7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County Land Records, Book 2G, p. 299) John McKinnon (County Surveyor), delineator 11 January 1817 PLAT OF SITE, SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING - William Taylor Store, 204 West Bay Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA
Brody, Dorje C.; Gibbons, Gary W.; Meier, David M.
In certain circumstances tools of Riemannian geometry are sufficient to address questions arising in the more general Finslerian context. We show that one such instance presents itself in the characterisation of geodesics in Randers spaces of constant flag curvature. To achieve a simple, Riemannian derivation of this special family of curves, we exploit the connection between Randers spaces and the Zermelo problem of time-optimal navigation in the presence of background fields. The characterisation of geodesics is then proven by generalising an intuitive argument developed recently for the solution of the quantum Zermelo problem.
The flag curvature of a Finsler surface is called the Gaussian curvature in Finsler geometry. In this paper, we characterize the surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature (CGC) in the Randers 3-manifold. Then we give a classification of the orientable closed CGC surfaces in two Randers space forms, which are the non-Euclidean Minkowski-Randers 3-space (K = 0) and the Bao-Shen sphere (K = 1).
Brown, Randall T.; Zuelsdorff, Megan; Gassman, Michele
Drug treatment courts (DTCs) provide substance abuse treatment and case management services to offenders with substance use disorders as an alternative to incarceration. Studies indicate that African Americans less frequently complete DTC programming. The current study analyzed data from the Dane County Drug Treatment Court (n = 573). The study…
Merry, Sheila M.; Peters, Clark M.; Goerge, Robert M.; Osuch, Ruth; Minor, Maria; Budde, Stephen
This study suggests that court procedures in Illinois must improve to assure that more children are placed in permanent homes in a timely way. The University of Chicago's Chapin Hall Center for Children examined the timeliness of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois' Child Protection Division in completing the sequence of hearings and…
Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt
There is a well-established isomorphism between stationary four-dimensional spacetimes and three-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries—these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of three-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes—the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (t-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.
Drug treatment courts (DTCs) are widely viewed as effective diversion programs for drug-involved offenders; however, previous studies frequently used flawed comparison groups. In the current study, the author compared rates of recidivism for drug court participants to rates for a traditionally adjudicated comparison group matched on potentially…
Roberts, James C.; Wolfer, Loreen
This paper examines the experiences of a group of female drug offenders who successfully completed a county drug court program in northeast Pennsylvania. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed interviews with these women for thematic patterns in order to provide an evaluation of this program based on participants' subjective…
Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Werner, M. C.
We consider a triality between the Zermelo navigation problem, the geodesic flow on a Finslerian geometry of Randers type, and spacetimes in one dimension higher admitting a timelike conformal Killing vector field. From the latter viewpoint, the data of the Zermelo problem are encoded in a (conformally) Painleve-Gullstrand form of the spacetime metric, whereas the data of the Randers problem are encoded in a stationary generalization of the usual optical metric. We discuss how the spacetime viewpoint gives a simple and physical perspective on various issues, including how Finsler geometries with constant flag curvature always map to conformally flat spacetimes and that the Finsler condition maps to either a causality condition or it breaks down at an ergo surface in the spacetime picture. The gauge equivalence in this network of relations is considered as well as the connection to analogue models and the viewpoint of magnetic flows. We provide a variety of examples.
Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008
This brief, the third issue in the "Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona" series, reveals that Pinal County's specialized court for domestic-violence cases offers some promising results for dealing with this common and complex offense. This report contains an analysis of data collected in the Pinal County Domestic Violence Database, which as of…
McCarthy, Sherri; Waters, Thomas Franklin
This report summarizes data gathered from the 64 graduates of the Yuma County Drug Court from 1998 to 2001. Those who agreed to participate were interviewed at 3, 6, 12 and/or 18 months after graduation. Instruments used included the Addiction Severity Index, the CSAT GPRA Client Outcomes Measure for Discretionary Programs and a questionnaire…
Crosby, Mary Neil
Considers the impact of strong public opinion on the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services." Points out three uses of public opinion in Supreme Court decisions and remarks on the Court's insulation from the public. Concludes that amicus curiae briefs are the one persuasive tool for influencing the Court. (LS)
Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.
This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…
Forgays, Deborah Kirby
Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…
Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy
Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568
Agron, Joe, Ed.
Discusses how a recent New York State Supreme Court decision ordering the repair of all facilities within the New York City School system could have far-reaching implications for other districts. The school system's history of school building neglect that prompted the Court's decision and the decision's effect are examined as are similar…
Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking west-southwest (bearing 250). Not that missing scones are to be returned and presently obscured ceiling is proposed for restoration. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA
2. Aerial view of south wing of north court building, back of office / residence building and back of main building from balcony; facing southeast. - Mission Motel, North Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL
5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL
20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL COURT IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME
3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL
1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD QUARTERS F. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tennis Courts, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA
1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL
2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL
1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 (Samuel Shinn House), No. 405, No. 407 (John Elliott House), No. 409, No. 411 (David Simpson House) - Marshall's Court Area Study, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING 23 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA
VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING 24 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA
WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA
7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY
Orfield, Gary; Frankenberg, Erica; Garces, Liliana M.
In June 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review two related cases originating from school districts in Louisville, Kentucky and Seattle, Washington that involved voluntarily adopted racial integration plans. Concerned about the outcome of these cases, 553 social scientists submitted a social science statement to the Supreme Court summarizing…
Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine
In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…
Mahood, R. Wayne; Hopf, John
The study's objectives were to determine how many migratory farm workers were charged with criminal offenses, who they were, and how they were treated in lay courts in Orleans and Steuben Counties (New York) in 1968 and 1969. Lacking comparative data from other jurisdictions, a comparison between migrants and a random sampling of residents in…
Starr, Robert C.
Describes how a group of middle-school students in Walled Lake, Michigan, collaborated with a Web development firm and the county information technology department to build a district court Web site (www.52-1districtcourt.com) to provide community access to legal information. Includes such features as a virtual tour of the court, "Ask the Judge,"…
Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.
This booklet discusses the workings of the federal courts and supports six law-related lesson plans. It is divided into the following sections: "The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary"; "The Federal Courts in American Government" ("The Federal Courts and Congress"; "The Federal Courts and the Executive Branch"; "The Federal Courts and the…
Williams, Charles F.
States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…
La Noue, George R.
When the Supreme Court pronounces on race and education it makes headlines. On 28 June 2007 the Supreme Court revealed its long-anticipated decisions on "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and "Meredith v. Jefferson County," proving that maneuvering the minefield of America's race relations is just as difficult…
30. West view, showing court in storehouse #1 adn railroad facilities connecting with yards and float bridges at thirty-eighth street. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY
View of foundation, looking south. Note tennis courts in background facing south, see HABS no. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
View of foundation, looking southeast. Note tennis courts in background facing southeast, see HABS No. CA-2716 - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
29. View East, Central Court, Showing typical interior detail and lunettes above. Two lunettes present, Public Works Administration, 1938-42. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT
14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA
15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF AUDITORIUM SHOWING BASKETBALL COURT; STAGE IS IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR
16. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF BASKETBALL COURT; DOORS LEADING TO FRONT OF BUILDING ARE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR
GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN HOUSE, TENNIS COURTS, SWIMMING POOL, JOE'S CABIN AND BUNKHOUSE (LEFT TO RIGHT); CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Harry Carey Ranch, 28515 San Francisquito Canyon Road, Saugus, Los Angeles County, CA
21. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING). - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME
Circular stair from Parking Overlook to Clay Tennis Courts, Riverside Park at 96th Street, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY
63. THIRD FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS FROM SORTING AREA TO PACKAGE HANDLING AND WRAPPING - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL
Garcia, Paul A.; Catania, Kathryn; Nofziger, Sam
It is ironic that the population of students on which educators have the most surveillance, either through ubiquitous video cameras or through the vigilant presence of probation officers, have been the most invisible in many educational practices. English learners who are incarcerated youth and attend county court schools throughout California are…
Wooldredge, John; Thistlethwaite, Amy
Researchers examining court dispositions and domestic violence recidivism have argued that disposition effectiveness varies by offender characteristics. We extended this research with analyses of 3,662 persons arrested for misdemeanor assaults on intimates in Hamilton County, Ohio. The incidence, prevalence, and time to rearrest are examined for…
After student court justices at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock closed their deliberations to the student press, an attorney general reviewed the incident and decided that student court meetings fall under the Freedom of Information Act. (GT)
MacDonald, John M.; Morral, Andrew R.; Raymond, Barbara; Eibner, Christine
This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up.…
Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.
