and animals, including humans. In the past, the taxonomy of these fungi has been based on morphology only. With the aim to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of these fungi, we studied a large set of clinical and environmental isolates, including the available ex-type strains of numerous species, by means of morphological, physiological and molecular analyses. Species delineation was assessed under the Genealogical Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) criterion using DNA sequence data of four loci (ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin). The genera Microascus and Scopulariopsis were found to be separated in two distinct lineages. The genus Pithoascus is reinstated and the new genus Pseudoscopulariopsis is erected, typified by P. schumacheri. Seven new species of Microascus and one of Scopulariopsis are described, namely M. alveolaris, M. brunneosporus, M. campaniformis, M. expansus, M. intricatus, M. restrictus, M. verrucosus and Scopulariopsis cordiae. Microascus trigonosporus var. macrosporus is accepted as a species distinct from M. trigonosporus. Nine new combinations are introduced. Microascus cinereus, M. longirostris, P. schumacheri and S. flava are neotypified. A table summarising the morphological features of the species treated and identification keys for each genus are provided. PMID:27616786

  19. Cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C; Lyon, D C; Mock, O B; Kaas, J H

    1999-07-19

    Cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. In three species, Blarina brevicauda, Cryptotis parva, and Sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. Cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. An additional two species (Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone were analyzed without electrophysiological mapping. A single basic plan of cortical organization was found in shrews, consisting of a few clearly defined sensory areas located caudally in cortex. Two somatosensory areas contained complete representations of the contralateral body, corresponding to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). A small primary visual cortex (V1) was located closely adjacent to S1, whereas auditory cortex (A1) was located in extreme caudolateral cortex, partially encircled by S2. Areas did not overlap and had sharp, histochemically apparent and electrophysiologically defined borders. The adjacency of these areas suggests a complete absence of intervening higher level or association areas. Based on a previous study of corticospinal connections, a presumptive primary motor cortex (M1) was identified directly rostral to S1. Apparently, in shrews, the solution to having extremely little neocortex is to have only a few small cortical subdivisions. However, the small areas remain discrete, well organized, and functional. This cortical organization in shrews is likely a derived condition, because a wide range of extant mammals have a greater number of cortical subdivisions. PMID:10397395

  20. In situ filtering rates of Cladocera: Effect of body length, temperature, and food concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Mourelatos, S.; Lacroix, G. )

    1990-07-01

    The individual filtering rates of the cladocerans in Creteil Lake were measured in the daytime with {sup 14}C-labeled Chlorella during a seasonal survey. This mesotrophic, shallow, polymictic lake is characterized by small algae (< 25 {mu}m) and cladocerans (< 1.3 mm). Multiple regression models were established for each genus and for all the cladocerans. Body length alone explained from 44 to 57% of the total variance in the filtering rates of Daphnia spp., Ceriodaphnia spp., and Diaphanosoma brachyurum. An additional 23-34% of the variance was attributable to temperature. The inclusion of the Chl {alpha} concentration finally yielded r{sup 2} values ranging between 0.79 and 0.84. On the other hand, body length and temperature explained only 16% of the total variance in filtering rate of Bosmina longirostris. By taking into account the effect of factors other than length of the animal, the fit of the model established for all cladocerans improved considerably (from r{sup 2} = 0.47 to r{sup 2} = 0.83). Species-specific responses and thermal effects in the lake show the difficulty of applying models based solely on body length to obtain sufficiently accurate estimates of cladoceran filtering rates.

  1. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F.; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  2. Local extinction of a coral reef fish explained by inflexible prey choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, R. M.; Munday, P. L.; Brandl, S. J.; Jones, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    While global extinctions of marine species are infrequent, local extinctions are becoming common. However, the role of habitat degradation and resource specialisation in explaining local extinction is unknown. On coral reefs, coral bleaching is an increasingly frequent cause of coral mortality that can result in dramatic changes to coral community composition. Coral-associated fishes are often specialised on a limited suite of coral species and are therefore sensitive to these changes. This study documents the local extinction of a corallivorous reef fish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, following a mass bleaching event that altered the species composition of associated coral communities. Local extinction only occurred on reefs that also completely lost a key prey species, Acropora millepora, even though coral cover remained high. In an experimental test, fish continued to select bleached A. millepora over the healthy, but less-preferred prey species that resisted bleaching. These results suggest that behavioural inflexibility may limit the ability of specialists to cope with even subtle changes to resource availability.

  3. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13)C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13)C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13)C values. The highest δ(15)N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15)N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13)C values, but similar δ(15)N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13)C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  4. Diet overlap in larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and bloaters (Coregonus hoyi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1992-01-01

    The food preferences of larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and bloater (C.hoyi) were compared in a small mesotrophic lake in southeastern Michigan. Diets of the two were increasingly similar as the experiment progressed until, by the end of 6.5 weeks, they were identical; Schoener's Index of diet overlap averaged 0.35 in the first week and reached 0.96 by the end of the study. In the first few weeks, lake herring ate mostly small cladocerans (Bosmia longirostris) and bloaters ate mostly large cladocerans (Eurycercus lamellatus). Strauss's selection index confirmed that lake herring actively fed on small cladocerans throughout the study and that bloaters relied more on cyclopoid copepods during the early part of the study and shifted to eating small and large cladocerans by the end. Both species had similar growth rates throughout the study and amount of consumed food was identical. The diet similarities of lake herring and bloater larvae could make them competitors for food in the Great Lakes, relieved only by a dissimilarity in hatching times and locations.

