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Sample records for ralstonia solanacearum strains

  1. Genetic Diversity of Japanese Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Horita, M; Tsuchiya, K

    2001-04-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of 74 Japanese strains of Ralstonia solanacearum was assessed by pathogenicity tests and the repetitive sequencebased polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprint method. Based on their genomic fingerprints, biovar N2 strains were divided into two distinct groups, one consisting of potato isolates belonging to race 3, and the other consisting of tomato, eggplant, pepper, and tobacco isolates belonging to race 1. Biovar 3 strains had low average similarity and were divided into five groups that differed in original host or pathogenicity. Biovar 4 strains consisted of only one group at the 80% similarity level. Comparative analysis of the rep-PCR fingerprints of 78 strains, including six biovars from Japan and various countries, revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 comprised all biovar 3, 4, and 5 strains, biovar 1 strains from Reunion, and some biovar N2 strains from Japan. Cluster 2 included most of the biovar 1, 2, and N2 strains. The fingerprints showed low average similarity with biovar N2 strains from Japan and Brazil. PMID:18943853

  2. A multiplex PCR assay to detect and differentiate select agent strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a variety of cash crops. R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains are considered select agents by the U.S. Government because they are not endemic to the U.S. and have the potential to cause brown rot disease in our potato production fields. Simple and...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Nine Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum Differing in Virulence to Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Guinard, Jérémy; Vinatzer, Boris A; Poussier, Stéphane; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum displays variability in its virulence to solanaceous crops. We report here the draft genome sequences of eight phylotype I strains and one phylotype III strain differing in virulence to the resistant eggplant genotype AG91-25. These data will allow the identification of virulence- and avirulence-related genes. PMID:26823572

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Nine Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum Differing in Virulence to Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

    PubMed Central

    Guinard, Jérémy; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Poussier, Stéphane; Lefeuvre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum displays variability in its virulence to solanaceous crops. We report here the draft genome sequences of eight phylotype I strains and one phylotype III strain differing in virulence to the resistant eggplant genotype AG91-25. These data will allow the identification of virulence- and avirulence-related genes. PMID:26823572

  5. Improved biovar test for Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race 3, biovar 2 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum are quarantined pathogens in Europe and Canada and Select Agent pathogens in the United States. The biovar classification of R. solanacearum strains is based on their biochemical abilities to utilize a carbohydrate panel. The standard biovar test us...

  6. Tropical Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum Outcompete Race 3 Biovar 2 Strains at Lowland Tropical Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Alejandra I.; Milling, Annett

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by members of the heterogenous Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, is an economically important vascular disease affecting many crops. Human activity has widely disseminated R. solanacearum strains, increasing their global agricultural impact. However, tropical highland race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) strains do not cause disease in tropical lowlands, even though they are virulent at warm temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature adaptation and competitive fitness explain the uneven geographic distribution of R. solanacearum strains. Using three phylogenetically and ecologically distinct strains, we measured competitive fitness at two temperatures following paired-strain inoculations of their shared host, tomato. Lowland tropical strain GMI1000 was only weakly virulent on tomato under temperate conditions (24°C for day and 19°C for night [24/19°C]), but highland tropical R3bv2 strain UW551 and U.S. warm temperate strain K60 were highly virulent at both 24/19°C and 28°C. Strain K60 was significantly more competitive than both GMI1000 and UW551 in tomato rhizospheres and stems at 28°C, and GMI1000 also outcompeted UW551 at 28°C. The results were reversed at cooler temperatures, at which highland strain UW551 generally outcompeted GMI1000 and K60 in planta. The superior competitive index of UW551 at 24/19°C suggests that adaptation to cool temperatures could explain why only R3bv2 strains threaten highland agriculture. Strains K60 and GMI1000 each produced different bacteriocins that inhibited growth of UW551 in culture. Such interstrain inhibition could explain why R3bv2 strains do not cause disease in tropical lowlands. PMID:25769835

  7. Ralstonia solanacearum Strains from Martinique (French West Indies) Exhibiting a New Pathogenic Potential▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America. PMID:17720825

  8. Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Martinique (French West Indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America. PMID:17720825

  9. [Serological characteristic of lipopolysaccharides of Ralstonia solanacearum].

    PubMed

    Hrytsaĭ, R V; Brovars'ka, O S; Zhytkevich, N V; Varbanets', L D

    2012-01-01

    By immunochemical investigations of eight strains of Ralstonia solanacearum six strains were attributed to four serogroups. Two of them are formed by pairs of R. solanacearum strains 4 and 526; 758 and 7954; two others are represented by single strains--TX1 Ta TS3, correspondingly. Antigenic structure of R. solanacearum 7954 O-polysaccharide unites antigenic epitopes of R. solanacearum strains 4, 35, 526, 749, however the absence of cross-reactivity does not permit uniting them into the same group. The latter, and also the fact that the antiserum to R. solanacearum 749 in the reaction with LPS of R solanacearum 526 forms two precipitation lines (while in the homological system it forms only one line) may be explained by differences in the component composition of heat-stable immunogens (which were used for antiserum obtaining), and also purified LPS which were utilized as antigens in immunochemical reactions. PMID:23120981

  10. Whole-Genome Sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum P673, a Strain Capable of Infecting Tomato Plants at Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt, one of the most destructive bacterial plant diseases. We present the whole-genome sequence of the strain P673 (phylotype IIB, sequevar 4). This strain is capable of producing disease in tomato plants at low temperatures. P673 has 311 unique genes. PMID:24558246

  11. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  12. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M.; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 Strains with Different Temperature Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kat Xiaoli; Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C André; Tambong, James; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang Sean

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) causes brown rot of potato in countries with temperate climates. Here, we report two draft genome sequences of R. solanacearum R3bv2 NCPPB909 and CFIA906 with different temperature adaptations. Analysis of these genome sequences will provide detailed insight on virulence, functionality, and plant/pest interactions of this widely distributed and regulated pathogen. PMID:26272559

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 Strains with Different Temperature Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kat (Xiaoli); Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C. André; Tambong, James; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T.; De Boer, Solke H.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) causes brown rot of potato in countries with temperate climates. Here, we report two draft genome sequences of R. solanacearum R3bv2 NCPPB909 and CFIA906 with different temperature adaptations. Analysis of these genome sequences will provide detailed insight on virulence, functionality, and plant/pest interactions of this widely distributed and regulated pathogen. PMID:26272559

  15. Ralstonia syzygii, the Blood Disease Bacterium and Some Asian R. solanacearum Strains Form a Single Genomic Species Despite Divergent Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Cellier, Gilles; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Lajus, Aurélie; Vallenet, David; Medigue, Claudine; Fegan, Mark; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes R. solanacearum, R. syzygii, and the Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB). All colonize plant xylem vessels and cause wilt diseases, but with significant biological differences. R. solanacearum is a soilborne bacterium that infects the roots of a broad range of plants. R. syzygii causes Sumatra disease of clove trees and is actively transmitted by cercopoid insects. BDB is also pathogenic to a single host, banana, and is transmitted by pollinating insects. Sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that despite their phenotypic differences, these three plant pathogens are actually very closely related, falling into the Phylotype IV subgroup of the R. solanacearum species complex. To better understand the relationships among these bacteria, we sequenced and annotated the genomes of R. syzygii strain R24 and BDB strain R229. These genomes were compared to strain PSI07, a closely related Phylotype IV tomato isolate of R. solanacearum, and to five additional R. solanacearum genomes. Whole-genome comparisons confirmed previous phylogenetic results: the three phylotype IV strains share more and larger syntenic regions with each other than with other R. solanacearum strains. Furthermore, the genetic distances between strains, assessed by an in-silico equivalent of DNA-DNA hybridization, unambiguously showed that phylotype IV strains of BDB, R. syzygii and R. solanacearum form one genomic species. Based on these comprehensive data we propose a revision of the taxonomy of the R. solanacearum species complex. The BDB and R. syzygii genomes encoded no obvious unique metabolic capacities and contained no evidence of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria occupying similar niches. Genes specific to R. syzygii and BDB were almost all of unknown function or extrachromosomal origin. Thus, the pathogenic life-styles of these organisms are more probably due to ecological adaptation and genomic convergence during vertical

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum Strain Rs-T02, Which Represents the Most Prevalent Phylotype in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chengwu; Wang, Kaihao; Meng, Jiaorong; Yuan, Gaoqing; Lin, Wei; Peng, Haowen

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum strain Rs-T02 was originally isolated from a bacterial wilt of tomato plant in Nanning City of Guangxi Province, China. It represents the most prevalent phylotype in Guangxi. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 5,225 genes and 5,976,011 nucleotides with an average G+C content of 66.79%. There are 968 different genes between this isolate and the previously reported genome sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum GMl l000 (race l, biovar 3, phylotype I), and the genome sequence information of this isolate may be useful for comparative genomic studies to determine the genetic diversity in this species. PMID:27081126

  17. A duplex PCR assay for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II strains in Musa spp.

    PubMed

    Cellier, Gilles; Moreau, Aurélie; Chabirand, Aude; Hostachy, Bruno; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars) that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato), no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity) and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae. PMID:25811378

  18. A Duplex PCR Assay for the Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype II Strains in Musa spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cellier, Gilles; Moreau, Aurélie; Chabirand, Aude; Hostachy, Bruno; Ailloud, Florent; Prior, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars) that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato), no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity) and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae. PMID:25811378

  19. Insights into the diversity of φRSM phages infecting strains of the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum complex: regulation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    The filamentous φRSM phages (φRSM1 and φRSM3) have integration/excision capabilities in the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present study, we further investigated φRSM-like sequences present in the genomes of R. solanacearum strains belonging to the four major evolutionary lineages (phylotypes I-IV). Based on bioinformatics and comparative genomic analyses, we found that φRSM homologs are highly diverse in R. solanacearum complex strains. We detected an open reading frame (ORF)15 located upstream of the gene for φRSM integrase, which exhibited amino acid sequence similarity to phage repressor proteins. ORF15-encoded protein (a putative repressor) was found to encode a 104-residue polypeptide containing a DNA-binding (helix-turn-helix) domain and was expressed in R. solanacearum lysogenic strains. This suggested that φRSM3-ORF15 might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of a lysogenic state, as well as in phage immunity. Comparison of the putative repressor proteins and their binding sites within φRSM-related prophages provides insights into how these regulatory systems of filamentous phages have evolved and diverged in the R. solanacearum complex. In conclusion, φRSM phages represent a unique group of filamentous phages that are equipped with innate integration/excision (ORF14) and regulatory systems (ORF15). PMID:24619102

  20. Isolation of an Insertion Sequence from Ralstonia solanacearum Race 1 and Its Potential Use for Strain Characterization and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-An; Fan, Shu-Chung; Chiu, Ling-Ya; Hsia, Kuo-Chiang

    2001-01-01

    A new insertion sequence (IS), IS1405, was isolated and characterized from a Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 strain by the method of insertional inactivation of the sacB gene. Sequence analysis indicated that the IS is closely related to the members of IS5 family, but the extent of nucleotide sequence identity in 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions between IS1405 and other members of IS5 family is only 23 to 31%. Nucleotide sequences of these regions were used to design specific oligonucleotide primers for detection of race 1 strains by PCR. The PCR amplified a specific DNA fragment for all R. solanacearum race 1 strains tested, and no amplification was observed with some other plant-pathogenic bacteria. Analysis of nucleotide sequences flanking IS1405 and additional five endogenous IS1405s that reside in the chromosome of R. solanacearum race 1 strains indicated that IS1405 prefers a target site of CTAR and has two different insertional orientations with respect to this target site. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern analysis using IS1405 as a probe revealed extensive genetic variation among strains of R. solanacearum race 1 isolated from eight different host plants in Taiwan. The RFLP patterns were then used to subdivide the race 1 strains into two groups and several subgroups, which allowed for tracking different subgroup strains of R. solanacearum through a host plant community. Furthermore, specific insertion sites of IS1405 in certain subgroups were used as a genetic marker to develop subgroup-specific primers for detection of R. solanacearum, and thus, the subgroup strains can be easily identified through a rapid PCR assay rather than RFLP analysis. PMID:11525989

  1. Proteomic comparison of Ralstonia solanacearum strains reveals temperature dependent virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, is a genetically diverse bacterial plant pathogen present in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that infects more than 200 plant species, including economically important solanaceous crops. Most strains of R. solanacearum are only pathogenic at temperatures between 25 to 30°C with strains that can cause disease below 20°C considered a threat to agriculture in temperate areas. Identifying key molecular factors that distinguish strains virulent at cold temperatures from ones that are not is needed to develop effective management tools for this pathogen. We compared protein profiles of two strains virulent at low temperature and two strains not virulent at low temperature when incubated in the rhizosphere of tomato seedlings at 30 and 18°C using quantitative 2D DIGE gel methods. Spot intensities were quantified and compared, and differentially expressed proteins were sequenced and identified by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results Four hundred and eighteen (418) differentially expressed protein spots sequenced produced 101 unique proteins. The identified proteins were classified in the Gene Ontology biological processes categories of metabolism, cell processes, stress response, transport, secretion, motility, and virulence. Identified virulence factors included catalase (KatE), exoglucanase A (ChbA), drug efflux pump, and twitching motility porin (PilQ). Other proteins identified included two components of a putative type VI secretion system. We confirmed differential expression of 13 candidate genes using real time PCR techniques. Global regulators HrpB and HrpG also had temperature dependent expression when quantified by real time PCR. Conclusions The putative involvement of the identified proteins in virulence at low temperature is discussed. The discovery of a functional type VI secretion system provides a new potential virulence mechanism to explore. The global regulators HrpG and

  2. Comparative effect of low temperature on virulence and twitching motility of Ralstonia solanacearum strains present in Florida.

    PubMed

    Bocsanczy, Ana M; Achenbach, Ute C M; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Yuen, Jeanne M F; Norman, David J

    2012-02-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt on a wide range of plant hosts. Most strains of R. solanacearum are nonpathogenic below 20°C; however, Race 3 Biovar 2 (R3B2) strains are classified as quarantine pathogens because of their ability to infect crops, cause disease, and survive in temperate climates. We have identified race 1 biovar 1 Phylotype IIB Sequevar 4 strains present in Florida which were able to infect and produce wilt symptoms on potato and tomato at 18°C. Moreover they infected tomato plants at rates similar to strains belonging to R3B2. We determined that strains naturally nonpathogenic at 18°C were able to multiply, move in planta, and cause partial wilt when inoculated directly into the stem, suggesting that low temperature affects virulence of strains differently at early stages of infection. Bacterial growth in vitro was delayed at low temperatures, however it was not attenuated. Twitching motility observed on growing colonies was attenuated in nonpathogenic strains at 18°C, while not affected in the cool virulent ones. Using pilQ as a marker to evaluate the relative expression of the twitching activity of R. solanacearum strains, we confirmed that cool virulent strains maintained a similar level of pilQ expression at both temperatures, while in nonpathogenic strains pilQ was downregulated at 18°C. PMID:21936660

  3. Rapid differentiation of Ralstonia solanacearum avirulent and virulent strains by cell fractioning of an isolate using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuefang; Zhu, Yujing; Liu, Bo; Yu, Qian; Lin, Naiquan

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive plant bacterial pathogens worldwide. The population dynamics and genetic stability are important issues, especially when an avirulent strain is used for biocontrol. In this study, we developed a rapid method to differentiate the virulent and avirulent strains of R. solanacearum and to predict the biocontrol efficiency of an avirulent strain using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three chromatographic peaks P1, P2 and P3 were observed on the HPLC spectra among 68 avirulent and 28 virulent R. solanacearum strains. Based on the HPLC peaks, 96 strains total were assigned to three categories. For avirulent strains, the intense peak is P1, while for virulent strains, P3 is the majority. Based on the HLPC spectra of R. solanacearum strains, a chromatography titer index (CTI) was established as CTIi = Si/(S1+S2+S3) × 100% (i represents an individual HPLC peak; S1, S2 and S3 represent peak areas of P1, P2 and P3, respectively). The avirulent strains had high values of CTI1 ranging from 63.6 to 100.0%, while the virulent strains displayed high values of CTI3 ranging from 90.2 to 100.0%. Biological inoculation studies of 68 avirulent strains revealed that the biocontrol efficacy was the best when CTI1 = 100%. The purity and genetic stability of R. solanacearum strains were confirmed in the P1 fraction of avirulent strain FJAT-1957 and P3 fraction of virulent strain FJAT-1925 after 30 generations of consecutive subculture. These results confirmed that fractioning by HPLC and their deduced CTI can be used for rapid and efficient evaluation and prediction of an isolate of R. solanacearum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that HPLC fractioning can be used for rapid differentiation of virulent and avirulent strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26606869

  4. Bacterial wilt resistance in tomato, pepper, and eggplant: genetic resources respond to diverse strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, A; Daunay, M-C; Frary, A; Palloix, A; Wang, J-F; Dintinger, J; Chiroleu, F; Wicker, E; Prior, P

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by strains belonging to the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, inflicts severe economic losses in many crops worldwide. Host resistance remains the most effective control strategy against this disease. However, wilt resistance is often overcome due to the considerable variation among pathogen strains. To help breeders circumvent this problem, we assembled a worldwide collection of 30 accessions of tomato, eggplant and pepper (Core-TEP), most of which are commonly used as sources of resistance to R. solanacearum or for mapping quantitative trait loci. The Core-TEP lines were challenged with a core collection of 12 pathogen strains (Core-Rs2) representing the phylogenetic diversity of R. solanacearum. We observed six interaction phenotypes, from highly susceptible to highly resistant. Intermediate phenotypes resulted from the plants' ability to tolerate latent infections (i.e., bacterial colonization of vascular elements with limited or no wilting). The Core-Rs2 strains partitioned into three pathotypes on pepper accessions, five on tomato, and six on eggplant. A "pathoprofile" concept was developed to characterize the strain clusters, which displayed six virulence patterns on the whole set of Core-TEP host accessions. Neither pathotypes nor pathoprofiles were phylotype specific. Pathoprofiles with high aggressiveness were mainly found in strains from phylotypes I, IIB, and III. One pathoprofile included a strain that overcame almost all resistance sources. PMID:20795852

  5. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains have the ability to cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of the potential risk they pose to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated...

  6. Cold Tolerance of some Ralstonia solanacearum strains, including Race3 Biovar2, is conferred in part by variation in cold shock gene cspD3.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3B2) strains are one of only 10 USDA Select Agents, a category of quarantined pathogens reserved for the most serious threats to U.S. plant industry. The threat of R3B2 strains was not considered to be likely due to race (these are poorly defined) or biovar ...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum Strain Rs-T02, Which Represents the Most Prevalent Phylotype in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chengwu; Wang, Kaihao; Meng, Jiaorong; Yuan, Gaoqing; Lin, Wei; Peng, Haowen; Li, Qiqin

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearumstrain Rs-T02 was originally isolated from a bacterial wilt of tomato plant in Nanning City of Guangxi Province, China. It represents the most prevalent phylotype in Guangxi. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 5,225 genes and 5,976,011 nucleotides with an average G+C content of 66.79%. There are 968 different genes between this isolate and the previously reported genome sequence ofRalstonia solanacearumGMl l000 (race l, biovar 3, phylotype I), and the genome sequence information of this isolate may be useful for comparative genomic studies to determine the genetic diversity in this species. PMID:27081126

  8. [Phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Hrytsaĭ, R V; Iakovleva, L M; Varbanets', L D

    2014-01-01

    The study is dedicated to research of phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides. This causative agent is one of the most dangerous among potato bacterial diseases. It is revealed that the inhibitory effect of LPS solution on seedlings germination is more noticeable on crops susceptible to brown rot. Maximal total phytotoxic properties have been shown by LPS from strains 35, 52b, TX1 and TS3, which were characterized by relatively low rhamnose content. Relative to the control plants LPS may diminish and some ones--increase the root length, height and weight of seedlings, subject to particular strain. But the stimulation revealed is minor. PMID:25000727

  9. Moko Disease-Causing Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum from Brazil Extend Known Diversity in Paraphyletic Phylotype II.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Greecy M R; Santos, Liliana A; Felix, Kátia C S; Rollemberg, Christtianno L; Silva, Adriano M F; Souza, Elineide B; Cellier, Gilles; Prior, Philippe; Mariano, Rosa L R

    2014-11-01

    The epidemic situation of Moko disease-causing strains in Latin America and Brazil is unclear. Thirty-seven Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Brazil that cause the Moko disease on banana and heliconia plants were sampled and phylogenetically typed using the endoglucanase (egl) and DNA repair (mutS) genes according to the phylotype and sequevar classification. All of the strains belonged to phylotype II and a portion of the strains was typed as the Moko disease-related sequevars IIA-6 and IIA-24. Nevertheless, two unsuspected sequevars also harbored the Moko disease-causing strains IIA-41 and IIB-25, and a new sequevar was described and named IIA-53. All of the strains were pathogenic to banana and some of the strains of sequevars IIA-6, IIA-24, and IIA-41 were also pathogenic to tomato. The Moko disease-causing strains from sequevar IIB-25 were pathogenic to potato but not to tomato. These results highlight the high diversity of strains of Moko in Brazil, reinforce the efficiency of the egl gene to reveal relationships among these strains, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of paraphyletic Moko disease-causing strains of the R. solanacearum species complex, where the following seven distinct genetic clusters have been described: IIA-6, IIA-24, IIA-41, IIA-53, IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIB-25. PMID:24848276

  10. Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

  11. Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (108 cfu mL−1) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

  12. Genome Sequencing of Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 3, Phylotype I, Strains Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244, Isolated from Eggplant and Chili in India

    PubMed Central

    Gaitonde, Sapna; Achari, Gauri; Asolkar, Trupti; Singh, Narendra Pratap; Carrere, Sebastien; Genin, Stephane; Peeters, Nemo

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum Indian strains Rs-09-161 and Rs-10-244 were isolated from the coastal region of Goa and from the Andaman Islands. We report the draft genome sequences of these representative isolates infecting solanaceous vegetables in India. PMID:24874667

  13. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    PubMed

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  14. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  15. Genome sequence of the tobacco bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zefeng; Wu, Sanling; Bai, Xuefei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Jianfei; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Bingguang; Lu, Xiuping; Fan, Longjiang

    2011-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a causal agent of plant bacterial wilt with thousands of distinct strains in a heterogeneous species complex. Here we report the genome sequence of a phylotype IB strain, Y45, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in China. Compared with the published genomes of eight strains which were isolated from other hosts and habitats, 794 specific genes and many rearrangements/inversion events were identified in the tobacco strain, demonstrating that this strain represents an important node within the R. solanacearum complex. PMID:21994922

  16. Molecular Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum Isolated from Ginger in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Alvarez, A M; Moore, P H; Zee, F; Kim, M S; de Silva, A; Hepperly, P R; Ming, R

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing on the island of Hawaii was determined by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Initially 28 strains of R. solanacearum collected from five host plant species worldwide were analyzed by AFLP. A second analysis was conducted on 55 R. solanacearum strains collected from three ginger farms along the Hamakua Coast of Hawaii, the principle area of ginger cultivation in the state. From the initial analysis, R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii showed a high degree of similarity at 0.853. In contrast, the average genetic similarity between R. solanacearum strains from heliconia and ginger was only 0.165, and strains from ginger showed little similarity with strains from all other hosts. The second analysis of 55 strains from ginger on different Hawaiian farms confirmed that they were distinct from race 1 strains from tomato. Strains from ginger also showed greater diversity among themselves in the second analysis, and the greatest diversity occurred among strains from a farm where ginger is frequently imported and maintained. Our results provide evidence that R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii are genetically distinct from local strains from tomato (race 1) and heliconia (race 2). PMID:18944096

  17. Development and Comparison of TaqMan-Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Differentiation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Rascoe, John; Li, Wenbin; Yan, Zonghe; Nakhla, Mark K; Huang, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is destructive to many plant species worldwide. The race 3 biovar 2 (r3b2) strains of R. solanacearum infect potatoes in temperate climates and are listed as select agents by the U.S. government. TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used in federal and state diagnostic laboratories over conventional PCR due to its speed and sensitivity. We developed the Rs16S primers and probe set and compared it with a widely used set (RS) for detecting R. solanacearum species complex strains. We also developed the RsSA3 primers and probe set and compared it with the previously published B2 and RsSA2 sets for specific detection of r3b2 strains. Both comparisons were done under standardized qPCR master mix and cycling conditions. The Rs16S and RS assays detected all 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains and none of the five outgroups, but the former was more sensitive than the latter. For r3b2 strain detection, the RsSA2 and RsSA3 sets specifically detected the 34 r3b2 strains and none of the 56 R. solanacearum non-r3b2 strains or out-group strains. The B2 set, however, detected five non-r3b2 R. solanacearum strains and was less sensitive than the other two sets under the same testing conditions. We conclude that the Rs16S, RsSA2, and RsSA3 sets are best suited under the standardized conditions for the detection of R. solanacearum species complex and r3b2 strains by TaqMan-based qPCR assays. PMID:27402488

  18. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  19. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  20. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  1. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regionsmore » of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.« less

  2. Antagonistic activity and mechanisms of Bacillus subtilis SB1 against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in vitro experiments. In addition to Ralstonia solanacearum, strain SB1 inhibited the growth of many other plant pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Phytoph...

