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Sample records for random interval schedules

  1. Relationship between Contingency Awareness and Human Performance on Random Ratio and Random Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…

  2. Rats show molar sensitivity to different aspects of random-interval-with-linear-feedback-functions and random-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of various aspects of reinforcement contingencies on responding maintained by free-operant schedules by food-deprived rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that random interval (RI) and random-interval-with-positive-response-reinforcer-feedback (RI+) schedules maintained similar rates of responding at a variety of reinforcer frequencies. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a random ratio (RR) schedule maintained higher rates than RI or RI+ schedules, except at high rates of reinforcement, where response rates were similar on all schedules. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that RR schedules produced higher response rates than either RI or RI+ schedules, but modification of the RI+ schedule to prevent ratio strain enhanced response rates relative to an RI schedule. Together these results reveal a pattern of interacting factors in schedule controlled behavior: at high rates of reinforcement, this factor overrides the impact of other controlling factors, but as reinforcement rate decreases the joint impact of interresponse times reinforcement, response-reinforcer feedback functions, and ratio strain are observed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25915752

  3. Lithography cycle time improvements using short-interval scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David; Watson, Scott; Anderson, Michael; Marteney, Steve; Mehr, Ben

    2010-04-01

    Partially and fully automated semiconductor manufacturing facilities around the world have employed automated real-time dispatchers (RTD) as a critical element of their factory management solutions. The success of RTD is attributable to a detailed and extremely accurate data base that reflects the current state of the factory, consistently applied dispatching policies and continuous improvement of these dispatching policies. However, many manufactures are now reaching the benefit limits of pure dispatching-based or other "heuristic-only" solutions. A new solution is needed that combines locally optimized short-interval schedules with RTD policies to target further reductions in product cycle time. This paper describes an integrated solution that employs four key components: 1. real-time data generation, 2. simulation-based prediction, 3. locally optimized short-interval scheduling, and 4. schedule-aware real-time dispatching. The authors describe how this solution was deployed in lithography and wet / diffusion areas, and report the resulting improvements measured.

  4. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  5. Determinants of Human Fixed-Interval Performance Following Varied Exposure to Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…

  6. Accuracy of performance on a matching-to-sample procedure under interval schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Boren, M. C. P.; Gollub, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Correct matches on a matching-to-sample procedure were reinforced under fixed-interval, chained fixed-interval, and fixed-interval schedules with exteroceptive stimulus changes correlated with time since the last reinforcer (an added clock). For all four pigeons, accuracy changed within the fixed-interval and fixed-interval schedules with added clock, decreasing from the beginning of the interval to some point in the middle. The performance then became increasingly more accurate until the end of the interval. Under the chained schedules, accuracy also changed within the components. During the initial component, accuracy decreased from the beginning of the fixed interval to some point in the middle or at the end. During the middle component, the performance usually remained at an intermediate level of accuracy. During the terminal component, the initially inaccurate performance became increasingly more accurate throughout the interval. Systematic relationships between response rate and per cent error showed that all four pigeons performed most accurately at high rates. The accuracy of the performance at low rates was also quite high. These relationships held for all three types of schedules through an eight-fold variation in scheduled interreinforcement time. PMID:16811619

  7. Contracting, equal, and expanding learning schedules: the optimal distribution of learning sessions depends on retention interval.

    PubMed

    Küpper-Tetzel, Carolina E; Kapler, Irina V; Wiseheart, Melody

    2014-07-01

    In laboratory and applied learning experiments, researchers have extensively investigated the optimal distribution of two learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and one relearning session) for the learning of verbatim materials. However, research has not yet provided a satisfying and conclusive answer to the optimal scheduling of three learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and two relearning sessions) across educationally relevant time intervals. Should the to-be-learned material be repeated at decreasing intervals (contracting schedule), constant intervals (equal schedule), or increasing intervals (expanding schedule) between learning sessions? Different theories and memory models (e.g., study-phase retrieval theory, contextual variability theory, ACT-R, and the Multiscale Context Model) make distinct predictions about the optimal learning schedule. We discuss the extant theories and derive clear predictions from each of them. To test these predictions empirically, we conducted an experiment in which participants studied and restudied paired associates with a contracting, equal, or expanding learning schedule. Memory performance was assessed immediately, 1 day, 7 days, or 35 days later with free- and cued-recall tests. Our results revealed that the optimal learning schedule is conditional on the length of the retention interval: A contracting learning schedule was beneficial for retention intervals up to 7 days, but both equal and expanding learning schedules were better for a long retention interval of 35 days. Our findings can be accommodated best by the contextual variability theory and indicate that revisions are needed to existing memory models. Our results are practically relevant, and their implications for real-world learning are discussed. PMID:24500777