  5. The antiquity of riverine adaptations in Iniidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti) documented by a humerus from the late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, Carolina Simon; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2014-06-01

    "River dolphins" are a paraphyletic group of toothed whales (Odontoceti) that represent independent secondary invasions of freshwater habitats. Different "river dolphin" lineages display suites of convergent morphological specializations that commonly reflect adaptations to riverine and freshwater environments, such as longirostry, reduced orbits, and wide, paddle-like flippers. One lineage, the Iniidae, is presently endemic to South America, and includes several extinct Neogene taxa along with their sole extant genus, Inia (the Amazon River dolphin). We report here a humerus recovered from the late Miocene deposits of the Ituzaingó Formation in the Paraná Basin of Argentina. The specimen exhibits diagnostic features of the family Iniidae, including a scapular-sternal joint of the humerus, which is a unique anatomical connection among mammals. This joint permits enhanced parasagittal adduction of the flipper as a control surface, relative to other odontocetes, providing Inia with a high degree of maneuverability in its structurally complex and heterogenous riverine habitat. This unique anatomical connection, here documented from the late Miocene (∼9 million years-6.5 million years old), not only provides the oldest diagnostic record for Iniidae, but it also indicates a similar habitat use for this lineage, a finding coincident with the current paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Ituzaingó Formation. PMID:24585575

  6. The effect of recording and analysis bandwidth on acoustic identification of delphinid species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Julie N.; Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2004-11-01

    Because many cetacean species produce characteristic calls that propagate well under water, acoustic techniques can be used to detect and identify them. The ability to identify cetaceans to species using acoustic methods varies and may be affected by recording and analysis bandwidth. To examine the effect of bandwidth on species identification, whistles were recorded from four delphinid species (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata, S. coeruleoalba, and S. longirostris) in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean. Four spectrograms, each with a different upper frequency limit (20, 24, 30, and 40 kHz), were created for each whistle (n=484). Eight variables (beginning, ending, minimum, and maximum frequency; duration; number of inflection points; number of steps; and presence/absence of harmonics) were measured from the fundamental frequency of each whistle. The whistle repertoires of all four species contained fundamental frequencies extending above 20 kHz. Overall correct classification using discriminant function analysis ranged from 30% for the 20-kHz upper frequency limit data to 37% for the 40-kHz upper frequency limit data. For the four species included in this study, an upper bandwidth limit of at least 24 kHz is required for an accurate representation of fundamental whistle contours..

  7. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  8. Pollination, mating and reproductive fitness in a plant population with bimodal floral-tube length.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B; Pauw, A; Cole, W W; Barrett, S C H

    2016-08-01

    Mating patterns and natural selection play important roles in determining whether genetic polymorphisms are maintained or lost. Here, we document an atypical population of Lapeirousia anceps (Iridaceae) with a bimodal distribution of floral-tube length and investigate the reproductive mechanisms associated with this pattern of variation. Flowers were visited exclusively by the long-proboscid fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris (Nemestrinidae), which exhibited a unimodal distribution of proboscis length and displayed a preference for long-tubed phenotypes. Despite being visited by a single pollinator species, allozyme markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between open-pollinated progeny of long- and short-tubed phenotypes suggesting mating barriers between them. We obtained direct evidence for mating barriers between the floral-tube phenotypes through observations of pollinator foraging, controlled hand pollinations and measurements of pollen competition and seed set. Intermediate tube-length phenotypes produced fewer seeds in the field than either long- or short-tubed phenotypes. Although floral-tube length bimodality may not be a stable state over long timescales, reproductive barriers to mating and low 'hybrid' fitness have the potential to contribute to the maintenance of this state in the short term. PMID:27206242

  9. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  10. Bluetongue virus surveillance in a newly infected area.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A; Savini, L; Nannini, D; Patta, C; Santucci, U; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    regions. For the risks related to animal movement, the surveillance data was used in risk assessment analyses to address the movement of slaughter and breeding animals from vaccinated/infected and surrounding areas to free areas. These risk assessments led to an amendment of the relevant European Union legislation. Finally, a Montecarlo simulation model was developed to simulate different sentinel system scenarios and to decrease the total number of sentinel animals and sites required by the surveillance system. The sentinel surveillance system was complemented by an entomological surveillance system based on the use of a number of permanent blacklight traps run weekly year-round and a number of mobile blacklight traps moved through the grid cells during the summer and autumn of each year. The aim of entomological surveillance was to define the maximum distribution of vectors and their seasonal population dynamics. Furthermore, the permanent trap system provides an early warning of the start of new epidemics. The data from the entomological surveillance system were also analysed to generate probability maps of the presence of the principal BTV vector (Culicoides imicola) and to define the geographical risk of BT on a nationwide basis, and to predict the geographical distribution and the short-term spread of C. imicola in Sardinia, using spatio-temporal data. The detection, since 2001, of BT outbreaks in the absence of C. imicola and the recent identification of BTV in midges of the Obsoletus Complex also stimulated investigations on other vector Culicoides, including C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris. PMID:20419661

  11. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then examined a large-scale database of snake detection/nondetection data and used occupancy modelling to determine whether these species occur together more or less frequently than expected by chance while accounting for variation in detection probability among species and incorporating important habitat categories in the models. For some snakes, we obtained evidence that the probabilities that habitat patches are used are influenced by the presence of potentially competing congeneric species. Specifically, timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were less likely than expected by chance to use areas that also contained eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) when the proportion of evergreen forest was relatively high. Otherwise, they occurred together more often than expected by chance. Complex relationships were revealed between habitat use, detection probabilities and occupancy probabilities of North American racers (Coluber constrictor) and coachwhips (Coluber flagellum) that indicated the probability of competitive exclusion increased with increasing area of grassland habitat, although there was some model uncertainty. Cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus or Pantherophis slowinskii) and ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis, Pantherophis spiloides, or Pantherophis obsoletus) exhibited differences in habitat selection, but we obtained no evidence that patterns of use for this species pair were influenced by current interspecific interactions. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive interactions influence snake assemblage composition; the strength of these effects was

  12. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes.

  13. Vision in semi-aquatic snakes: Intraocular morphology, accommodation, and eye: Body allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plylar, Helen Bond

    Vision in vertebrates generally relies on the refractive power of the cornea and crystalline lens to facilitate vision. Light from the environment enters the eye and is refracted by the cornea and lens onto the retina for production of an image. When an animal with a system designed for air submerges underwater, the refractive power of the cornea is lost. Semi-aquatic animals (e.g., water snakes, turtles, aquatic mammals) must overcome this loss of corneal refractive power through visual accommodation. Accommodation relies on change of the position or shape of the lens to change the focal length of the optical system. Intraocular muscles and fibers facilitate lenticular displacement and deformation. Snakes, in general, are largely unstudied in terms of visual acuity and intraocular morphology. I used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine differences in eye anatomy between five sympatric colubrid snake species (Nerodia cyclopion, N. fasciata, N. rhombifer, Pantherophis obsoletus, and Thamnophis proximus) from Southeast Louisiana. I discovered previously undescribed structures associated with the lens in semi-aquatic species. Photorefractive methods were used to assess refractive error. While all species overcame the expected hyperopia imposed by submergence, there was interspecific variation in refractive error. To assess scaling of eye size with body size, I measure of eye size, head size, and body size in Nerodia cyclopion and N. fasciata from the SLU Vertebrate Museum. In both species, body size increases at a significantly faster rate than head size and eye size (negative allometry). Small snakes have large eyes relative to body size, and large snakes have relatively small eyes. There were interspecific differences in scaling of eye size with body size, where N. fasciata had larger eye diameter, but N. cyclopion had longer eyes (axial length).