This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…
Brown, Randall T.
The U.S. correctional system is overburdened by individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll in individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug court treatment programs (DTCs) are present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes available descriptive information on representative drug treatment court populations, summarizes observational studies of drug court participants, and specifically reviews available experimental effectiveness literature on drug treatment courts. The review concludes by examining limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on drug treatment court interventions. Review of non-experimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of drug treatment courts point toward benefit vs. traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of drug treatment courts are scant (three identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues arise in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate consistent effect upon re-arrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in drug treatment court vs. typical adjudication. The two studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the drug treatment court group vs. those typically adjudicated. PMID:20478542
Sloan, Frank A.; Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Acquah, Kofi F.; Blevins, Claire E.
Objective: This study assessed the effects of unified family and drug treatment courts (DTCs) on the resolution of cases involving foster care children and the resulting effects on school performance. Method: The first analytic step was to assess the impacts of presence of unified and DTCs in North Carolina counties on time children spent in…
Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Ciccel, J. DeCarlo
Following the model of Drug Courts, three Georgia Driving-Under-the-Influence (DUI) Courts (established in Chatham, Clarke, and Hall Counties in 2003) were designed to address the underlying alcohol problems of repeat DUI offenders through continuous and frequent judicially supervised treatment, periodic alcohol and other drug testing, the use of graduated sanctions, and other appropriate rehabilitative services. A team comprised of a judge, court personnel, probation officials, and treatment providers met regularly to assess offender progress, and offenders met biweekly with the judge to report their progress. An impact evaluation showed that after 4 years of exposure, the DUI Court graduates (Treatment Group) had a significantly lower recidivism rate: 9 percent compared to 24 percent for a group of matched offenders from three similar counties in Georgia (Contemporary Group) and a 35 percent rate for matched offenders from the same counties as the DUI Court who would have been eligible for the DUI Court had it been in existence (Retrospective Group). Offenders who were terminated from the DUI Courts for various reasons had a recidivism rate of 26 percent. When the DUI Court graduates were combined with the DUI Court terminated offenders, the DUI Court offenders still had significantly lower recidivism rates: 38 percent lower than the Contemporary Group and 65 percent lower than the Retrospective Group. It is estimated that the DUI Courts prevented between 47 and 112 repeat arrests during a four year period due to the reduced recidivism associated with them. PMID:21050586
Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Ciccel, J. DeCarlo
Following the model of Drug Courts, three Georgia Driving-Under-the-Influence (DUI) Courts (established in Chatham, Clarke, and Hall Counties in 2003) were designed to address the underlying alcohol problems of repeat DUI offenders through continuous and frequent judicially supervised treatment, periodic alcohol and other drug testing, the use of graduated sanctions, and other appropriate rehabilitative services. A team comprised of a judge, court personnel, probation officials, and treatment providers met regularly to assess offender progress, and offenders met biweekly with the judge to report their progress. An impact evaluation showed after 4 years of exposure that when the DUI Court graduates were combined with the DUI Court terminated offenders (Intent to Treat Group), the DUI Court offenders had significantly lower recidivism rates: 38 percent lower than a Contemporary Group of offenders and 65 percent lower than a Retrospective Group of offenders. The DUI Court Intent to Treat Group had a significantly lower recidivism rate: 15 percent compared to 24 percent for a group of matched offenders from three similar counties in Georgia (Contemporary Group) and a 35 percent rate for matched offenders from the same counties as the DUI Court who would have been eligible for the DUI Court had it been in existence (Retrospective Group). Offenders who were terminated from the DUI Courts for various reasons had a recidivism rate of 26 percent. It is estimated that the DUI Courts prevented between 47 and 112 repeat arrests during a four year period due to the reduced recidivism associated with them. PMID:22105405
Williams, Charles F.
This article looks at various cases of the Supreme Court's most recent term. In contrast to the 2006-2007 term when the Supreme Court was regularly split 5-4, during this last term, the justices have formed surprising coalitions in cases considered highly controversial. For example, it was the so-called liberal bloc's Justice Stevens who wrote the…
Mohr, Lawrence B.
Discusses the applicability of organizational theory to the analysis of American courts. Considers various decision-making models as they apply to courts, including the "firm,""rational,""garbage can," and "political" models. Available from Executive Office, Law and Society Association, University of Denver College of Law, 200 West 14th Avenue,…
Williams, Charles F.
This article presents the Supreme Court's preview. As the 2005 term neared its June 30 end date, the Supreme Court, still adjusting to its first membership change in 11 years, had yet to decide dozens of cases that had defied quick resolution throughout the term. But with the last-minute release of seriously fractured decisions in many of the…
Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan
Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller
Many commentators have noted that the 2010 Supreme Court term was without the "fireworks" of recent years and, therefore, this year the Court garnered limited media attention and national interest. Contributing to this limited attention was the fact that the term ended with no retirements or looming confirmation battles. In addition, the term's…
Taylor, Kelley R.
"Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…
Williams, Charles F.
Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)
Soulier, Matthew F; Scott, Charles L
Nineteenth-century American reformers were concerned about the influence of immaturity and development in juvenile offenses. They responded to their delinquent youths through the creation of juvenile courts. This early American juvenile justice system sought to treat children as different from adults and to rehabilitate wayward youths through the state's assumption of a parental role. Although these rehabilitative goals were never fully realized, the field of American child psychiatry was spawned from these efforts on behalf of delinquent youths. Early child psychiatrists began by caring for juvenile offenders. The function of a child psychiatrist with juvenile delinquents expanded beyond strictly rehabilitation, however, as juvenile courts evolved to resemble criminal adult courts-due to landmark Supreme Court decisions and also juvenile legislation between 1966 and 1975. In response to dramatically increased juvenile violence and delinquency rates in the 1980s, juvenile justice became more retributional, and society was forced to confront issues such as capital punishment for juveniles, their transfer to adult courts, and their competency to stand trial. In the modern juvenile court, child psychiatrists are often asked to participate in the consideration of such issues because of their expertise in development. In that context we review the role of psychiatrists in assisting juvenile courts. PMID:21080770
Reber, Sarah J.
The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.
Williams, Charles F.
The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…
Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.