  3. Ralstonia solanacearum ΔPGI-1 strain KZR-5 is affected in growth, response to cold stress and invasion of tomato.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patricia; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in temperate climates is still poorly understood. To assess whether genomic variants of the organism show adaptation to local conditions, we compared the behaviour of environmental strain KZR-5, which underwent a deletion of the 17.6 kb genomic island PGI-1, with that of environmental strain KZR-1 and potato-derived strains 1609 and 715. PGI-1 harbours two genes of potential ecological relevance, i.e. one encoding a hypothetical protein with a RelA/SpoT domain and one a putative cellobiohydrolase. We thus assessed bacterial fate under conditions of amino acid starvation, during growth, upon incubation at low temperature and invasion of tomato plants. In contrast to the other strains, environmental strain KZR-5 did not grow on media that induce amino acid starvation. In addition, its maximum growth rate at 28°C in rich medium was significantly reduced. On the other hand, long-term survival at 4°C was significantly enhanced as compared to that of strains 1609, 715 and KZR-1. Although strain KZR-5 showed growth rates (at 28°C) in two different media, which were similar to those of strains 1609 and 715, its ability to compete with these strains under these conditions was reduced. In singly inoculated tomato plants, no significant differences in invasiveness were observed among strains KZR-5, KZR-1, 1609 and 715. However, reduced competitiveness of strain KZR-5 was found in experiments on tomato plant colonisation and wilting when using 1:1 or 5:1 mixtures of strains. The potential role of PGI-1 in plant invasion, response to stress and growth in competition at high and moderate temperatures is discussed. PMID:20717661

  4. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1–11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen. PMID:27103342

  5. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9.

    PubMed

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1-11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen. PMID:27103342

  6. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  7. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    PubMed Central

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  8. A computer program for fast and easy typing of partial endoglucanase gene sequence into phylotypes and sequevars 1&2 (select agents) of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains a subset of strains that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven otherwise, which can be done by phylogenetic analysis of a partia...

  9. A computer program for fast and easy typing of a partial endoglucanase gene sequence into genospecies and sequevars 1&2 of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB sequevars 1 and 2 that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. Recently, the R. solanacearum species complex strains have been reclassified into three genospecies: R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven to be a non-race 3 biovar 2 (non-phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2). Currently, sequevars of R. solanacearum species complex strains can only be determined by phylogenetic analysis of a partial endoglucanase (egl) sequence of approximately 700-bp in length. Such analysis, however, requires expert knowledge to properly trim the sequence, to include the correct reference strains, and to interpret the results. By comparing GenBank egl sequences of representative R. solanacearum species-complex strains, we identified genospecies- and sequevar 1 and 2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also designed primers to amplify a shorter, 526-bp, egl fragment from R. solanacearum species complex strains for easy sequencing of the amplicon, and to facilitate direct and specific amplification of egl from R. solanacearum-infected plant samples without the need of bacterial isolation. We wrote a computer program (Ralstonia solanacearum typing program) that analyzes a minimum 400-bp user-input egl sequence from a R. solanacearum strain for egl homology and SNP content to determine 1) whether it belongs to the R. solanacearum species complex, 2) if so, to which genospecies, and 3) whether it is of the sequevar type (sequevars 1 and 2) associated with the select agent/quarantined R. solanacearum strain. The program correctly typed all 371 tested egl sequences with known sequevars, obtained either from GenBank or through personal communication. Additionally, the program successfully typed 25 R. solanacearum strains in our

  10. Complete genome sequence of the potato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum UY031.

    PubMed

    Guarischi-Sousa, Rodrigo; Puigvert, Marina; Coll, Núria S; Siri, María Inés; Pianzzola, María Julia; Valls, Marc; Setubal, João C

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt of potato. Ralstonia solanacearum strain UY031 belongs to the American phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, also classified as race 3 biovar 2. Here we report the completely sequenced genome of this strain, the first complete genome for phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, and the fourth for the R. solanacearum species complex. In addition to standard genome annotation, we have carried out a curated annotation of type III effector genes, an important pathogenicity-related class of genes for this organism. We identified 60 effector genes, and observed that this effector repertoire is distinct when compared to those from other phylotype IIB strains. Eleven of the effectors appear to be nonfunctional due to disruptive mutations. We also report a methylome analysis of this genome, the first for a R. solanacearum strain. This analysis helped us note the presence of a toxin gene within a region of probable phage origin, raising the hypothesis that this gene may play a role in this strain's virulence. PMID:26779304

  11. Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-10-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  12. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    SciTech Connect

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.

  13. Specific and Sensitive Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in Soil on the Basis of PCR Amplification of fliC Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, J.; Heuer, H.; van Elsas, J. D.; Smalla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops. A specific and sensitive PCR detection method that uses primers targeting the gene coding for the flagella subunit, fliC, was established. Based on the first fliC gene sequence of R. solanacearum strain K60 available at GenBank, the Ral_fliC PCR primer system was designed; this system yielded a single 724-bp product with the DNAs of all of the R. solanacearum strains tested. However, R. pickettii and four environmental Ralstonia isolates also yielded amplicons. The Ral_fliC PCR products obtained with 12 strains (R. solanacearum, R. pickettii, and environmental isolates) were sequenced. By sequence alignment, Rsol_fliC primers specific for R. solanacearum were designed. With this primer system, a specific 400-bp PCR product was obtained from all 82 strains of R. solanacearum tested. Six strains of R. pickettii and several closely related environmental isolates yielded no PCR product; however, a product was obtained with one Pseudomonas syzygii strain. A GC-clamped 400-bp fliC product could be separated in denaturing gradient gels and allowed us to distinguish P. syzygii from R. solanacearum. The Rsol_fliC PCR system was applied to detect R. solanacearum in soil. PCR amplification, followed by Southern blot hybridization, allowed us to detect about one target DNA molecule per PCR, which is equivalent to 103 CFU g of bulk soil−1. The system was applied to survey soils from different geographic origins for the presence of R. solanacearum. PMID:14660373

  14. Using the Ralstonia solanacearum Tat Secretome To Identify Bacterial Wilt Virulence Factors▿ †

    PubMed Central

    González, Enid T.; Brown, Darby G.; Swanson, Jill K.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2007-01-01

    To identify secreted virulence factors involved in bacterial wilt disease caused by the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, we mutated tatC, a key component of the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) secretion system. The R. solanacearum tatC mutation was pleiotropic; its phenotypes included defects in cell division, nitrate utilization, polygalacturonase activity, membrane stability, and growth in plant tissue. Bioinformatic analysis of the R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 genome predicted that this pathogen secretes 70 proteins via the Tat system. The R. solanacearum tatC strain was severely attenuated in its ability to cause disease, killing just over 50% of tomato plants in a naturalistic soil soak assay where the wild-type parent killed 100% of the plants. This result suggested that elements of the Tat secretome may be novel bacterial wilt virulence factors. To identify contributors to R. solanacearum virulence, we cloned and mutated three genes whose products are predicted to be secreted by the Tat system: RSp1521, encoding a predicted AcvB-like protein, and two genes, RSc1651 and RSp1575, that were identified as upregulated in planta by an in vivo expression technology screen. The RSc1651 mutant had wild-type virulence on tomato plants. However, mutants lacking either RSp1521, which appears to be involved in acid tolerance, or RSp1575, which encodes a possible amino acid binding protein, were significantly reduced in virulence on tomato plants. Additional bacterial wilt virulence factors may be found in the Tat secretome. PMID:17468289

  15. New type IV pili-related genes involved in early stages of Ralstonia solanacearum potato infection.

    PubMed

    Siri, María Inés; Sanabria, Analía; Boucher, Christian; Pianzzola, María Julia

    2014-07-01

    This study provides insights into the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum, in particular with regards to strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevar 1 (IIB-1) and their interaction with potato, its natural host. We performed a comparative genomic analysis among IIB-1 R. solanacearum strains with different levels of virulence in order to identify candidate virulence genes. With this approach, we identified a 33.7-kb deletion in a strain showing reduced virulence on potato. This region contains a cluster of six genes putatively involved in type IV pili (Tfp) biogenesis. Functional analysis suggests that these proteins contribute to several Tfp-related functions such as twitching motility and biofilm formation. In addition, this genetic cluster was found to contribute to early bacterial wilt pathogenesis and colonization fitness of potato roots. PMID:24625029

  16. Genetic Determinants for Pyomelanin Production and Its Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Jo, Eun Jeong; Choi, Hye Kyung; Khan, Raees; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne plant pathogen that infects more than 200 plant species. Its broad host range and long-term survival under different environmental stress conditions suggest that it uses a variety of mechanisms to protect itself against various types of biotic and abiotic stress. R. solanacearum produces a melanin-like brown pigment in the stationary phase when grown in minimal medium containing tyrosine. To gain deeper insight into the genetic determinants involved in melanin production, transposon-inserted mutants of R. solanacearum strain SL341 were screened for strains with defective melanin-producing capability. In addition to one mutant already known to be involved in pyomelanin production (viz., strain SL341D, with disruption of the hydroxphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene), we identified three other mutants with disruption in the regulatory genes rpoS, hrpG, and oxyR, respectively. Wild-type SL341 produced pyomelanin in minimal medium containing tyrosine whereas the mutant strains did not. Likewise, homogentisate, a major precursor of pyomelanin, was detected in the culture filtrate of the wild-type strain but not in those of the mutant strains. A gene encoding hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase exhibited a significant high expression in wild type SL341 compared to other mutant strains, suggesting that pyomelanin production is regulated by three different regulatory proteins. However, analysis of the gene encoding homogentisate dioxygenase revealed no significant difference in its relative expression over time in the wild-type SL341 and mutant strains, except for SL341D, at 72 h incubation. The pigmented SL341 strain also exhibited a high tolerance to hydrogen peroxide stress compared with the non-pigmented SL341D strain. Our study suggests that pyomelanin production is controlled by several regulatory factors in R. solanacearum to confer protection under oxidative stress. PMID:27513990

  17. Genetic Determinants for Pyomelanin Production and Its Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shabir; Lee, Seung Yeup; Kong, Hyun Gi; Jo, Eun Jeong; Choi, Hye Kyung; Khan, Raees; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne plant pathogen that infects more than 200 plant species. Its broad host range and long-term survival under different environmental stress conditions suggest that it uses a variety of mechanisms to protect itself against various types of biotic and abiotic stress. R. solanacearum produces a melanin-like brown pigment in the stationary phase when grown in minimal medium containing tyrosine. To gain deeper insight into the genetic determinants involved in melanin production, transposon-inserted mutants of R. solanacearum strain SL341 were screened for strains with defective melanin-producing capability. In addition to one mutant already known to be involved in pyomelanin production (viz., strain SL341D, with disruption of the hydroxphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene), we identified three other mutants with disruption in the regulatory genes rpoS, hrpG, and oxyR, respectively. Wild-type SL341 produced pyomelanin in minimal medium containing tyrosine whereas the mutant strains did not. Likewise, homogentisate, a major precursor of pyomelanin, was detected in the culture filtrate of the wild-type strain but not in those of the mutant strains. A gene encoding hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase exhibited a significant high expression in wild type SL341 compared to other mutant strains, suggesting that pyomelanin production is regulated by three different regulatory proteins. However, analysis of the gene encoding homogentisate dioxygenase revealed no significant difference in its relative expression over time in the wild-type SL341 and mutant strains, except for SL341D, at 72 h incubation. The pigmented SL341 strain also exhibited a high tolerance to hydrogen peroxide stress compared with the non-pigmented SL341D strain. Our study suggests that pyomelanin production is controlled by several regulatory factors in R. solanacearum to confer protection under oxidative stress. PMID:27513990

  18. Pig slurry reduces the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in soil.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, A; van Overbeek, L S; van Elsas, J D

    2004-08-01

    The effect of added pig slurry and solarization on the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 strain 1609 in soil was analysed in soil microcosms and field plots. In addition, the invasion of potato plants by R. solanacearum and the development of disease symptoms were determined, as measures of induced disease suppressiveness. In untreated soil, R. solanacearum showed slow population declines in both microcosms and the field from, initially, 10(6-)10(7) to 10(3)-10(4) CFU.(g dry soil)(-1) in about 9 weeks. The suppressiveness assays of these untreated soils after this period revealed that most of the plants that were used developed wilting symptoms and (or) contained the pathogen in their lower stem parts, as shown by immunofluorescence colony staining and PCR. The addition of pig slurry resulted in a significantly lower population size of R. solanacearum as well as reduced numbers of infected and (or) diseased plants in the soil suppressiveness tests. On the other hand, solarization of soil also decreased R. solanacearum survival but did not enhance soil suppressiveness as measured by development of disease symptoms and (or) plant invasion after 9 weeks. Combined soil solarization and pig slurry addition showed an additive effect of both treatments. Healthy-looking plants, primarily from soils treated with pig slurry and solarization, incidentally revealed the latent presence of R. solanacearum in the lower stem parts. The mechanism behind the enhanced population declines and disease suppressiveness induced by pig slurry is unclear but shifts in community profiles were clearly discernible by PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 9 weeks after pig slurry addition in the field experiment, indicating induced changes in the bacterial community structure. PMID:15467784

  19. Protein O-linked glycosylation in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Elhenawy, Wael; Scott, Nichollas E; Tondo, M Laura; Orellano, Elena G; Foster, Leonard J; Feldman, Mario F

    2016-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most lethal phytopathogens in the world. Due to its broad host range, it can cause wilting disease in many plant species of economic interest. In this work, we identified the O-oligosaccharyltransferase (O-OTase) responsible for protein O-glycosylation in R. solanacearum. An analysis of the glycoproteome revealed that 20 proteins, including type IV pilins are substrates of this general glycosylation system. Although multiple glycan forms were identified, the majority of the glycopeptides were modified with a pentasaccharide composed of HexNAc-(Pen)-dHex(3), similar to the O antigen subunit present in the lipopolysaccharide of multiple R. solanacearum strains. Disruption of the O-OTase led to the total loss of protein glycosylation, together with a defect in biofilm formation and reduced pathogenicity towards tomato plants. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the loss of glycosylation is not associated with widespread proteome changes. Only the levels of a single glycoprotein, the type IV pilin, were diminished in the absence of glycosylation. In parallel, disruption of glycosylation triggered an increase in the levels of a surface lectin homologous to Pseudomonas PA-IIL. These results reveal the important role of glycosylation in the pathogenesis of R. solanacearum. PMID:26531228

  20. Methyl 3-Hydroxymyristate, a Diffusible Signal Mediating phc Quorum Sensing in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kenji; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Shimatani, Mika; Ishikawa, Shiho; Mori, Yuka; Kiba, Akinori; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2015-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a plant pathogenic bacterium causing "bacterial wilt" on crops, uses a quorum sensing (QS) system consisting of phc regulatory elements to control its virulence. Methyl 3-hydroxypalmitate (3-OH PAME) was previously identified as the QS signal in strain AW1. However, 3-OH PAME has not been reportedly detected from any other strains, and this suggests that they produce another unknown QS signal. Here we identify (R)-methyl 3-hydroxymyristate [(R)-3-OH MAME] as a new QS signal that regulates the production of virulence factors and secondary metabolites. (R)-3-OH MAME was synthesized by the methyltransferase PhcB and sensed by the histidine kinase PhcS. The phylogenetic trees of these proteins from R. solanacearum strains were divided into two groups, according to their QS signal types--(R)-3-OH MAME or (R)-3-OH PAME. These results demonstrate that (R)-3-OH MAME is another crucial QS signal and highlight the unique evolution of QS systems in R. solanacearum. PMID:26360813

  1. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I), the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB), Africa (phylotype III) and Indonesia (phylotype IV). Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. Results The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA), CMR15 (phy. III) and PSI07 (phy. IV) were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I), IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB), and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB). The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes) were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity) and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Conclusions Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four phylotypes. Genetic

  2. A polyphasic approach for studying the interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and potential control agents in the tomato phytosphere.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo S; Cassidy, Mike; Kozdroj, Jacek; Trevors, Jack T; van Elsas, Jan D

    2002-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, has been responsible for large crop losses in Northwest Europe during the last decade. Knowledge on the ecological behaviour of R. solanacearum and its antagonists is required to develop sound procedures for its control and eradication in infested fields.A polyphasic approach was used to study the invasion of plants by a selected R. solanacearum biovar 2 strain, denoted 1609, either or not in combination with the antagonistic strains Pseudomonas corrugata IDV1 and P. fluorescens UA5-40. Thus, this study combined plating (spread and drop plate methods), reporter gene technology (gfp mutants) and serological (imunofluorescence colony staining [IFC]) and molecular techniques (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH], PCR with R. solanacearum specific primers and PCR-DGGE on plant DNA extracts). The behaviour of R. solanacearum 1609 and the two control strains was studied in bulk and (tomato) rhizosphere soil and the rhizoplane and stems of tomato plants. The results showed that an interaction between the pathogen and the control strains at the root surface was likely. In particular, R. solanacearum 1609 CFU numbers were significantly reduced on tomato roots treated with P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1) cells as compared to those on untreated roots. Concomitant with the presence of P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1), plant invasion by the pathogen was hampered, but not abolished.PCR-DGGE analyses of the tomato rhizoplane supported the evidence for antagonistic activity against the pathogen; as only weak R. solanacearum 1609 specific bands were detected in profiles derived from mixed systems versus strong bands in profiles from systems containing only the pathogen. Using FISH, a difference in root colonization was demonstrated between the pathogen and one of the two antagonists, i.e. P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1); R. solanacearum strain 1609 was clearly detected in the vascular cylinder of tomato plants

  3. Towards the Identification of Type III Effectors Associated with Ralstonia solanacearum Virulence on Tomato and Eggplant.

    PubMed

    Pensec, Flora; Lebeau, Aurore; Daunay, M C; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guidot, Alice; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    For the development of pathogen-informed breeding strategies, identifying the microbial genes involved in interactions with the plant is a critical step. To identify type III effector (T3E) repertoires associated with virulence of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum on Solanaceous crops, we used an original association genetics approach combining DNA microarray data and pathogenicity data on resistant eggplant, pepper, and tomato accessions. From this first screen, 25 T3Es were further full-length polymerase chain reaction-amplified within a 35-strain field collection, to assess their distribution and allelic diversity. Six T3E repertoire groups were identified, within which 11 representative strains were chosen to challenge the bacterial wilt-resistant egg plants 'Dingras multiple Purple' and 'AG91-25', and tomato Hawaii 7996. The virulence or avirulence phenotypes could not be explained by specific T3E repertoires, but rather by individual T3E genes. We identified seven highly avirulence-associated genes, among which ripP2, primarily referenced as conferring avirulence to Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, no T3E was associated with avirulence to both egg-plants. Highly virulence-associated genes were also identified: ripA5_2, ripU, and ripV2. This study should be regarded as a first step toward investigating both avirulence and virulence function of the highlighted genes, but also their evolutionary dynamics in natural R. solanacearum populations. PMID:26368514

  4. Functional assignment to positively selected sites in the core type III effector RipG7 from Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keke; Remigi, Philippe; Anisimova, Maria; Lonjon, Fabien; Kars, Ilona; Kajava, Andrey; Li, Chien-Hui; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Vailleau, Fabienne; Genin, Stéphane; Peeters, Nemo

    2016-05-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a broad range of plants. The main virulence determinants of R. solanacearum are the type III secretion system (T3SS) and its associated type III effectors (T3Es), translocated into the host cells. Of the conserved T3Es among R. solanacearum strains, the Fbox protein RipG7 is required for R. solanacearum pathogenesis on Medicago truncatula. In this work, we describe the natural ripG7 variability existing in the R. solanacearum species complex. We show that eight representative ripG7 orthologues have different contributions to pathogenicity on M. truncatula: only ripG7 from Asian or African strains can complement the absence of ripG7 in GMI1000 (Asian reference strain). Nonetheless, RipG7 proteins from American and Indonesian strains can still interact with M. truncatula SKP1-like/MSKa protein, essential for the function of RipG7 in virulence. This indicates that the absence of complementation is most likely a result of the variability in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RipG7. We identified 11 sites under positive selection in the LRR domains of RipG7. By studying the functional impact of these 11 sites, we show the contribution of five positively selected sites for the function of RipG7CMR15 in M. truncatula colonization. This work reveals the genetic and functional variation of the essential core T3E RipG7 from R. solanacearum. This analysis is the first of its kind on an essential disease-controlling T3E, and sheds light on the co-evolutionary arms race between the bacterium and its hosts. PMID:26300048

  5. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  6. Detection of Quorum Sensing Molecules and Biofilm Formation in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Shiva; Umesha, S; Prasad, K Shiva; Niranjana, P

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria use small diffusible signaling molecules to communicate each other termed as quorum sensing (QS). Most Gram-negative bacteria use acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) as QS signal molecules. Using these signaling molecules, bacteria are able to express specific genes in response to population density. This work aimed to detect the production of QS signal molecules and biofilm formation in Ralstonia solanacearum isolated from various diseased tomato plants with symptoms of bacterial wilt. A total of 30 R. solanacearum strains were investigated for the production of QS signal molecules using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 (pZLR4) biosensor systems. All 30 bacterial isolates from various bacterial wilt-affected tomato plants produced AHL molecules that induced the biosensor. The microtiter plate assay demonstrated that of the 30 bacterial isolates, 60 % formed biofilm, among which four isolates exhibited a higher degree of biofilm formation. The biofilm-inducing factor was purified from these four culture supernatants. The structure of the responsible molecule was solved using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy and was determined to be 2-hydroxy-4-((methylamino)(phenyl)methyl) cyclopentanone (HMCP), which was confirmed by chemical synthesis and NMR. The Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis showed well-developed biofilm architecture of bacteria when treated with HMCP. The knowledge we obtained from this study will be useful for further researcher on the role of HMCP molecule in biofilm formation. PMID:26620535

  7. Recent Trends in Control Methods for Bacterial Wilt Diseases Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases. PMID:25762345

  8. Nitrate Assimilation Contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum Root Attachment, Stem Colonization, and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Dalsing, Beth L.

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, must attach, grow, and produce virulence factors to colonize plant xylem vessels and cause disease. Little is known about the bacterial metabolism that drives these processes. Nitrate is present in both tomato xylem fluid and agricultural soils, and the bacterium's gene expression profile suggests that it assimilates nitrate during pathogenesis. A nasA mutant, which lacks the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of R. solanacearum's sole assimilatory nitrate reductase, did not grow on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. This nasA mutant exhibited reduced virulence and delayed stem colonization after soil soak inoculation of tomato plants. The nasA virulence defect was more severe following a period of soil survival between hosts. Unexpectedly, once bacteria reached xylem tissue, nitrate assimilation was dispensable for growth, virulence, and competitive fitness. However, nasA-dependent nitrate assimilation was required for normal production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. Quantitative analyses revealed that EPS production was significantly influenced by nitrate assimilation when nitrate was not required for growth. The plant colonization delay of the nasA mutant was externally complemented by coinoculation with wild-type bacteria but not by coinoculation with an EPS-deficient epsB mutant. The nasA mutant and epsB mutant did not attach to tomato roots as well as wild-type strain UW551. However, adding either wild-type cells or cell-free EPS improved the root attachment of these mutants. These data collectively suggest that nitrate assimilation promotes R. solanacearum virulence by enhancing root attachment, the initial stage of infection, possibly by modulating EPS production. PMID:24363343

  9. Nitrate assimilation contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum root attachment, stem colonization, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Dalsing, Beth L; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, must attach, grow, and produce virulence factors to colonize plant xylem vessels and cause disease. Little is known about the bacterial metabolism that drives these processes. Nitrate is present in both tomato xylem fluid and agricultural soils, and the bacterium's gene expression profile suggests that it assimilates nitrate during pathogenesis. A nasA mutant, which lacks the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of R. solanacearum's sole assimilatory nitrate reductase, did not grow on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. This nasA mutant exhibited reduced virulence and delayed stem colonization after soil soak inoculation of tomato plants. The nasA virulence defect was more severe following a period of soil survival between hosts. Unexpectedly, once bacteria reached xylem tissue, nitrate assimilation was dispensable for growth, virulence, and competitive fitness. However, nasA-dependent nitrate assimilation was required for normal production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. Quantitative analyses revealed that EPS production was significantly influenced by nitrate assimilation when nitrate was not required for growth. The plant colonization delay of the nasA mutant was externally complemented by coinoculation with wild-type bacteria but not by coinoculation with an EPS-deficient epsB mutant. The nasA mutant and epsB mutant did not attach to tomato roots as well as wild-type strain UW551. However, adding either wild-type cells or cell-free EPS improved the root attachment of these mutants. These data collectively suggest that nitrate assimilation promotes R. solanacearum virulence by enhancing root attachment, the initial stage of infection, possibly by modulating EPS production. PMID:24363343

  10. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt. PMID:26889116

  11. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt. PMID:26889116

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cool Virulence Factors of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanhong; Babujee, Lavanya; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-01-01

    While most strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum are tropical, the race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) subgroup attacks plants in cooler climates. To identify mechanisms underlying this trait, we compared the transcriptional profiles of R. solanacearum R3bv2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 at 20°C and 28°C, both in culture and during tomato pathogenesis. 4.2% of the ORFs in the UW551 genome and 7.9% of the GMI1000 ORFs were differentially expressed by temperature in planta. The two strains had distinct transcriptional responses to temperature change. GMI1000 up-regulated several stress response genes at 20°C, apparently struggling to cope with plant defenses. At the cooler temperature, R3bv2 strain UW551 up-regulated a cluster encoding a mannose-fucose binding lectin, LecM; a quorum sensing-dependent protein, AidA; and a related hypothetical protein, AidC. The last two genes are absent from the GMI1000 genome. In UW551, all three genes were positively regulated by the adjacent SolI/R quorum sensing system. These temperature-responsive genes were required for full virulence in R3bv2. Mutants lacking lecM, aidA, or aidC were each significantly more reduced in virulence on tomato at 20°C than at 28°C in both a naturalistic soil soak inoculation assay and when they were inoculated directly into tomato stems. The lecM and aidC mutants also survived poorly in potato tubers at the seed tuber storage temperature of 4°C, and the lecM mutant was defective in biofilm formation in vitro. Together, these results suggest novel mechanisms, including a lectin, are involved in the unique temperate epidemiology of R3bv2. PMID:26445498