  14. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan–Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  15. Impact of Vector Dispersal and Host-Plant Fidelity on the Dissemination of an Emerging Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jes; Foissac, Xavier; Kehrli, Patrik; Maixner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector. PMID:23284774

  16. Repellent effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Archer, D; McGowan, C; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Baylis, M

    2015-05-30

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vectorborne disease spread by Culicoides biting midges. The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs currently suggests using topical deltamethrin for AHS control; however, no data are available regarding its efficacy in the horse. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses and to investigate which Culicoides species blood fed on horses. Three pairs of horses were placed in partially enclosed cages that allowed samples representing the Culicoides interacting with individual horses to be sampled. Four data collection sessions were completed before one horse from each pair was topically treated with 10 ml of 1 per cent deltamethrin solution and another four sessions were then carried out. Collected Culicoides were identified and each biting midge examined to see if it had blood fed. The most abundant species collected were C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus (44.3 per cent) and either C. pulicaris or C. punctatus (34.7 per cent). These species were also more likely to have blood fed than other species, supporting their potential role as AHS vectors if the virus were to reach the UK. There was no significant effect of treatment on blood feeding by Culicoides. The results do not support the use of topical deltamethrin to prevent blood feeding by Culicoides on individual horses; however, the study does not investigate the effect that the widespread use of topical deltamethrin might have on vector numbers or disease transmission from viraemic individuals during an outbreak of AHS. PMID:25948630

  17. Environmental Drivers of Culicoides Phenology: How Important Is Species-Specific Variation When Determining Disease Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Kate R.; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Labuschagne, Karien; Carpenter, Simon; Butler, Adam; Denison, Eric; Sanders, Christopher; Mellor, Philip S.; Wilson, Anthony; Nelson, Noel; Gubbins, Simon; Purse, Bethan V.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the ‘seasonally vector free period’: SVFP). We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP), we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments of species

  18. Environmental drivers of Culicoides phenology: how important is species-specific variation when determining disease policy?

    PubMed

    Searle, Kate R; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Labuschagne, Karien; Carpenter, Simon; Butler, Adam; Denison, Eric; Sanders, Christopher; Mellor, Philip S; Wilson, Anthony; Nelson, Noel; Gubbins, Simon; Purse, Bethan V

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, arboviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have caused significant disruption to ruminant production in northern Europe. The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. To control spread of BTV, movement of susceptible livestock is restricted with economic and animal welfare impacts. The timing of BTV transmission in temperate regions is partly determined by the seasonal presence of adult Culicoides females. Legislative measures therefore allow for the relaxation of ruminant movement restrictions during winter, when nightly light-suction trap catches of Culicoides fall below a threshold (the 'seasonally vector free period': SVFP). We analysed five years of time-series surveillance data from light-suction trapping in the UK to investigate whether significant inter-specific and yearly variation in adult phenology exists, and whether the SVFP is predictable from environmental factors. Because female vector Culicoides are not easily morphologically separated, inter-specific comparisons in phenology were drawn from male populations. We demonstrate significant inter-specific differences in Culicoides adult phenology with the season of Culicoides scoticus approximately eight weeks shorter than Culicoides obsoletus. Species-specific differences in the length of the SVFP were related to host density and local variation in landscape habitat. When the Avaritia Culicoides females were modelled as a group (as utilised in the SFVP), we were unable to detect links between environmental drivers and phenological metrics. We conclude that the current treatment of Avaritia Culicoides as a single group inhibits understanding of environmentally-driven spatial variation in species phenology and hinders the development of models for predicting the SVFP from environmental factors. Culicoides surveillance methods should be adapted to focus on concentrated assessments of species

  19. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joseph D.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Zygo, Lisa; Swint, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Avian conservation efforts must account for changes in vegetation composition and structure associated with climate change. We modeled vegetation change and the probability of occurrence of birds to project changes in winter bird distributions associated with climate change and fire management in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (southwestern U.S.A.). We simulated vegetation change in a process-based model (Landscape and Fire Simulator) in which anticipated climate change was associated with doubling of current atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next 50 years. We estimated the relative probability of bird occurrence on the basis of statistical models derived from field observations of birds and data on vegetation type, topography, and roads. We selected 3 focal species, Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), and Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), that had a range of probabilities of occurrence for our study area. Our simulations projected increases in relative probability of bird occurrence in shrubland and decreases in grassland and Yucca spp. and ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) vegetation. Generally, the relative probability of occurrence of all 3 species was highest in shrubland because leaf-area index values were lower in shrubland. This high probability of occurrence likely is related to the species' use of open vegetation for foraging. Fire suppression had little effect on projected vegetation composition because as climate changed there was less fuel and burned area. Our results show that if future water limits on plant type are considered, models that incorporate spatial data may suggest how and where different species of birds may respond to vegetation changes. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-08-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan-Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  1. Effects of shorebird predation and snail abundance on an intertidal mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverie, Anne V.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Coffin, Michael R. S.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2014-09-01

    Top-down effects of predation are well documented in a variety of ecological communities, including marine soft-sediment systems. It has been proposed that intertidal mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, which host a large population of foraging shorebirds each summer, may exhibit this community dynamic. Biofilm (consisting mainly of diatoms) forms the base of the mudflat community food web, which is dominated by the amphipod Corophium volutator. To assess the potential for a trophic cascade, we conducted a manipulative field experiment examining individual and combined effects of the shorebird Calidris pusilla, a primary predator of C. volutator, and the eastern mudsnail (Nassarius obsoletus), an intraguild predator, on community structure (including macrofauna and large meiofauna retained by a 250-μm screen). Snails exhibited density-dependent top-down effects, primarily from strong negative interactions with juvenile and adult C. volutator, likely due to interference, consumption and emigration. Medium and high densities of snails reduced chlorophyll a concentration (a measure of diatom abundance), likely through consumption and disturbance of the sediment. When present at higher densities, snails also increased variability in community structure. Shorebirds were less influential in determining community structure. They reduced C. volutator biomass through consumption, but there was no resulting effect on primary production. Top-down effects of snails and birds were cumulative on C. volutator, but did not generate a trophic cascade. We suggest that a combination of omnivory and intraguild predation by shorebirds and snails, coupled with relatively low grazing pressure by C. volutator, prevented transmission of top-down effects.