  8. Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval

  9. Bouts of Responding on Variable-Interval Schedules: Effects of Deprivation Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the…

  10. Randomized Scheduling Algorithm for Queueing Networks

    E-print Network

    Shah, Devavrat

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in design of low-complexity, myopic, distributed and stable scheduling algorithms for constrained queueing network models that arise in the context of emerging communication ...

  11. On the Primacy of Molecular Processes in Determining Response Rates under Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same…

  12. Briefly delayed reinforcement effects on variable-ratio and yoked-interval schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-09-01

    Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (<0.4?s) in eight of nine opportunities. In the VR component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates and the proportion of short IRTs in only two of nine opportunities. For two of the three pigeons that were exposed to the 5-s unsignaled delay, response rates and the proportion of short IRTs decreased in both of the components. The 0.5-s signaled delay did not systematically change response rates nor did it change the distribution of short IRTs relative to the immediate reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding. PMID:23900853

  13. Calculation of Flight Deck Interval Management Assigned Spacing Goals Subject to Multiple Scheduling Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Next Generation Air Transportation System will combine advanced air traffic management technologies, performance-based procedures, and state-of-the-art avionics to maintain efficient operations throughout the entire arrival phase of flight. Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) operations are expected to use sophisticated airborne spacing capabilities to meet precise in-trail spacing from top-of-descent to touchdown. Recent human-in-the-loop simulations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have found that selection of the assigned spacing goal using the runway schedule can lead to premature interruptions of the FIM operation during periods of high traffic demand. This study compares three methods for calculating the assigned spacing goal for a FIM operation that is also subject to time-based metering constraints. The particular paradigms investigated include: one based upon the desired runway spacing interval, one based upon the desired meter fix spacing interval, and a composite method that combines both intervals. These three paradigms are evaluated for the primary arrival procedures to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport using the entire set of Rapid Update Cycle wind forecasts from 2011. For typical meter fix and runway spacing intervals, the runway- and meter fix-based paradigms exhibit moderate FIM interruption rates due to their inability to consider multiple metering constraints. The addition of larger separation buffers decreases the FIM interruption rate but also significantly reduces the achievable runway throughput. The composite paradigm causes no FIM interruptions, and maintains higher runway throughput more often than the other paradigms. A key implication of the results with respect to time-based metering is that FIM operations using a single assigned spacing goal will not allow reduction of the arrival schedule's excess spacing buffer. Alternative solutions for conducting the FIM operation in a manner more compatible with the arrival schedule are discussed in detail.

  14. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  15. Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…

  16. Comparing Pleasure and Pain: The Fundamental Mathematical Equivalence of Reward Gain and Shock Reduction under Variable Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

  17. New Scheduling Strategies for Randomized Incremental Algorithms in the

    E-print Network

    Llanos, Diego R.

    that the scheduling alternatives are highly influenced by the dependence violation pattern the code presents. We schedules chunks of an equal number of iterations among processors. This mechan- ism does not take that the schedul- ing alternatives are highly influenced by the dependence violation pattern presented by the code