Studied was the relationship of the mentally retarded (MR) and the juvenile court through an attempt to determine the incidence of MR juveniles adjudicated by the juvenile court in one metropolitan county in Texas, to determine the attitude of juvenile probation officers toward the MR delinquent, and to determine the availability of community…
Wells, Amy Stuart; Frankenberg, Erica
This past June, a 5-4 majority of the U.S. Supreme Court declared integration plans in Louisville and Seattle unconstitutional because of their focus on race as one factor in assigning students to schools. The Court's ruling in the "Parents Involved in Community Schools" v. "Seattle School District No. 1" and "Meredith" v. "Jefferson County Board…
20. Photocopy of photograph (from the Bucks County Historical Society) photographer and date unknown GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA
27. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) FACTORY BUILDING, PLAN OF FLOOR B, 1928, NOTE OPEN COURTS - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD
28. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) FACTORY BUILDING, PLAN OF FLOOR B, MACHINERY LAYOUT, 1943, NOTE INFILLED COURTS - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD
25. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) COURT 4, SECTION BETWEEN COLS. 51 AND 52, LOOKING NORTH, NOTE MONITOR WINDOW, 1920 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD
The American higher education community found a curious mix of good and bad news in the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling last summer, in "Parents Involved v. Seattle School District and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education", about the use of race-based policies by public elementary and secondary schools. This article discusses this curious…
This article discusses the curious mix of good and bad news the American higher education community found in the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling last summer, in "Parents Involved v. Seattle School District" and "Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education," about the use of race-based policies by public elementary and secondary schools. The good…
71. Historic American Buildings Survey COURT BETWEEN OWNER'S SUITE AND BABY HOUSE PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOTT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 807 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL
8. View to east within railroad court between arms of storehouse #1, showing loading platforms, track, and (in middle ground) enclosed seven-story bridge between the building arms. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY
EAST ARMORY FROM SOUTHWEST AND COURT YARD. VIEW INCLUDES SOUTH ARMORY EXTENSION ON RIGHT, NORTH ARMORY TO FAR LEFT. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT
Rebell, Michael A.
Over the past thirty-five years, federal courts have dramatically retreated from actively promoting school desegregation. In the meantime, state courts have taken up the mantle of promoting the vision of educational equity originally articulated in "Brown v. Board of Education". "Courts and Kids" is the first detailed analysis of why the state…
Williams, Charles F.
By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…
It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…
Williams, Charles F.
Focuses on two U.S. Supreme Court cases involving unreasonable searches and seizures: (1) Kyllo v. United States, No. 99-8508; and (2) Indianapolis v. Edmond, No. 99-1030. Includes information about the first case and the basis and decision of the second case. (CMK)
Update on Law-Related Education, 1998
Describes the court case of Chicago v. Morales in which an anti-loitering ordinance challenged the constitutional right of assembly by giving the police the power to disperse anyone associated with gang members in public. Illustrates the importance of retaining Fifth Amendment rights even after pleading guilty in the case of Mitchell v. U.S. (CMK)
Hudzik, John K.; Wakeley, John H.
Careful evaluation of court training programs can use two approaches, program monitoring and training/learning. Four areas of inquiry include: reactions to the program, learning, behavior, and results (behavior measured against organizational goals). The Michigan Judicial Institute program is noted. Journal availability: 200 W. Monroe, Suite 1606,…
Williams, Charles F.
Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…
Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine
Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…
Williams, Charles F.
Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)
Godwin, Tracy M.
Youth courts provide communities with an opportunity to impose immediate consequences for first time youthful offenders, while providing a peer operated disposition mechanism that constructively allows young people to take responsibility, be held accountable, and make amends for violating the law. Dispositions hold youth accountable in part…
This article examines the co-occurrence of different types of victimization and violence exposure, and the effects of court interventions for girls in juvenile court. A life history interview methodology was used to collect qualitative data from 27 girls who had penetrated deeply into a treatment-oriented county court system. The study revealed that early abuse and violence in the home made girls vulnerable to later intimate partner violence and sexual assault when they left to avoid continued victimization. Whereas some court interventions helped girls, others revictimized them. Implications for helpful court practices and future research are presented and discussed. PMID:26597085
Johnson, R Scott; Stolar, Andrea G; Wu, Emily; Coonan, Loretta A; Graham, David P
This study aims to examine the extent to which a veteran's propensity for arrest following separation from veterans' court is associated with that veteran's length of stay within the program, type of discharge, or number of judicial sanctions issued. This is a retrospective chart review that focuses on the first 100 participants in the Harris County Veterans' Court Program. After controlling for a number of demographic factors, both arrests during enrollment in the veterans' court program (p = .031) and Factor Score 1 (unsuccessful discharge, fewer months in the veterans' court program, and more months of follow up) (p = .042) were predictive of arrest following separation from the veterans' court program. In addition, a prior diagnosis of opiate misuse was also predictive of arrest following separation (p < .001). Given these findings, veterans' court judges and program administrators might examine ways of continuing enrollment for veterans at highest risk for recidivism. PMID:26035089
United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.
This manual addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. General and membership information is provided on the U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Association…
Two employees of the [name removed] told several county employees not to visit a restaurant, the Colonial House, because they believed one of the people working there had AIDS. A suit filed by Colonial House alleged that the statements by the medical services employees were defamatory, false, made with malice, and intended to harm the reputations of the businesses, owners, and employees. A Superior Court judge dismissed the lawsuit. A three-judge panel in the State Court of Appeals ruled that since the defendants are accused of making a reference to someone rather than a specific individual, the plaintiffs had no cause of action for defamation. The plaintiffs did succeed in persuading the appeals court to allow the lawsuit to proceed based on the plaintiff's claims of intentional and negligent infliction of emotional distress. PMID:11364050
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments pursuant to court decree or court... to court decree or court-approved property settlement. Certain annuity components are subject to division pursuant to a court decree or to a court-approved property settlement incident to any such...
One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…
Black, B.; Strott, L.
In August, 1994, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit handed down a decision that could make it much easier to challenge Superfund remedies in court. The Superfund law explicitly limits judicial review of removal or remedial actions. There are five exceptions to the above which are described in this paper.
Update on Law-Related Education, 2000
Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)
Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.
Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First Amendment.…
An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…
Hack, Walter G.
The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)
Patten, Ryan; Messer, Sarah; Candela, Kimberlee
Since the inception of drug court in the late 1980s, it has become a widely used alternative to incarcerating drug offenders. Previous research has detailed the effectiveness of programming on recidivism, participants' perceptions of the service delivery model, and cost-effectiveness. The scholarship related to drug offender motivations to participate in drug court has largely discussed family obligations and the sense of loss stemming from drug abuse, and only two studies have discussed the fear of prison as a primary motivator. This research utilized semi-structured interviews with former drug court participants from a rural county in California to ascertain their motivation for engaging in drug court (N = 29). The results show 79% of participants were trying to avoid prison or jail, while 62% were motivated to end the cycle of drug abuse in their lives. The conclusion has policy implications for future drug court design; however, additional research is needed. PMID:24788256
Chien, Joseph; Mobbs, Karl E
In a recent decision involving a capital murder case, Oregon State Hospital v. Butts, the Oregon Supreme Court conducted a mandamus hearing to ascertain whether Oregon State Hospital (OSH) had a legal duty to comply with a Sell order from a county trial court to provide antipsychotic medications to an incompetent defendant, despite its belief, as an institution, that medication was not clinically indicated. The case is reviewed and important implications, including the court's being granted the ability to circumvent the medical decision-making process, are discussed. PMID:26944751
In 1959, Virginia's Prince Edward County closed its public schools rather than obey a court order to desegregate. For five years, black children were left to fend for themselves while the courts decided if the county could continue to deny its citizens public education. Investigating this remarkable and nearly forgotten story of local, state, and…
California's Court of Appeal directed the family court to determine temporary child support during the dissolution of a marriage prior to the birth of a child with no genetic or gestational relationship to the intended parents. A husband and wife had entered into a gestational surrogacy contract for an embryo created by in vitro fertilization and using donated gametes. The trial court declined to make a temporary child support order because it found that the unborn child was not yet a "child of the marriage" under state law. The Court of Appeal held that it was unnecessary at this point in the litigation to conclusively establish the issue of the husband's parenthood. It was sufficient that the husband admitted signing the agreement which, for all practical purposes, caused the child's conception and that the husband would likely be found to be the child's father. PMID:12041102
Provides a moot court activity in which secondary students re-enact the U.S. Supreme Court case "California v. Greenwood," concerning the exclusionary rule and the privacy of a citizen's trash. Students role-play Supreme Court justices and attorneys to gain an understanding of how appellate courts operate. (LS)
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.