  2. [Efficacy of Flectron-eartags (cypermethrin) for control of midges (Culicoides) as the vectors of bluetongue virus in cattle: field studies and biossays].

    PubMed

    Liebisch, Gabriele; Liebisch, Arndt

    2008-06-01

    When in 2006 infection with bluetongue for the first time occurred in Germany the registered and already against flies and tabanids in cattle proofed Flectron ear tags were used against the blood feeding vector midges (Culicoides) also. However, the efficacy against gnats was not yet proofed. The efficacy of 1 and 2 ear tags (1,067 g cypermethrin per ear tag) per animal was investigated in North Germany with 237 heifers and dairy cows. Midges were caught in suction light traps close to the cattle on pasture or became trapped by mouth operated aspirators directly at the skin of the animal bodies. Within 12,051 specimens of midges 12 species of Culicoides could be identified. On grasslands 3 species, C. obsoletus, C. pulicaris and C. dewulfi were found to be dominant. These 3 species are also known to be vectors of BTV. The toxic efficacy was found for 14 days with 1 ear tag and up to 21 days with 2 ear tags. This duration of efficacy was confirmed in the laboratory with hair clippings from the dorsal line and the ventral abdomen (bioassay). In accordance with workers in the U.S.A. it is concluded that insecticide-impregnated ear tags will reduce the number of biting midges, and by this way the risk of infection with BTV in herds of treated cattle will be reduced as well as in other cattle of a particular region. It is concluded that ear tags are of considerable value as part of an integrated control program for BT, e.g. vaccination. PMID:18605374

  3. Thelytokous Parthenogenesis in the Fungus-Gardening Ant Mycocepurus smithii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rabeling, Christian; Lino-Neto, José; Cappellari, Simone C.; Dos-Santos, Iracenir A.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Bacci, Maurício

    2009-01-01

    The general prevalence of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction among organisms testifies to the evolutionary benefits of recombination, such as accelerated adaptation to changing environments and elimination of deleterious mutations. Documented instances of asexual reproduction in groups otherwise dominated by sexual reproduction challenge evolutionary biologists to understand the special circumstances that might confer an advantage to asexual reproductive strategies. Here we report one such instance of asexual reproduction in the ants. We present evidence for obligate thelytoky in the asexual fungus-gardening ant, Mycocepurus smithii, in which queens produce female offspring from unfertilized eggs, workers are sterile, and males appear to be completely absent. Obligate thelytoky is implicated by reproductive physiology of queens, lack of males, absence of mating behavior, and natural history observations. An obligate thelytoky hypothesis is further supported by the absence of evidence indicating sexual reproduction or genetic recombination across the species' extensive distribution range (Mexico-Argentina). Potential conflicting evidence for sexual reproduction in this species derives from three Mycocepurus males reported in the literature, previously regarded as possible males of M. smithii. However, we show here that these specimens represent males of the congeneric species M. obsoletus, and not males of M. smithii. Mycocepurus smithii is unique among ants and among eusocial Hymenoptera, in that males seem to be completely absent and only queens (and not workers) produce diploid offspring via thelytoky. Because colonies consisting only of females can be propagated consecutively in the laboratory, M. smithii could be an adequate study organism a) to test hypotheses of the population-genetic advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction in a social organism and b) inform kin conflict theory. For a Portuguese translation of the abstract, please see

  4. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides

    PubMed Central

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  5. Use of Wetland Habitats by Selected Nongame Water Birds in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.P.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Ringelman, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the use of 87 palustrine and lacustrine wetlands by nongame water birds in central and eastern Maine using 3,527 h of observation (1,501 visits) made during April-August, 1977-85. Wetlands used by 15 species of water birds were distinguished from those not used, according to 20 habitat features. The species were the common loon (Gavia immer) , pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), Virgima rail (Rallus limicola), sora (Porzana carolina), spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia), common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). Predictive models of habitat use were developed for each species. Water birds were classified by similarity of habitats used, and species use was contrasted by wetland type. Smaller, isolated wetlands were used by fewer (P 66%) or open (<33%) wetlands. Low pH typified wetlands used by large-bodied piscivores (common loon, cormorant, osprey). Other water birds were associated with more densely vegetated, chemically buffered wetlands. Habitat features associated with wetland use by each waterbird species are reported, as are numerical responses of waterbird populations to wetland features and estimates of annual variation in habitat occupancy. Lacustrine wetlands supported a distinct, low diversity community of water birds, including most fish-eating species. Waterbird diversity at forested palustrine wetlands was intermediate between lacustrine communities and more species-rich assemblages at palustrine emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands. Regional variation in wetland characteristics and water bird use was associated with surficial geology, soils, and management practices. Management for nongame water birds in

  6. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  7. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, Timothy, S.; Komoroski, Mark, J.

    2004-01-01

    McCay, T.S., and M.J. Komoroski. 2004. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 189:387-395. We trapped shrews at six 9.3 ha plots from which logs ý 10 cm diameter (coarse woody debris; CWD) had been manually removed and six control plots inmanaged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Trapping was conducted seasonally between autumn 1997 and summer 2001. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which CWD was removed than at control plots (P ¡ 0ý011) and declined at all plots over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Capture rates of Blarina carolinensis (P ¡ 0ý129) and Sorex longirostris (P ¡ 0ý432) did not differ between removal and control plots, but declined over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Age distributions of B. carolinensis differed between removal and control plots (P ¡ 0ý048) with a smaller proportion of individuals in young age categories at removal plots. Sensitivity of Cryptotis to the removal of CWD may have been due to its sociality or low population density at the study area. A reduction in the abundance of young B. carolinensis after removal of CWD may reflect reduced reproduction and immigration of older individuals from outside the plot. Effect of removal of CWD on populations of these shrews was relatively weak compared to strong seasonal and multi-year variation in abundance. However, weak treatment effects may have been partly due to low ambient levels of CWD at control plots.