  18. Flexibility of Oral Cholera Vaccine Dosing—A Randomized Controlled Trial Measuring Immune Responses Following Alternative Vaccination Schedules in a Cholera Hyper-Endemic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Kanungo, Suman; Desai, Sachin N.; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Sinha, Anuradha; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yang, Jae Seung; Lopez, Anna Lena; Manna, Byomkesh; Bannerjee, Barnali; Ali, Mohammad; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Clemens, John D.; Sur, Dipika; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the immune response was not significantly increased following the second dose compared to that after the first dose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an extended four week dosing schedule on vibriocidal response. Methodology/Principal Findings In this double blind randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 356 Indian, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year or older were randomized to receive two doses of oral cholera vaccine at 14 and 28 day intervals. We compared vibriocidal immune responses between these schedules. Among adults, no significant differences were noted when comparing the rates of seroconversion for V. cholerae O1 Inaba following two dose regimens administered at a 14 day interval (55%) vs the 28 day interval (58%). Similarly, no differences in seroconversion were demonstrated in children comparing the 14 (80%) and 28 day intervals (77%). Following 14 and 28 day dosing intervals, vibriocidal response rates against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were 45% and 49% in adults and 73% and 72% in children respectively. Responses were lower for V. cholerae O139, but similar between dosing schedules for adults (20%, 20%) and children (28%, 20%). Conclusions/Significance Comparable immune responses and safety profiles between the two dosing schedules support the option for increased flexibility of current OCV dosing. Further operational research using a longer dosing regimen will provide answers to improve implementation and delivery of cholera vaccination in endemic and epidemic outbreak scenarios. PMID:25764513

  19. Random Coverage with Guaranteed Connectivity: Joint Scheduling for

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    , IEEE Abstract--Sensor scheduling plays a critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor is expected to keep working for several weeks or months. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes the essential requirement in WSNs. Sensor scheduling plays a critical role for energy efficiency in WSNs. In this paper, we

  20. Dynamic scheduling of manufacturing systems with setups and random disruptions

    E-print Network

    Tubilla Kuri, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing systems are often composed of machines that can produce a variety of items but that most undergo time-consuming (and possibly costly) setups when switching between product types. Scheduling these setups ...

  1. DIFFERENT BREEDING SCHEDULES AT 6 MONTH INTERVALS IN FOUR BREEDS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dorset, Finnsheep, Composite I (50% Finnsheep, 25% Dorset, and 25% Rambouillet), and Composite II (50% Finnsheep, 25% Suffolk, and 25% Targhee) sheep were evaluated under three twice-a-year breeding schedules. Lactation status had a significant effect on conception rate but number of lambs suckling...

  2. Auditory Model: Effects on Learning under Blocked and Random Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dong-Wook; Shea, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of an auditory model on blocked, random, and mixed practice schedules of three five-segment timing sequences (relative time constant). We were interested in whether or not the auditory model differentially affected the learning of relative and absolute timing under blocked and random practice.…

  3. Single-Sample Discrimination of Different Schedules' Reinforced Interresponse Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…

  4. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

  5. Randomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden z Jir'i Sgall x

    E-print Network

    Sgall, Jiri

    Randomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Machines Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden online scheduling of independent jobs with the objective to minimize the makespan (i.e., the length of the schedule, or equivalently the last job completion time). An input to this problem consists of a sequence

  6. Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule among Drug Users – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Lu-Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Tran, Thanh Quoc; Clark, April; Xia, Rui; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine; Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B vaccine provides a model for improving uptake and completion of multi-dose vaccinations in the drug-using community. Methods DASH project conducted randomized controlled trial among not-in-treatment current drug users in two urban neighborhoods. Neighborhoods were cluster-randomized to receive a standard (HIV information) or enhanced (HBV vaccine acceptance/adherence) behavioral intervention; participants within clusters were randomized to a standard (0, 1, 6 mo) or accelerated (0, 1, 2 mo) vaccination schedule. Outcomes were completion of three-dose vaccine and HBV seroprotection. Results Of those screening negative for HIV/HBV, 77% accepted HB vaccination and 75% of those received all 3 doses. Injecting drug users (IDUs) on the accelerated schedule were significantly more likely to receive 3 doses (76%) than those on the standard schedule (66%, p=.04), although for drug users as a whole the adherence was 77% and 73%. No difference in adherence was observed between behavioral intervention groups. Predictors of adherence were older age, African American race, stable housing, and alcohol use. Cumulative HBV seroprotection (?10 mIU/mL) was gained by 12 months by 65% of those completing. Seroprotection at 6 months was greater for the accelerated schedule group. Conclusions The accelerated vaccine schedule improves hepatitis B vaccination adherence among IDU. PMID:20936979