  13. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Ailloud, Florent; Fochs, Brianna; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule. PMID:27329752

  14. Genomic diversity of large-plaque-forming podoviruses infecting the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takeru; Narulita, Erlia; Matsunami, Minaho; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Shimizu, Mio; Fujie, Makoto; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Phironrit, Namthip; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The genome organization, gene structure, and host range of five podoviruses that infect Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt disease were characterized. The phages fell into two distinctive groups based on the genome position of the RNA polymerase gene (i.e., T7-type and ϕKMV-type). One-step growth experiments revealed that ϕRSB2 (a T7-like phage) lysed host cells more efficiently with a shorter infection cycle (ca. 60min corresponding to half the doubling time of the host) than ϕKMV-like phages such as ϕRSB1 (with an infection cycle of ca. 180min). Co-infection experiments with ϕRSB1 and ϕRSB2 showed that ϕRSB2 always predominated in the phage progeny independent of host strains. Most phages had wide host-ranges and the phage particles usually did not attach to the resistant strains; when occasionally some did, the phage genome was injected into the resistant strain׳s cytoplasm, as revealed by fluorescence microscopy with SYBR Gold-labeled phage particles. PMID:26901487

  15. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cruz, Zomary; Allen, Caitilyn

    2011-09-01

    The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt disease, is exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during tomato infection and expresses diverse oxidative stress response (OSR) genes during midstage disease on tomato. The R. solanacearum genome predicts that the bacterium produces multiple and redundant ROS-scavenging enzymes but only one known oxidative stress response regulator, OxyR. An R. solanacearum oxyR mutant had no detectable catalase activity, did not grow in the presence of 250 μM hydrogen peroxide, and grew poorly in the oxidative environment of solid rich media. This phenotype was rescued by the addition of exogenous catalase, suggesting that oxyR is essential for the hydrogen peroxide stress response. Unexpectedly, the oxyR mutant strain grew better than the wild type in the presence of the superoxide generator paraquat. Gene expression studies indicated that katE, kaG, ahpC1, grxC, and oxyR itself were each differentially expressed in the oxyR mutant background and in response to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that oxyR is necessary for hydrogen peroxide-inducible gene expression. Additional OSR genes were differentially regulated in response to hydrogen peroxide alone. The virulence of the oxyR mutant strain was significantly reduced in both tomato and tobacco host plants, demonstrating that R. solanacearum is exposed to inhibitory concentrations of ROS in planta and that OxyR-mediated responses to ROS during plant pathogenesis are important for R. solanacearum host adaptation and virulence. PMID:21803891

  16. A putative genomic island, PGI-1, in Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 revealed by subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patricia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2010-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, a key bacterial pathogen of potato, has recently established in temperate climate waters. On the basis of isolates obtained from diseased (potato) plants, its genome has been assumed to be virtually clonal, but information on environmental isolates has been lacking. Based on differences in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, we compared the genomes of two biovar 2 strains with different life histories. Thus, genomic DNA of the novel environmental strain KZR-5 (The Netherlands) was compared to that of reference potato strain 715 (Bangladesh) by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Various strain-specific sequences were found, all being homologous to those found in the genome of reference potato strain 1609. Approximately 20% of these were related to genes involved in recombinational processes. We found a deletion of a 17.6-Kb region, denoted as a putative genomic island PGI-1, in environmental strain KZR-5. The deleted region was, at both extremes, flanked by a composite of two insertion sequence (IS) elements, identified as ISRso2 and ISRso3. The PGI-1 region contained open reading frames that putatively encoded a (p)ppGpp synthetase, a transporter protein, a transcriptional regulator, a cellobiohydrolase, a site-specific integrase/recombinase, a phage-related protein and seven hypothetical proteins. As yet, no phenotype could be assigned to the loss of PGI-1. The ecological behavior of strain KZR-5 was compared to that of reference strain 715. Strain KZR-5 showed enhanced tolerance to 4°C as compared to the reference strain, but was not affected in its virulence on tomato. PMID:20467813

  17. Ralstonia solanacearum lipopeptide induces chlamydospore development in fungi and facilitates bacterial entry into fungal tissues.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Joseph E; Sanchez, Laura M; Lowe, Tiffany M; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-09-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a globally distributed soil-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, which shares a broad ecological range with many plant- and soil-associated fungi. We sought to determine if R. solanacearum chemical communication directs symbiotic development of polymicrobial consortia. R. solanacearum produced a diffusible metabolite that induced conserved morphological differentiation in 34 species of fungi across three diverse taxa (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Zygomycetes). Fungi exposed to this metabolite formed chlamydospores, survival structures with thickened cell walls. Some chlamydospores internally harbored R. solanacearum, indicating a newly described endofungal lifestyle for this important plant pathogen. Using imaging mass spectrometry and peptidogenomics, we identified an undescribed lipopeptide, ralsolamycin, produced by an R. solanacearum non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase hybrid. Inactivation of the hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase gene, rmyA, abolished ralsolamycin synthesis. R. solanacearum mutants lacking ralsolamycin no longer induced chlamydospore development in fungal coculture and invaded fungal hyphae less well than wild-type. We propose that ralsolamycin contributes to the invasion of fungal hyphae and that the formation of chlamydospores may provide not only a specific niche for bacterial colonization but also enhanced survival for the partnering fungus. PMID:26943626

  18. Ralstonia solanacearum lipopeptide induces chlamydospore development in fungi and facilitates bacterial entry into fungal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Spraker, Joseph E; Sanchez, Laura M; Lowe, Tiffany M; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a globally distributed soil-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, which shares a broad ecological range with many plant- and soil-associated fungi. We sought to determine if R. solanacearum chemical communication directs symbiotic development of polymicrobial consortia. R. solanacearum produced a diffusible metabolite that induced conserved morphological differentiation in 34 species of fungi across three diverse taxa (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Zygomycetes). Fungi exposed to this metabolite formed chlamydospores, survival structures with thickened cell walls. Some chlamydospores internally harbored R. solanacearum, indicating a newly described endofungal lifestyle for this important plant pathogen. Using imaging mass spectrometry and peptidogenomics, we identified an undescribed lipopeptide, ralsolamycin, produced by an R. solanacearum non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase hybrid. Inactivation of the hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase gene, rmyA, abolished ralsolamycin synthesis. R. solanacearum mutants lacking ralsolamycin no longer induced chlamydospore development in fungal coculture and invaded fungal hyphae less well than wild-type. We propose that ralsolamycin contributes to the invasion of fungal hyphae and that the formation of chlamydospores may provide not only a specific niche for bacterial colonization but also enhanced survival for the partnering fungus. PMID:26943626

  19. Development of the sensitive lateral flow immunoassay with silver enhancement for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Panferov, Vasily G; Safenkova, Irina V; Varitsev, Yury A; Drenova, Natalia V; Kornev, Konstantin P; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-05-15

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a dangerous and economically important pathogen of potatoes and other agricultural crops. Therefore, rapid and sensitive methods for its routine diagnostics are necessary. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid control method for R. solanacearum with a low limit of detection (LOD) based on a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with silver enhancement. To minimize the LOD, the membrane type, antibody amount for conjugation with gold nanoparticles, conjugate concentration and antibody concentration in the analytical zone were optimized. Silver enhancement was used to decrease the LOD of the LFIA. For silver enhancement, release fiberglass membranes with pre-absorbed silver lactate and hydroquinone were placed on the analytical zone, and a drop of silver lactate was added. The LFIA with silver enhancement was found to be 10-fold more sensitive (LOD 2×10(2) CFU/mL; 20 min) in comparison with the common analysis (LOD 2×10(3) CFU/mL; 10 min). The specificity of the developed LFIA was studied using different strains of R. solanacearum (54 samples) and other widespread bacterial pathogens (18 samples). The LFIA detected all tested strains, whereas non-specific reactions were not observed. The developed tests were used for the control of bacteria in extracts of infected and non-infected potato tubers, and the quantitative analysis results (based on the densitometry of line colouration) were confirmed by ELISA with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.965. PMID:26992550

  20. Synthesis and antibacterial activity against ralstonia solanacearum for novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most important bacterial diseases on plants, is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on tobacco bacterial wilt, we sought to combine the active structure of hydrazone and pyridine together to design and synthesize a series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety. Results A series of hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests showed that compound 3e and 3g exhibited more than 80% activity against Ralstonia solanacearum at 500 mg/L, especially compound 3g displayed relatively good activity to reach 57.0% at 200 mg/L. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety by the reaction of intermediates 2 with different aldehydes in ethanol at room temperature using 2-chloronicotinic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-3-methylbenzoic acid as start materials is presented. This study suggests that the hydrazone derivatives containing a substituted pyridine ring could inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:22483270

  1. Identification of a Bifunctional UDP-4-keto-pentose/UDP-xylose Synthase in the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum Strain GMI1000, a Distinct Member of the 4,6-Dehydratase and Decarboxylase Family*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaogang; Glushka, John; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying; Denny, Timothy; Smith, James; Jiang, Yingnan; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2010-01-01

    The UDP-sugar interconverting enzymes involved in UDP-GlcA metabolism are well described in eukaryotes but less is known in prokaryotes. Here we identify and characterize a gene (RsU4kpxs) from Ralstonia solanacearum str. GMI1000, which encodes a dual function enzyme not previously described. One activity is to decarboxylate UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-β-l-threo-pentopyranosyl-4″-ulose in the presence of NAD+. The second activity converts UDP-β-l-threo-pentopyranosyl-4″-ulose and NADH to UDP-xylose and NAD+, albeit at a lower rate. Our data also suggest that following decarboxylation, there is stereospecific protonation at the C5 pro-R position. The identification of the R. solanacearum enzyme enables us to propose that the ancestral enzyme of UDP-xylose synthase and UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase was diverged to two distinct enzymatic activities in early bacteria. This separation gave rise to the current UDP-xylose synthase in animal, fungus, and plant as well as to the plant Uaxs and bacterial ArnA and U4kpxs homologs. PMID:20118241

  2. Functional diversification of the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different plant hosts

    PubMed Central

    Remigi, Philippe; Anisimova, Maria; Guidot, Alice; Genin, Stéphane; Peeters, Nemo

    2011-01-01

    Type III effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria exhibit a high degree of functional redundancy, hampering the evaluation of their precise contribution to pathogenicity. This is illustrated by the GALA type III effectors from Ralstonia solanacearum, which have been shown to be collectively, but not individually, required for disease on Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. We investigated evolution, redundancy and diversification of this family in order to understand the individual contribution of the GALA effectors to pathogenicity. From sequences available, we reconstructed GALA phylogeny and performed selection studies. We then focused on the GALAs from the reference strain GMI1000 to examine their ability to suppress plant defense responses and contribution to pathogenicity on three different host plants: A. thaliana, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena). The GALA family is well conserved within R. solanacearum species. Patterns of selection detected on some GALA family members, together with experimental results, show that GALAs underwent functional diversification. We conclude that functional divergence of the GALA family likely accounts for its remarkable conservation during R. solanacearum evolution and could contribute to R. solanacearum’s adaptation on several host plants. PMID:21902695

  3. New Insights into the Antibacterial Activity of Hydroxycoumarins against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ding, Wei; Xu, Yuquan; Wu, Dousheng; Li, Shili; Chen, Juanni; Guo, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are important plant-derived natural products with wide-ranging bioactivities and extensive applications. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity and mechanisms of action of coumarins against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and investigated the effect of functional group substitution. We first tested the antibacterial activity of 18 plant-derived coumarins with different substitution patterns, and found that daphnetin, esculetin, xanthotol, and umbelliferone significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum. Daphnetin showed the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by esculetin and umbelliferone, with MICs of 64, 192, and 256 mg/L, respectively, better than the archetypal coumarin with 384 mg/L. We further demonstrated that the hydroxylation of coumarins at the C-6, C-7 or C-8 position significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy images showed that hydroxycoumarins may interact with the pathogen by mechanically destroying the cell membrane and inhibiting biofilm formation. The antibiofilm effect of hydroxycoumarins may relate to the repression of flagellar genes fliA and flhC. These physiological changes in R. solanacearum caused by hydroxycoumarins can provide information for integral pathogen control. The present findings demonstrated that hydroxycoumarins have superior antibacterial activity against the phytopathogen R. solanacearum, and thus have the potential to be applied for controlling plant bacterial wilt. PMID:27070570

  4. Effects of volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Raza, Waseem; Wang, Jichen; Wu, Yuncheng; Ling, Ning; Wei, Zhong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbes is an important characteristic for their selection as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. In this study, we identified the VOCs produced by the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T-5 and evaluated their impact on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The results showed that the VOCs of strain T-5 significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum in agar medium and in soil. In addition, VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, root colonization, biofilm formation, and production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides by R. solanacearum. However, no effect of VOCs on the production of hydrolytic enzymes by R. solanacearum was observed. The strain T-5 produced VOCs, including benzenes, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, acids, and one furan and naphthalene compound; among those, 13 VOCs showed 1-10 % antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum in their produced amounts by T-5; however, the consortium of all VOCs produced on agar medium, in sterilized soil, and in natural soil showed 75, 62, and 85 % growth inhibition of R. solanacearum, respectively. The real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the results when the expression of different virulence- and metabolism-related genes in R. solanacearum cells was decreased after exposure to the VOCs of strain T-5. The results of this study clearly revealed the significance of VOCs in the control of plant pathogens. This information would help to better comprehend the microbial interactions mediated by VOCs in nature and to develop safer strategies to control plant disease. PMID:27183998

  5. Ralstonia solanacearum Uses Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism for Virulence, ATP Production, and Detoxification in the Oxygen-Limited Host Xylem Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dalsing, Beth L.; Truchon, Alicia N.; Gonzalez-Orta, Enid T.; Milling, Annett S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genomic data predict that, in addition to oxygen, the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum can use nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Genes encoding inorganic nitrogen reduction were highly expressed during tomato bacterial wilt disease, when the pathogen grows in xylem vessels. Direct measurements found that tomato xylem fluid was low in oxygen, especially in plants infected by R. solanacearum. Xylem fluid contained ~25 mM NO3−, corresponding to R. solanacearum’s optimal NO3− concentration for anaerobic growth in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that R. solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen species to respire and grow during pathogenesis by making deletion mutants that each lacked a step in nitrate respiration (ΔnarG), denitrification (ΔaniA, ΔnorB, and ΔnosZ), or NO detoxification (ΔhmpX). The ΔnarG, ΔaniA, and ΔnorB mutants grew poorly on NO3− compared to the wild type, and they had reduced adenylate energy charge levels under anaerobiosis. While NarG-dependent NO3− respiration directly enhanced growth, AniA-dependent NO2− reduction did not. NO2− and NO inhibited growth in culture, and their removal depended on denitrification and NO detoxification. Thus, NO3− acts as a TEA, but the resulting NO2− and NO likely do not. None of the mutants grew as well as the wild type in planta, and strains lacking AniA (NO2− reductase) or HmpX (NO detoxification) had reduced virulence on tomato. Thus, R. solanacearum exploits host NO3− to respire, grow, and cause disease. Degradation of NO2− and NO is also important for successful infection and depends on denitrification and NO detoxification systems. PMID:25784703

  6. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Minh; MacIntyre, April; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-06-01

    Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases) that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease. PMID:27336156

  7. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan Minh; MacIntyre, April; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases) that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease. PMID:27336156

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Lenarčič, Rok; Morisset, Dany; Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

  9. Integrated approach for detection of nonculturable cells of Ralstonia solanacearum in asymptomatic Pelargonium spp. cuttings.

    PubMed

    Marco-Noales, E; Bertolini, E; Morente, C; López, M M

    2008-08-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum (biovar 2, race 3) is a soil and water-borne pathogen that causes serious diseases in several solanaceous hosts. It can also infect geranium plants, posing an important threat to their culture when latently infected cuttings are imported from countries where the pathogen is endemic. R. solanacearum can be present in very low numbers in asymptomatic geranium cuttings, and/or in a particular stressed physiological state that escapes direct isolation on the solid media usually employed. Consequently, an integrated protocol has been developed to analyze asymptomatic geranium cuttings routinely. The first screening tests include isolation and co-operational-polymerase chain reaction (Co-PCR), based on the simultaneous and co-operational action of three primers from 16S rRNA of R. solanacearum. This method was selected as the most sensitive one, able to detect only 1 cell/ml including nonculturable cells. When isolation is negative but Co-PCR is positive, the bioassay in tomato plants is proposed, since stressed bacterial cells or those present in low numbers that do not grow on solid media can be recovered from inoculated tomato plants and retain pathogenicity. This methodology has been demonstrated to be useful and has allowed us to assess the relevance of the physiological status of bacterial cells and its implications in detection. It also reveals the risk of introducing R. solanacearum through asymptomatic geranium material when relying only on bacterial isolation. PMID:18943214

  10. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  11. TALE-Like Effectors Are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity.

    PubMed

    Schandry, Niklas; de Lange, Orlando; Prior, Philippe; Lahaye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains. Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE). RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain (CRD), where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code. In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24, and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively). RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98%) in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47-91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes. Using the number and order of repeats found in the CRD, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other's EBEs. Investigation of sequence divergence between

  12. TALE-Like Effectors Are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Schandry, Niklas; de Lange, Orlando; Prior, Philippe; Lahaye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains. Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE). RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain (CRD), where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code. In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24, and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively). RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98%) in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47–91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes. Using the number and order of repeats found in the CRD, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other’s EBEs. Investigation of sequence divergence

  13. PopW of Ralstonia solanacearum, a new two-domain harpin targeting the plant cell wall.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Gang; Liu, Hong-Xia; Cao, Jing; Chen, Li-Feng; Gu, Chun; Allen, Caitilyn; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2010-05-01

    Harpins are extracellular glycine-rich proteins eliciting a hypersensitive response (HR). In this study, we identified a new harpin, PopW, from Ralstonia solanacearum strain ZJ3721. This 380-amino-acid protein is acidic, rich in glycine and serine, and lacks cysteine. When infiltrated into the leaves of tobacco (non-host), PopW induced a rapid tissue collapse via a heat-stable but protease-sensitive HR-eliciting activity. PopW has an N-terminal harpin domain (residues 1-159) and a C-terminal pectate lyase (PL) domain (residues 160-366); its HR-eliciting activity depends on its N-terminal domain. Analyses of subcellular localization and plasmolysis demonstrated that PopW targeted the onion cell wall. This was further confirmed by its ability to specifically bind to calcium pectate, a major component of the plant cell wall. However, PopW had no detectable PL activity. Western blotting revealed that PopW was secreted by the type III secretion system in an hrpB-dependent manner. Gene sequencing indicated that popW is conserved among 20 diverse strains of R. solanacearum. A popW-deficient mutant retained the ability of wild-type strain ZJ3721 to elicit HR in tobacco and to cause wilt disease in tomato (a host). We conclude that PopW is a new cell wall-associated, hrpB-dependent, two-domain harpin that is conserved across the R. solanacearum species complex. PMID:20447285

  14. Genetic diversity of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum using a RAPD marker.

    PubMed

    Nishat, Sayeda; Hamim, Islam; Khalil, M Ibrahim; Ali, Md Ayub; Hossain, Muhammed Ali; Meah, M Bahadur; Islam, Md Rashidul

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a destructive disease of many economically important crop species. A significant variation in wilt incidence and severity in eggplant and potato was observed among the growing areas surveyed. R. solanacearum isolates obtained both from eggplant and potato belong to biovar III, while isolates from eggplant belong to race 1 and isolates obtained from potato belong to race 3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used as a tool for assessing genetic variation and relationship among seven isolate groups of R. solanacearum viz., RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3, RsP-1, RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4, consisting in a total of 28 isolates. Out of the RAPD markers used, amplification with four decamer primers produced 70 bands with sizes ranging from 100 to 1400 bp. Out of 70 bands, 68 bands (97.06%) were polymorphic and two bands (2.94%) were monomorphic amongst the seven R. solanacearum isolates group. The Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) dendrogram constructed from Nei's genetic distance produced two main clusters of the seven isolates of R. solanacearum. The isolates RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3 and R-4 grouped in cluster І, while RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4 grouped in cluster ІІ. The highest intra-variety similarity index (Si) was found in RsB-1 isolate (86.35%) and the lowest one in RsP-2 (56.59%). The results indicated that relatively higher and lower levels of genetic variation were found in RsP-3 and RsB-3, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (G(st)) was 0.5487, reflecting the existence of a high level of genetic variations among seven isolates of R. solanacearum. Comparatively higher genetic distance (0.4293) and lower genetic identity (0.6510) were observed between RsB-2 and RsP-4 combinations. The lowest genetic distance (0.0357) and highest genetic identity (0.9650) were found in RsB-1 vs. RsB-2 pair. Thus, RAPD offers a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate

  15. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Itishree; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Acharya, Priyambada

    2013-01-01

    We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe), the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes. PMID:24187521

  16. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Δfcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  17. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a Δfcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  18. Two different evolutionary lines of filamentous phages in Ralstonia solanacearum: their effects on bacterial virulence

    PubMed Central

    Askora, Ahmed; Yamada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The integration and excision of various filamentous phage genomes into and out of their host chromosomes occurs by site-specific recombination. The mechanisms proposed for these events include reactions mediated by phage-encoded recombinases and host recombination systems. Site-specific integration of filamentous phages plays a vital role in a variety of biological functions of the host, such as phase variation of certain pathogenic bacterial virulence factors. The importance of these filamentous phages in bacterial evolution is rapidly increasing with the discovery of new phages that are involved in pathogenicity. Studies of the diversity of two different filamentous phages infecting the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum provide us with novel insights into the dynamics of phage genomes, biological roles of prophages, and the regulation and importance of phage–host interactions. PMID:26150828

  19. Significant Effects Due to Peptone in Kelman Medium on Colony Characteristics and Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Upreti, Reshmi

    2014-01-01

    The study was taken up to assess if the media constituents played any role in governing the variable colony characteristics or pathogenicity of the bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum cultured on the widely employed Kelman medium. The effects due to the constituents 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), peptone, casein hydrolysate and glucose on colony characteristics were investigated using -80°C stored culture of strain 'NH-Av01' (race 1, biovar 3) isolated from tomato. Comparing the pigment inducing TTC from two brands, its source or mode of storage/incorporation did not impart any significant effects. The source of peptone, on the other hand, displayed striking effects on the extent of colony growth, fluidity and red pigmentation depending on type, brand or batch / lot of manufacture as documented with 20 different formulations. Significant differences in the pathogenicity of isolate derived from different peptone sources in seedling-challenge assay on tomato were observed. The observations on peptone effects were endorsed with four other isolates belonging to distinct geographic locations, crops (eggplant, chilli, ginger) or races (race 1 or 4). The peptone source did not influence the pathogen-responses in biovar tests but notably altered the pattern of lawn formation and inhibition zone development during antagonistic assays. Casein hydrolysate displayed some variable effects while glucose source had no effect. This study brings to light the significant modifying effects by the peptone-constituent in Kelman medium on the physiology of R. solanacearum and the virulence of isolate and the need to consider the source of media components during culture maintenance, host-pathogen interaction studies or microbe-microbe interaction investigations. PMID:25408775

  20. Significant Effects Due to Peptone in Kelman Medium on Colony Characteristics and Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Pious; Upreti, Reshmi

    2014-01-01

    The study was taken up to assess if the media constituents played any role in governing the variable colony characteristics or pathogenicity of the bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum cultured on the widely employed Kelman medium. The effects due to the constituents 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), peptone, casein hydrolysate and glucose on colony characteristics were investigated using -80°C stored culture of strain ‘NH-Av01’ (race 1, biovar 3) isolated from tomato. Comparing the pigment inducing TTC from two brands, its source or mode of storage/incorporation did not impart any significant effects. The source of peptone, on the other hand, displayed striking effects on the extent of colony growth, fluidity and red pigmentation depending on type, brand or batch / lot of manufacture as documented with 20 different formulations. Significant differences in the pathogenicity of isolate derived from different peptone sources in seedling-challenge assay on tomato were observed. The observations on peptone effects were endorsed with four other isolates belonging to distinct geographic locations, crops (eggplant, chilli, ginger) or races (race 1 or 4). The peptone source did not influence the pathogen-responses in biovar tests but notably altered the pattern of lawn formation and inhibition zone development during antagonistic assays. Casein hydrolysate displayed some variable effects while glucose source had no effect. This study brings to light the significant modifying effects by the peptone-constituent in Kelman medium on the physiology of R. solanacearum and the virulence of isolate and the need to consider the source of media components during culture maintenance, host-pathogen interaction studies or microbe-microbe interaction investigations. PMID:25408775

  1. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  2. Induction of the Viable but Nonculturable State of Ralstonia solanacearum by Low Temperature in the Soil Microcosm and Its Resuscitation by Catalase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Bae, Ju Young; Lee, Hyoung Ju; Joo, Hae Jin; Jung, Eun Joo; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt on a wide variety of plants, and enters a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions in soil and water. Here, we adopted an artificial soil microcosm (ASM) to investigate the VBNC state of R. solanacearum induced by low temperature. The culturability of R. solanacearum strains SL341 and GMI1000 rapidly decreased at 4°C in modified ASM (mASM), while it was stably maintained at 25°C in mASM. We hypothesized that bacterial cells at 4°C in mASM are viable but nonculturable. Total protein profiles of SL341 cells at 4°C in mASM did not differ from those of SL341 culturable cells at 25°C in mASM. Moreover, the VBNC cells maintained in the mASM retained respiration activity. Catalase treatment effectively restored the culturability of nonculturable cells in mASM, while temperature increase or other treatments used for resuscitation of other bacteria were not effective. The resuscitated R. solanacearum from VBNC state displayed normal level of bacterial virulence on tomato plants compared with its original culturable bacteria. Expression of omp, oxyR, rpoS, dps, and the 16S rRNA gene quantified by RT-qPCR did not differ significantly between the culturable and VBNC states of R. solanacearum. Our results suggested that the VBNC bacterial cells in mASM induced by low temperature exist in a physiologically unique state. PMID:25296177