  8. Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Freshwater plankton response to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. III

    1984-01-01

    An in situ bag experiment was performed at circum-neutral Lake O'Woods, West Virgnia, where lakewater inside large enclosures was gradually acidified to pH 6.5 or 4.5, in order to examine plankton community succession during acidification. At acidic Cheat Lake (pH ca. 4.5), West Virginia, in situ feeding experiments and bag experiments were performed to evaluate the importance of selective herbivory in controlling algal community structure in acid lakes. The Lake O'Woods plankton community changed dramatically with increasing acidity. Species richness declined, as sensitive forms were eliminated. The phytoplankton became dominated by Peridinium inconspicuum and the filamentous green alga Mougoetia viridis, while euglenophytes, chrysophytes and diatoms were eliminated. Bosmina longirostris and Chydorus sphaericus were the dominant crustaceans at low pH. Only a single rotifer, Lecane luna, tolerated the acidic conditions. All others were eliminated at pH below 6.0. Despite the rapid acidification regime, the nature of the plankton community changes, as well as community structure at pH 4.5, were as predicted in the literature from earlier comparative studies. During the Cheat Lake feeding experiments, P. inconspicuum was always the extreme dominant alga. However, it was never significantly grazed by the herbivorous zooplankton. The herbivores selectively consumed the other, more rare algae, particularly the unicellular greens. Despite the existence of selective herbivory, algal community structure did not change inside enclosures where herbivores were excluded in a 26 and an 18 day experiment. Cheat Lake herbivores seem to have little effect on algal community structure. This is probably also true in most precipitation-acidified lakes. However, herbivore biomass, and also energy flow to higher trophic levels, may be suppressed because most of the primary producer biomass is inedible.

  10. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  11. The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740

  12. Changes in seasonal nearshore zooplankton abundance patterns in Lake Ontario following establishment of the exotic predator Cercopagis pengoi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, David M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Benoit, Hugues; Mills, Edward L.; Johannsson, Ora E.

    2006-01-01

    Cercopagis pengoi, a zooplanktivore first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1998, may reduce availability of prey for planktivorous fish. Cercoapgis pengoi is most abundant in late summer and fall. Therefore, we hypothesized that abundance of small zooplankton (bosminids and cyclopoids) species would decrease at that time. To determine if the establishment of C. pengoi was followed by changes in the zooplankton community, seasonal patterns in nearshore zooplankton collected from May to October 1995–2000 were examined. Early summer density of small zooplankton was similar in all years while late summer and fall densities were significantly lower in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997. The declines of small zooplankton coincided seasonally with the peak in C. pengoidensity. Other possible causes for the observed changes in small zooplankton are less likely. High levels of fish predation should have resulted in smaller zooplankton in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997 and larger declines in Daphnia than other groups. This was not observed. There was no significant decline in chlorophyll-a concentrations or changes in temperature between 1995–1997 and 1998–2000. Therefore, the declines in density of small zooplankton were most likely the result of C. pengoi predation. The effect of C. pengoi establishment on alewives is increased competition for zooplankton prey but C. pengoi has replaced a portion of the zooplankton biomass and adult alewife diet formerly dominated by Diacyclops thomasi and Bosmina longirostris.

  13. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  14. The use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili

    1997-01-01

    Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals. Here we review the current status of the non destructive biomarker approach in marine mammals, describing the biological materials available for non destructive tests in stranded brain, liver, blood, skin, subcutaneous blubber, muscle and fur and free ranging animals blood, skin biopsy, fur and faeces and the respective biomarker techniques mixed function oxidase activity and DNA damage in skin biopsy samples; porphyrins in faeces and fur; esterases, porphyrins, clinical biochemical parameter, vitamin A and micronuclei in blood samples. Residue analysis can be carried out in the various biological materials. We also report the results of applying this methodological approach to cetaceans minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, fin whale-- Balaenoptera physalus, beluga whale-- Delphinapterus leucas, short finned pilot whale-- Globicephala macrorhynchus, harbour porpoise -- Phocoena phocoena, Rissos dolphin-- Risso s Grampus griseus, Dall s porpoise-- Phocoenoides dalli dalli, melon headed whale-- Peponocephala electra, bottlenose dolphin -- Tursiops truncatus, striped dolphin-- Stenella coeruleoalba, spinner dolphin-- Stenella longirostris, killer whale-- Orcinus orca and pinnipeds northern fur seal- Callorhinus ursinus, hooded seal-- Cystophora cristata, grey seal-- Halichoerus grypus, harbour seal-- Phoca vitulina

  15. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M Pilar; Valavanis, Vasilis; Carlucci, Roberto; Fiorentino, Fabio; Follesa, Maria C; Iglesias, Magdalena; Knittweis, Leyla; Lefkaditou, Eugenia; Lembo, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Chiara; Massutí, Enric; Pace, Marie Louise; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Sartor, Paolo; Smith, Christopher J; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem

  16. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  17. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

  18. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats.

    PubMed

    Free, C L; Baxter, G S; Dickman, C R; Lisle, A; Leung, L K-P

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  19. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe

  20. Validation of Blubber Progesterone Concentrations for Pregnancy Determination in Three Dolphin Species and a Porpoise