Drug courts depart from traditional criminal justice practice by directing nonviolent drug abusing offenders to intensive court-supervised drug treatment instead of to prison. An examination of drug courts is offered in this booklet. The text is based on extensive interviews with judges, prosecutors, public defenders, court administrators, police…
Nessel, Paula A.
Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…
Nessel, Paula A.
Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…
A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424
Kolder, V E; Gallagher, J; Parsons, M T
In a national survey, we investigated the scope and circumstances of court-ordered obstetrical procedures in cases in which the women had refused therapy deemed necessary for the fetus. We also solicited the opinions of leading obstetricians regarding such cases. Court orders have been obtained for cesarean sections in 11 states, for hospital detentions in 2 states, and for intrauterine transfusions in 1 state. Among 21 cases in which court orders were sought, the orders were obtained in 86 percent; in 88 percent of those cases, the orders were received within six hours. Eighty-one percent of the women involved were black, Asian, or Hispanic, 44 percent were unmarried, and 24 percent did not speak English as their primary language. All the women were treated in a teaching-hospital clinic or were receiving public assistance. No important maternal morbidity or mortality was reported. Forty-six percent of the heads of fellowship programs in maternal-fetal medicine thought that women who refused medical advice and thereby endangered the life of the fetus should be detained. Forty-seven percent supported court orders for procedures such as intrauterine transfusions. We conclude from these data that court-ordered obstetrical procedures represent an important and growing problem that evokes sharply divided responses from faculty members in obstetrics. Such procedures are based on dubious legal grounds, and they may have far-reaching implications for obstetrical practice and maternal and infant health. PMID:3574370
A physician may find himself in front of a criminal court in the context of a number of situations: as a spectator, a witness, the accused, the victim, or as an expert witness. These different situations provoke variable reactions where the problem of medical confidence, the public nature of the debate, and their inherent contradiction arise. The physician is little used to these situations. In the concern for justice and the protection of victims, he must know the rules of this court. PMID:12032961
Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.
This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…
The 1971 police search of a newspaper office led to the United States Supreme Court's "Zurcher v The Stanford Daily" decision that newspaper offices can permissibly be searched if it is believed that they contain materials that relate to an ongoing criminal investigation. This decision has been viewed by the press as an attack on First Amendment…
Freeman, M. )
This article examines the recent development in eminent domain cases involving power transmission line rights of way, the issue of fear of the mythical buyer. The author feels that the fear of electrocution or of the possible cancer-inducing effects of electromagnetic fields is greatly influencing court decisions in these cases. The results could be more expensive rights of way acquisition by utilities.
McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.
This publication tells the stories of eight schools from around the nation that have used the Open Court Reading program, describing the history of the schools, the challenges they faced, and their attempts to meet those challenges. The schools are located in California, Florida, Texas, and New York. Each of the school stories includes a focus on…
Jensen, Tamila C.
In Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation, the U.S. Supreme Court held, in evaluating local land use controls, "proof of racially discriminatory intent . . . is required to show a violation of the Equal Protection clause." Available from: the Graduate School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401;…
After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…
Sagatun-Edwards, Inger; Saylor, Coleen
This longitudinal study of social services and juvenile court files identified factors associated with court outcomes for drug exposed infants (N=118). Regression analysis suggested that mothers' compliance with court orders was the major predictor of court outcomes although chi square analysis found ethnicity, past referrals, and criminal record…
Higdon, Philip R.
This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…
Pickerell, Albert G.; Lipman, Michel
This book is intended to provide reporters who cover court proceedings with a basic knowledge of the organization of California's courts and of the procedures they follow. It contains: material about court organization and jurisdiction, pretrial civil procedure, pretrial criminal procedure, and civil and criminal trial procedure; a legal…
American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.
This document lists the law-related education activities conducted by state courts. The listings are arranged by state. Entries list the name of the court, a list of activities provided, descriptions of unusual programs, guidelines for programs that some of the courts have developed, and the name, title or committee, address, and phone number of a…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court review. 71.118... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Review § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...
Background Specialized drug treatment courts are a central part of drug-related policy and programs in the United States and increasingly outside the U.S. While in theory they offer treatment as a humane and pragmatic alternative to arrest and incarceration for certain categories of drug offenses, they may exclude some forms of treatment–notably methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We sought to understand from the perspective of treatment providers whether this exclusion existed and was of public health importance in New York State as a case example of a state heavily committed to drug courts and with varying court-level policies on MMT. Drug courts have been extensively evaluated but not with respect to exclusion of MMT and not from the perspective of treatment providers. Methods Qualitative structured interviews of 15 providers of MMT and 4 NGO advocates in counties with diverse court policies on MMT, with content analysis. Results Courts in some counties require MMT patients to “taper off” methadone in an arbitrary period or require that methadone be a “bridge to abstinence”. Treatment providers repeatedly noted that methadone treatment is stigmatized and poorly understood by some drug court personnel. Some MMT providers feared court practices were fueling non-medical use of prescription opiates. Conclusions Drug court practices in some jurisdictions are a barrier to access to MMT and may constitute discrimination against persons in need of MMT. These practices should be changed, and drug courts should give high priority to ensuring that treatment decisions are made by or in close consultation with qualified health professionals. PMID:24308548
On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law. PMID:12320456
Rubin, H T
This article surveys the current landscape of the juvenile court. The original concept of this court, when implemented by state legislatures, took different organizational forms. The length of judges' assignments to this court varies as does the extent of their specialization. These courts differ from one another in numerous ways such as the minimum and maximum ages of their delinquency jurisdictions, the types of cases they are authorized to hear in addition to delinquency and child abuse and neglect, the extent to which referees or quasi-judicial hearing officers hear cases, whether or not the juvenile probation department is administered by the court, and the individual practices that constitute particular court cultures. Today change in one form or another is common to all juvenile courts as this institution adapts to contend with the delinquent behavior of young people and with the failures of adults responsible for the well-being of their children. PMID:9117365
Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Logue, Melissa A.
This study examined court records, probation records, and collection office records in four counties in Pennsylvania, which were chosen because they varied along two dimensions: (a) population size and (b) the use of specialized units for the collection of monetary sanctions. From each county, restitution-eligible cases were sampled from both 1994…
Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala. PMID:12345511
Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Koetse, Willem; Lattimore, Pamela K.
Drug courts are one of the most common strategies for dealing with the large proportion of criminal offenders who are drug-involved, yet methodological limitations limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many existing evaluations of their effectiveness. The current study examined the long-term impact of drug court participation compared to regular probation on the recidivism of 475 drug-involved offenders under supervision in Hillsborough County, Florida. Using a combination of self-reported data (collected through in-person interviews at baseline, i.e., the beginning of supervision) and administrative records, the study employed a repeated measures framework (examining five six-month time periods from baseline to 30 months post-baseline) and generalized estimating equations to compare the likelihood of being arrested between drug court participants and a matched sample of comparison offenders. The results indicate that participation in drug court was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of being arrested in the 12 to 18 months post-baseline time period. Although the drug court effect was somewhat delayed (it was not significant prior to 12 months) and short-lived (it was not significant after 18 months), the fact that significant program effects were observed during a time period that coincides with the conclusion of drug court participation for graduates and a time period well beyond initial program exposure, suggests that drug court participants are more likely than comparable offenders not exposed to drug court to remain arrest free when no longer under community supervision. PMID:17604918
The U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to take up two major appeals involving student free-speech rights on the Internet. One appeal encompassed two cases decided in favor of students last June by the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia. The other appeal stemmed from a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for…
Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J
The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions. PMID:26593117
McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
To reduce criminal justice involvement of persons with mental disorders, many communities have created mental health courts. Early mental health courts were restricted to persons charged with nonviolent misdemeanors. Recently mental health courts have begun to accept persons charged with felonies and violent crimes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the process and outcomes of a mental health court that accepts persons charged with more serious offenses from the perspective of stakeholders in the court. Data come from semi-structured interviews with 43 professionals involved with the mental health court, including judges, attorneys, probation officers, case managers, mental health professionals, and agency administrators. The stakeholders endorsed mental health court compared to traditional court for reducing criminal justice involvement of individuals with mental disorders with a history of repeated arrests. The observations of stakeholders revealed important themes to consider in research evaluating mental health courts, including selection mechanisms, supervision processes, treatment access, use of sanctions, competency, indicators of effectiveness, participant characteristics associated with better or worse outcomes, and mechanisms of change. PMID:20655110
Butts, Jeffrey A.; Buck, Janeen; Coggeshall, Mark B.