  3. rpoN1, but not rpoN2, is required for twitching motility, natural competence, growth on nitrate, and virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suvendra K.; Kumar, Rahul; Peeters, Nemo; Boucher, Christian; Genin, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has two genes encoding for the sigma factor σ54: rpoN1, located in the chromosome and rpoN2, located in a distinct “megaplasmid” replicon. In this study, individual mutants as well as a double mutant of rpoN were created in R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 in order to determine the extent of functional overlap between these two genes. By virulence assay we observed that rpoN1 is required for virulence whereas rpoN2 is not. In addition rpoN1 controls other important functions such twitching motility, natural transformation and growth on nitrate, unlike rpoN2. The rpoN1 and rpoN2 genes have different expression pattern, the expression of rpoN1 being constitutive whereas rpoN2 expression is induced in minimal medium and in the presence of plant cells. Moreover, the expression of rpoN2 is dependent upon rpoN1. Our work therefore reveals that the two rpoN genes are not functionally redundant in R. solanacearum. A list of potential σ54 targets was identified in the R. solanacearum genome and suggests that multiple traits are under the control of these regulators. Based on these findings, we provide a model describing the functional connection between RpoN1 and the PehR pathogenicity regulator and their dual role in the control of several R. solanacearum virulence determinants. PMID:25852679

  4. A volatile relationship: profiling an inter-kingdom dialogue between two plant pathogens, Ralstonia Solanacearum and Aspergillus Flavus.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Joseph E; Jewell, Kelsea; Roze, Ludmila V; Scherf, Jacob; Ndagano, Dora; Beaudry, Randolph; Linz, John E; Allen, Caitilyn; Keller, Nancy P

    2014-05-01

    Microbes in the rhizosphere have a suite of extracellular compounds, both primary and secondary, that communicate with other organisms in their immediate environment. Here, we describe a two-way volatile interaction between two widespread and economically important soil-borne pathogens of peanut, Aspergillus flavus and Ralstonia solanacearum, a fungus and bacterium, respectively. In response to A. flavus volatiles, R. solanacearum reduced production of the major virulence factor extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). In parallel, A. flavus responded to R. solanacearum volatiles by reducing conidia production, both on plates and on peanut seeds and by increasing aflatoxin production on peanut. Volatile profiling of these organisms using solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (SPME-GCMS) provided a first glimpse at the compounds that may drive these interactions. PMID:24801606

  5. Characterization of biofumigated Ralstonia solanacearum cells using micro-Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paret, Mathews L; Sharma, Shiv K; Alvarez, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of palmarosa, lemongrass, and eucalyptus have shown promise as biofumigants for control of the bacterial wilt disease of edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 in previous potting medium studies. Biochemical changes in R. solanacearum cells were evaluated with micro-Raman spectroscopy following treatment with essential oils at different concentrations (0.04, 0.07, and 0.14% [vol/vol] of culture medium) and changes in cell structure were observed using electron microscopy. All treatments except palmarosa oil at 0.04% caused significant reductions in levels of amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, as indicated by significant reduction in Raman peak heights at 621, 1,003, and 1,031 inverse centimeters (cm(-1)) (phenylalanine); 643, 827, 852, 1,158, and 1,172 cm(-1) (tyrosine); 758 cm(-1) (tryptophan); 725, 782, 1,337, and 1,578 cm(-1) (adenine, cytosine plus uracil, adenine, and adenine plus guanine, respectively); 1,097 cm(-1) (carbohydrates); and 1,127, 1,450, and 2,932 cm(-1) (lipids) compared with untreated controls. Lemongrass oil treatments were the most effective in degrading cellular components. Scanning electron microscopy of palmarosa and lemongrass-oil-treated cells showed rupture of cell walls and cell debris but no degradation was noted for eucalyptus-oil-treated cells. Palmarosa- and lemongrass-oil-treated cells were positively stained with uranyl acetate when viewed by transmission electron microscopy whereas controls and eucalyptus-oil-treated cells were negatively stained, indicating that the cell membranes were intact. The viability of eucalyptus-oil-treated cells was confirmed by cell culture following treatment. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool which can be further employed to better understand effects of fumigants and other bactericides on bacterial cells. PMID:21899389

  6. Two host-induced Ralstonia solanacearum genes, acrA and dinF, encode multidrug efflux pumps and contribute to bacterial wilt virulence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Darby G; Swanson, Jill K; Allen, Caitilyn

    2007-05-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps (MDRs) are hypothesized to protect pathogenic bacteria from toxic host defense compounds. We created mutations in the Ralstonia solanacearum acrA and dinF genes, which encode putative MDRs in the broad-host-range plant pathogen. Both mutations reduced the ability of R. solanacearum to grow in the presence of various toxic compounds, including antibiotics, phytoalexins, and detergents. Both acrAB and dinF mutants were significantly less virulent on the tomato plant than the wild-type strain. Complementation restored near-wild-type levels of virulence to both mutants. Addition of either dinF or acrAB to Escherichia coli MDR mutants KAM3 and KAM32 restored the resistance of these strains to several toxins, demonstrating that the R. solanacearum genes can function heterologously to complement known MDR mutations. Toxic and DNA-damaging compounds induced expression of acrA and dinF, as did growth in both susceptible and resistant tomato plants. Carbon limitation also increased expression of acrA and dinF, while the stress-related sigma factor RpoS was required at a high cell density (>10(7) CFU/ml) to obtain wild-type levels of acrA expression both in minimal medium and in planta. The type III secretion system regulator HrpB negatively regulated dinF expression in culture at high cell densities. Together, these results show that acrAB and dinF encode MDRs in R. solanacearum and that they contribute to the overall aggressiveness of this phytopathogen, probably by protecting the bacterium from the toxic effects of host antimicrobial compounds. PMID:17337552

  7. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangryeol; Gupta, Ravi; Krishna, R.; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Dong Yeol; Hwang, Duk-ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-01-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato. PMID:26889112

  8. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangryeol; Gupta, Ravi; Krishna, R; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Dong Yeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-02-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato. PMID:26889112

  9. Deciphering the route of Ralstonia solanacearum colonization in Arabidopsis thaliana roots during a compatible interaction: focus at the plant cell wall.

    PubMed

    Digonnet, Catherine; Martinez, Yves; Denancé, Nicolas; Chasseray, Marine; Dabos, Patrick; Ranocha, Philippe; Marco, Yves; Jauneau, Alain; Goffner, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    The compatible interaction between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and the GMI1000 strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum, was investigated in an in vitro pathosystem. We describe the progression of the bacteria in the root from penetration at the root surface to the xylem vessels and the cell type-specific, cell wall-associated modifications that accompanies bacterial colonization. Within 6 days post inoculation, R. solanacearum provoked a rapid plasmolysis of the epidermal, cortical, and endodermal cells, including those not directly in contact with the bacteria. Plasmolysis was accompanied by a global degradation of pectic homogalacturonanes as shown by the loss of JIM7 and JIM5 antibody signal in the cell wall of these cell types. As indicated by immunolabeling with Rsol-I antibodies that specifically recognize R. solanacearum, the bacteria progresses through the root in a highly directed, centripetal manner to the xylem poles, without extensive multiplication in the intercellular spaces along its path. Entry into the vascular cylinder was facilitated by cell collapse of the two pericycle cells located at the xylem poles. Once the bacteria reached the xylem vessels, they multiplied abundantly and moved from vessel to vessel by digesting the pit membrane between adjacent vessels. The degradation of the secondary walls of xylem vessels was not a prerequisite for vessel colonization as LM10 antibodies strongly labeled xylem cell walls, even at very late stages in disease development. Finally, the capacity of R. solanacearum to specifically degrade certain cell wall components and not others could be correlated with the arsenal of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes identified in the bacterial genome. PMID:22729825

  10. PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Tremousaygue, Dominique; Denancé, Nicolas; van Esse, H Peter; Hörger, Anja C; Dabos, Patrick; Goffner, Deborah; Thomma, Bart P H J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    PIRIN (PRN) is a member of the functionally diverse cupin protein superfamily. There are four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PRN family, but the roles of these proteins are largely unknown. Here we describe a function of the Arabidopsis PIRIN2 (PRN2) that is related to susceptibility to the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Two prn2 mutant alleles displayed decreased disease development and bacterial growth in response to R.  solanacearum infection. We elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-immunoprecipitation assays. We show that XCP2 is stabilized by PRN2 through inhibition of its autolysis on the basis of PLCP activity profiling assays and enzymatic assays with recombinant protein. The stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 was also confirmed in planta. Like prn2 mutants, an xcp2 single knockout mutant and xcp2 prn2 double knockout mutant displayed decreased susceptibility to R. solanacearum, suggesting that stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 underlies susceptibility to R. solanacearum in Arabidopsis. PMID:24947605

  11. PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Tremousaygue, Dominique; Denancé, Nicolas; van Esse, H Peter; Hörger, Anja C; Dabos, Patrick; Goffner, Deborah; Thomma, Bart P H J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-09-01

    PIRIN (PRN) is a member of the functionally diverse cupin protein superfamily. There are four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PRN family, but the roles of these proteins are largely unknown. Here we describe a function of the Arabidopsis PIRIN2 (PRN2) that is related to susceptibility to the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Two prn2 mutant alleles displayed decreased disease development and bacterial growth in response to R.  solanacearum infection. We elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-immunoprecipitation assays. We show that XCP2 is stabilized by PRN2 through inhibition of its autolysis on the basis of PLCP activity profiling assays and enzymatic assays with recombinant protein. The stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 was also confirmed in planta. Like prn2 mutants, an xcp2 single knockout mutant and xcp2 prn2 double knockout mutant displayed decreased susceptibility to R. solanacearum, suggesting that stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 underlies susceptibility to R. solanacearum in Arabidopsis. PMID:24947605

  12. First Report of Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2 Race 1 on Tomato in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Seleim, Mohamed A. A.; Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A. M.; Abd-El-Moneem, Kenawy M.; Saead, Farag A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to isolate and identify the causal pathogen of tomato bacterial wilt in Egypt. In 2008, tomato plants showing typical symptoms of bacterial wilt disease with no foliar yellowing were observed in Minia, Assiut and Sohag governorates, Egypt. When cut stems of symptomatic plants were submerged in water, whitish ooze was evident and longitudinal sections showed a brown discoloration in the vascular tissues. Bacteria were isolated on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride medium and fifteen isolates shown typical morphological and cultural characteristics were confirmed as Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 race 1. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates proved to be pathogenic to tomato plants, varied from 52 to 97% wilting. This is the first report of R. solanacearum biovar 2 race 1 causing bacterial wilt in tomato crop in Egypt. PMID:25289016

  13. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Ralstonia solanacearum Type 3 Secretion-Associated Mutants Reveals a Fine Control of Effector Delivery, Essential for Bacterial Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lonjon, Fabien; Turner, Marie; Henry, Céline; Rengel, David; Lohou, David; van de Kerkhove, Quitterie; Cazalé, Anne-Claire; Peeters, Nemo; Genin, Stéphane; Vailleau, Fabienne

    2016-02-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, exerts its pathogenicity through more than a hundred secreted proteins, many of them depending directly on the functionality of a type 3 secretion system. To date, only few type 3 effectors have been identified as required for bacterial pathogenicity, notably because of redundancy among the large R. solanacearum effector repertoire. In order to identify groups of effectors collectively promoting disease on susceptible hosts, we investigated the role of putative post-translational regulators in the control of type 3 secretion. A shotgun secretome analysis with label-free quantification using tandem mass spectrometry was performed on the R. solanacearum GMI1000 strain. There were 228 proteins identified, among which a large proportion of type 3 effectors, called Rip (Ralstonia injected proteins). Thanks to this proteomic approach, RipBJ was identified as a new effector specifically secreted through type 3 secretion system and translocated into plant cells. A focused Rip secretome analysis using hpa (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity associated) mutants revealed a fine secretion regulation and specific subsets of Rips with different secretion patterns. We showed that a set of Rips (RipF1, RipW, RipX, RipAB, and RipAM) are secreted in an Hpa-independent manner. We hypothesize that these Rips could be preferentially involved in the first stages of type 3 secretion. In addition, the secretion of about thirty other Rips is controlled by HpaB and HpaG. HpaB, a candidate chaperone was shown to positively control secretion of numerous Rips, whereas HpaG was shown to act as a negative regulator of secretion. To evaluate the impact of altered type 3 effectors secretion on plant pathogenesis, the hpa mutants were assayed on several host plants. HpaB was required for bacterial pathogenicity on multiple hosts whereas HpaG was found to be specifically required for full R. solanacearum pathogenicity on the legume

  14. Molecular chaperons and co-chaperons, Hsp90, RAR1, and SGT1 negatively regulate bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ito, Makoto; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in interaction between Nicotiana benthamiana and R. solanacearum, we focused on Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1. Appearances of wilt symptom were significantly suppressed in Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1-silenced plants compared with control plants. In RAR1-silenced plants, population of R. solanacearum increased in a similar manner to control plants. In contrast, multiplication of R. solanacearum was significantly suppressed in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants. In addition, expression of PR genes were increased in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants challenged with R. solanacearum. Therefore, RAR1 might be required for disease development or suppression of disease tolerance. These results also suggested that Hsp90 and/or SGT1 might play an important role in suppression of plant defenses leading to disease susceptibility and disease development. PMID:25482800

  15. So near and yet so far: the specific case of Ralstonia Solanacearum populations from Côte d'Ivoire in Africa.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, C A; Abo, K; Fondio, L; Chiroleu, F; Lebeau, A; Poussier, S; Wicker, E; Koné, D

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and phenotypic diversity of Côte d'Ivoire Ralstonia solanacearum strains was assessed on a 168-strain collection sampled on Solanaceae both in the southern lowlands and western highlands. Phylotypes I, II, and III were prevalent, though at unexpected frequencies. Phylotype I strains (87.5%) were genetically diverse and overrepresented in all agroecological areas, including highlands (AEZ III). Phylotype II strains (10.7%) only belonged to one tropical lowland-adapted broad host range lineage (IIA-35), whereas no highland-adapted potato brown rot (IIB-1) or Moko strains were detected. African phylotype III strains were rare (1.8%). They originated from a single Burkina Faso lineage (III-23) and were only found in lowlands. Three phylotype I strains were found harboring pRSC35, a plasmid identified in phylotype III strains in Cameroon. From pathogenicity tests performed on commercial varieties and tomato/eggplant/pepper references, the virulence diversity observed was high, with five pathoprofiles described. Eggplant accessions MM152 and EG203 and tomato HW7996 displayed the largest resistance spectrum and highest level. Two highly virulent phylotype I strains were able to bypass resistance of HW7996 and the eggplant reference AG91-25. Collectively, these points lead to the conclusion that the situation in Côte d'Ivoire is specific towards other African countries, and specifically from the Cameroon reference, and that within phylotype I can exist a high virulence diversity. This calls for similar studies in neighboring West African countries, linking R. solanacearum pathogen genetic diversity to strain virulence at the regional level, for the rationalization of regional resistance deployment strategies and future resistance durability studies. PMID:22533876

  16. The Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity regulator HrpB induces 3-hydroxy-oxindole synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delaspre, Fabien; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Saurel, Olivier; Kiefer, Patrick; Gras, Emmanuel; Milon, Alain; Boucher, Christian; Genin, Stéphane; Vorholt, Julia A

    2007-10-01

    The transcriptional activator HrpB of the bacterial wilt causing betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum represents a key regulator for pathogenicity. In particular, it drives expression of hrp genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) as well as effector molecules for delivery into the host cytosol to promote disease. However, the HrpB regulon extends beyond this T3SS. We describe here an HrpB-activated operon of six genes that is responsible for the synthesis of a fluorescent isatin derivative of 149 Amu that we named HDF for HrpB-dependent factor and that we purified from culture supernatants. The structure of the labile molecule was solved by using NMR and CD spectroscopy to be (3S)-3-hydroxy-indolin-2-one and confirmed by its chemical synthesis and MS spectrometry. HDF was found to be present at 20 nM in wild-type cultures grown on minimal medium, and its synthesis increased 15-fold upon overproduction of HrpB, confirming that HrpB activates HDF synthesis. The addition of tryptophan significantly stimulated HDF biosynthesis and was shown to represent the precursor molecule for HDF synthesis. A search for the biological function of the molecule revealed that HDF induces acyl-homoserine lactone receptor-mediated reporter activity of the well studied LuxR transcriptional regulator of Vibrio fischeri. Thus, our results provide evidence that the specificity of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) receptors is clearly broader than previously considered. The failure to detect induction by HDF of the described endogenous quorum-sensing circuits of the pathogen points to a role in interfering with cell-cell signaling of rivalling bacteria. PMID:17890323

  17. Effect of Seed Treatment by Cold Plasma on the Resistance of Tomato to Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial Wilt)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiafeng; Lu, Yufang; Li, Jiangang; Li, Ling; He, Xin; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold plasma seed treatment on tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), and the regulation of resistance mechanisms. The effect of cold plasma of 80W on seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake, disease severity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and activities of peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) were examined in tomato plants. Plasma treatment increased tomato resistance to R. solanacearum with an efficacy of 25.0%. Plasma treatment significantly increased both germination and plant growth in comparison with the control treatment, and plasma-treated plants absorbed more calcium and boron than the controls. In addition, H2O2 levels in treated plants rose faster and reached a higher peak, at 2.579 µM gFW−1, 140% greater than that of the control. Activities of POD (421.3 U gFW−1), PPO (508.8 U gFW−1) and PAL (707.3 U gFW−1) were also greater in the treated plants than in the controls (103.0 U gFW−1, 166.0 U gFW−1 and 309.4 U gFW−1, respectively). These results suggest that plasma treatment affects the regulation of plant growth, H2O2 concentration, and POD, PPO and PAL activity in tomato, resulting in an improved resistance to R. solanacearum. Consequently, cold plasma seed treatment has the potential to control tomato bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. PMID:24840508

  18. Effect of seed treatment by cold plasma on the resistance of tomato to Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial Wilt).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiafeng; Lu, Yufang; Li, Jiangang; Li, Ling; He, Xin; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold plasma seed treatment on tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), and the regulation of resistance mechanisms. The effect of cold plasma of 80W on seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake, disease severity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and activities of peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) were examined in tomato plants. Plasma treatment increased tomato resistance to R. solanacearum with an efficacy of 25.0%. Plasma treatment significantly increased both germination and plant growth in comparison with the control treatment, and plasma-treated plants absorbed more calcium and boron than the controls. In addition, H2O2 levels in treated plants rose faster and reached a higher peak, at 2.579 µM gFW-1, 140% greater than that of the control. Activities of POD (421.3 U gFW-1), PPO (508.8 U gFW-1) and PAL (707.3 U gFW-1) were also greater in the treated plants than in the controls (103.0 U gFW-1, 166.0 U gFW-1 and 309.4 U gFW-1, respectively). These results suggest that plasma treatment affects the regulation of plant growth, H2O2 concentration, and POD, PPO and PAL activity in tomato, resulting in an improved resistance to R. solanacearum. Consequently, cold plasma seed treatment has the potential to control tomato bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. PMID:24840508

  19. The vascular plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum produces biofilms required for its virulence on the surfaces of tomato cells adjacent to intercellular spaces.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yuka; Inoue, Kanako; Ikeda, Kenichi; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Higashimoto, Chikaki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of colonization of intercellular spaces by the soil-borne and vascular plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 after invasion into host plants remains unclear. To analyse the behaviour of OE1-1 cells in intercellular spaces, tomato leaves with the lower epidermis layers excised after infiltration with OE1-1 were observed under a scanning electron microscope. OE1-1 cells formed microcolonies on the surfaces of tomato cells adjacent to intercellular spaces, and then aggregated surrounded by an extracellular matrix, forming mature biofilm structures. Furthermore, OE1-1 cells produced mushroom-type biofilms when incubated in fluids of apoplasts including intercellular spaces, but not xylem fluids from tomato plants. This is the first report of biofilm formation by R. solanacearum on host plant cells after invasion into intercellular spaces and mushroom-type biofilms produced by R. solanacearum in vitro. Sugar application led to enhanced biofilm formation by OE1-1. Mutation of lecM encoding a lectin, RS-IIL, which reportedly exhibits affinity for these sugars, led to a significant decrease in biofilm formation. Colonization in intercellular spaces was significantly decreased in the lecM mutant, leading to a loss of virulence on tomato plants. Complementation of the lecM mutant with native lecM resulted in the recovery of mushroom-type biofilms and virulence on tomato plants. Together, our findings indicate that OE1-1 produces mature biofilms on the surfaces of tomato cells after invasion into intercellular spaces. RS-IIL may contribute to biofilm formation by OE1-1, which is required for OE1-1 virulence. PMID:26609568

  20. The Ectopic Expression of CaRop1 Modulates the Response of Tobacco Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum and Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ailian; Liu, Zhiqin; Li, Jiazhi; Chen, Yanshen; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    In plants, Rho-related GTPases (Rops) are versatile molecular switches that regulate various biological processes, although their exact roles are not fully understood. Herein, we provide evidence that the ectopic expression of a Rop derived from Capsicum annuum, designated CaRop1, in tobacco plants modulates the response of these plants to Ralstonia solanacearum or aphid attack. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaRop1 harbors a conserved Rho domain and is highly homologous to Rops of other plant species. Transient expression of a CaRop1-GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells revealed localization of the GFP signal to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Overexpression (OE) of the wild-type CaRop1 or its dominant-negative mutant (DN-CaRop1) conferred substantial resistance to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack, and this effect was accompanied by enhanced transcriptional expression of the hypersensitive-reaction marker gene HSR201; the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive PR1b and LOX1; the insect resistance-associated NtPI-I, NtPI-II, and NtTPI; the ethylene (ET) production-associated NtACS1; and NPK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that interferes with N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated disease resistance. In contrast, OE of the constitutively active mutant of CaRop1(CA-CaRop1) enhanced susceptibility of the transgenic tobacco plants to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack and downregulated or sustained the expression of HSR201, PR1b, NPK1, NtACS1, NtPI-I, NtPI-II, and NtTPI. These results collectively suggest that CaRop1 acts as a signaling switch in the crosstalk between Solanaceaes’s response to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack possibly via JA/ET-mediated signaling machinery. PMID:27551287

  1. The Ectopic Expression of CaRop1 Modulates the Response of Tobacco Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum and Aphids.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ailian; Liu, Zhiqin; Li, Jiazhi; Chen, Yanshen; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    In plants, Rho-related GTPases (Rops) are versatile molecular switches that regulate various biological processes, although their exact roles are not fully understood. Herein, we provide evidence that the ectopic expression of a Rop derived from Capsicum annuum, designated CaRop1, in tobacco plants modulates the response of these plants to Ralstonia solanacearum or aphid attack. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaRop1 harbors a conserved Rho domain and is highly homologous to Rops of other plant species. Transient expression of a CaRop1-GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells revealed localization of the GFP signal to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Overexpression (OE) of the wild-type CaRop1 or its dominant-negative mutant (DN-CaRop1) conferred substantial resistance to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack, and this effect was accompanied by enhanced transcriptional expression of the hypersensitive-reaction marker gene HSR201; the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive PR1b and LOX1; the insect resistance-associated NtPI-I, NtPI-II, and NtTPI; the ethylene (ET) production-associated NtACS1; and NPK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that interferes with N-, Bs2-, and Rx-mediated disease resistance. In contrast, OE of the constitutively active mutant of CaRop1(CA-CaRop1) enhanced susceptibility of the transgenic tobacco plants to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack and downregulated or sustained the expression of HSR201, PR1b, NPK1, NtACS1, NtPI-I, NtPI-II, and NtTPI. These results collectively suggest that CaRop1 acts as a signaling switch in the crosstalk between Solanaceaes's response to R. solanacearum infection and aphid attack possibly via JA/ET-mediated signaling machinery. PMID:27551287

  2. The involvement of the PilQ secretin of type IV pili in phage infection in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Narulita, Erlia; Addy, Hardian Susilo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    PilQ is a member of the secretin family of outer membrane proteins and specifically involved in type IV secretion. Here we report the effects of pilQ mutation in Ralstonia solanacearum on the host physiology including susceptibility to several phage types (Inoviridae, Podoviridae and Myoviridae). With three lines of cells, namely wild type, ΔpilQ and pilQ-complemented cells, the cell surface proteins, twitching motility and sensitivity to phages were compared. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the major TFP pilin (PilA) was specifically lost in pilQ mutants and was recovered in the complemented cells. Drastically inactivated twitching motility in pilQ mutants was recovered to the wild type level in the complemented cells. Several phages of different types including those of Inoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae that infect wild type cells could not form plaques on pilQ mutants but showed infectivity to pilQ-complemented cells. These results indicate that PilQ function is generally required for phage infection in R. solanacearum. PMID:26718404

  3. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S.; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation. PMID:27257085