  7. Effect of jumping interval training on neuromuscular and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Moro, Antônio R P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of 4 weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental groups, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake, for 3 times per week. Additionally, the experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4 to 6 bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30 s) with 5-min intervals. Three days before and after the training period, the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise, and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by (i) increased jump height (4.7%; effect size (ES) = 0.99) and power output (?3.7%; ES ? 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); (ii) anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of jump height (7.4%; ES = 0.8), and peak power output (PPO) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of jump height (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPO (9.5%, ES = 1.1), considering all jumps of CJ30; and (iii) aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake (9.1%, ES = 1.28), velocity at peak oxygen uptake (2.7%, ES = 1.11), and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate to large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. PMID:26624965

  8. When Repetition Isn't the Best Practice Strategy: Effects of Blocked and Random Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blocked and random practice schedules on the performance accuracy, speed, temporal evenness, and attitude of beginning band students in a group instructional setting. The research assumptions were based on the contextual interference hypothesis, which predicts that a blocked practice…

  9. A GREEDY RANDOM ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF P2P SATELLITE

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    AAS 07-150 A GREEDY RANDOM ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF P2P SATELLITE as P2P) satellite refueling so far assume that all active satellites return back to their original orbital positions after under- going fuel exchanges with the passive satellites. In this paper, we remove

  10. Computing Correct Confidence Intervals for ANOVA Fixed- and Random-Effects Effect Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Fiona; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the computation of confidence intervals for effect sizes for some analysis of variance applications and shows how the use of intervals involving noncentral distributions is made practical by new software. (SLD)

  11. A new hierarchical method for inter-patient heartbeat classification using random projections and RR intervals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-patient classification schema and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards are important to the construction and evaluation of automated heartbeat classification systems. The majority of previously proposed methods that take the above two aspects into consideration use the same features and classification method to classify different classes of heartbeats. The performance of the classification system is often unsatisfactory with respect to the ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) and supraventricular ectopic beat (SVEB). Methods Based on the different characteristics of VEB and SVEB, a novel hierarchical heartbeat classification system was constructed. This was done in order to improve the classification performance of these two classes of heartbeats by using different features and classification methods. First, random projection and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble were used to detect VEB. Then, the ratio of the RR interval was compared to a predetermined threshold to detect SVEB. The optimal parameters for the classification models were selected on the training set and used in the independent testing set to assess the final performance of the classification system. Meanwhile, the effect of different lead configurations on the classification results was evaluated. Results Results showed that the performance of this classification system was notably superior to that of other methods. The VEB detection sensitivity was 93.9% with a positive predictive value of 90.9%, and the SVEB detection sensitivity was 91.1% with a positive predictive value of 42.2%. In addition, this classification process was relatively fast. Conclusions A hierarchical heartbeat classification system was proposed based on the inter-patient data division to detect VEB and SVEB. It demonstrated better classification performance than existing methods. It can be regarded as a promising system for detecting VEB and SVEB of unknown patients in clinical practice. PMID:24981916

  12. Service-Oriented Node Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Markov Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

    2014-01-01

    Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

  13. Service-oriented node scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks using Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

    2014-01-01

    Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

  14. Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…

  15. Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Peng, C.-K.; Ladin, Zvi; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Goldberger, Ary L.

    1995-01-01

    Complex fluctuation of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being (1) uncorrelated white noise, (2) short-range correlations, or (3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that sucessfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations.

  16. Initial Investigations of Controller Tools and Procedures for Schedule-Based Arrival Operations with Mixed Flight-Deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Omar, Faisal G.; Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    NASA?s Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) is a multi-year effort to demonstrate high-throughput, fuel-efficient arrivals at a major U.S. airport using NASA-developed scheduling automation, controller decision-support tools, and ADS-B-enabled Flight-Deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics. First-year accomplishments include the development of a concept of operations for managing scheduled arrivals flying Optimized Profile Descents with equipped aircraft conducting FIM operations, and the integration of laboratory prototypes of the core ATD-1 technologies. Following each integration phase, a human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate and refine controller tools, procedures, and clearance phraseology. From a ground-side perspective, the results indicate the concept is viable and the operations are safe and acceptable. Additional training is required for smooth operations that yield notable benefits, particularly in the areas of FIM operations and clearance phraseology.