This paper reports findings from the Evaluation of Teen Courts Project, which studied teen courts in Alaska, Arizona, Maryland, and Missouri. Researchers measured pre-court attitudes and post-court (6-month) recidivism among more than 500 juveniles referred to teen court for nonviolent offenses. The study compared recidivism outcomes for teen…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 416.1485... Determinations and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 416.1485 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which... court law. (a) General. We will apply a holding in a United States Court of Appeals decision that...
Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.
Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 38--Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; ZF Transmissions Gray Court, LLC, (Automatic Transmissions), Gray Court, SC The South Carolina State Ports...
Bell, Margret E; Perez, Sara; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann
Although most battered women seeking formal help have some contact with court, limited research exists on what they find helpful and harmful about these experiences. Using qualitative data from low-income, largely Black battered women, this study finds that issues related to court outcomes, such as case disposition and enforcement, are important to evaluations of helpfulness. More frequently mentioned, however, are court processes, including treatment by staff, process length, and public disclosure. Results highlight the importance of research and practice attending to issues beyond court outcomes, as well as the potential impact supportive treatment at court may have for victims' recovery. PMID:21199810
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY SEAMEN'S CLAIMS; ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION AND LITIGATION § 327.8 Court action. No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3)...
Logan, TK; Leukefeld, Carl; Minton, Lisa; Abrahmson, Joanie; Hughes, Rebecca
Children of Drug Court clients are at high-risk for substance abuse and other risk factors. This paper summarizes the results of a program needs assessment, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation from the Kentucky Drug Court Strengthening Families Pilot Program. Results indicated overall positive changes for families in the program.…
Rahdert, Mark C.
Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v. Ceballos"), Rahdert expresses concern…
Minnick, Wayne C.
Surveys key decisions on libel handed down by Supreme Court and the resulting distinctions between private persons and public officials/public figures. Also examines the distinction with respect to proof of defamation. Offers criticism of the Court's position and recommends a change in policy. (PD)
Manning, Winton H.
A review of court cases, involving the use of various standardized tests, highlights the kinds of test validity and the interpretation by the courts of test fairness in setting personnel selection standards. Guidelines established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) are shown to support the use of predictive validity in…
Chapter 1 of a book on school law, this article analyzes the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, and contends that there has been a judicial takeover of functions that had been delegated by the Constitution to the states and to the people. Specifically, the author argues that much of the Supreme Court's expansion of its powers rests on the selective…
Ryan, John Paul
In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams…
Bjorklun, Eugene C.
Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)
Rezny, Arthur A.
This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the courts determine educational policy, confining its discussion to three court cases. The cases focus on academic freedom and the authority to dismiss, the rights of an individual to discuss in public the injustice of his transfer, and reverse discrimination. (Author/JF)
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the Administrator upon review affirms the denial of a request for records, in whole or in part, the requester...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...
United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.
This booklet examines seven planning and decision-making tips for investing in and building tennis courts that can prolong court life and get the most from the investment. It examines defining needs, developing a budget, considering the use of a consultant, choosing a site, choosing a surface and developing working specifications, making specific…
Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…
This article reports on a nationally-watched case by educators and families which is scheduled to be heard by the Florida Supreme Court. The court is to decide whether Opportunity Scholarships, available to students enrolled in Florida's persistently lowest-rated public schools, run afoul of a prohibition on using public money in religious…
Allen, L. Hank
The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…
On July 15 (1994), Wayne County Circuit Court Judge John Murphy struck down Michigan's 1993 law requiring women seeking abortions to delay 24 hours after receiving state-mandated information. Finding that the Michigan Constitution encompasses a right to privacy, which includes the right to choose abortion, Judge Murphy invalidated the never-enforced law by applying "strict scrutiny"--the judicial standard used to review restrictions on fundamental rights. Although Roe v. Wade established strict scrutiny as the test for evaluating abortion restrictions, the US Supreme Court revised that standard as a matter of federal law when it adopted the less protective "undue burden" standard in Planned Parenthood v. Carey. As a result, the state constitutional right to privacy recognized by Judge Murphy is more protective of childbearing decisions than the corresponding federal right. Judge Murphy further found that the mandatory delay law violates a state constitutional prohibition on unfunded mandates because, while local health departments would be required to distribute the state-printed materials, the legislature did not appropriate monies to cover the costs of this added responsibility. Michigan officials have indicated that they will appeal the decision in Mahaffey v. Attorney General of Michigan, which is 1 of 2 lawsuits that were filed on March 10 against the mandatory delay law. Plaintiffs in the state case--a local health department official and 3 physicians--are represented by the ACLU of Michigan. CRLP attorneys represent more than 2 dozen reproductive health care providers who filed the other challenge, Northland Family Planning Inc. v. Engler, in federal court and obtained a temporary stay of the law. During 4 days of trial beginning on June 20, CRLP presented witnesses who testifed that the mandatory delay law would impose an undue burden on women seeking abortions in Michigan. As a result of Judge Murphy's ruling, CRLP federal case will be put on hold. However
After the publication of "Fabrica," Andreas Vesalius entered the Spanish court and became a court physician to Charles the Fifth, Holy Roman Emperor, and then to Philip the Second, Spanish king. The author studied this process and its historical background. The ancestors of Vesalius had close relations with the Hapsburgs and the dukes of BUrgundy, and served them as court physician or a court pharmacist. Vesalius was born in Brussels, obtained his degree at the University of Padua, Italy, became professor of anatomy and surgery there, and published "Tabulae Anatomicae Sex" and "Fabrica."In the ear of the Spanish court, the treatments of Henry the Second, French king, and of Don Carlos, Spanish crown prince, are famous among Vesalius' medical contributions. In the year of his resignation, Charles the Fifth conferred the title of count palatine on Vesalius. PMID:15818875
Ort, J D
General veterinarians such as veterinary officers act as experts at court. They are in so far part of the evidence. Due to his experience the veterinary expert shall give systematical uniform principles concerning even domains adjacent to the field of animal protection such as protection of animal epidemics and food cases, verifiable by science and university research. Examples for expert's topics as well as the requirements of expert reports are shown. According to paragraph 15 II Tierschutzgesetz (Animal Protection Act), as well as according to paragraph paragraph 63, 76 Ordnungswidrigkeitengesetz the experts participation in the proceeding is necessary. In consideration of paragraph paragraph 74, 22 Strafprozessordnung (Code of Criminal Proceedure) conflicts may arise because the veterinarian officer is self-contained investigator, witness as well as expert in the same proceeding. In general the veterinarian officer, who has been involved in the investigations must be excluded from expert activity in the same case. The veterinarian officers have to solve this problem by seperating tasks and functions within one legal case. PMID:15195954
Reports on a Supreme Court ruling giving the federal government jurisdiction over substantial areas of the outer continental shelf (OCS) which opens the door for a federal program of OCS leasing. (GS)
The author examines the Supreme Court decisions regarding the rights of retarded children not to be institutionalized and rights of retarded people to have aggressive medical treatment that will help prolong their lives. (SB)
Voas, R B; Fisher, D A
The courts have implemented numerous approaches to reduce the probability of recidivism among people apprehended for or convicted of driving while intoxicated. Although traditional punitive sanctions, such as fines and incarceration, are commonly used, they have not eliminated drinking and driving in the United States. Consequently, the court system has developed additional sanctioning procedures that show promise. For example, rehabilitative programs (e.g., alcohol education and alcoholism treatment) can reduce recidivism, at least marginally. These programs appear to be more effective when combined with license suspension. In addition to license suspension, several alternative methods for limiting driving opportunities of offenders have proven effective, including impounding offenders' vehicles or license plates, installing ignition interlocks, and requiring electronic home monitoring or house arrest. Effective court monitoring is a critical component in supporting recovery and compelling offenders to participate in rehabilitation programs. This role of the courts in monitoring offenders will likely increase as the use of intrusive, alternative sanctions grows. PMID:11496964
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838.134 Section 838.134 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.134...