    PubMed Central

    Trego, Marisa L.; Kellar, Nicholas M.; Danil, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have validated the use of biopsies as a minimally invasive way to identify pregnant females in several species of wild cetaceans: Balaenapteraacutorostrata, Delphinusdelphis, Lissodelphisborealis, and Lagenorhynchusobliquidens. These studies found that progesterone (P4) concentrations quantified from blubber attached to biopsy samples is diagnostic of pregnancy. Here we examine a broader group of cetacean species in efforts to investigate how progesterone levels vary between species with respect to pregnancy status. We compared P4 concentrations in blubber collected from fishery bycatch and beach-stranded specimens for 40 females of known reproductive condition from Delphinuscapensis (n = 18), Stenellaattenuata (n = 8), S. longirostris (n = 6), and Phocoenoidesdalli (n = 8). The P4 concentrations were different (t = -7.1, p = 1.79E-08) between pregnant and non-pregnant animals in all species, with the mean blubber P4 concentration for pregnant animals 164 times higher than that of non-pregnant animals. There was no overlap in concentration levels between sexually immature or non-pregnant sexually mature animals and pregnant animals. No significant differences (F = 0.354, p = 0.559) were found between mature non-pregnant and immature D. capensis and Pdalli, suggesting P4 level is not indicative of maturity state in female delphinoids. P4 concentrations in relation to reproductive state were remarkably similar across species. All samples were analyzed with two different enzyme immunoassay kits to gauge assay sensitivity to measure progesterone in small samples, such as biopsies. With the technique now validated for these cetacean species, blubber P4 is a reliable diagnostic of pregnancies across multiple species, and thus expands the utility of this method to study reproduction in free-ranging cetaceans using biopsies. PMID:23936083

  1. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Domiciano, Isabela G.; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Koch, Mariana S.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  2. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    This third supplement subsequent to the 6th edition (1983) of the A.O.U. "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature as of 1 March 1989. The changes fall into nine categories: (1) six species are added to the main list (Pterodroma longirostris, Larus crassirostris, Streptopelia decaocto, Cocccyzus julieni, Chrysolampis mosquitus, Emberiza aureola) because of new distributional information; (2) five species (Ara cubensis, Chlorostilbon bracei, Empidonax occidentalis, Polioptila californica, Pipilo crissalis) are added to the main list because of the splitting of species already on the list; (3) one name (Anthus rubescens) is changed because of the splitting of a species from outside the Checklist area; (4) two names (Morus bassanus, Nyctanassa violacea) is removed from the main list to Appendix B because of re-evaluation of Northern Hemisphere records; (6) three species (Pterodrama rostrata, P. alba, P. solandri) are moved from Appendix A to Appendix B, and one (P. defilippiana) is added to Appendix B because of questionable sight records; (7)A.O.U. numbers are added to three species (Ciccaba virgata, Myiopagis viridicata, Molothrus bonariensis) on the basis on new distributional records or supporting data; (8) several corrections in spelling or citations are made; and (9) English names are changed for twelve species to accommodate worldwide usage of these names. No new distributional information is included except as indicated above (i.e. minor changes of distribution are not noted). These actions bring the number of species recognized as occurring in North America (main list) to 1,945.

  3. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of ‘river dolphins’ in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O’Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called ‘river dolphins’ are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic ‘river dolphin’ lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1–5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  4. Estimating In Situ Zooplankton Non-Predation Mortality in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake from Sediment Trap Data: Caveats and Reality Check

    PubMed Central

    Dubovskaya, Olga P.; Tang, Kam W.; Gladyshev, Michail I.; Kirillin, Georgiy; Buseva, Zhanna; Kasprzak, Peter; Tolomeev, Aleksandr P.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Mortality is a main driver in zooplankton population biology but it is poorly constrained in models that describe zooplankton population dynamics, food web interactions and nutrient dynamics. Mortality due to non-predation factors is often ignored even though anecdotal evidence of non-predation mass mortality of zooplankton has been reported repeatedly. One way to estimate non-predation mortality rate is to measure the removal rate of carcasses, for which sinking is the primary removal mechanism especially in quiescent shallow water bodies. Objectives and Results We used sediment traps to quantify in situ carcass sinking velocity and non-predation mortality rate on eight consecutive days in 2013 for the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin; the outcomes were compared against estimates derived from in vitro carcass sinking velocity measurements and an empirical model correcting in vitro sinking velocity for turbulence resuspension and microbial decomposition of carcasses. Our results show that the latter two approaches produced unrealistically high mortality rates of 0.58-1.04 d-1, whereas the sediment trap approach, when used properly, yielded a mortality rate estimate of 0.015 d-1, which is more consistent with concurrent population abundance data and comparable to physiological death rate from the literature. Ecological implications Zooplankton carcasses may be exposed to water column microbes for days before entering the benthos; therefore, non-predation mortality affects not only zooplankton population dynamics but also microbial and benthic food webs. This would be particularly important for carbon and nitrogen cycles in systems where recurring mid-summer decline of zooplankton population due to non-predation mortality is observed. PMID:26146995

  5. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O'Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O'Hara, sp

  6. The Seascape of Demersal Fish Nursery Areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a First Step Towards the Implementation of Spatial Planning for Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M. Pilar; Valavanis, Vasilis; Carlucci, Roberto; Fiorentino, Fabio; Follesa, Maria C.; Iglesias, Magdalena; Knittweis, Leyla; Lefkaditou, Eugenia; Lembo, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Chiara; Massutí, Enric; Pace, Marie Louise; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Sartor, Paolo; Smith, Christopher J.; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem

  7. Histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the Western gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D F; Haubold, E M; Tajima, Y

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). One hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. Of these, 72 were Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Other species included were the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), the short finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhyncha), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Fraser's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus hosei), rough-tooth dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Gervais's beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus) and an infant sperm whale (Physeter catodon). The pituitary weights in T. truncatus ranged from 0.69 g in a 109-cm long neonate to 3.44 g in a large (277 cm) male. More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia. Cell types were identified with conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Cells positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin were identified with appropriate antibodies. Lesions, which were few, included one pituicytoma of the pars nervosa and a squamous cyst in T. truncatus, and colloid cysts in several species. Nodular aggregates of single cell types were common, probably representing a physiological variant. PMID:18621384

  8. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  9. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  10. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus (18 single strandings, 2 pair strandings), pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (5 single strandings), dwarf sperm whale, K. sima (2 single strandings, 1 triple stranding), Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (2 single strandings), short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (4 strandings, 56 individuals), melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra (1 single stranding and 2 mass strandings totalling 231 individuals), common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (1 single stranding), spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (1 pair stranding and 2 mass strandings of groups of approximately 30 individuals each), Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus (2 single strandings), dugong, Dugong dugon (14 single strandings), and New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (3 single strandings). A stranded rorqual identified as an Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis), with coloration patterns that did not match known descriptions, was also reported. Sei whale was recorded for the first time in the tropical Southwest Pacific region and Antarctic minke whale, melon-headed whale, and Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin were recorded for the first time in New Caledonia. Strandings of sperm whales were most frequent in the spring, but also occurred in autumn months, suggesting a seasonal pattern of occurrence possibly related to seasonal migration. One stranded humpback whale bore the scars of a killer whale's attack and one dugong was injured by a shark. Scars left by