  17. On the comparison of the interval estimation of the Pareto parameter under simple random sampling and ranked set sampling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Aissa Omar; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Dayyeh, Walid Abu; Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan

    2015-02-01

    Ranked set sampling (RSS) is recognized as a useful sampling scheme for improving the precision of the parameter estimates and increasing the efficiency of estimation. This type of scheme is appropriate when the variable of interest is expensive or time consuming to be quantified, but easy and cheap to be ranked. In this study, the estimation of the shape parameter of the Pareto distribution of the first type when the scale is known is studied for the data that are gathered under simple random sampling (SRS), RSS, and selective order statistics based on the maximum (SORSS(max)). The confidence intervals for the shape parameter of Pareto distribution under the sampling techniques considered are determined. A simulation study is carried out to compare the confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities (CPs) and expected lengths (ELs). When the coverage probabilities and expected lengths for the confidence intervals of the shape parameter of Pareto distribution determined based on the different sampling methods are compared, the coverage probabilities and expected lengths are found to be more precise under RSS as opposed to SRS. In particular, it is found that the coverage probabilities under SORSS(max) is closest to the nominal value of 0.95.

  18. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  19. A randomized comparison of once weekly epoetin alfa to extended schedule epoetin or darbepoetin in chemotherapy-associated anemia.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P; Dakhil, Shaker R; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Johnson, David B; Anderson, Daniel M; Mattar, Bassam I; Moore, Dennis F; Nikcevich, Daniel; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2015-10-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) epoetin alfa (EA) and darbepoetin alfa (DA) increase hemoglobin (Hb) levels and reduce red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements in patients with cancer chemotherapy-associated anemia (CAA). Extended-interval ESA dosing (administration less than once weekly) is common with DA, but previous studies suggested that EA might also be administered less often than weekly. In this multicenter prospective trial, 239 CAA patients with Hb <10.5 g/dL were randomized to receive EA 40,000 U subcutaneously once weekly ("40K" arm), EA 80,000 U every 3 weeks ("80K"), EA 120,000 U every 3 weeks ("120K" arm), or DA 500 mcg every 3 weeks ("DA"), for 15 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving Hb???11.5 g/dL or increment of Hb?>?2.0 g/dL from baseline without transfusion. Secondary endpoints included transfusion requirements, adverse events (AEs), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). There were no significant differences between treatment arms in the proportion of patients achieving Hb response (68.9% for 40K, 61.7% for 80K, 65.5% for 120K, and 66.7% for DA; P?>?0.41 for all comparisons) or requiring RBC transfusion, but the median Hb increment from baseline was higher in the 40K and DA arms compared to the two extended dosing EA arms, and Hb response was achieved soonest in the weekly EA arm. There were no differences in PROs or AEs. The FDA-approved schedules tested-weekly EA 40,000 U, and every 3 week DA 500 mcg-are reasonable standards for CAA therapy. PMID:26149465

  20. Analysis of using interpulse intervals to generate 128-bit biometric random binary sequences for securing wireless body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-He; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Wireless body sensor network (WBSN), a key building block for m-Health, demands extremely stringent resource constraints and thus lightweight security methods are preferred. To minimize resource consumption, utilizing information already available to a WBSN, particularly common to different sensor nodes of a WBSN, for security purposes becomes an attractive solution. In this paper, we tested the randomness and distinctiveness of the 128-bit biometric binary sequences (BSs) generated from interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 20 healthy subjects as well as 30 patients suffered from myocardial infarction and 34 subjects with other cardiovascular diseases. The encoding time of a biometric BS on a WBSN node is on average 23?ms and memory occupation is 204 bytes for any given IPI sequence. The results from five U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests suggest that random biometric BSs can be generated from both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients and can potentially be used as authentication identifiers for securing WBSNs. Ultimately, it is preferred that these biometric BSs can be used as encryption keys such that key distribution over the WBSN can be avoided. PMID:22049370

  1. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    PubMed

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational theories about UP states during slow wave sleep and present possible extensions of the model in the context of spike-frequency adaptation. PMID:26203657

  2. Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1?1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p?=?0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ?30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p?=?0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p?=?0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

  3. Influence of Inter-Training Intervals on Intermanual Transfer Effects in Upper-Limb Prosthesis Training: A Randomized Pre-Posttest Study