... petitioning the Tax Court. Pursuant to section 6015(e), the requesting spouse may petition the Tax Court to... collection of Federal tax. Proceedings in court does not refer to the filing of pleadings and claims and... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax Court review. 1.6015-7 Section...
... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...
... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...
... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...
Carlson, J. Lon; Skaggs, Neil T.
Discusses the use of active learning within economics focusing on moot courts. Explains how moot courts fit into economics and presents examples of how moot courts can be used within law and economics, history of economic thought, and environmental economics courses. Highlights student perceptions of moot courts. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payments pursuant to court decree or court-approved property settlement. 243.3 Section 243.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT TRANSFER, ASSIGNMENT, OR WAIVER OF PAYMENTS § 243.3 Payments...
Faber, Charles F.
Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)
Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.
Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…
Fenske, Kenneth F., Ed.
This special issue is intended to help teachers educate students about today's important U.S. Supreme Court and other judicial decisions, the legal issues they involve, and their impact on students' lives. The issue focuses upon the 1995 term of the Supreme Court and the tendency for the justices to vote unanimously. An overview of the cases and…
Leone de Nie, Karen, Ed.; Todd, Amanda K., Ed.; Hess, Diana, Ed.
In February 2000, the Wisconsin Supreme Court, the State Bar of Wisconsin, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Curriculum and Instruction brought together 28 high school teachers from around the state together for a 2-day intensive workshop on teaching about federal and state courts. A second institute was held in February 2001…
... decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation, or any court- approved property settlement agreement incident to any court decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation (hereinafter ``court order'')...
A three-judge panel of the Oregon Court of Appeals upheld the jury conviction of [name removed]. Mr. [Name removed] was found guilty of ten counts of attempted murder and attempted assault for engaging in unprotected sex with the knowledge that he is HIV-positive. The Appeals Court panel found that there was ample evidence to show that [name removed] knew about his HIV status, lied about his serostatus, disregarded warnings not to engage in unprotected sex, and threatened to spread the virus to others. [Name removed] engaged in unprotected sex with an underage girl and a series of women, even after signing an agreement not to engage in sex without permission from his probation officer. The appeals court rejected the defense attorney's argument that [name removed] meant to satisfy his sexual urges and did not intend to cause harm or death. PMID:11363273
With the establishment of an emperor and a royal court, the court physician came into being and the royal court medicines gradually began to evolve. In the first year of Kai Huang of the Sui dynasty (581), King Wendi of the Sui dynasty established the imperial medical bureau. Since then the royal court medicines entered a period of development and prosperity. In the Yuan dynasty, the scope of official duty of the imperial hospital narrowed, the development of royal court medicines lacked new growth. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, the royal court medicine began to decline and eventually ended with the demise of the Qing dynasty. PMID:21163077
Superfund, often referred to as a sleeping giant, is waking up in state courts with rulings the insurance industry is on the hook for a large share of the nation`s environmental cleanup. While Congress has been quagmired in legislative reauthorization attempts, 40% of the state supreme courts (20 states) have passed laws favoring policyholders of comprehensive general liability insurance (CGL) to be compensated for their cleanup and litigation costs. These rulings vary in terms from state to state, but their collective action is giving the insurance industry grave concerns because of the increase in settlements with CGL policyholders.
This paper reviews the ways in which memory disorders and memory distortions arise in the criminal courts. Amnesia for offences is considered in terms of automatisms, alcohol, and crimes of passion. False memories arise in false confessions, allegations of false memory for child sexual abuse, and, just occasionally, with respect to delusional memories. More generally, memory and neuropsychiatric disorders may have implications at each stage of the legal process (fitness to plead, the insanity defence, cases of automatism, diminished responsibility, and at sentencing). However, patients with memory and neuropsychiatric disorders remain very vulnerable within legal and court processes. PMID:23492890
On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.
Lukenbill, W. Bernard
This study analyzes court records of a county-level trial in Austin, Texas, in which erotized AIDS-HIV safer-sex information shown on a public access cable television program was claimed by the State of Texas to be obscene. This trial raised questions regarding such issues as: free access to information, especially through new technological…
Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.
This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)
... for purposes of this section, a court order must be found to be “qualified” by PER/ER/RET acting for... principal's Foreign Service retirement benefit or survivor benefit. If a court directs or implies that...
... for purposes of this section, a court order must be found to be “qualified” by PER/ER/RET acting for... principal's Foreign Service retirement benefit or survivor benefit. If a court directs or implies that...
... for purposes of this section, a court order must be found to be “qualified” by PER/ER/RET acting for... principal's Foreign Service retirement benefit or survivor benefit. If a court directs or implies that...
... JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS § 82.1 Court subpoenas or requests. (a) A subpoena or request from a court for records... their identity as official records of the Government Accountability Office. They must not be marked...
Petronio, Richard J.
Tested the degree of association between probation officers' sent and received roles and role behavior in four juvenile courts. Found the role communicated to probation officers by their superiors was predictive of the role the probation officers perceived but not of the role as enacted with juveniles. (Author)
Russo, Charles J.; Orsi, Michael P.
Reviews federal laws and Supreme Court rulings on aid to nonpublic schools. Contends the current wave of school choice legislation is limited to nonsectarian private schools. Supports the National Catholic Educational Association's agenda for political action and public policy in pursuit of funding for nonpublic schools. (RAJ)
Phay, Robert E.
This paper traces the evolution of student rights and the judicial protection of these rights through numerous court cases. The author outlines the minimum standards of due process required in disciplinary proceedings and discusses cases that point up (1) the required specificity of rules on student conduct, (2) the requirements of notice to…
... with a request for comment at 78 FR 14017. We stated in the interim final rule that we would review any... the interim final rule. Therefore, the interim rule published March 3, 2013, at 78 FR 14017, is... Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 11 RIN 1076-AF16 Courts of Indian Offenses AGENCY: Bureau of...
Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.
This volume presents an analysis and synthesis of the opinions of the Supreme Court explaining judgments that have directly decided education matters and those that have had substantial impact on public education policies and procedures even though the parties to the suits were not connected with public education. The chapters are structured…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Courts. 225.11 Section 225.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE ACCEPTANCE OF BONDS SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS...
Liberty, Leona H.
This paper asserts that school counselors and other professional counselors need to be aware of lawsuits involving professional rights and responsibilities. It notes that the courts have heard cases involving privileged communication, failure to exercise adequate precautions for a suicidal client, sexual misconduct, invasion of privacy, and…
In Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a school principal's decision to delete several stories from the school newspaper. However, the ruling failed to adequately address two related areas involving what constitutes school-sponsored speech and how broadly could schools regulate that speech. (CB)
Murphy, Dennis Dailey
Many people in our society turn to courts for the resolution of every problem. By delegating to judges the authority to declare our legal rights we diminish our individual and collective liberties. This trend of legalism can have important consequences for school administrators. Rather than resist or evade the law, school officials can obviate…
The recent Supreme Court decision in the employment discrimination case "California Savings and Loan Association v. Guerra" permits employers to treat pregnancy the same as other disabling conditions relating to employment opportunities. Also, state legislatures may mandate preferential treatment for pregnancy. (MD)
... American Tribal Governments,'' Executive Order 13175 (59 FR 22951, November 6, 2000), and 512 DM 2, we have... are Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe. The tribes to be removed from... known as CFR Courts): The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe and the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians. This...