  4. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation. PMID:27257085

  5. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects and Mechanism of Action of Protocatechualdehyde against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Li, Shili; Yu, Yanmei; Chen, Juanni; Guo, Bing; Yang, Liang; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is an important plant-derived natural product that has been associated with a wide variety of biological activities and has been widely used in medicine as an antioxidant, anti-aging and an anti-inflammatory agent. However, fewer reports concerning its antibacterial effects on plant-pathogenic bacteria exist. Therefore, in this study, protocatechualdehyde was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against plant pathogens along with the mechanism of its antibacterial action. PCA at 40 μg/mL was highly active against R. solanacearum and significantly inhibited its growth. The minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum inhibitory concentration values for PCA were 40 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL, respectively. Further investigation of the mechanism of action of PCA via transmission electron microscopy and biological assays indicated that the destruction of the cell structure, the shapes and the inhibition of biofilm formation were important. In addition, the application of PCA effectively reduced the incidence of bacterial wilt on tobacco under greenhouse conditions, and the control efficiency was as high as 92.01% at nine days after inoculation. Taken together, these findings suggest that PCA exhibits strong antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum and has the potential to be applied as an effective antibacterial agent for controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. PMID:27294898

  6. Root-associated bacterial endophytes from Ralstonia solanacearum resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars and their pathogen antagonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Reshmi; Thomas, Pious

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess if the root-associated native bacterial endophytes in tomato have any bearing in governing the host resistance to the wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Internal colonization of roots by bacterial endophytes was confirmed through confocal imaging after SYTO-9 staining. Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of 4-weeks-old seedlings of known wilt resistant (R) tomato cultivar Arka Abha and susceptible (S) cv. Arka Vikas on nutrient agar after plating the tissue homogenate. Arka Abha displayed more diversity with nine distinct organisms while Arka Vikas showed five species with two common organisms (Pseudomonas oleovorans and Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Screening for general indicators of biocontrol potential showed more isolates from Arka Abha positive for siderophore, HCN and antibiotic biosynthesis than from Arka Vikas. Direct challenge against the pathogen indicated strong antagonism by three Arka Abha isolates (P. oleovorans, Pantoea ananatis, and Enterobacter cloacae) and moderate activity by three others, while just one isolate from Arka Vikas (P. oleovorans) showed strong antagonism. Validation for the presence of bacterial endophytes on three R cultivars (Arka Alok, Arka Ananya, Arka Samrat) showed 8-9 antagonistic bacteria in them in comparison with four species in the three S cultivars (Arka Ashish, Arka Meghali, Arka Saurabhav). Altogether 34 isolates belonging to five classes, 16 genera and 27 species with 23 of them exhibiting pathogen antagonism were isolated from the four R cultivars against 17 isolates under three classes, seven genera and 13 species from the four S cultivars with eight isolates displaying antagonistic effects. The prevalence of higher endophytic bacterial diversity and more antagonistic organisms associated with the seedling roots of resistant cultivars over susceptible genotypes suggest a possible role by the root-associated endophytes in natural defense against the pathogen

  7. Expression of a wheat MYB gene in transgenic tobacco enhances resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, and to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Zhou, Xianyao; Dong, Na; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2011-09-01

    MYB transcription factors play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. A full-length cDNA sequence of a MYB gene, namely TaPIMP1, was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPIMP1 transcript level was significantly up-regulated by inoculation with a fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana and by drought treatment. TaPIMP1 encodes the MYB protein TaPIMP1 consisting of 323 amino acids. TaPIMP1 contains two MYB DNA binding domains (R2, R3), two putative nuclear localization sites and two putative transcription activation domains. TaPIMP1 is a new member of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor subfamily. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of GFP fused with TaPIMP1 proved that subcellular localization of TaPIMP1 occurred in the nucleus. The TaPIMP1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivar W38 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After screening through PCR and RT-PCR analyses, transgenic tobacco lines expressing TaPIMP1 were identified and evaluated for pathogen resistance, and drought and salt tolerance. Compared to untransformed tobacco host plants, TaPIMP1 expressing plants displayed significantly enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and exhibited improved tolerances to drought and salt stresses. In these transgenic lines, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased relative to wild-type tobacco plants. The results suggested that the wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor plays an important role in modulating responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:21597961

  8. Root-associated bacterial endophytes from Ralstonia solanacearum resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars and their pathogen antagonistic effects

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Reshmi; Thomas, Pious

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess if the root-associated native bacterial endophytes in tomato have any bearing in governing the host resistance to the wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Internal colonization of roots by bacterial endophytes was confirmed through confocal imaging after SYTO-9 staining. Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of 4-weeks-old seedlings of known wilt resistant (R) tomato cultivar Arka Abha and susceptible (S) cv. Arka Vikas on nutrient agar after plating the tissue homogenate. Arka Abha displayed more diversity with nine distinct organisms while Arka Vikas showed five species with two common organisms (Pseudomonas oleovorans and Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Screening for general indicators of biocontrol potential showed more isolates from Arka Abha positive for siderophore, HCN and antibiotic biosynthesis than from Arka Vikas. Direct challenge against the pathogen indicated strong antagonism by three Arka Abha isolates (P. oleovorans, Pantoea ananatis, and Enterobacter cloacae) and moderate activity by three others, while just one isolate from Arka Vikas (P. oleovorans) showed strong antagonism. Validation for the presence of bacterial endophytes on three R cultivars (Arka Alok, Arka Ananya, Arka Samrat) showed 8–9 antagonistic bacteria in them in comparison with four species in the three S cultivars (Arka Ashish, Arka Meghali, Arka Saurabhav). Altogether 34 isolates belonging to five classes, 16 genera and 27 species with 23 of them exhibiting pathogen antagonism were isolated from the four R cultivars against 17 isolates under three classes, seven genera and 13 species from the four S cultivars with eight isolates displaying antagonistic effects. The prevalence of higher endophytic bacterial diversity and more antagonistic organisms associated with the seedling roots of resistant cultivars over susceptible genotypes suggest a possible role by the root-associated endophytes in natural defense against the pathogen

  9. Overexpression of a Chinese cabbage BrERF11 transcription factor enhances disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan; Dang, Fengfeng; Lin, Jing; Yu, Lu; Shi, Youliang; Xiao, Yuhua; Huang, Mukun; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Qi, Aihua; Liu, Zhiqin; Guan, Deyi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. However, the roles and underlying mechanism of ERFs remain poorly understood, especially in non-model plants. In this study, a full length cDNA of ERF gene was isolated from the cDNA library of Chinese cabbage. According to sequence alignment, we found a highly conservative AP2/ERF domain, two nuclear localization signals, and an ERF-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. It belonged to VIIIa group ERFs sharing the highest sequence identity with AtERF11 in all of the ERFs in Arabidopsis and designated BrERF11. BrERF11-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transient expressed in onion epidermis cells localized to the nucleus. The transcript levels of BrERF11 were induced by exogenous salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Constitutive expression of BrERF11 enhanced tolerance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection in transgenic tobacco plants, which was coupled with hypersensitive response (HR), burst of H(2)O(2) and upregulation of defense-related genes including HR marker genes, SA-, JA-dependent pathogen-related genes and ET biosynthesis associated genes and downregulation of CAT1, suggesting BrERF11 may participate in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)- and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI) mediated by SA-, JA- and ET-dependent signaling mechanisms. PMID:23201563

  10. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Yoon, Ee; Kwon, Taehoon; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host) growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio) ranging from −2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression. PMID:27298597

  11. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Yoon, Ee; Kwon, Taehoon; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host) growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio) ranging from -2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression. PMID:27298597

  12. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Connolly, Morgan P; Choudhary, Pratibha; Brookins-Little, Tiffany S; Chatterjee, Snigdha; Raina, Ramesh; Nomura, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000. PMID:26659655

  13. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Connolly, Morgan P.; Choudhary, Pratibha; Brookins-Little, Tiffany S.; Chatterjee, Snigdha; Raina, Ramesh; Nomura, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000. PMID:26659655

  14. Quick adaptation of Ralstonia Solanacearum to copper stress to recover culturability and growth in water and soil

    PubMed Central

    Ascarrunz, Sergio Daniel Moreira; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Honjo, Hitoshi; Fukui, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Cells of Ralstonia solanacearum were exposed to Cu in distilled water, and the resulting Cu-stressed non-culturable cells were inoculated to natural (non-pasteurized) and pasteurized soils in order to examine their culturability and recovery. Exposing the cells to 20 μM CuSO4 produced transitory non-culturable cells, which exhibited a remarkable recovery in culturability after incubation in the solution for 36 h, reaching a density near the initial level by 108 h. To determine whether such non-culturable cells actually “resuscitated” or multiplied after adapting to Cu toxicity, growth curves were constructed in order to contrast the rates of increase in culturable cell numbers between Cu-stressed or non-stressed inocula. Additionally, fresh non-stressed cells were exposed to CuSO4 in the presence of nalidixic acid by adding the antibiotic at different times after the onset of Cu stress to verify any cell multiplication during the population increase. The results revealed that the non-culturable cells surviving Cu toxicity adapted very quickly to Cu and began multiplying within 12 h, because only the Cu-stressed cells that were increasing in the exponential growth phase, but not those in the stationary phase, were killed by the antibiotic. Such cells exhibited an apparent tolerance to this metal when inoculated to a freshly prepared solution of CuSO4, and also detoxified the ion in the solution in which they grew. The presence of nutrients greatly counteracted the effect of Cu in water microcosms, since culturable cells were detected and increased in number even when exposed to 40 μM CuSO4. In contrast, when inoculated to non-pasteurized soil, Cu-stressed cells showed no such recoveries. However, when the soil was pasteurized before inoculation or added with nutrients, culturable cells were recovered and increased in number. This indicates that increased nutrient availability in soil allows Cu-stressed cells to quickly overcome the stress and increase in

  15. Quick adaptation of Ralstonia Solanacearum to copper stress to recover culturability and growth in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Ascarrunz, Sergio Daniel Moreira; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Honjo, Hitoshi; Fukui, Ryo

    2011-04-01

    Cells of Ralstonia solanacearum were exposed to Cu in distilled water, and the resulting Cu-stressed non-culturable cells were inoculated to natural (non-pasteurized) and pasteurized soils in order to examine their culturability and recovery. Exposing the cells to 20 μM CuSO4 produced transitory non-culturable cells, which exhibited a remarkable recovery in culturability after incubation in the solution for 36 h, reaching a density near the initial level by 108 h. To determine whether such non-culturable cells actually "resuscitated" or multiplied after adapting to Cu toxicity, growth curves were constructed in order to contrast the rates of increase in culturable cell numbers between Cu-stressed or non-stressed inocula. Additionally, fresh non-stressed cells were exposed to CuSO4 in the presence of nalidixic acid by adding the antibiotic at different times after the onset of Cu stress to verify any cell multiplication during the population increase. The results revealed that the non-culturable cells surviving Cu toxicity adapted very quickly to Cu and began multiplying within 12 h, because only the Cu-stressed cells that were increasing in the exponential growth phase, but not those in the stationary phase, were killed by the antibiotic. Such cells exhibited an apparent tolerance to this metal when inoculated to a freshly prepared solution of CuSO4, and also detoxified the ion in the solution in which they grew. The presence of nutrients greatly counteracted the effect of Cu in water microcosms, since culturable cells were detected and increased in number even when exposed to 40 μM CuSO4. In contrast, when inoculated to non-pasteurized soil, Cu-stressed cells showed no such recoveries. However, when the soil was pasteurized before inoculation or added with nutrients, culturable cells were recovered and increased in number. This indicates that increased nutrient availability in soil allows Cu-stressed cells to quickly overcome the stress and increase in

  16. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Xingxing; He, Xiaolin; Liu, Miao; Wu, Hao; Tang, Caixian; Jin, Chongwei; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the best ability to suppress R. solanacearum due to its highest capacity to increase soil and NO2(-) contents and pH. However, AW was more suitable to controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum because it had a lower cost and its application rate of 0.25 g N kg(-1) soil could effectively suppress the survival of R. solanacearum. Additionally, soil microbial activity and community populations were restored to their initial state four weeks after the application of each fumigant, indicating that the three fumigants had few detrimental impacts on soil microbial activity and community structure with an exception of the suppression of R. solanacearum. The present study provides guidance for the selection of a suitable alkaline nitrogenous amendment and its application rate in controlling bacterial wilt. PMID:26738601

  17. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Xingxing; He, Xiaolin; Liu, Miao; Wu, Hao; Tang, Caixian; Jin, Chongwei; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the best ability to suppress R. solanacearum due to its highest capacity to increase soil and NO2− contents and pH. However, AW was more suitable to controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum because it had a lower cost and its application rate of 0.25 g N kg−1 soil could effectively suppress the survival of R. solanacearum. Additionally, soil microbial activity and community populations were restored to their initial state four weeks after the application of each fumigant, indicating that the three fumigants had few detrimental impacts on soil microbial activity and community structure with an exception of the suppression of R. solanacearum. The present study provides guidance for the selection of a suitable alkaline nitrogenous amendment and its application rate in controlling bacterial wilt. PMID:26738601

  18. Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 and CLAVATA2 receptors contribute to Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity through a miR169-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Hanemian, Mathieu; Barlet, Xavier; Sorin, Céline; Yadeta, Koste A; Keller, Harald; Favery, Bruno; Simon, Rüdiger; Thomma, Bart P H J; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Marco, Yves; Tremousaygue, Dominique; Deslandes, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive bacterial plant diseases. Although many molecular determinants involved in R. solanacearum adaptation to hosts and pathogenesis have been described, host components required for disease establishment remain poorly characterized. Phenotypical analysis of Arabidopsis mutants for leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-receptor-like proteins revealed that mutations in the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) and CLAVATA2 (CLV2) genes confer enhanced disease resistance to bacterial wilt. We further investigated the underlying mechanisms using genetic, transcriptomic and molecular approaches. The enhanced resistance of both clv1 and clv2 mutants to the bacteria did not require the well characterized CLV signalling modules involved in shoot meristem homeostasis, and was conditioned by neither salicylic acid nor ethylene defence-related hormones. Gene expression microarray analysis performed on clv1 and clv2 revealed deregulation of genes encoding nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) transcription factors whose post-transcriptional regulation is known to involve microRNAs from the miR169 family. Both clv mutants showed a defect in miR169 accumulation. Conversely, overexpression of miR169 abrogated the resistance phenotype of clv mutants. We propose that CLV1 and CLV2, two receptors involved in CLV3 perception during plant development, contribute to bacterial wilt through a signalling pathway involving the miR169/NF-YA module. PMID:26990325

  19. Draft Genome Assembly of Ralstonia pickettii Type Strain K-288 (ATCC 27853)

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Lo, C.-C.; Meincke, L.; Munk, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the genome assembly of Ralstonia pickettii K-288 (ATCC 27511), consisting of 27 contigs placed into a single scaffold. This 4.76-Mbp genome has 64.0% G+C content and 4,425 coding sequences. Because this is the type strain, inclusion of its data set among other Ralstonia genomes should provide a historical genomic perspective. PMID:25258272

  20. Draft Genome Assembly of Ralstonia pickettii Type Strain K-288 (ATCC 27853).

    PubMed

    Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Lo, C-C; Meincke, L; Munk, A C; Rosenzweig, C N; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present the genome assembly of Ralstonia pickettii K-288 (ATCC 27511), consisting of 27 contigs placed into a single scaffold. This 4.76-Mbp genome has 64.0% G+C content and 4,425 coding sequences. Because this is the type strain, inclusion of its data set among other Ralstonia genomes should provide a historical genomic perspective. PMID:25258272

  1. Whole-Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" Strain R1 from California.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; Clark, N; Keremane, M; Lee, R; Wallis, C; Deng, X; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    The draft whole-genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" strain R1, isolated from and maintained in tomato plants in California, is reported. The R1 strain has the genome size of 1,204,257 bp, G+C content of 35.3%, 1,101 predicted open reading frames, and 57 RNA genes. PMID:25540355

  2. Two asian jumbo phages, ϕRSL2 and ϕRSF1, infect Ralstonia solanacearum and show common features of ϕKZ-related phages.

    PubMed

    Bhunchoth, Anjana; Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Mihara, Tomoko; Nishimura, Yosuke; Askora, Ahmed; Phironrit, Namthip; Leksomboon, Chalida; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakano, Miyako; Fujie, Makoto; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Jumbo phages infecting Ralstonia solanacearum were isolated in Thailand (ϕRSL2) and Japan (ϕRSF1). They were similar regarding virion morphology, genomic arrangement, and host range. Phylogenetic and proteomic tree analyses demonstrate that the ϕRSL2 and ϕRSF1 belong to a group of evolutionary related phages, including Pseudomonas phages ϕKZ, 201ϕ2-1 and all previously described ϕKZ-related phages. Despite conserved genomic co-linearity between the ϕRSL2 and ϕRSF1, they differ in protein separation patterns. A major difference was seen in the detection of virion-associated-RNA polymerase subunits. All β- and β'-subunits were detected in ϕRSF1, but one β'-subunit was undetected in ϕRSL2. Furthermore, ϕRSF1 infected host cells faster (latent period: 60 and 150min for ϕRSF1 and ϕRSL2, respectively) and more efficiently than ϕRSL2. Therefore, the difference in virion-associated-RNA polymerase may affect infection efficiency. Finally, we show that ϕRSF1 is able to inhibit bacterial wilt progression in tomato plants. PMID:27081857

  3. Genome-Enabled Phylogeographic Investigation of the Quarantine Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 and Screening for Sources of Resistance Against Its Core Effectors.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher R; Studholme, David J; Hayes, Byron; Runde, Brendan; Weisberg, Alexandra; Cai, Rongman; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Wicker, Emmanuel; Castillo, Jose A; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Phylogeographic studies inform about routes of pathogen dissemination and are instrumental for improving import/export controls. Genomes of 17 isolates of the bacterial wilt and potato brown rot pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2), a Select Agent in the United States, were thus analyzed to get insight into the phylogeography of this pathogen. Thirteen of fourteen isolates from Europe, Africa, and Asia were found to belong to a single clonal lineage while isolates from South America were genetically diverse and tended to carry ancestral alleles at the analyzed genomic loci consistent with a South American origin of R3bv2. The R3bv2 isolates share a core repertoire of 31 type III-secreted effector genes representing excellent candidates to be targeted with resistance genes in breeding programs to develop durable disease resistance. Toward this goal, 27 R3bv2 effectors were tested in eggplant, tomato, pepper, tobacco, and lettuce for induction of a hypersensitive-like response indicative of recognition by cognate resistance receptors. Fifteen effectors, eight of them core effectors, triggered a response in one or more plant species. These genotypes may harbor resistance genes that could be identified and mapped, cloned, and expressed in tomato or potato, for which sources of genetic resistance to R3bv2 are extremely limited. PMID:25710204

  4. Ralstonia solanacearum Type III Effector RipAY Is a Glutathione-Degrading Enzyme That Is Activated by Plant Cytosolic Thioredoxins and Suppresses Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Nakano, Masahito; Oda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum uses a large repertoire of type III effector proteins to succeed in infection. To clarify the function of effector proteins in host eukaryote cells, we expressed effectors in yeast cells and identified seven effector proteins that interfere with yeast growth. One of the effector proteins, RipAY, was found to share homology with the ChaC family proteins that function as γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases, which degrade glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that plays important roles in the plant immune system. RipAY significantly inhibited yeast growth and simultaneously induced rapid GSH depletion when expressed in yeast cells. The in vitro GSH degradation activity of RipAY is specifically activated by eukaryotic factors in the yeast and plant extracts. Biochemical purification of the yeast protein identified that RipAY is activated by thioredoxin TRX2. On the other hand, RipAY was not activated by bacterial thioredoxins. Interestingly, RipAY was activated by plant h-type thioredoxins that exist in large amounts in the plant cytosol, but not by chloroplastic m-, f-, x-, y- and z-type thioredoxins, in a thiol-independent manner. The transient expression of RipAY decreased the GSH level in plant cells and affected the flg22-triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) marker genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These results indicate that RipAY is activated by host cytosolic thioredoxins and degrades GSH specifically in plant cells to suppress plant immunity. PMID:27073091

  5. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  6. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  7. Production, properties and specificity of a new bacterial L-fucose- and D-arabinose-binding lectin of the plant aggressive pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and its comparison to related plant and microbial lectins.

    PubMed

    Sudakevitz, Dvora; Imberty, Anne; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama

    2002-08-01

    The worldwide distributed plant aggressive pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes lethal wilt in many agricultural crops, produces a potent L-fucose-binding lectin (RSL) exhibiting sugar specificity similar to that of PA-IIL of the human aggressive opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both lectins show L-fucose > L-galactose > D-arabinose > D-mannose specificity, but the affinities of RSL to these sugars are substantially lower. Unlike Ulex europaeus anti-H lectin, but like PA-IIL and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), RSL agglutinates H-positive human erythrocytes regardless of their type, O, A, B, or AB, and animal erythrocytes (papain-treated ones more strongly than untreated ones). It also interacts with H and Lewis chains in the saliva of "secretors" and "nonsecretors." RSL purification is easier than that of PA-IIL since R. solanacearum extracts do not contain a galactophilic PA-IL-like activity. Mass spectrometry and 35 N-terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of the RSL protein (subunit approximately 9.9 kDa, approximately 90 amino acids) in the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. Despite the greater phylogenetic proximity of R. solanacearum to P. aeruginosa, and the presence of a PA-IIL-like gene in its genome, the RSL structure is not related to that of PA-IIL, but to that of the fucose-binding lectin of the mushroom (fungus) Aleuria aurantia, which like the two bacteria is a soil inhabitant. PMID:12153735

  8. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of an Acid Sphingomyelinase-Like Protein from the Bacterial Plant Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that Hydrolyzes ATP to AMP but Not Sphingomyelin to Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Airola, Michael V.; Tumolo, Jessica M.; Snider, Justin; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2014-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) is a human enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to generate the bioactive lipid ceramide and phosphocholine. ASMase deficiency is the underlying cause of the genetic diseases Niemann-Pick Type A and B and has been implicated in the onset and progression of a number of other human diseases including cancer, depression, liver, and cardiovascular disease. ASMase is the founding member of the aSMase protein superfamily, which is a subset of the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. To date, MPPs that share sequence homology with aSMase, termed aSMase-like proteins, have been annotated and presumed to function as aSMases. However, none of these aSMase-like proteins have been biochemically characterized to verify this. Here we identify RsASML, previously annotated as RSp1609: acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase, as the first bacterial aSMase-like protein from the deadly plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum based on sequence homology with the catalytic and C-terminal domains of human aSMase. A biochemical characterization of RsASML does not support a role in sphingomyelin hydrolysis but rather finds RsASML capable of acting as an ATP diphosphohydrolase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP to AMP. In addition, RsASML displays a neutral, not acidic, pH optimum and prefers Ni2+ or Mn2+, not Zn2+, for catalysis. This alters the expectation that all aSMase-like proteins function as acid SMases and expands the substrate possibilities of this protein superfamily to include nucleotides. Overall, we conclude that sequence homology with human aSMase is not sufficient to predict substrate specificity, pH optimum for catalysis, or metal dependence. This may have implications to the biochemically uncharacterized human aSMase paralogs, aSMase-like 3a (aSML3a) and aSML3b, which have been implicated in cancer and kidney disease, respectively, and assumed to function as aSMases. PMID:25144372

  9. Genome Sequence of a Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Ralstonia mannitolilytica

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Hisaaki; Asagoe, Kohsuke; Kida, Kaneyuki; Suzuki, Satowa; Matsui, Mari; Shibayama, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia mannitolilytica, a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen that is becoming more common in cases of nosocomial infections. We report for the first time the whole-genome sequence analysis of R. mannitolilytica strain MRY14-0246, which carries the intrinsic OXA-443/OXA-22-like and OXA-444/OXA-60-like β-lactamase genes and is resistant to meropenem. PMID:25953190

  10. Antibacterial activity of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) from Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Charoenwongsa, Waranya; Williams, Christopher; Crump, Matthew P; Apichaisataienchote, Busaya

    2016-09-01

    Two bioactive cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr), were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 and tested against three economically important plant pathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Ralstonia solanacearum and Clavibacter michiganensis. Both cyclic dipeptides were active against X. axonopodis pv. citri and R. Solanacearum with MIC of 31.25 μg/mL. No activity could be observed against C. michiganensis. PMID:26469746

  11. Derivatization of bioactive carbazoles by the biphenyl-degrading bacterium Ralstonia sp. strain SBUG 290.

    PubMed

    Waldau, Doreen; Mikolasch, Annett; Lalk, Michael; Schauer, Frieder

    2009-05-01

    Different 9H-carbazole derivatives have been investigated within the last decades due to their broad range of pharmacological applications. While the metabolism of 9H-carbazole has previously been reported, nothing was known about the bacterial transformation of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole and 9-methyl-9H-carbazole. Thus, for the first time, the bacterial biotransformation of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole and 9-methyl-9H-carbazole was analyzed using biphenyl-grown cells of Ralstonia sp. strain SBUG 290 expressing biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase. This strain accumulated 3-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9-octahydrocarbazol-4-one and 6'-iminobicyclohexylidene-2',4'-dien-2-one as major products during the incubation with 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole. Carbazol-9-yl-methanol was verified as the primary oxidation product of 9-methyl-9H-carbazole. In addition, 9H-carbazol-1-ol, 9H-carbazol-3-ol, and 3-hydroxy-1,2,3,9-tetrahydrocarbazol-4-one where detected in lower concentrations during the transformation of carbazol-9-yl-methanol and 9-methyl-9H-carbazole. Products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. PMID:19148631

  12. Catalytic and Molecular Properties of the Quinohemoprotein Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha Strain Bo

    PubMed Central

    Zarnt, Grit; Schräder, Thomas; Andreesen, Jan R.