    PubMed Central

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, “unaffected” hand to the untrained, “affected” hand) has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effects. This was done using a mechanistic, randomized, single-blinded pretest-posttest design. Sixty-four able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to the Short and Long Interval Training Groups and the Short and Long Interval Control Groups. The Short and Long Interval Training Groups used a prosthesis simulator in their training program. The Short and Long Interval Control Groups executed a sham training program, that is, a dummy training program in which the same muscles were trained as with the prosthesis simulator. The Short Interval Training Group and the Short Interval Control Groups trained on consecutive days, while the Long Interval Training Group and Long Interval Control Group trained twice a week. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and at two points in time after the training. Training was performed with the “unaffected” arm; tests were performed with the “affected” arm. The outcome measurements were: the movement time (the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task); the duration of maximum hand opening, (the opening of the prosthetic hand while grasping an object); and the grip-force control (the error from the required grip-force during a tracking task). Intermanual transfer was found in movement times, but not in hand opening or grip-force control. The length of the inter-training interval did not affect the magnitude of intermanual transfer effects. No difference in the intermanual transfer effect in upper-limb prosthesis training was found for training on a daily basis as compared to training twice a week. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3888 PMID:26075396

  4. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States

    PubMed Central

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon’s implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike’s preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF’s exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron’s ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational theories about UP states during slow wave sleep and present possible extensions of the model in the context of spike-frequency adaptation. PMID:26203657

  5. Evaluation of Moderate Alcohol Use With QT Interval and Heart Rate Using Mendelian Randomization Analysis Among Older Southern Chinese Men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Long, Meijing; Cheng, Kar Keung; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-08-15

    Western observational studies show that moderate alcohol use is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations may be confounded by the healthier attributes of moderate users in these settings. Mendelian randomization analysis may help to ascertain the causal effect of moderate alcohol use on specific factors related to CVD and thereby clarify the role of alcohol. We used Mendelian randomization analysis with the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) as an instrumental variable to examine the association of alcohol units (10 g of ethanol) per day with heart rate-corrected QT interval and heart rate assessed from electrocardiogram among 4,588 older southern Chinese men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-2008). The F statistic was 77 for ALDH2 on alcohol use, suggesting little weak-instrument bias. Instrumental variable analysis showed that alcohol units were not associated with the corrected QT interval, with ? = 1.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.61, 2.70) milliseconds, but they were associated with increased heart rate, with ? = 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 1.92) beat per minute. This study suggests that moderate alcohol use in men is not beneficial for heart function via QT interval or heart rate but could be detrimental. Future studies using specific cardiovascular outcomes may elucidate how alcohol affects different aspects of the cardiovascular system and, hence, the overall effects of alcohol on CVD can be estimated. PMID:26153479

  6. Human Responding on Random-Interval Schedules of Response-Cost Punishment: The Role of Reduced Reinforcement Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

  7. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05). Conclusion Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these two specific regimes (Clinical Trial Registry number NCT01935323). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01935323 PMID:26489022

  8. Randomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Machines Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden z Jir'i Sgall x Gerhard Woeginger z

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Leah

    Randomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Machines Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden uniform machines with speeds 1 and s â?? 1. For this problem, a OE Ã? 1:61803 competitive de­ terministic that randomization does not help for speeds s â?? 2, but does help for all s ! 2. We present a simple memoryless

  9. A critical appraisal of the evidence for using cardiotocography plus ECG ST interval analysis for fetal surveillance in labor. Part I: the randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Per; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Kessler, Jörg; Tendal, Britta; Yli, Branka M; Devoe, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    We reappraised the five randomized controlled trials that compared cardiotocography plus ECG ST interval analysis (CTG+ST) vs. cardiotocography. The numbers enrolled ranged from 5681 (Dutch randomized controlled trial) to 799 (French randomized controlled trial). The Swedish randomized controlled trial (n = 5049) was the only trial adequately powered to show a difference in metabolic acidosis, and the Plymouth randomized controlled trial (n = 2434) was only powered to show a difference in operative delivery for fetal distress. There were considerable differences in study design: the French randomized controlled trial used different inclusion criteria, and the Finnish randomized controlled trial (n = 1483) used a different metabolic acidosis definition. In the CTG+ST study arms, the larger Plymouth, Swedish and Dutch trials showed lower operative delivery and metabolic acidosis rates, whereas the smaller Finnish and French trials showed minor differences in operative delivery and higher metabolic acidosis rates. We conclude that the differences in outcomes are likely due to the considerable differences in study design and size. This will enhance heterogeneity effects in any subsequent meta-analysis. PMID:24797452