  11. [Community characteristics of crustacean zooplankton and its relationship with environmental factors in Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Ya; Xu, Long; Zhao, Lei; Qian, Wen-jie; Chang, Qing; Wang, Guo-xiang; Chen, Jian-qin

    2015-08-01

    The monthly sampling data from June 2012 to May 2013 were used to study the composition and structure of the crustacean zooplankton community in the lakes and rivers of Suzhou Industrial Park. The variations in density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton and their relationship with the environment factors were investigated. The results showed that a total of 42 species of crustacean zooplankton were found, including 24 species of cladocerans which belonged to 6 families and 12 genera, and 18 copepods which belonged to 7 families and 13 genera. The dominant species were Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Bosmina longirostris, Sinocalanus dorrii and Cyclops vicinus in all seasons of the year both in the rivers and the lakes. The density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton in summer and autumn were higher than that in winter and spring, and there were two peaks in summer and autumn respectively both in the lakes and the rivers. The average density and biomass of cladocerans in the rivers were significantly higher than that in the lakes. There was no significant difference in the average density of Copepods between the rivers and the lakes, but the biomass in the rivers was higher than that in the lakes significantly. There were significant differences in dissolved oxygen, pH, Secchi depth, total dissolved solids, salinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen between the lakes and the rivers. Redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of most of crustacean zooplankton was positively correlated with water temperature, the salinity, COD(Mn) and total phosphorus concentrations and only the distribution of the species belonging to genus Daphnia and Scapholeberis was positively correlated with O2 concentration, pH, and Secchi depth in both the rivers and the lakes in Suzhou Industrial Park. PMID:26685619

  12. Protection of horses against Culicoides biting midges in different housing systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, V J; Page, P C; Kopp, C; Mathis, A; von Niederhäusern, R; Burger, D; Herholz, C

    2015-06-15

    Species belonging to the Culicoides complexes (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), obsoletus and pulicaris, in Switzerland, are potential vectors of both bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The epidemic of BTV in 2006 and 2007 in Europe has highlighted the risk of introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases in previously non-endemic areas. As a measure of prevention, as part of an integrated control programme in the event of an outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS), it is of utmost importance to prevent, or substantially reduce, contact between horses and Culicoides. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of three protection systems, net, fan, repellent, or combinations thereof, with regard to their potential to reduce contact between horses and Culicoides. Three different equine housing systems, including individual boxes (BX), group housing systems (GR), and individual boxes with permanently accessible paddock (BP) were used. The efficacy of the protection systems were evaluated by comparing the total number counts of collected female Culicoides, of non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides, respectively, with UV black light traps. The study was conducted over 3 summer months during 2012 and 2013 each and focused on the efficacy and practicality of the protection systems. The repellent was tested in 2012 only and not further investigated in 2013, as it showed no significant effect in reducing Culicoides collected in the light traps. Net protection system provided the best overall protection for the total number of female Culicoides, non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides in all tested housing systems. The net, with a pore size of 0.1825 mm(2), reduced the total number of Culicoides collected in the housing systems BP, GR and BX by 98%, 85% and 67%, respectively. However, in the GR housing system, no significant difference between the effectiveness of the fan and the net were determined for any of the three Culicoides

  13. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  14. 4-Hexylresorcinol as inhibitor of shrimp melanosis: efficacy and residues studies; evaluation of possible toxic effect in a human intestinal in vitro model (Caco-2); preliminary safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, E; Ioppolo, A; Mantovani, A; Stacchini, P; Giovannini, C

    1998-01-01

    Studies were performed on the efficacy, residues and in vitro enterocyte toxicity of 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR), which could be utilized as an inhibitor of shrimp melanosis (black spot). Mediterranean sea shrimp (Parapaeneus longirostris) were treated with solutions of 4-HR in sea-water, at three different concentrations, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of shrimp, to test its antioxidative property. As a comparison a group of shrimp was treated with sodium metabisulphite (1 g/kg), while another group was left untreated. 4-HR showed a marked ability to inhibit or slow down melanosis (black spot) in shrimp; the most effective concentration was 100 mg/kg within an optimum period of 7 days but with effects up to the tenth day. During the first 5 days, 4-HR residues in the edible part of the shrimp showed a fast decrease in all three groups, going from initial average values of 20 mg/kg at 0 time, to 0.9 in the group treated at 25 mg/kg; from 42 to 1.8 mg/kg in the group at 50 mg/kg and from 85 to 1.9 mg/kg in the group at 100 mg/kg. In vitro studies on enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells did not indicate any cytotoxic effect up to a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml. Moreover, no inhibition of protein synthesis was observed, which lends further support to the absence of significant damage to the intestinal mucosa induced by 4-HR. The available database on 4-HR pharmacology and toxicology is inadequate to determine even a provisional ADI. There is negative evidence of carcinogenesis and no significant untoward effects were observed in humans when it was used as an anthelmintic. However, it is not possible to determine a NOEL for non-genotoxic effects. 4-HR could become an interesting alternative to the use of sulphites to prevent black spot. However, a more complete database is needed to achieve a regulatory evaluation. PMID:9602923

  15. Mercury, organic-mercury and selenium in small cetaceans in Taiwanese waters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chou, Chiu Long; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2002-01-01