    2001-01-01

    The quinohemoprotein tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol dehydrogenase (THFA-DH) from Ralstonia eutropha strain Bo was investigated for its catalytic properties. The apparent kcat/Km and Ki values for several substrates were determined using ferricyanide as an artificial electron acceptor. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with n-pentanol exhibiting a kcat/Km value of 788 × 104 M−1 s−1. The enzyme showed substrate inhibition kinetics for most of the alcohols and aldehydes investigated. A stereoselective oxidation of chiral alcohols with a varying enantiomeric preference was observed. Initial rate studies using ethanol and acetaldehyde as substrates revealed that a ping-pong mechanism can be assumed for in vitro catalysis of THFA-DH. The gene encoding THFA-DH from R. eutropha strain Bo (tfaA) has been cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence showed an identity of up to 67% to the sequence of various quinoprotein and quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. A comparison of the deduced sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence previously determined by Edman degradation analysis suggested the presence of a signal sequence of 27 residues. The primary structure of TfaA indicated that the protein has a tertiary structure quite similar to those of other quinoprotein dehydrogenases. PMID:11222593

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Ralstonia pickettii Strains SSH4 and CW2, Isolated from Space Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Ott, C. Mark; Leys, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii SSH4 and CW2 were isolated from space equipment. Here, we report their draft genome sequences with the aim of gaining insight into their potential to adapt to these environments. PMID:25189592

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Ralstonia pickettii Strains SSH4 and CW2, Isolated from Space Equipment.

    PubMed

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Ott, C Mark; Leys, Natalie; Van Houdt, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii SSH4 and CW2 were isolated from space equipment. Here, we report their draft genome sequences with the aim of gaining insight into their potential to adapt to these environments. PMID:25189592

  15. Inventorying the molecular potential of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains surviving harsh space-related environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Bossus, Albert; Ott, C. Mark; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Leys, Natalie

    The craving of modern man to explore life beyond earth presents a lot of challenges. The control of microbial contamination of the confined manned spacecraft is an important aspect that has to be taken into account in this journey. Because the human body contains a huge amount of microorganisms, the crew itself is the most important contamination source. But contamination can also originate from residing environmental microorganisms or from materials that are supplied from the Earth. These microbial contaminations can cause problems for the astronauts -well documented to have a decreased immunity -and the infrastructure of the space station. In this study, 14 different Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ralstonia pickettii strains, isolated from such space-related environments, where characterised in detail. These unique strains were isolated from drinking water that returned from ISS (3), from the cooling water system of the American ISS segment (4), from a swab sample of the Mars Odyssey Orbitor surface prior to flight (4), and from an air sample taken in the space assembly facility PHSF during Mars exploration Rover assembly (3). Their resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics was screened. The C. metallidurans isolates were more resistant to Zn2+ and Hg+ but more sensitive to Ni2+ than the R. pickettii strains. The MIC values for Cu2+ ranged from 1,5mM to 12mM, for Co2+ from 1,58mM to 12,63mM and for Cd2+ from 0,25mM to 1mM. For Ni2+ , the MIC values were between 2 and 8mM, except for the strain C. metallidurans IV (0502478) that was able to grow on Ni+2 concentrations up to 48mM. A metal of special interest was Ag+ because it is used to sanitize ISS drinking water. The strains isolated from air and surface samples showed a MIC value ranging from 0,35µM to 4µM. The isolates from the water samples had MIC values from 0,3µM to 2µM, which is lower than (or comparable with) the lowest limit of the silver concentration used in the ISS (1,9µM -4,6µM). However, all

  16. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature–high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature–high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63 (pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40 (pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper’s response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper’s response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  17. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  18. Genome Sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa Type Strain ATCC 49129 and Strain FC1138, a Strong Biofilm Producer Isolated from a Fresh-Cut Produce-Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunfeng; Nagy, Attila; Yan, Xianghe; Haley, Bradd J.; Kim, Seon Woo; Liu, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia insidiosa is an opportunistic pathogen and a strong biofilm producer. Here, we present the complete genome sequences of R. insidiosa FC1138 and ATCC 49129. Both strains have two circular chromosomes of approximately 3.9 and 1.9 Mb and a 50-kb plasmid. ATCC 49129 also possesses a megaplasmid of approximately 318 kb. PMID:27540070

  19. Comparative studies of lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide from a virulent strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum and from three avirulent mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Drigues, P; Demery-Lafforgue, D; Trigalet, A; Dupin, P; Samain, D; Asselineau, J

    1985-01-01

    The composition of the Pseudomonas solanacearum lipolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be similar to that described for the LPS of enterobacteria. The lipid A contained fatty acids and glucosamine in a molar ratio of 5:2. The LPS fraction contained 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, L-glycero-D-mannoheptose, hexoses (glucose, rhamnose, and glucosamine), and a pentose (xylose). The LPSs from the wild-type strain (GMI1000), from the spontaneous rough mutant (GMI2000), and from their respective acridine orange-resistant (Acrr) mutants (GMI1178 and GMI2179) contained the same component sugars in their polysaccharide moieties, but the relative amounts of each sugar varied greatly. Spontaneous mutation to the rough type was characterized by a decrease in the ratio of rhamnose to glucose, whereas a reverse effect was seen for the acridine orange resistance mutation from the parent strains (GMI1000 and GMI2000) to the respective mutant strains (GMI1178 and GMI2179). The exopolysaccharide (EPS) from GMI1000 was found to be composed of two fractions: a heteropolysaccharide (galactosamine, glucose, and rhamnose) excluded from Sephadex G-50 and an additional glucan with a lower molecular weight. Strains GMI1000 and GMI1178 produced comparable amounts of EPS, GMI2179 synthesized less EPS, and GMI2000 produced no detectable EPS. High-pressure liquid chromatography and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed some differences between these EPSs. The glucan fraction seemed to be the major component of the EPS from GMI2179, whereas GMI1000 and GMI1178 EPSs contained both fractions and appeared to differ in the structures of their heteropolysaccharide fractions. Viscosity measurements confirmed differences between whole EPSs produced by the three strains. PMID:3988700

  20. Identification of the mcpA and mcpM Genes, Encoding Methyl-Accepting Proteins Involved in Amino Acid and l-Malate Chemotaxis, and Involvement of McpM-Mediated Chemotaxis in Plant Infection by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Formerly Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotypes I and III)

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Akiko; Oku, Shota; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Tajima, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Sequence analysis has revealed the presence of 22 putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (mcp) genes in the Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 genome. PCR analysis and DNA sequencing showed that the highly motile R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 possesses homologs of all 22 R. pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 mcp genes. We constructed a complete collection of single mcp gene deletion mutants of R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 by unmarked gene deletion. Screening of the mutant collection revealed that R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 mutants of RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were defective in chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids, respectively. RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were designated mcpM and mcpA. While wild-type R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 displayed attraction to 16 amino acids, the mcpA mutant showed no response to 12 of these amino acids and decreased responses to 4 amino acids. We constructed mcpA and mcpM deletion mutants of highly virulent R. pseudosolanacearum strain MAFF106611 to investigate the contribution of chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids to tomato plant infection. Neither single mutant exhibited altered virulence for tomato plants when tested by root dip inoculation assays. In contrast, the mcpM mutant (but not the mcpA mutant) was significantly less infectious than the wild type when tested by a sand soak inoculation assay, which requires bacteria to locate and invade host roots from sand. Thus, McpM-mediated chemotaxis, possibly reflecting chemotaxis to l-malate, facilitates R. pseudosolanacearum motility to tomato roots in sand. PMID:26276117

  1. Aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by Ralstonia sp. strain RK1

    SciTech Connect

    Steinle, P.; Stucki, G.; Stettler, R.; Hanselmann, K.W.

    1998-07-01

    A new aerobic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater pond close to a contaminated site at Amponville (France). It was enriched in a fixed-bed reactor fed with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) as the sole carbon and energy source at pH 7.5 and room temperature. The degradation of 2,6-DCP followed Monod kinetics at low initial concentrations. At concentrations above 300 {micro}M, 2,6-DCP increasingly inhibited its own degradation. The base sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA allowed us to assign the bacterium to the genus Ralstonia (formerly Alcaligenes). The substrate spectrum of the bacterium includes toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, phenol, and all four ortho- and para-substituted mono- and dichlorophenol isomers. Substituents other than chlorine prevented degradation. The capacity to degrade 2,6-DCP was examined in two fixed-bed reactors. The microbial population grew on and completely mineralized 2,6-DCP at 2,6-DCP concentrations up to 740 {micro}M in continuous reactor culture supplied with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen source. Lack of peroxide completely stopped further degradation of 2,6-DCP. Lowering the acid-neutralizing capacity of the medium to 1/10th the original capacity led to a decrease in the pH of the effluent from 7 to 6 and to a significant reduction in the degradation activity. A second fixed-bed reactor successfully removed low chlorophenol concentrations with hydraulic residence times of 8 to 30 min.

  2. Modification of the aggregation behaviour of the environmental Ralstonia eutropha-like strain AE815 is reflected by both surface hydrophobicity and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns.

    PubMed

    Bossier, P; Top, E M; Huys, G; Kersters, K; Boonaert, C J; Rouxhet, P G; Verstraete, W

    2000-02-01

    After inoculation of the plasmid-free non-aggregative Ralstonia eutropha-like strain AE815 in activated sludge, followed by reisolation on a selective medium, a mutant strain A3 was obtained, which was characterized by an autoaggregative behaviour. Strain A3 had also acquired an IncP1 plasmid, pLME1, co-aggregated with yeast cells when co-cultured, and stained better with Congo red than did the AE815 strain. Contact angle measurements showed that the mutant strain was considerably more hydrophobic than the parent strain AE815, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the production of an extracellular substance. A similar hydrophobic mutant (AE176R) could be isolated from the AE815-isogenic R. eutropha-like strain AE176. With the DNA fingerprinting technique repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), no differences between these four strains, AE815, A3, AE176 and AE176R, could be revealed. However, using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting technique with three different primer combinations, small but clear reproducible differences between the banding patterns of the autoaggregative mutants and their non-autoaggregative parent strains were observed for each primer set. These studies demonstrate that, upon introduction of a strain in an activated sludge microbial community, minor genetic changes readily occur, which can nevertheless have major consequences for the phenotype of the strain and its aggregation behaviour. PMID:11243262

  3. Diazinon degradation by a novel strain Ralstonia sp. DI-3 and X-ray crystal structure determination of the metabolite of diazinon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangli; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Diazinon is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide often detected in the environment. A highly effective diazinon-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain DI-3 was isolated from agricultural soil. Strain DI-3 can utilize dimethoate as its sole carbon source for growth and degrade an initial concentration of 100 mg L-1 diazinon to non-detectable levels within 60 h in liquid culture. A small amount of second carbon source as co-substrate could slightly enhance the biodegradation of diazinon. In addition, a less toxic metabolic intermediate formed during the degradation of diazinon mediated by strain DI-3 was purified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and identified based on single-crystal Xray diffraction analysis, allowing a degradation pathway for diazinon by pure culture to be proposed. Finally, this is the first providing authentic evidence to describe the metabolite. PMID:27581928

  4. Purification and characterization of salicylate 5-hydroxylase, a three-component monooxygenase from Ralstonia sp. strain U2.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ti; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylate is an important intermediate in the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and salicylate hydroxylases play essential roles in linking the peripheral and ring-cleavage catabolic pathways. Unlike the well-characterized salicylate 1-hydroxylases, the rarely occurred salicylate 5-hydroxylase (S5H) has not been characterized in detail. In this study, the three-component Fe-S protein complex (NagAaGHAb) of S5H from Ralstonia sp. strain U2 was purified, and its biochemical and catalytic properties were characterized. The oxygenase component NagGH exhibited an α₃β₃ heterohexameric structure and contained one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron per α subunit. NagAa is the ferredoxin-NADP⁺ reductase component containing flavin and plant type [2Fe-2S] cluster. The ferredoxin component NagAb was characterized as a [2Fe-2S] dimer which remains remarkably stable in denaturing gel electrophoresis after being heated at 100 °C for 1 h. Purified NagAa and NagAb, NagGH catalyzed the hydroxylation of salicylate to gentisate with a specific activity of 107.12 ± 14.38 U/g and showed an apparent K(m) for salicylate of 102.79 ± 27.20 μM and a similar K(m) value for both NADH and NADPH (59.76 ± 7.81 μM versus 56.41 ± 12.76 μM). The hydroxylase exhibited different affinities for two hydroxysalicylates (2,4-dihydroxybenzoate K(m) of 93.54 ± 18.50 μM versus 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate K(m) of 939.80 ± 199.46 μM). Interestingly, this S5H also showed catalytic activity to the pollutant 2-nitrophenol and exhibited steady-state kinetic data of the same order of magnitude as those for salicylate. This study will allow further comparative studies of structure-function relationships of the ring hydroxylating mono- and di-oxygenase systems. PMID:23624660

  5. NAD(P)-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Induced during Growth of Ralstonia eutropha Strain Bo on Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Schräder, Thomas; Zarnt, Grit; Andreesen, Jan R.

    2001-01-01

    Different aldehyde dehydrogenases (AlDHs) were formed during growth of Ralstonia eutropha Bo on tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). One of these enzymes, AlDH 4, was purified and characterized as a homodimer containing no prosthetic groups, showing a strong substrate inhibition, and having an N-terminal sequence similar to those of various NAD(P)-dependent AlDHs. The conversion rate of THFA by the quinohemoprotein THFA dehydrogenase was increased by AlDH 4. PMID:11717302

  6. Novel Gene Clusters and Metabolic Pathway Involved in 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Degradation by Ralstonia sp. Strain T6

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan; Huang, Yan; Hou, Ying; Li, Xiangmin; Cao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a widespread pollutant. Some bacteria and fungi have been reported to degrade TCP, but the gene clusters responsible for TCP biodegradation have not been characterized. In this study, a fragment of the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenase gene tcpA was amplified from the genomic DNA of Ralstonia sp. strain T6 with degenerate primers. The tcpA disruption mutant strain T6-ΔtcpA could not degrade TCP but could degrade the green intermediate metabolite 3,6-dihydroxypyridine-2,5-dione (DHPD), which was generated during TCP biodegradation by strain T6. The flanking sequences of tcpA were obtained by self-formed adaptor PCR. tcpRXA genes constitute a gene cluster. TcpR and TcpX are closely related to the LysR family transcriptional regulator and flavin reductase, respectively. T6-ΔtcpA-com, the complementation strain for the mutant strain T6-ΔtcpA, recovered the ability to degrade TCP, and the strain Escherichia coli DH10B-tcpRXA, which expressed the tcpRXA gene cluster, had the ability to transform TCP to DHPD, indicating that tcpA is a key gene in the initial step of TCP degradation and that TcpA dechlorinates TCP to DHPD. A library of DHPD degradation-deficient mutants of strain T6 was obtained by random transposon mutagenesis. The fragments flanking the Mariner transposon were amplified and sequenced, and the dhpRIJK gene cluster was cloned. DhpJ could transform DHPD to yield an intermediate product, 5-amino-2,4,5-trioxopentanoic acid (ATOPA), which was further degraded by DhpI. DhpR and DhpK are closely related to the AraC family transcriptional regulator and the MFS family transporter, respectively. PMID:24056464

  7. Ralstonia pickettii traced in blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Névine; Gonullu, Nevriye; Casetta, Anne; Guibert, Michèle; Ingrand, Didier; Lebrun, Léa

    2002-07-01

    Over a 9-month period, 14 strains of Ralstonia pickettii were isolated from various biological samples inoculated in a blood culture medium. Molecular epidemiological investigation confirmed the relatedness of the strains. The source of the contamination proved to be the blood culture bottle caps. PMID:12089303

  8. Formation of Polyphosphate by Polyphosphate Kinases and Its Relationship to Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Accumulation in Ralstonia eutropha Strain H16

    PubMed Central

    Tumlirsch, Tony; Sznajder, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A protein (PhaX) that interacted with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase PhaZa1 and with PHB granule-associated phasin protein PhaP2 was identified by two-hybrid analysis. Deletion of phaX resulted in an increase in the level of polyphosphate (polyP) granule formation and in impairment of PHB utilization in nutrient broth-gluconate cultures. A procedure for enrichment of polyP granules from cell extracts was developed. Twenty-seven proteins that were absent in other cell fractions were identified in the polyP granule fraction by proteome analysis. One protein (A2437) harbored motifs characteristic of type 1 polyphosphate kinases (PPK1s), and two proteins (A1212, A1271) had PPK2 motifs. In vivo colocalization with polyP granules was confirmed by expression of C- and N-terminal fusions of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) with the three polyphosphate kinases (PPKs). Screening of the genome DNA sequence for additional proteins with PPK motifs revealed one protein with PPK1 motifs and three proteins with PPK2 motifs. Construction and subsequent expression of C- and N-terminal fusions of the four new PPK candidates with eYFP showed that only A1979 (PPK2 motif) colocalized with polyP granules. The other three proteins formed fluorescent foci near the cell pole (apart from polyP) (A0997, B1019) or were soluble (A0226). Expression of the Ralstonia eutropha ppk (ppkReu) genes in an Escherichia coli Δppk background and construction of a set of single and multiple chromosomal deletions revealed that both A2437 (PPK1a) and A1212 (PPK2c) contributed to polyP granule formation. Mutants with deletion of both genes were unable to produce polyP granules. The formation and utilization of PHB and polyP granules were investigated in different chromosomal backgrounds. PMID:26407880

  9. Use of tRNA consensus primers to indicate subgroups of Pseudomonas solanacearum by polymerase chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Seal, S E; Jackson, L A; Daniels, M J

    1992-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from 112 Pseudomonas solanacearum strains with the tRNA consensus primers T3A and T5A divided the species into three fingerprint groups. These groups correspond well with previous divisions made by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. This polymerase chain reaction test is a facile method for rapidly classifying P. solanacearum strains. Images PMID:1482194

  10. Abundance of Dioxygenase Genes Similar to Ralstonia sp. Strain U2 nagAc Is Correlated with Naphthalene Concentrations in Coal Tar-Contaminated Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Dionisi, Hebe M.; Chewning, Christopher S.; Morgan, Katherine H.; Menn, Fu-Min; Easter, James P.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-μl reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 ± 0.7) × 103 to (2.9 ± 0.3) × 105 copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per μg of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 ± 0.6) × 105 to (5.4 ± 0.4) × 107 copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA (r = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment (r = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. PMID:15240274

  11. Physiological conditions conducive to high cell density and high cyanophycin content in Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 possessing a KDPG aldolase gene-dependent addiction system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaichien; Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    The recombinant strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16-PHB(-)4-∆eda (pBBR1MCS-2::cphA (6308)/eda (H16)) presenting a 2-keto-3-desoxy-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase (eda) gene-dependent catabolic addiction system for plasmid maintenance when using gluconate or fructose as sole carbon source was used in this study. The effects of the initial pH, the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, the inorganic components of medium, the oxygen supply, and the different carbon and nitrogen sources on the cell dry matter (CDM) and the cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) content of the cells were studied in a mineral salts medium (MSM) without any additional amino acids or CGP precursor substrates. The experiments were designed to systematically find out the optimal conditions for growth of cells to high densities and for high CGP contents of the cells. Maximum contents of water-insoluble CGP and water-soluble CGP, contributing to 47.5% and 5.8% (w/w) of CDM, respectively, were obtained at the 30-L scale cultivation when cells were cultivated in MSM medium containing sufficient supplements of fructose, NH(3), K(2)SO(4), MgSO(4)[Symbol: see text]7H(2)O, Fe(Ш)NH(4)-citrate, CaCl(2)[Symbol: see text]2H(2)O, and trace elements (SL6). The molecular masses of water-insoluble and water-soluble CGP ranged from 25 to 31 kDa and from 15 to 21 kDa, respectively. High cell densities of up to 82.8 g CDM/L containing up to 37.8% (w/w) water-insoluble CGP at the 30-L scale cultivation were also obtained. This is by far the best combination of high cell density and high cellular CGP contents ever reported, and it showed that efficient production of CGP at the industrial scale in white biotechnology could be achieved. PMID:22080348

  12. De Novo Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" from a Single Potato Psyllid in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Deng, X; Liang, G; Wallis, C; Trumble, J T; Prager, S; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" strain RSTM from a potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) in California is reported here. The RSTM strain has a genome size of 1,286,787 bp, a G+C content of 35.1%, 1,211 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 43 RNA genes. PMID:26679599

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin. PMID:21878094

  14. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  15. Characterization and DNA-Binding Specificities of Ralstonia TAL-Like Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. PMID:23300258

  16. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixin; Atef, Ahmed; Piatek, Agnieszka; Ali, Zahir; Piatek, Marek; Aouida, Mustapha; Sharakuu, Altanbadralt; Mahjoub, Ali; Wang, Guangchao; Khan, Suhail; Fedoroff, Nina V; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. PMID:23300258

  17. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  18. Enzymatic modification of chitosan by cinnamic acids: Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yu; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify chitosan polymers that have antibacterial activity against the bacterial wilt pathogen. The chitosan polymers were enzymatically synthesized using chitosan and five cinnamic acids (CADs): caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), cinnamic acid (CIA), p-coumaric acid (COA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA), using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The reaction was performed in a phosphate buffered solution under heterogenous reaction conditions. The chitosan derivatives (CTS-g-CADs) were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM. FT-IR demonstrated that the reaction products bound covalently to the free amino groups or hydroxyl groups of chitosan via band of amide I or ester band. XRD showed a reduced packing density for grafted chitosan comparing to original chitosan. TGA demonstrated that CTS-g-CADs have a higher thermostability than chitosan. Additionally, chitosan and its derivatives showed similar antibacterial activity. However, the IC50 value of the chitosan-caffeic acid derivative (CTS-g-CA) against the mulberry bacterial wilt pathogen RS-5 was 0.23mg/mL, which was two-fifths of the IC50 value of chitosan. Therefore, the enzymatically synthesized chitosan polymers can be used to control plant diseases in biotechnological domains. PMID:26993531

  19. Arsenite Oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22

    PubMed Central

    Lieutaud, Aurélie; van Lis, Robert; Duval, Simon; Capowiez, Line; Muller, Daniel; Lebrun, Régine; Lignon, Sabrina; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lett, Marie-Claire; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the aro arsenite oxidation system in the novel strain Ralstonia sp. 22, a β-proteobacterium isolated from soil samples of the Salsigne mine in southern France. The inducible aro system consists of a heterodimeric membrane-associated enzyme reacting with a dedicated soluble cytochrome c554. Our biochemical results suggest that the weak association of the enzyme to the membrane probably arises from a still unknown interaction partner. Analysis of the phylogeny of the aro gene cluster revealed that it results from a lateral gene transfer from a species closely related to Achromobacter sp. SY8. This constitutes the first clear cut case of such a transfer in the Aro phylogeny. The biochemical study of the enzyme demonstrates that it can accommodate in vitro various cytochromes, two of which, c552 and c554, are from the parent species. Cytochrome c552 belongs to the sox and not the aro system. Kinetic studies furthermore established that sulfite and sulfide, substrates of the sox system, are both inhibitors of Aro activity. These results reinforce the idea that sulfur and arsenic metabolism are linked. PMID:20421652

  20. Novel Tn4371-ICE like element in Ralstonia pickettii and Genome mining for comparative elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are important factors in the plasticity of microbial genomes. An element related to the ICE Tn4371 was discovered during a bioinformatic search of the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome. This element was analysed and further searches carried out for additional elements. A PCR method was designed to detect and characterise new elements of this type based on this scaffold and a culture collection of fifty-eight Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa strains were analysed for the presence of the element. Results Comparative sequence analysis of bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of a number of uncharacterised Tn4371-like ICEs in the genomes of several β and γ- Proteobacteria. These elements vary in size, GC content, putative function and have a mosaic-like structure of plasmid- and phage-like sequences which is typical of Tn4371-like ICEs. These elements were found after a through search of the GenBank database. The elements, which are found in Ralstonia, Delftia, Acidovorax, Bordetella, Comamonas, Acidovorax, Congregibacter, Shewanella, Pseudomonas Stenotrophomonas, Thioalkalivibrio sp. HL-EbGR7, Polaromonas, Burkholderia and Diaphorobacter sp. share a common scaffold. A PCR method was designed (based on the Tn4371- like element detected in the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome) to detect and characterise new elements of this type. Conclusion All elements found in this study possess a common scaffold of core genes but contain different accessory genes. A new uniform nomenclature is suggested for ICEs of the Tn4371 family. Two novel Tn4371-like ICE were discovered and characterised, using the novel PCR method described in two different isolates of Ralstonia pickettii from laboratory purified water. PMID:19941653

  1. Classification of Alcaligenes faecalis-like isolates from the environment and human clinical samples as Ralstonia gilardii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Coenye, T; Falsen, E; Vancanneyt, M; Hoste, B; Govan, J R; Kersters, K; Vandamme, P

    1999-04-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) fingerprinting and an extensive biochemical characterization was performed on 10 strains provisionally identified as Alcaligenes faecalis-like bacteria. The six environmental and four human isolates belonged to the genus Ralstonia and were assigned to a new species for which the name Ralstonia gilardii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 5886T. PMID:10319461

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Ralstonia sp. MD27, a Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate)-Degrading Bacterium, Isolated from Compost

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Morgan; McCully, Lucy M.; Silby, Mark W.; Charles-Ogan, Tamunonengiyeofori I.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia sp. strain MD27, a novel biopolymer-degrading betaproteobacterium, was isolated from compost samples. This organism has been shown to utilize the biopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] as a carbon source for growth. We report the draft genome sequence of MD27 with an estimated total sequence length of 5.9 Mb. PMID:26450738

  3. Ralstonia insidiosa serves as bridges in biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in fresh produce processing facilities might play a role in foodborne outbreaks by providing protective microniches for pathogenic bacteria. Our previous study showed that a strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from a fresh produce processing plant could enhan...