In this article, the author states that by granting review of the third case in two years involving the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the U.S. Supreme Court has signaled a renewed interest in resolving legal conflicts arising under the federal law that governs services provided to nearly 6.7 million school children in special…
Gillis, John, Ed.
This guide contains a comprehensive collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national…
Part of a broader inquiry into "Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers," this study traces the evolving reportorial techniques and literary style that gave journalism its form--a form combining strengths and flaws, freedom and inhibitions. Before nineteenth century police court reporting was…
Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi
Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)
Recent court rulings have challenged the long-held concept of academic freedom for faculty members. As an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Kevin J. Renken says he felt obliged to speak out about his belief that administrators there were mishandling a National Science Foundation grant to him…
In past cases involving sex or racial discrimination in faculty employment, the courts have imposed less stringent standards on institutions of higher education than on employers in industry or the professions. Recent decisions indicate that stricter judicial requirements are now being extended to colleges and universities. (Author/RW)
Staton, Michele; Mateyoke, Allison; Leukefeld, Carl; Cole, Jennifer; Hopper, Holly; Logan, TK; Minton, Lisa
Study was designed to develop and evaluate a Drug Court employment intervention program to improve drug treatment retention and to reduce recidivism. Focus groups with clients helped in understanding the employment needs in order to target and refine the enhanced employment intervention. Clients consistently expressed difficulty in balancing work…
Gregory, Gwendolyn H.
In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications Decency Act,…
Routh, Frederick B., Ed.; Waldo, Everett A., Ed.
The United States Commission on Civil Rights sponsored a consultation in 1975 to review the relationship between desegregation, court orders, and suburbanization, as well as to assess what further role the Commission might play in discharging its responsibility to advance the constitutional rights of all children to a desegregated education. This…
Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.
The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…
... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (5 U.S.C. chapter 89). A covered individual may seek... the carrier or carrier's subcontractors. The recovery in such a suit shall be limited to a court order... 31 of the 3rd year after the year in which the care or service was provided; and (3) Will be...
Chronicle of Higher Education, 1986
The status as of October 9, 1986 of higher education-related Supreme Court litigation is outlined concerning: accreditation, affirmative action, asbestos, bar examinations, collective bargaining, creationism, racial discrimination, infectious disease, liquor sales, pensions, pregnancy benefits, revocation of degree, sexual harassment, and student…
Doyle, William E.
Can social science data be used in judicial decision-making? Suggests that social science data is less important in judicial decision-making in the field of constitutional law than most persons think and considers the more controversial issue of whether courts should be considering cases which might require or produce social science evidence.…
Duques, Dawn Brill
How can a person be certain that the potential trustee he is considering is right for his board? How can that candidate be certain that one's institution and board are right for him? Answers to these questions are vital. Courting a candidate for the board of a private college or university means spending time and money, and with budgets…
Sparr, L F; White, R; Friedman, M J; Wiles, D B
In 1988, the Veterans Judicial Review Act (VJRA) was signed into law, ending more than a century of Congressional measures that kept veterans' benefits claims completely out of the appellate court system. Before this new law, any decision made by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) about a veteran's claim was final, and there was no recourse for independent judgment of an appeal. The legislation modified the existing Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA) to enhance its independence from the Veterans' Administration and established a new Court of Veterans Appeals (CVA) with jurisdiction to review BVA decisions. Veterans' benefits proceedings have not only been insulated from the courts, they also have been undesirable to private attorneys, because since 1864 Congress has prohibited attorneys from charging more than $10 to advocate a VA disability claim. The new law allows attorneys to represent veterans before the CVA and receive appropriate remuneration. In 1991, the number of veterans was estimated at 26,897,000, and VA disability compensation programs spent $9.6 billion. Currently, there are about 2,179,000 veterans receiving service-connected monetary compensation; approximately 13.5 percent (293,200) have a primary psychiatric disability. The CVA is a specialized Article I court that has seven justices and sits in Washington, D.C. In its formative years, the Court has reached decisions that have had an impact on the veterans' psychiatric benefits examination process. Now more than ever, non-VA psychiatrists may be asked to offer probative opinions in veterans' benefits proceedings. The authors review VA psychiatric disability procedures and, using case examples, discuss both precedent decisions involving VA psychiatric claimants and the evolving standards of judicial review. PMID:7949410
Juvenile Justice, 1999
This issue commemorates the 100th anniversary of the creation of the juvenile court and the recognition that the developmental differences between children and adults require differences in the ways they are treated by the court system. The feature article, "An Evolving Juvenile Court: On the Front Lines with Judge J. Dean Lewis," reviews the…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122 Section 838.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State...
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.
This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122 Section 838.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State...
O'Neil, Robert M.
This document presents a discussion and projections of future involvement of higher education in the courts. Seven major hypotheses are discussed in detail that will either dissuade or encourage academic court litigation. These are: (1) Colleges and universities will turn increasingly to the courts for protection against hostile external pressures…
Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122 Section 838.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division...
... of the Secretary Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments AGENCY: Joint Service Committee on Military Justice (JSC). ACTION: Notice of Public Response to Proposed Amendments to the Manual ] for Courts... the Manual for Courts-Martial and a Notice of Public Meeting to receive comments on these...
Morton, F. L.
This paper traces and analyzes the development of the Supreme Court's work in the area of sexual equality, with particular emphasis on the family dimension of this issue. The Court is criticized for both the legal and policy inadequacies of its recent decisions. It is argued that the Court has failed to use a consistent, principled standard by…
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. 162.50....50 Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition. (a) Sale. Forfeited property decreed by the court for... cleared for sale. (c) Destruction—(1) Proceeds of sale not sufficient. Property forfeited under a...
Sheridan, William H.; Freer, Alice B.
This bibliography provides a listing of journal articles on such topics as: the abused child, adoptions, case decisions, confessions, constitutional law, counsel, court administration and organization, courts, criminal law and procedure, custody, delinquency, domestic relations, due process for juveniles, evidence, family court and family law,…
judge's order. Clinic lawyer, Talbot D'Alemberte, president of Florida State University and former president of the American Bar Association, will argue that the issue is about intimidation. The Clinton administration's Solicitor General Drew S. Days III will support Seminole County Circuit Court Judge Robert S. McGregor's decision limiting protester activity. PMID:12287661
... requirement for hot-spot analysis. (See 73 FR 4419, January 24, 2008.) Please note that an adequacy review is...: Response to Court Decision and Additional Rule Changes'' (69 FR 40004). Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq...; Catoosa and Walker Counties, Georgia; and Hamilton County, Tennessee. As a result of EPA's finding,...