    Total Hg (sigmaHg), organic-Hg (O-Hg) and Se bioaccumulations in small cetaceans distributed in Taiwanese waters of the Taiwan Strait and the southwestern Pacific have been investigated for the first time. The results could represent the baseline metal concentrations of marine mammals in the southwestern Pacific, where volcanic activities are possibly the major source of mercury to the environments. Muscle samples of four species of small cetaceans were collected from animals accidentally caught by tuna-longline fisheries from 1994 through 1995. In total, 53 pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, nine spinner dolphins, S. longirostris, five bottlenose dolphins, Turiops truncatus and four Risso's dolphins, Grampus giseus were analyzed. In addition, two stranded pantropical spotted dolphins were investigated. Cold vapour AAS and ICP-MS were used in the analysis of Hg and Se, respectively. Significant species difference was found in the four species of small cetaceans. Among them, the pantropical spotted dolphin showed the highest mean concentration (mg/kg wet wt.) of both sigmaHg (3.64 +/- 2.19) and O-Hg (2.79 +/- 1.23), whereas the Risso's dolphin had the highest mean concentrations of Se (1.77 +/- 1.29). There was no significant sex difference with respect to metal bioaccumulation in the samples of S. attenuata. Significant correlations between body length (BL) and sigmaHg, as well as O-Hg concentrations were observed in pantropical spotted (Sa) and spinner dolphins (Sl). The linear relationships were Sa: sigmaHg = -8.290 + 0.066BL, r = 0.421; Sl: sigmaHg = -2.735 + 0.025BL, r = 0.875; Sa: O-Hg = -3.723 + 0.036BL, r = 0.408; and Sl: O-Hg = -3.017 + 0.025BL, r = 0.870. However, a demethylation phenomenon that decreasing the percentage of O-Hg coupled with increasing levels of Se was observed when the sigmaHg concentrations in the muscle tissues of dolphins reached 4 mg/kg wet wt. PMID:12398391

  16. Myoglobin in pelagic small cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Dolar, M L; Suarez, P; Ponganis, P J; Kooyman, G L

    1999-02-01

    Although myoglobin (Mb) is considered to contribute significantly to the oxygen and diving capacity of marine mammals, few data are available for cetaceans. Cetacean by-catch in the tuna driftnet fisheries in the Sulu Sea, Philippines, afforded the opportunity to examine Mb content and distribution, and to determine muscle mass composition, in Fraser's (Lagenodelphis hosei) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins and a pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). Age was estimated by body length determination. Stomach contents were analyzed for the presence or absence of milk and solid foods. It was hypothesized (a) that Mb concentration ([Mb]) would be higher in Fraser's and spinner dolphins than in other small cetaceans because of the known mesopelagic distribution of their prey, (b) that [Mb] would vary among different muscles according to function during diving, and (c) that [Mb] would increase with age during development. The results were as follows. (1) Myoglobin concentrations of the longissimus muscle in adult Fraser's (6.8-7.2 g 100 g-1 muscle) and spinner (5-6 g 100 g-1 muscle) dolphins and in an immature pygmy killer whale (5.7 g 100 g-1 muscle) were higher than those reported previously for small cetaceans. (2) [Mb] varied significantly among the different muscle types in adult dolphins but not in calves; in adults, swimming muscles had significantly higher [Mb] than did non-swimming muscles, contained 82-86 % of total Mb, and constituted 75-80 % of total muscle mass. (3) Myoglobin concentrations in Fraser's and spinner dolphins increased with size and age and were 3-4 times greater in adults than in calves. The high Mb concentrations measured in the primary locomotory muscles of these pelagic dolphins are consistent with the known mesopelagic foraging behaviour of Fraser's and spinner dolphins and suggest that the pygmy killer whale is also a deep-diving species. The high Mb concentrations in epaxial, hypaxial and abdominal muscle groups also support

  17. Influence of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on recent phyto- and zooplankton in "the Anthropogenic Lake District" in south-west Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gasiorowski, Michal

    2015-04-01

    widespread neutralization of lake ecosystems, what encompassing both recovery of water chemistry and rebuilding of biota communities. Studies have confirmed, that phyto- and zooplankton living nowadays in lakes located on this area, where exploitation of lignite ended at the beginning of 20th century, indicate completely recovery from acidification caused by coal mine activities. Presently, the lakes were dominated by planktonic diatoms and Cladocera taxa, such as Discostella pseudostelligera (Hust.) Houk & Klee and Bosmina longirostris, respectively.

  18. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability in the Reproduction Ratio of the Bluetongue (BTV-1) Epidemic in Southern Spain (Andalusia) in 2007 Using Epidemic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Napp, S.; Allepuz, A.; Purse, B. V.; Casal, J.; García-Bocanegra, I.; Burgin, L. E.; Searle, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    not linear, probably as a result of the complex relationship between temperature and the different parameters affecting BTV transmission. Rt values for BTV-1 in Andalusia fell below the threshold of 1 when temperatures dropped below 21°C, a much higher threshold than that reported in other BTV outbreaks, such as the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe. This divergence may be explained by differences in the adaptation to temperature of the main vectors of the BTV-1 epidemic in Andalusia (Culicoides imicola) compared those of the BTV-8 epidemic in Northern Europe (Culicoides obsoletus). Importantly, we found that BTV transmission (Rt value) increased significantly in areas with higher densities of sheep. Our analysis also established that control of BTV-1 in Andalusia was complicated by the simultaneous establishment of several distant foci at the start of the epidemic, which may have been caused by several independent introductions of infected vectors from the North of Africa. We discuss the implications of these findings for BTV surveillance and control in this region of Europe. PMID:26963397

  19. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Limestone forests are the most diverse natural plant communities of Guam. Like other natural vegetation types, these forests have a long history of anthropogenic disturbances, being altered and shaped by humans for more than 4,000 years. Although this occupation represents a relatively long human influence in comparison to other Pacific islands, animals associated with humans, such as commensal rodents, arrived in these islands beginning only 1,000 years ago, and larger mammals, such as pigs (Sus scrofa), may not have arrived until European contact. Limestone forests, which also occur on several other Mariana Islands, developed in the presence of frequent tropical storms and are therefore well adapted to this type of natural disturbance regime. However, recent human activities including large scale clearing and conversion combined with the presence of high levels of alien herbivores and seed predators, and the loss of ecological services provided by the former native avifauna may be causing the decline of Guam's forests. Limestone forests on northern Guam, much like those of other Mariana Islands, were heavily cleared for the construction of military installations during World War II. The accidental introduction of the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) around this same period subsequently accelerated the disappearance of Guam's native avifauna and other endemic terrestrial vertebrates, and with them, seed dispersal, pollination, and the predatory regulation of herbivorous insects. Guam and the Mariana Islands contained a high proportion (32 pecent) of endemic bird species, with 4 forms endemic to Guam alone: the now extinct Guam Flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), and Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatpicillata), one of three island endemic subspecies from the Marianas; Guam rail (Rallus owstonii); and Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus), an island endemic subspecies of the regionally endemic Micronesian Kingfisher. Guam once