  4. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains.

    PubMed

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-10

    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens. PMID:27067079

  5. Genomic Plasticity in Ralstonia eutropha and Ralstonia pickettii: Evidence for Rapid Genomic Change and Adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Terence L. MArsh

    2007-06-27

    The proposed foci of our investigations were on Ralstonia eutropha and Rasltonia pickettii. We have 18 derived lineages of the former as well as their progenitor and eleven isolates of the latter. Our goal was to measure the level of plasticity in these strains and attempt to derive a mechanistic understanding of how genomic plasticity formed. Extensive attempts to reproducibly induce conformational changes in the genome of R. eutropha were unsuccessful. We thought that we had a reasonable lead on this inasmuch as we had shown that the ancestral strain along with many of the derivative lineages exhibited “temperature induced mutation and mortality akin to R. metallodurans. However we were unable to get subtractive hybridization working to the degree that it revealed differences between the lineages. During this time the R. pickettii analysis was proving quite fruitful and so we concentrated our efforts on our analyses of R. pickettii. These strains were isolated from a copper-contaminated lake sediment and were resistant to copper at 800 µg/ml (CuSO4). Our results in the investigation of R. pickettii permitted a view into the adaptation of a beta-proteobacteria to an extreme environment. Our worked revealed that within the same ecosystem two genomovars with structurally different genomes and genome sizes were present and apparently filling similar if not identical niches. The genomovars were detected with REP & BOX-PCR, pulse field gel electrophoresis, and DNA:DNA hybridizations. Moreover there were different metal resistance patterns associated with the different genomovars, one showing resistance to Zn and Cd while the other had resistance to Ni. Five of the isolates had a high-copy number extrachromosomal element that was identified as the replicative form of a filamentous phage. Mature virions were isolated from culture broth using PEG precipitation and CsCl density centrifugation. The DNA associated with the filamentous particles was single stranded and had

  6. Isolation of a Pseudomonas solanacearum-specific DNA probe by subtraction hybridization and construction of species-specific oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Seal, S E; Jackson, L A; Daniels, M J

    1992-01-01

    A subtraction hybridization technique was employed to make a library enriched for Pseudomonas solanacearum-specific sequences. One cloned fragment, PS2096, hybridized under stringent conditions to DNA of 82 P. solanacearum strains representing all subgroups of the species. Other plant-associated bacteria, including closely related species such as Pseudomonas capacia, Pseudomonas picketti, or Pseudomonas syzygii, did not hybridize to PS2096. A minimum number of between 4 x 10(5) and 4 x 10(6) P. solanacearum cells could routinely be detected with PS2096 labelled either with [32P]dCTP or with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. To improve the sensitivity of detection, PS2096 was sequenced to allow the construction of specific oligonucleotide primers to be used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. After 50 cycles of amplification, 5 to 116 cells, depending on the strain, could reproducibly be detected by visualization of a 148-bp PCR product on an agarose gel. A preliminary field trial in Burundi with the probe and PCR primers has confirmed that they are sensitive tools for specifically detecting low-level infections of P. solanacearum in potato tubers. Images PMID:1482193

  7. Incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dual-species biofilms with Ralstonia insidiosa, a primary colonizer for the development of heterogeneous biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. One strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from produce processing environments, previously displayed a synergistic interaction with EcO157 in dual-spec...

  8. Cloning and Expression of a Ralstonia eutropha HF39 Gene Mediating Indigo Formation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Drewlo, Sascha; Brämer, Christian O.; Madkour, Mohamed; Mayer, Frank; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    On complex medium Escherichia coli strains carrying hybrid plasmid pBEC/EE:11.0, pSKBEC/BE:9.0, pSKBEC/PP:3.3, or pSKBEC/PP:2.4 harboring genomic DNA of Ralstonia eutropha HF39 produced a blue pigment characterized as indigo by several chemical and spectroscopic methods. A 1,251-bp open reading frame (bec) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of bec showed only weak similarities to short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases, and the gene product catalyzed formation of indoxyl, a reactive preliminary stage for production of indigo. PMID:11282658

  9. Incidence, Relevance and Response for Ralstonia Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Wesley M.; Gaggar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cases of Ralstonia colonization/infection occasionally reported by hospitals has generated increased interest in an organism previously little known to most clinicians. Our goal was to determine the incidence of respiratory colonizations and infections involving Ralstonia and the association of mechanical ventilation (limited to reports on respiratory-related occurrences in the USA). METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of published clinical reports of Ralstonia to determine the potential risks for respiratory colonization and infection in the USA and if being on mechanical ventilation (MV) had an influence on colonization and conversion to infection (symptomatic). RESULTS The odds of developing colonization with Ralstonia were eight times higher and the likelihood of developing infection with Ralstonia was twelve times higher in those mechanically ventilated compared to those not mechanically ventilated. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that individuals who are currently on mechanical ventilation and are Ralstonia culture-positive have an increased risk for colonization and may have increased propensity to the development of infection (two decision trees for approaching diagnosis and therapy included). PMID:20499534

  10. Effects of Potato-Psyllid-Vectored 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Infection on Potato Leaf and Stem Physiology.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Rashed, A; Chen, J; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' is associated with zebra chip disease (ZC), a threat to potato production in North America and New Zealand. It is vectored by potato psyllids. Previous studies observed that 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection causes potato tubers to undergo ZC-symptom-associated shifts in physiology, such as increased levels of amino acids, sugars, and phenolics. However, little is known about how 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infections caused by psyllid vector feeding may affect metabolism in potato foliage and stems. This study compared metabolism in potato plants fed upon by 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-positive psyllids with potato plants not exposed to psyllids. Foliar levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, fructose, glucose, sucrose, a ferulic acid derivative, and quinic acid were lower in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. However, foliar levels of proline, serine, four phenolic compounds, and most terpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. Upper stem levels of asparagine and aspartic acid, upper and lower stem levels of ellagitannins and most monoterpenoids, and lower stem level of sesquiterpenoids were greater in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-inoculated than noninfected plants. These results suggest that many defense-related terpenoid compounds might increase in plants which had psyllids inoculate 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. This could impact progression and spread of ZC. PMID:25469656

  11. Similarities and differences in physiological responses to 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infection among different potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Rashed, A; Wallingford, A K; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

    2014-02-01

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by the fastidious bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', is a threat to potato growers worldwide. However, little is known about biochemical shifts in different potato genotypes in response to 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection. To address this, 'Red La Soda', 'Russet Norkotah', and 'FL 1867' potato were infected with 'Ca. L. solanacearum' 4, 3, 2, and 1 weeks before harvest to observe variability in cultivar responses to 'Ca. L. solanacearum' infection. ZC symptoms, 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titers, and tuber biochemistry were assessed. Red La Soda tubers exhibited greater symptoms when infected for 4 weeks than Russet Norkotah or FL 1867 tubers. 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titers did not vary among cultivars. Tuber levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics varied among cultivars but no consistent trends were observed. Individual amino acids and phenolics were greater in FL 1867 than Red La Soda, whereas others were greater in Red La Soda or Russet Norkotah than FL 1867. Most amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics were positively associated with infection duration and symptoms regardless of cultivar. Associations between most of the evaluated compounds and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer were positive in Red La Soda. However, no associations between 'Ca. L. solanacearum' quantity and compounds were observed in FL 1867 and Russet Norkotah. PMID:23941779

  12. Reproduction of Globodera tabacum solanacearum in Seven Flue-Cured Tobacco-Producing Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, S. L.; JOHNSON, C. S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Reed, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco cyst nematode (Globodera tabacum solanacearum) continues to pose a serious threat to flue-cured tobacco production in Virginia and nearby states. Soils were sampled from five uninfested and two infested flue-cured tobacco-producing locations. Twenty-three edaphic factors were characterized to determine if any were correlated with G. t. solanacearum reproduction. Comparisons were also made between pasteurized and natural soils to determine if biological suppression of G. t. solanacearum reproduction might be occurring in currently uninfested areas. Differences in G. t. solanacearum reproduction were noted among the soils, but results were inconsistent across the three trials conducted in this study. Only soil pH correlated significantly with nematode reproduction, and then only in one of three trials. Globodera tabacum solanacearum reproduced with similar efficiency in natural and pasteurized soils. PMID:19270999

  13. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia in hemodialysis patients: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Darwin; Limongi, Gino; Bertullo, Mauricio; Cancela, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a low-virulence gram-negative bacillus that may be associated with infections related to health care and may cause bacteremia. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia is uncommon but is related to the contamination of medical products, mainly in immunodepressed patients. We present two cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis with Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia linked to contamination of the dialysis water. Similar cases have been published with links to intravenous fluid administration, medication ampules, and the use of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes, among other factors. The detection of Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia should provoke suspicion and a search for contaminated medical products, fluids, and/or medications. PMID:27410414

  14. First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum' Naturally Infecting Tomatoes in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants exhibiting stunting, yellow mosaic, short, chlorotic leaves, aborted flowers and reduced-size fruits, symptoms similar to those exhibited by plants infected by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), were observed in greenhouses in Jocotitlan, Mexico. In addi...

  15. Sequence analysis of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso-C) isolated from carrot psyllids collected in Scandinavia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fastidious prokaryote Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), transmitted by the tomato potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), is associated with the Zebra Chip disease of potato. Plants infected with Liberibacter may experience significant yield losses and these plants also serve as pote...

  16. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess. PMID:25648998

  17. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess. PMID:25648998

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs. PMID:26428087

  19. EF-Tu from the enacyloxin producing Frateuria W-315 strain: Structure/activity relationship and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Malosse, Christian; Hountondji, Codjo

    2016-08-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated that the poly(U)-dependent poly(Phe) synthesis activity of elongator factor Tu (EF-Tu) from the enacyloxin producing strain Frateuria sp. W-315 is inhibited by the antibiotic similarly to that of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The inhibitory effect of enacyloxin observed in a purified system was the same as that obtained with an S30 extract from E. coli or Frateuria sp. W-315, respectively, suggesting that antibiotic resistance of enacyloxin producing Frateuria sp. W-315 is not due neither to EF-Tu nor to other components of the translation machinery but to a still unknown mechanism. The EF-Tu gene, as PCR amplified from Frateuria W-315 genomic DNA and sequenced represented an ORF of 1191 nucleotides corresponding to 396 amino acids. This protein is larger than the product of tufA from E. coli by only two amino acid residues. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from E. coli with those of Frateuria and Ralstonia solanacearum indicates on average 80% identical amino acid residues and 9.7% conservative replacements between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli, on one hand, and 97% identity and 1.7% conservative replacement between EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu Ralstonia solanacearum, on the other hand. These strong primary structure similarities between EF-Tu from different origins are consistent with the fact that this factor is essential for the translation process in all kingdoms of life. Comparison of the effects of antibiotics on EF-Tu Frateuria and EF-Tu E. coli revealed that enacyloxin, kirromycin and pulvomycin exert a stronger stimulation of the GDP dissociation rate on EF-Tu Frateuria, while the effects of the antibiotics on the GDP association rate were comparable for the two EF-Tu species. Different mutants of EF-Tu E. coli were constructed with the help of site directed mutagenesis by changing one or several residues of EF-Tu E. coli by the corresponding residues of EF-Tu Frateuria. The single A45K substitution did

  20. Experimental evolution and gene knockout studies reveal AcrA-mediated isobutanol tolerance in Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Amanda C; Gai, Claudia S; Lu, Jingnan; Sinskey, Anthony J; Brigham, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Isobutanol (IBT) has attracted much attention from researchers as a next generation drop-in biofuel. Ralstonia eutropha is a gram-negative bacterium which naturally produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and has been reported to produce IBT after metabolic engineering. Similar to other microbes, R. eutropha experiences toxicity from branched-chain alcohols and is unable to grow in the presence of IBT concentrations higher than 0.5% (v v(-1)). Such low tolerance greatly limits the ability of R. eutropha to grow and produce IBT. In order to study toxicity to the cells, IBT-tolerant strains were developed by experimental evolution, revealing that two genes, previously described as being related to IBT tolerance in Escherichia coli (acrA and acrA6), also presented mutations in R. eutropha evolved strains. The effect on the physiology of the cells of in-frame deletions of each of these genes was assessed in wild type and engineered IBT-producing strains in an attempt to reproduce a tolerant phenotype. The mutant strains' ability to tolerate, consume, and produce IBT were also analyzed. Although deletions of acrA6 and acrA did not significantly improve R. eutropha growth in the presence of IBT, these deletions improved cell survival in the presence of high concentrations of IBT in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, an in-frame acrA deletion in an engineered IBT-producing R. eutropha enhanced the strain's ability to produce IBT, which could potentially be associated with enhanced survival at high IBT concentrations. PMID:26811221

  1. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Whole-cell kinetics of trichloroethylene degradation by phenol hydroxylase in a Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoubi, P.J.; Harker, A.R.

    1998-11-01

    The rate, progress, and limits of trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by Ralstonia eutropha AEK301/pYK3021 whole cells were examined in the absence of aromatic induction. At TCE concentrations up to 800 {micro}M, degradation rates were sustained until TCE was no longer detectable. The K{sub s} and V{sub max} for TCE degradation by AEK301/pYK3021 whole cells were determined to be 630 {micro}M and 22.6 nmol/min/mg of total protein, respectively. The sustained linear rates of TCE degradation by AEK301/pYK3021 up to a concentration of 800 {micro}M TCE suggest that solvent effects are limited during the degradation of TCE and that this construct is little affected by the formation of toxic intermediates at the TCE levels and assay duration tested. TCE degradation by this strain is subject to carbon catabolite repression.

  3. Production of Poly (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) by Ralstonia eutropha in a Biocalorimeter and its Thermokinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Anusha, Subramanian Mohanakrishnan; Leelaram, Santharam; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan

    2016-07-01

    Bioplastic production from microbial sources is an emerging area which provides opportunities even to convert the wastes into bioplastics. Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid), commonly called as PHB, is a bioplastic, which is stored as intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions in microorganisms. The objectives of this study are to calorimetrically monitor the PHB production and evaluate the thermokinetic data in a bioreaction calorimeter (BioRC1e). Thus, a well-known PHB-producing bacteria Ralstonia eutropha was selected for batch process in a bioreaction calorimeter. The metabolic heat generated was found to be correlated with the biomass, substrate consumption, oxygen uptake rate (OUR), carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and PHB production. The OUR pattern explained the oxidative metabolism of the strain R. eutropha. The heat yields due to biomass and glucose consumption during PHB production were found to be 12.56 and 13.56 kJ/g, respectively. The oxycalorific value obtained for the PHB production was 443.80 kJ/mol of O2. The concentration of PHB obtained in BioRC1e was 4.33 g/L with a production rate of 0.09 g/L/h. The chemical structure of the extracted PHB by R. eutropha was confirmed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. PMID:27003281

  4. A novel alkaline lipase from Ralstonia with potential application in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hah-Young; Simkhada, Jaya Ram; Cho, Seung Sik; Park, Don Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Seong, Chi Nam; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of isolating a biocatalyst able to catalyze biodiesel production from microbial source, Ralstonia sp. CS274 was isolated and a lipase from the strain (RL74) was purified. Molecular weight of RL74 was estimated to be 28,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. The activity was highest at 50-55°C and pH 8.0-9.5 and was stable at pH 7.0-12.0 and up to 45°C. It was resistant to oxidizing and reducing agents and the activity was enhanced by detergents. RL74 was 1,3 specific and K(m) and V(max) for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 2.73 ± 0.6mM and 101.4 ± 1.9 mM/min mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequence showed partial homology with that of Penicillium lipases. RL74 produced biodiesel more efficiently in palm oil than in soybean oil; and the production was highest at pH 8.0, at 5% methanol and at 20% water content. PMID:21388805

  5. Characterization of the survival ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ralstonia pickettii from space-related environments.

    PubMed

    Mijnendonckx, K; Provoost, A; Ott, C M; Venkateswaran, K; Mahillon, J; Leys, N; Van Houdt, R

    2013-02-01

    Four Cupriavidus metallidurans and eight Ralstonia pickettii isolates from the space industry and the International Space Station (ISS) were characterized in detail. Nine of the 12 isolates were able to form a biofilm on plastics and all were resistant to several antibiotics. R. pickettii isolates from the surface of the Mars Orbiter prior to flight were 2.5 times more resistant to UV-C(254nm) radiation compared to the R. pickettii type strain. All isolates showed moderate to high tolerance against at least seven different metal ions. They were tolerant to medium to high silver concentrations (0.5-4 μM), which are higher than the ionic silver disinfectant concentrations measured regularly in the drinking water aboard the ISS. Furthermore, all isolates survived a 23-month exposure to 2 μM AgNO(3) in drinking water. These resistance properties are putatively encoded by their endogenous megaplasmids. This study demonstrated that extreme resistance is not required to withstand the disinfection and sterilization procedures implemented in the ISS and space industry. All isolates acquired moderate to high tolerance against several stressors and can grow in oligotrophic conditions, enabling them to persist in these environments. PMID:23212653

  6. Phasin proteins activate Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase but not Ralstonia eutropha PHA synthase.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa (Delftia acidovorans) showed reduced activity with PhaPs. The PhaP-activated PhaCAc showed a slight shift of substrate preference toward 3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA (C6). PhaPAc also activated PhaCAc when it was added during polymerization (polymer-elongating PhaCAc), while this effect was not observed for PhaCRe. In an in vivo assay using Escherichia coli TOP10 as the host strain, the effect of PhaPAc expression on PHA synthesis by PhaCAc or PhaCRe was examined. As PhaPAc expression increased, PHA production was increased by up to 2.3-fold in the PhaCAc-expressing strain, whereas it was slightly increased in the PhaCRe-expressing strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PhaPs function as activators for PhaCAc both in vitro and in vivo but do not activate PhaCRe. This activating effect may be attributed to the new role of PhaPs in the polymerization reaction by PhaCAc. PMID:24584238

  7. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J; Gai, Claudia S; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2012-10-01

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. PMID:22864971

  8. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Gai, CS; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-08-04

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Shin, Jihoon; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    A sucrose utilization pathway was established in Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB11599 and R. eutropha 437-540 by introducing the Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E sacC gene that encodes β-fructofuranosidase. These engineered strains were examined for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)], respectively, from sucrose as a carbon source. It was found that β-fructofuranosidase excreted into the culture medium could hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose, which were efficiently used as carbon sources by recombinant R. eutropha strains. When R. eutropha NCIMB11599 expressing the sacC gene was cultured in nitrogen-free chemically defined medium containing 20 g/L of sucrose, a high P(3HB) content of 73.2 wt% could be obtained. In addition, R. eutropha 437-540 expressing the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene and the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene accumulated P(3HB-co-21.5 mol% LA) to a polymer content of 19.5 wt% from sucrose by the expression of the sacC gene and the Escherichia coli ldhA gene. The molecular weights of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-21.5 mol%LA) synthesized in R. eutropha using sucrose as a carbon source were 3.52 × 10(5) (Mn ) and 2.19 × 10(4) (Mn ), respectively. The engineered R. eutropha strains reported here will be useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sucrose, one of the most abundant and relatively inexpensive carbon sources. PMID:25258020

  10. Mobilization of selenite by Ralstonia metallidurans CH34.

    PubMed

    Roux, M; Sarret, G; Pignot-Paintrand, I; Fontecave, M; Coves, J

    2001-02-01

    Ralstonia metallidurans CH34 (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34) is a soil bacterium characteristic of metal-contaminated biotopes, as it is able to grow in the presence of a variety of heavy metals. R. metallidurans CH34 is reported now to resist up to 6 mM selenite and to reduce selenite to elemental red selenium as shown by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis. Growth kinetics analysis suggests an adaptation of the cells to the selenite stress during the lag-phase period. Depending on the culture conditions, the medium can be completely depleted of selenite. Selenium accumulates essentially in the cytoplasm as judged from electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Elemental selenium, highly insoluble, represents a nontoxic storage form for the bacterium. The ability of R. metallidurans CH34 to reduce large amounts of selenite may be of interest for bioremediation processes targeting selenite-polluted sites. PMID:11157242

  11. Comparison of Candiatus Liberibacter solanacearum genomic sequences isolated from carrot psyllids in Scandinavia and potato psyllids from Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fastidious prokaryote Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), transmitted by the tomato potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), is associated with the Zebra Chip disease of potato. Plants infected with Liberibacter may experience significant yield losses and these plants also serve as poten...

  12. Zebra chip disease and potato biochemistry: tuber physiological changes in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infection over time.

    PubMed

    Rashed, A; Wallis, C M; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

    2013-05-01

    Zebra chip disease, putatively caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about the etiology of this disease and changes that occur within host tubers that result in its symptoms. Previous studies found that increased levels of phenolics, amino acids, defense proteins, and carbohydrates in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-infected tubers are associated with symptoms of zebra chip. This study was conducted to quantify variations in levels of these biochemical components in relation to the time of infestation, symptom severity, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer. Levels of phenolics, peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases, and reducing sugars (glucose and, to some extent, fructose) changed during infection, with higher levels occurring in tubers infected at least 5 weeks before harvest than in those infected only a week before harvest and those of controls. Compared with the apical tuber ends, greater levels of phenolics, peroxidases, and sucrose occurred at the basal (stolon attachment) end of infected tubers. With the exception of phenolics, concentrations of the evaluated compounds were not associated with 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer. However, there were significant associations between biochemical responses and symptom severity. The lack of a linear correlation between most plant biochemical responses and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer suggests that shifts in metabolic profiles are independent of variations in 'Ca. L. solanacearum' levels. PMID:23425237

  13. 75 FR 14123 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Certificates for Imported Articles to Prevent Introduction of Potato Brown Rot. OMB Control Number: 0579-0221... bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 is known to occur. This bacterial strain causes potato brown rot, which causes potatoes to rot through, making them unusable and seriously affecting...

  14. 78 FR 25939 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Program for Imported Articles to Prevent Introduction of Potato Brown Rot. OMB Control Number: 0579-0221... bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 is known to occur. This bacterial strain causes potato brown rot, which causes potatoes to rot through, making them inedible and seriously affecting...

  15. A case study of a bacterial pathogen in irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents a case study of how exotic strains of Ralstonia solanacearum were disseminated throughout Europe and Florida via waterways used for irrigation. Several studies have demonstrated that aquatic weeds that commonly grow in rivers and ponds are able to harbor the pathogen and allow ...

  16. Genome-based analysis and gene dosage studies provide new insight into 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate biosynthesis in Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Mizuno, Shoji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Recombinant Ralstonia eutropha strain PHB(-)4 expressing the broad-substrate-specificity polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 from Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 (PhaC1Ps) synthesizes a PHA copolymer containing the branched side-chain unit 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), which has a carbon backbone identical to that of leucine. Mutant strain 1F2 was derived from R. eutropha strain PHB(-)4 by chemical mutagenesis and shows higher levels of 3H4MV production than does the parent strain. In this study, to understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced production of 3H4MV, whole-genome sequencing of strain 1F2 was performed, and the draft genome sequence was compared to that of parent strain PHB(-)4. This analysis uncovered four point mutations in the 1F2 genome. One point mutation was found in the ilvH gene at amino acid position 36 (A36T) of IlvH. ilvH encodes a subunit protein that regulates acetohydroxy acid synthase III (AHAS III). AHAS catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to 2-acetolactate, which is the first reaction in the biosynthesis of branched amino acids such as leucine and valine. Thus, the A36T IlvH mutation may show AHAS tolerance to feedback inhibition by branched amino acids, thereby increasing carbon flux toward branched amino acid and 3H4MV biosynthesis. Furthermore, a gene dosage study and an isotope tracer study were conducted to investigate the 3H4MV biosynthesis pathway. Based on the observations in these studies, we propose a 3H4MV biosynthesis pathway in R. eutropha that involves a condensation reaction between isobutyryl coenzyme A (isobutyryl-CoA) and acetyl-CoA to form the 3H4MV carbon backbone. PMID:25645560

  17. Genome-Based Analysis and Gene Dosage Studies Provide New Insight into 3-Hydroxy-4-Methylvalerate Biosynthesis in Ralstonia eutropha

    PubMed Central

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Mizuno, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant Ralstonia eutropha strain PHB−4 expressing the broad-substrate-specificity polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 from Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 (PhaC1Ps) synthesizes a PHA copolymer containing the branched side-chain unit 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), which has a carbon backbone identical to that of leucine. Mutant strain 1F2 was derived from R. eutropha strain PHB−4 by chemical mutagenesis and shows higher levels of 3H4MV production than does the parent strain. In this study, to understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced production of 3H4MV, whole-genome sequencing of strain 1F2 was performed, and the draft genome sequence was compared to that of parent strain PHB−4. This analysis uncovered four point mutations in the 1F2 genome. One point mutation was found in the ilvH gene at amino acid position 36 (A36T) of IlvH. ilvH encodes a subunit protein that regulates acetohydroxy acid synthase III (AHAS III). AHAS catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to 2-acetolactate, which is the first reaction in the biosynthesis of branched amino acids such as leucine and valine. Thus, the A36T IlvH mutation may show AHAS tolerance to feedback inhibition by branched amino acids, thereby increasing carbon flux toward branched amino acid and 3H4MV biosynthesis. Furthermore, a gene dosage study and an isotope tracer study were conducted to investigate the 3H4MV biosynthesis pathway. Based on the observations in these studies, we propose a 3H4MV biosynthesis pathway in R. eutropha that involves a condensation reaction between isobutyryl coenzyme A (isobutyryl-CoA) and acetyl-CoA to form the 3H4MV carbon backbone. PMID:25645560

  18. Synergistic interaction in dual-species biofilms formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Ralstonia spp., a heterotrophic bacterium that are isolated from produce processing environments as part of the native microflora, have strong potentials for formaing biofilms on various surfaces. When co-cultured, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) and Ralstonia spp. displayed a synerg...