The Montana Supreme Court struck down the State's sodomy law and ruled that the law violates the State constitutional right to privacy. Until this ruling, all homosexual relations were labeled deviate sexual conduct, punishable by a $50,000 fine and 10 years in prison. No one had been prosecuted under the law since it was enacted in 1973, but its existence placed gay men and lesbians at risk of prosecution. The high court was not persuaded by the State's argument that the sodomy law was permissible because it prevented HIV infection and preserved public morality, largely because the law was enacted a decade before the first case of AIDS was reported in Montana. PMID:11364554
Brenner, B; Burnet, P
A case is presented where the Courts have authorised an obstetric intervention deemed necessary for the well-being of both mother and child. Although the case is one of maternal psychosis, there are legal and ethical concerns whenever court-ordered intervention is deemed necessary. Approaches to this difficult medical decision making problem in the form of utilitarian "burdens v benefit" ratio analysis or the recognised traditional ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and acting in the patient's best interest are considered. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines suggesting "that it is inappropriate ... to invoke judicial intervention to overrule an informed and competent woman's refusal of a proposed medical treatment, even though her refusal might place her life and that of her fetus at risk" are questioned. PMID:7478347
The approach of the courts when considering proprietary ('ownership') interests in human bodily material has been pragmatic and piecemeal. The general principle was initially that such material is not legally 'property' that can be 'owned', but courts have recognised many exceptions. In determining disputes between individuals in particular cases, they have stated principles that are often inconsistent with those stated in other cases with different facts. Later judges have been constrained by these decisions, especially when made at appellate level. They can distinguish the facts of one case from another to achieve a different outcome, but they cannot state new principles to be applied more widely to promote consistency. This requires the will of Parliament and legislation to introduce new principles. Experience to date suggests that such legislation will need to be wide-ranging and complex, with different principles for different circumstances. There will not be one area of law that answers all the issues that arise. PMID:23427217
In the opinion of many environmentalists in Michigan, the world's largest municipal trash burner, Detroit's 4000 tpd facility is oversized, was built without serious consideration of recycling, emits unacceptable levels of toxic air pollutants, and lacks a plan for proper handling of ash. For those reasons, the Environmental Defense Fund sued Detroit in 1987 after the city ignored its written warnings about handling incinerator ash. The suit sought stricter air pollution controls, proper ash disposal, a smaller facility and serious focus on recycling. Recently, in a 2 to 1 decision, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reinstated the EDF suit that had been dismissed by a lower court. The two-year effort to protect public health and the environment from hazards at the Detroit Incinerator has been upheld.
The Oregon Court of Appeals has ruled that the state Public Utility Commission may require refunds of excess revenues collected under temporary rates that are subsequently found illegal, and that such refunds do not violate the rule against retroactive ratemaking. The case involved a 1989 order directing Pacific Northwest Bell Telephone Co. to refund a $10 million over-collection to customers. The Commission had defended its authority to force refunds of interim rates. The appeals court rejected the Commission's rationale, but upheld the refund order. It explained that Pacific Northwest was not entitled to keep excess revenues collected under an interim rate schedule that did not comply with its authorized revenue level. One judge dissented.
Mello, Michelle M; Studdert, David M; Kachalia, Allen B; Brennan, Troyen A
Proposals that medical malpractice claims be removed from the tort system and processed in an alternative system, known as administrative compensation or "health courts," attract considerable policy interest during malpractice "crises," including the current one. This article describes current proposals for the design of a health court system and the system's advantages for improving patient safety. Among these advantages are the cultivation of a culture of transparency regarding medical errors and the creation of mechanisms to gather and analyze data on medical injuries. The article discusses the experiences of foreign countries with administrative compensation systems for medical injury, including their use of claims data for research on patient safety; choices regarding the compensation system's relationship to physician disciplinary processes; and the proposed system's possible limitations. PMID:16953807
The US District Court for the Southern District of Iowa issued a preliminary injunction on January 22 that prohibits enforcement of that state's parental notification requirement for young women seeking abortions. Under the law, which was passed by the Iowa legislature in March 1996, one parent of a woman under the age of 18 must be notified at least 48 hours before the procedure (see RFN V/6). Alternatively, the young woman may seek a court waiver of the mandate. Judge Ronald Longstaff found that the women's health care providers challenging the law were likely to prevail in their claim that the statute presents an unconstitutional obstacle to young women's right to choose abortion. Affirming findings made in a temporary restraining order that prevented the law from taking effect earlier in the month, Judge Longstaff held that the law would put doctors who provide emergency abortions to young women at risk of liability, a possibility that could discourage physicians from providing abortion services (see RFN VI/1). The court also found that the judicial bypass laid out in the statute failed to sufficiently protect a young woman's confidentiality or guarantee an expeditious procedure. The plaintiffs in Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa vs. Miller are represented by Dara Klassel and Roger Evans of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, CRLP's Priscilla Smith and Michael Erdos, Mark Lambert of Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, and Randall Wilson of the Iowa Civil Liberties Union. PMID:12292101
Nathanson, Rebecca; Saywitz, Karen J
The current study examined whether a pretrial preparation program, consisting of legal knowledge education, stress inoculation training, and a mock trial, is associated with decreased anticipatory anxiety of child witnesses. One hundred and ninety-three 4- to 17-year-olds who were awaiting impending legal proceedings attended Kids' Court School in Las Vegas, NV, one to two weeks before their court appearances. Participants completed a measure of anticipatory court-related anxiety before and after the intervention. As predicted, children's anticipatory anxiety decreased significantly from pretest to posttest. Results demonstrate the promise of a brief, unbiased, standardized program for reducing system-induced stress on child witnesses, while maintaining the integrity of the legal process. This study serves as a springboard to guide future research, practice, policy, and implementation on a larger scale. PMID:26294383
Washburn, Jason; Teplin, Linda; Voss, Laurie; Simon, Clarissa; Abram, Karen; McClelland, Gary
Objective To compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in youths processed in adult criminal court with youths processed in the juvenile court. Methods Participants were a stratified random sample of 1829 youths (10–18 years of age) arrested and detained in Chicago, IL. Data on 1715 youths (13–18 years of age) from version 2.3 of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children are presented, including 1440 youths processed in juvenile court and 275 youths processed in adult criminal court. Results Among youths processed in the adult criminal court, 66% had at least one psychiatric disorder and 43% had two or more types of disorders. Prevalence rates and the number of comorbid types of disorders were not significantly different between youths processed in adult criminal court and those processed in the juvenile court. Among youths processed in adult criminal court, those sentenced to prison had significantly greater odds of having disruptive behavior, substance use, or comorbid affective and anxiety disorders than those receiving a less severe sentence. Males, African Americans, Hispanics, and older youths had greater odds of being processed in adult criminal court than females, non-Hispanic whites, and younger youths, even after controlling for felony-level violent crime. Conclusions Community and correctional systems must be prepared to provide psychiatric services to youths transferred to adult criminal court, and especially to youths sentenced to prison. Psychiatric service providers must also consider the disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minorities in the transfer process when developing and implementing services. PMID:18757588
Redman, John C.; Middleton, James W.
In 1965 the Court of Appeals of Kentucky ruled that all property should be assessed at 100 percent of fair market value. In compliance with the court decision, the county assessors began reassessing properties in January 1966. A great controversy arose over the new assessment procedures and problems. This study evaluates the results of the 1966…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orders by a court. 19.6-1 Section 19.6-1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6-1 Orders by a court. (a) A court may— (1) Fix the amount of any pension to a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orders by a court. 19.6-1 Section 19.6-1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6-1 Orders by a court. (a) A court may— (1) Fix the amount of any pension to a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Date of court orders. 19.6-4 Section 19.6-4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6-4 Date of court orders. (a) A court order directing or barring payment of a pension...
Schwartz, E; Landrigan, P
To conduct surveillance of occupationally related health events, the New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services analyzes death certificates and workers' compensation claims. In an effort to bolster these limited data sources, a previously unrecognized data-set comprised of court records was explored. Court records obtained from the Federal District Court proved to be a readily accessible and detailed source of information for identifying suspected cases of asbestos-related disease and potential sources of asbestos exposure. PMID:2959164
Edwards, L P
The juvenile court of the future will be a viable, but changed, institution largely because of society's need to hold parents accountable for their children's well-being and youths accountable for their actions. The author describes three current trends in juvenile court which will continue to impact the court in the future. First, more jurisdictions will refine and streamline their court structures, either through better coordination or by creating unified family courts. This will result in better handling and supervision of multiple cases involving the same family. Second, the use of a wide variety of alternative dispute resolution techniques will grow, and the court will assume a monitoring and oversight function over these mediated agreements. Third, private and voluntary efforts will be utilized to assist the court in providing services to children and families, as well as to mobilize community-wide efforts on behalf of children. Ideally, the juvenile court of the future will place itself squarely in the community and work with others concerned about the well-being of children and families to provide an appropriate and meaningful response to each child who comes within the court's purview. PMID:9117359