  19. Genomic analyses of transport proteins in Ralstonia metallidurans.

    PubMed

    von Rozycki, Torsten; Nies, Dietrich H; Saier, Milton H

    2005-01-01

    Ralstonia (Wautersia, Cupriavidus) metallidurans (Rme) is better able to withstand high concentrations of heavy metals than any other well-studied organism. This fact renders it a potential agent of bioremediation as well as an ideal model organism for understanding metal resistance phenotypes. We have analysed the genome of Rme for genes encoding homologues of established and putative transport proteins; 13% of all genes in Rme encode such homologues. Nearly one-third of the transporters identified (32%) appear to function in inorganic ion transport with three-quarters of these acting on cations. Transporters specific for amino acids outnumber sugar transporters nearly 3 : 1, and this fact plus the large number of uptake systems for organic acids indicates the heterotrophic preferences of these bacteria. Putative drug efflux pumps comprise 10% of the encoded transporters, but numerous efflux pumps for heavy metals, metabolites and macromolecules were also identified. The results presented should facilitate genetic manipulation and mechanistic studies of transport in this remarkable bacterium. PMID:18629293

  20. An outbreak of Ralstonia pickettii endophthalmitis following intravitreal methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Himadri; Jindal, Animesh; Pathengay, Avinash; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report an outbreak of endophthalmitis in three eyes of two patients following intravitreal methotrexate, caused by Ralstonia pickettii. Design Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series. Methods Medical records and microbiology results of two patients who presented with acute endophthalmitis following intravitreal methotrexate injection in November 2013 were reviewed. Results Following intravitreal injections, the patients experienced pain and decrease in vision in the affected eye within 24 hours of receiving intravitreal methotrexate injection. The presenting visual acuity in case 1 was 20/50 in the left eye. The presenting visual acuity in case 2 was hand motions in the right eye and counting fingers at 1 m in the left eye. Both the patients received methotrexate prepared in the same manufacturing facility. Both the patients underwent vitreous biopsy and intravitreal injection of vancomycin 1 mg/0.1 mL, amikacin 400 µg/0.1 mL, and dexamethasone 400 µg/0.1 mL. Microbiology cultures from vitreous, and used and unused vials of methotrexate from the same batch grew R. pickettii. After 8 months of follow-up, both the patients had visual acuity 20/60 or better. Conclusion R. pickettii can be rarely associated with outbreak of endophthalmitis. Timely intervention can be associated with good visual outcome in such patients. PMID:26150690

  1. Genomic Analyses of Transport Proteins in Ralstonia metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    von Rozycki, Torsten; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2005-01-01

    Ralstonia (Wautersia, Cupriavidus) metallidurans (Rme) is better able to withstand high concentrations of heavy metals than any other well-studied organism. This fact renders it a potential agent of bioremediation as well as an ideal model organism for understanding metal resistance phenotypes. We have analysed the genome of Rme for genes encoding homologues of established and putative transport proteins; 13% of all genes in Rme encode such homologues. Nearly one-third of the transporters identified (32%) appear to function in inorganic ion transport with three-quarters of these acting on cations. Transporters specific for amino acids outnumber sugar transporters nearly 3 : 1, and this fact plus the large number of uptake systems for organic acids indicates the heterotrophic preferences of these bacteria. Putative drug efflux pumps comprise 10% of the encoded transporters, but numerous efflux pumps for heavy metals, metabolites and macromolecules were also identified. The results presented should facilitate genetic manipulation and mechanistic studies of transport in this remarkable bacterium. PMID:18629293

  2. Regulation of extracellular polygalacturonase production in Pseudomonas solanacearum. Progress report, [May 1, 1992--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.

    1994-06-01

    Pseudomonas solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease of diverse crops. The bacterium produces at least three isozymes of polygalacturonase, which degrade plant cell walls and contribute substantially to bacterial wilt disease development. The central objective of this research project is to determine how expression of these enzymes is regulated. To this end, we isolated a positive trans-acting regulator of polygalacturonase production (pehR). We have focused on further characterization of the pehR mutant pheonotype, and studies of pehR expression. Preliminary results suggest pehR also regulates bacterial motility. An investigation of two unusual tyrosine phosphoproteins in P. solanacearum is also described.

  3. Tests in vitro and in pots with certain chemicals for inhibition of Pseudomonas solanacearum.

    PubMed

    el-Goorani, M A; Abo-el-Dahab, M K; Wagih, E E

    1978-01-01

    Twenty one isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith (Race 3) from various parts of Egypt were inhibited in vitro by Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin, Oxytetracycline. Tetracycline, Penicillin G, Streptomycin, Nabam (Dithane A-40), Maneb (Dithane M-22), Zinc-ion maneb complex (Dithane M-45), and the insecticide Chlorthion. On the basis of in vitro-sensitivity to the selected 11 chemicals the 21 isolates could not be separated into different groups. Carbendazin (Bavistin), Benomyl, Drazoxolon (Mil-Col), and Temik proved ineffective in inhibiting the in vitro growth of all isolates at all tested concentrations. Preliminary investigations indicate that drenching the soil with solutions of Dithane M-22 (0.25% w/v, Dithane M-45 (0.25%) w/v, or insecticide Chlorthion (50 microgram/ml active ingredient) decreased the incidence of potato wilt disease that developed in soil, artificially infested with P. solanacearum. PMID:696045

  4. Establishment of an alternative phosphoketolase-dependent pathway for fructose catabolism in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Fleige, Christian; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    The β-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 utilizes fructose and gluconate as carbon sources for heterotrophic growth exclusively via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with its key enzyme 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase. By deletion of the responsible gene eda, we constructed a KDPG aldolase-negative strain, which is disabled to supply pyruvate for energy metabolism from fructose or gluconate as sole carbon sources. To restore growth on fructose, an alternative pathway, similar to the fructose-6-phosphate shunt of heterofermentative bifidobacteria, was established. For this, the xfp gene from Bifidobacterium animalis, coding for a bifunctional xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp; Meile et al. in J Bacteriol 183:2929-2936, 2001), was expressed in R. eutropha H16 PHB(-)4 Δeda. This Xfp catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of fructose 6-phosphate to erythrose 4-phosphate and acetylphosphate as well as of xylulose 5-phosphate to glyceralaldehyde 3-phosphate and acetylphosphate. The recombinant strain showed phosphoketolase (PKT) activity on either substrate, and was able to use fructose as sole carbon source for growth, because PKT is the only enzyme that is missing in R. eutropha H16 to establish the artificial fructose-6-phosphate shunt. The Xfp-expressing strain R. eutropha H16 PHB(-)4 Δeda (pBBR1MCS-3::xfp) should be applicable for a novel variant of a plasmid addiction system to stably maintain episomally encoded genetic information during fermentative production processes. Plasmid addiction systems are often used to ensure plasmid stability in many biotechnology relevant microorganisms and processes without the need to apply external selection pressure, like the addition of antibiotics. By episomal expression of xfp in a R. eutropha H16 mutant lacking KDPG aldolase activity and cultivation in mineral salt medium with fructose as sole carbon source, the growth of this bacterium was addicted to the constructed xfp

  5. [A community acquired pneumonia case caused by Ralstonia pickettii].

    PubMed

    Küçükbayrak, Abdulkadir; Uğurman, Feza; Dereli, Necla; Cizmeci, Zeynep; Günay, Ersin

    2009-04-01

    Ralstonia pickettii, formerly known as Burkholderia pickettii, is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus. It is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen both in the hospital setting and in the environment, leading to outbreaks especially in the intensive care units. The available literature revealed two case reports of pneumonia associated with R. pickettii in adults. In this report, a case of pneumoniae due to R. pickettii, in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was presented. Fifty-six years old male patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of shortness of breath, cough, purulent sputum, weakness, fatigue and green colorred diarrhea lacking blood. Lung auscultation revealed decreased respiratory sounds in the right lower lobe. Laboratory findings yielded decreased arterial pH and paO2 and increased pCO2 values, while hemoglobin, hematocrite, blood urea and creatinine levels were increased. Chest X-ray showed an infiltration on right lower zone. The patient was intubated and imipenem 1 x 500 mg/day and netilmicin 1 x 80 mg/day were initiated. Deep tracheal aspirate specimen revealed gram-negative rods and leukocytes, and cultures yielded growth of non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli on blood agar and EMB agar. These bacilli were identified as R. pickettii by using VITEK 2 system (bi-oMerieux Inc, Mercy L'etoil, France). Antibiotic sensitivity test performed by VITEK 2 GP system (bioMerieux Inc, Mercy L'etoil, France) revealed sensitivity to ceftriaxone, imipenem/cilastatin, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, gentamicin, cefoperazone-sulbactam and ciprofloxacin. Treatment with imipenem/cilastatin was continued for 14 days and the patient was completely recovered. This case was presented in order to call attention to R. pickettii as a pathogen that may cause community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection. PMID:19621622

  6. A new shuttle vector for gene expression in biopolymer-producing Ralstonia eutropha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ralstonia eutropha is a fascinating microorganism with a great scientific importance and an immense commercial potential. A new genetic transformation system for the organism would greatly facilitate the biological study and the molecular engineering of this organism. We have developed a versatile...

  7. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Plassmeier, JK; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-08-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by l-valine (IC50 = 1.2 mM), l-isoleucine (IC50 = 2.3 mM), and l-leucine (IC50 = 5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (K-M = 10.5 mu M) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R = 140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2

  8. Impact of Ralstonia eutropha's Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Depolymerases and Phasins on PHB Storage in Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The model organism for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis, Ralstonia eutropha H16, possesses multiple isoenzymes of granules coating phasins as well as of PHB depolymerases, which degrade accumulated PHB under conditions of carbon limitation. In this study, recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains were used to study the impact of selected PHB depolymerases of R. eutropha H16 on the growth behavior and on the amount of accumulated PHB in the absence or presence of phasins. For this purpose, 20 recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) strains were constructed, which harbored a plasmid carrying the phaCAB operon from R. eutropha H16 to ensure PHB synthesis and a second plasmid carrying different combinations of the genes encoding a phasin and a PHB depolymerase from R. eutropha H16. It is shown in this study that the growth behavior of the respective recombinant E. coli strains was barely affected by the overexpression of the phasin and PHB depolymerase genes. However, the impact on the PHB contents was significantly greater. The strains expressing the genes of the PHB depolymerases PhaZ1, PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ7 showed 35% to 94% lower PHB contents after 30 h of cultivation than the control strain. The strain harboring phaZ7 reached by far the lowest content of accumulated PHB (only 2.0% [wt/wt] PHB of cell dry weight). Furthermore, coexpression of phasins in addition to the PHB depolymerases influenced the amount of PHB stored in cells of the respective strains. It was shown that the phasins PhaP1, PhaP2, and PhaP4 are not substitutable without an impact on the amount of stored PHB. In particular, the phasins PhaP2 and PhaP4 seemed to limit the degradation of PHB by the PHB depolymerases PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ7, whereas almost no influence of the different phasins was observed if phaZ1 was coexpressed. This study represents an extensive analysis of the impact of PHB depolymerases and phasins on PHB accumulation and provides a deeper insight into the complex interplay

  9. Low-level detection of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in extracted Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) DNA by 454 pyrosequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate detection and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, has become necessary to better understand the biology of the disease cycle. Studies on the tran...

  10. Insights into bacterial CO2 metabolism revealed by the characterization of four carbonic anhydrases in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and bicarbonate. These enzymes play important roles in cellular metabolism, CO2 transport, ion transport, and internal pH regulation. Understanding the metabolic role of CAs in the chemolithoautotropic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is important for the development of high performance fermentation processes based on the bacterium’s capability to fix carbon using the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Analysis of the R. eutropha H16 genome sequence revealed the presence of four CA genes: can, can2, caa and cag. We evaluated the importance of each of the CAs in the metabolism of R. eutropha by examination of growth and enzyme activity in gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression strains. All four purified CAs were capable of performing the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3–, although the equilibrium towards the formation of CO2 or HCO3– differs with each CA. Deletion of can, encoding a β-CA, affected the growth of R. eutropha; however the growth defect could be compensated by adding CO2 to the culture. Deletion of the caa, encoding an α-CA, had the strongest deleterious influence on cell growth. Strains with deletion or overexpression of can2 or cag genes exhibited similar behavior to wild type under most of the conditions tested. In this work, Caa was studied in greater detail using microscopy and complementation experiments, which helped confirm its periplasmic localization and determine its importance for robust growth of R. eutropha. A hypothesis for the coordinated role of these four enzymes in the metabolism of R. eutropha is proposed. PMID:24410804

  11. Intraspecific Variability within Globodera tabacum solanacearum Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Syracuse, A. J.; Johnson, C. S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Nessler, C. L.; Smith, E. P.

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) were used to investigate the intraspecific variability among 19 geographic isolates of Globodera tabacum solanacearum from eight counties in Virginia and one county in North Carolina. Globodera tabacum tabacum, G. t. virginiae, and the Mexican cyst nematode (MCN) were included as outgroups. Six primers were used and 119 amplification products were observed. Each primer yielded reproducible differences in fragment patterns that differentiated the isolates and species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to illustrate the relatedness among isolates and species. The average Jaccard's similarity index among isolates of G. t. solanacearum was 74%, possibly representing greater variation than that reported in the literature across different pathotypes of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in studies where RAPD were also employed. The RAPD markers described here may be useful for the development of specific primers or probes that could improve the identification of TCN populations. Such improvements in the characterization of TCN genotypes would facilitate the effective deployment of existing and future resistant cultivars to control these economically important pests. PMID:19262823

  12. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... bacterium that causes brown rot of potato.\\1\\ \\1\\ The PRA refers to this pest as ``Ralstonia solanacearum... solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (Smith) Yabuuchi et al., a bacterium that causes brown rot of potato;...

  13. Impact of the core components of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, HPr and EI, on differential protein expression in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Kaddor, Chlud; Voigt, Birgit; Hecker, Michael; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    In Ralstonia eutropha H16, seven genes encoding proteins being involved in the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS) were identified. In order to provide more insights into the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-leaky phenotype of the HPr/EI deletion mutants H16ΔptsH, H16ΔptsI, and H16ΔptsHI when grown on the non-PTS substrate gluconate, parallel fermentations for comparison of their growth behavior were performed. Samples from the exponential, the early stationary, and late stationary growth phases were investigated by microscopy, gas chromatography and (phospho-) proteome analysis. A total of 71 differentially expressed proteins were identified using 2D-PAGE, Pro-Q Diamond and Coomassie staining, and MALDI-TOF analysis. Detected proteins were classified into five major functional groups: carbon metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, translation, and membrane transport/outer membrane proteins. Proteome analyses revealed enhanced expression of proteins involved in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and in subsequent reactions in cells of strain H16 compared to the mutant H16ΔptsHI. Furthermore, proteins involved in PHB accumulation showed increased abundance in the wild-type. This expression pattern allowed us to identify proteins affecting carbon metabolism/PHB biosynthesis in strain H16 and translation/amino acid metabolism in strain H16ΔptsHI, and to gain insight into the molecular response of R. eutropha to the deletion of HPr/EI. PMID:22630130

  14. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Janice S; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Way, Jeffrey C; Torella, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB's physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  15. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Janice S.; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Torella, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB’s physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  16. Solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum".

    PubMed

    Levy, Julien; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. Its host selection criteria are poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether the Solanum habrochaites (PI127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. Using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that S. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to potato psyllids compared with Solanum lycopersicum. However, those properties were not sufficient to avoid. transmission of the plant bacterial pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" vectored by potato psyllids, the causative agent of potato zebra chip disease. However, a lower bacterial transmission rate to S. habrochaites was observed compared with S. lycopersicum. PMID:25026681

  17. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Procedure (LAMP) for Detection of the Potato Zebra Chip Pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum".

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Aravind; Lévy, Julien; Pierson, Elizabeth; Gross, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    An efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure (LAMP) for the detection of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, is described in this chapter. Similar to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the LAMP employs a bacterial polymerase to amplify specific DNA sequences. However, the method differs from conventional PCR in that it uses six primers specific to the target region to generate a loop structure and autocycling strand displacement rather than thermocycling for sequence amplification. Moreover, unlike PCR that requires agarose gel electrophoresis for resolution, the positive LAMP results can be visualized directly as a precipitate within the reaction tubes. The 16S rDNA gene of "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" was used as the target for the design of the six LAMP primers. The LAMP technique is a reliable, rapid, and cost-effective method of detecting the "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" pathogen in the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, and in field-grown potato plants and tubers. PMID:25981248

  18. Evaluation of Chloropicrin as a Soil Fumigant against Ralstonia solanacarum in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m−2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. PMID:24618853

  19. Biological and Chemical Induction of Resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in Oriental and Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field. PMID:22736815

  20. Biological and chemical induction of resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in oriental and flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Venkatesan; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, Jon D

    2009-09-01

    The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field. PMID:22736815

  1. Association of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' with a vegetative disorder of celery in Spain and development of a real-time PCR method for its detection.

    PubMed

    Teresani, Gabriela R; Bertolini, Edson; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Martínez, Carmen; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; Kitajima, Elliot W; Roselló, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Susana; Ferrándiz, Juan Carlos; López, María M; Cambra, Mariano; Font, María Isabel

    2014-08-01

    A new symptomatology was observed in celery (Apium graveolens) in Villena, Spain in 2008. Symptomatology included an abnormal amount of shoots per plant and curled stems. These vegetative disorders were associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and not with phytoplasmas. Samples from plant sap were immobilized on membranes based on the spot procedure and tested using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Then, a test kit was developed and validated by intralaboratory assays with an accuracy of 100%. Bacterial-like cells with typical morphology of 'Ca. Liberibacter' were observed using electron microscopy in celery plant tissues. A fifth haplotype of 'Ca. L. solanacearum', named E, was identified in celery and in carrot after analyzing partial sequences of 16S and 50S ribosomal RNA genes. From our results, celery (family Apiaceae) can be listed as a new natural host of this emerging bacterium. PMID:24502203

  2. Influence of the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum on tomato host plant volatiles and psyllid vector settlement.

    PubMed

    Mas, Flore; Vereijssen, Jessica; Suckling, David M

    2014-12-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso) is an unculturable bacterium vectored by the tomato potato psyllid (TPP) Bactericera cockerelli and has been associated with Zebra chip disease in potato and with other economically relevant symptoms observed in solanaceous crops. By altering their host and vector's biological system, pathogens are able to induce changes that benefit them by increasing their transmission rate. Understanding these changes can enable better targeting of mechanisms to control pathogen outbreaks. Here, we explored how the CLso infectious status affects the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the tomato plant, and whether the CLso infectious status of TPP influences host plant settlement. These chemical and behavioral changes can ultimately affect the rate of encounter between the host and the vector. Results from headspace volatile collection of tomato plants showed that CLso infected tomato plants emitted a qualitatively and quantitatively different blend of VOCs compared to sham-infected plants. By a factorial experiment, we showed that CLso negative (CLso-) TPP preferred to settle 70 % more often on infected tomato plants, while CLso positive (CLso+) TPP were found 68 % more often on sham-infected tomato plants. These results provide new evidence in favor of both host and vector manipulation by CLso. PMID:25378121

  3. Localization of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and Evidence for Surface Appendages in the Potato Psyllid Vector.

    PubMed

    Cicero, J M; Fisher, T W; Brown, J K

    2016-02-01

    The potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli is implicated as the vector of the causal agent of zebra chip of potato and vein-greening of tomato diseases. Until now, visual identification of bacteria in the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' has relied on direct imaging by light and electron microscopy without labeling, or with whole-organ fluorescence labeling only. In this study, aldehyde fixative followed by a coagulant fixative, was used to process adult psyllids for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) colloidal gold in situ hybridization experiments. Results indicated that 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso)-specific DNA probes annealed to a bacterium that formed extensive, monocultural biofilms on gut, salivary gland, and oral region tissues, confirming that it is one morphotype of potentially others, that is rod-shaped, approximately 2.5 µm in diameter and of variable length, and has a rough, granular cytosol. In addition, CLso, prepared from shredded midguts, and negatively stained for TEM, possessed pili- and flagella-like surface appendages. Genes implicating coding capacity for both types of surface structures are encoded in the CLso genome sequence. Neither type was seen for CLso associated with biofilms within or on digestive organs, suggesting that their production is stimulated only in certain environments, putatively, in the gut during adhesion leading to multiplication, and in hemolymph to afford systemic invasion. PMID:26551449

  4. A complex network regulates expression of eps and other virulence genes of Pseudomonas solanacearum.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Carney, B F; Denny, T P; Weissinger, A K; Schell, M A

    1995-01-01

    We have discovered an unusual and complex regulatory network used by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum to control transcription of eps, which encodes for production of its primary virulence factor, the exopolysaccharide EPS I. The major modules of this network were shown to be three separate signal transduction systems: PhcA, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, an dual two-component regulatory systems, VsrA/VsrD and VsrB/VsrC. Using lacZ fusions and RNA analysis, we found that both PhcA and VsrA/VsrD control transcription of another network component, xpsR, which in turn acts in conjunction with vsrB/vsrC to increase transcription of the eps promoter by > 25-fold. Moreover, gel shift DNA binding assays showed that PhcA specifically binds to the xpsR promoter region. Thus, the unique XpsR protein interconnects the three signal transduction systems, forming a network for convergent control of EPS I in simultaneous response to multiple environmental inputs. In addition, we demonstrate that each individual signaling system of the network also acts independently to divergently regulate other unique sets of virulence factors. The purpose of this complex network may be to allow this phytopathogen to both coordinately or independently regulate diverse virulence factors in order to cope with the dynamic situations and conditions encountered during interactions with plants. PMID:7868600

  5. Morphometrics of Globodera tabacum tabacum, G. t. virginiae, and G. t. solanacearum (Nemata: Heteroderinae)

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Manuel M.; Eisenback, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    A morphometric evaluation of second-stage juveniles (J2), males, females, cysts, and eggs of several isolates of the tobacco cyst nematode (TCN) complex, Globodera tabacum tabacum (GTT), G. t. virginiae (GTV), and G. t. solanacearum (GTS) is presented. Morphometrics of eggs, J2, and males are considerably less variable than of females and cysts. No measurements of eggs and J2 are useful for identification of the three subspecies. Distance from the median bulb and excretory pore to the head end in J2 and males is quite stable. Stylet knob width of males is useful for identifying GTV isolates and tail length in separating males of GTT isolates from GTV and GTS. Body length/width (L/W) ratio of females and cysts discriminates GTT from GTV and GTS; stylet knob width is an auxiliary character for identifying GTV. This subspecies complex has a continuum of values for the other characters. Data suggest a close relationship between GTV and GTS, which also occur in close proximity in Virginia. PMID:19279753

  6. Antibacterial enzymes from the functional screening of metagenomic libraries hosted in Ralstonia metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Hala A.; Craig, Jeffrey W.; Brady, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotype-based screening of bacterial metagenomic libraries provides an avenue for the discovery of novel genes, enzymes and metabolites that have a variety of potential clinical and industrial uses. Here we report the identification of a functionally diverse collection of antibacterially active enzymes from the phenotypic screening of 700,000 cosmid clones prepared from Arizona soil DNA and hosted in Ralstonia metallidurans. Environmental DNA clones surrounded by zones of growth inhibition in a bacterial overlay assay were found, through bioinformatics and functional analyses, to encode enzymes with predicted peptidase, lipase and glycolytic activities conferring antibiosis. The antibacterial activities observed in our R. metallidurans-based assay could not be replicated with the same clones in screens using Escherichia coli as a heterologous host, suggesting that the large-scale screening of metagenomic libraries for antibiosis using phylogenetically diverse hosts should be a productive strategy for identifying enzymes with functionally diverse antibacterial activities. PMID:24661178

  7. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes. PMID:23164136

  8. Development of a broad-host synthetic biology toolbox for ralstonia eutropha and its application to engineering hydrocarbon biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The chemoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha can utilize H2/CO2 for growth under aerobic conditions. While this microbial host has great potential to be engineered to produce desired compounds (beyond polyhydroxybutyrate) directly from CO2, little work has been done to develop genetic part libraries to enable such endeavors. Results We report the development of a toolbox for the metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha H16. We have constructed a set of broad-host-range plasmids bearing a variety of origins of replication, promoters, 5’ mRNA stem-loop structures, and ribosomal binding sites. Specifically, we analyzed the origins of replication pCM62 (IncP), pBBR1, pKT (IncQ), and their variants. We tested the promoters PBAD, T7, Pxyls/PM, PlacUV5, and variants thereof for inducible expression. We also evaluated a T7 mRNA stem-loop structure sequence and compared a set of ribosomal binding site (RBS) sequences derived from Escherichia coli, R. eutropha, and a computational RBS design tool. Finally, we employed the toolbox to optimize hydrocarbon production in R. eutropha and demonstrated a 6-fold titer improvement using the appropriate combination of parts. Conclusion We constructed and evaluated a versatile synthetic biology toolbox for Ralstonia eutropha metabolic engineering that could apply to other microbial hosts as well. PMID:24219429

  9. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide

  10. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.