  10. DADA: A 2-Dimensional Adaptive Node Schedule to Provide Smooth Sensor Network Services against Random Failures

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanyong

    dynamics, like network topology variation due to battery depletion and hardware failure, fluctuating Random Failures Shengchao Yu, Antony Yang, and Yanyong Zhang Department of Electrical & Computer, it provides protection against unexpected node failures. Using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate

  11. Too Much of a Good Thing: Random Practice Scheduling and Self-Control of Feedback Lead to Unique but Not Additive Learning Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asif; Fawver, Bradley; Kim, Jingu; Fairbrother, Jeffrey; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21?mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24?h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17?mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects. PMID:23233843

  12. Scheduling Randomly-Deployed Heterogeneous Video Sensor Nodes for Reduced Intrusion Detection Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Congduc

    This paper proposes to use video sensor nodes to provide an efficient intrusion detection system. We use a scheduling mechanism that takes into account the criticality of the surveillance application and present a performance study of various cover set construction strategies that take into account cameras with heterogeneous angle of view and those with very small angle of view. We show by simulation how a dynamic criticality management scheme can provide fast event detection for mission-critical surveillance applications by increasing the network lifetime and providing low stealth time of intrusions.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess QTc interval prolongation of standard dose aflibercept in cancer patients treated with docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Vermorken, Jan B; Goksel, Tuncay; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Agarwala, Sanjiv; Rottey, Sylvie; Daugaard, Gedske; Volovat, Constantin; Scheulen, Max; Sengeløv, Lisa; Grecea, Dana; Eniu, Alexandru; Jäger, Elke; Meiri, Eyal; Cascinu, Stefano; Strumberg, Dirk; Demir, Gokhan; Clemens, Michael; Pinotti, Graziella; Nardi, Mario; Guthrie, Troy; Boelle, Emmanuelle; Magherini, Emmanuelle

    2013-06-01

    : The effect of repeated doses of aflibercept on ventricular repolarization in cancer patients was evaluated in an intensive electrocardiogram trial. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 87 treated solid tumor patients. Treatment was with 6 mg/kg aflibercept, 1-hour intravenous (n = 43), or placebo (n = 44), combined with ?75 mg/m docetaxel, every 3 weeks. Electrocardiograms were collected for 6 hours posttreatment using digital 12-lead Holter recorders, at day 1, in cycles 1 and 3. Free and vascular endothelial growth factor-bound aflibercept concentrations were assessed at similar time points. Eighty-four patients (43 placebo and 41 aflibercept) were evaluable for QT interval, Fridericia correction (QTcF) at cycle 1 and 59 (31 placebo and 28 aflibercept) at cycle 3. During cycle 3, from 30 minutes to 6 hours after the start of aflibercept, the maximum observed upper limit of the QTcF 90% confidence interval was 16 ms, for a mean of 8.4 ms. QTcF prolongation above 480 ms and 60 ms above baseline was observed in 1 aflibercept patient (2%). The slope of the relationship between free aflibercept concentration and QTcF was 0.048 (95% confidence interval, 0.013-0.082), corresponding to a 5-ms increase per 100 µg/mL increase in concentration. These results exclude a clinically important effect of aflibercept on ventricular repolarization. PMID:23429593

  14. Cycle scheduling for in vitro fertilization with oral contraceptive pills versus oral estradiol valerate: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and estradiol (E2) valerate have been used to schedule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and, consequently, laboratory activities. However, there are no studies comparing treatment outcomes directly between these two pretreatment methods. This randomized controlled trial was aimed at finding differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between GnRH antagonist IVF cycles scheduled with OCPs or E2 valerate. Methods Between January and May 2012, one hundred consecutive patients (nonobese, regularly cycling women 18–38 years with normal day 3 hormone levels and <3 previous IVF/ICSI attempts) undergoing IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol were randomized to either the OCP or E2 pretreatment arms, with no restrictions such as blocking or stratification. Authors involved in data collection and analysis were blinded to group assignment. Fifty patients received OCP (30 ?g ethinyl E2/150 ?g levonorgestrel) for 12–16 days from day 1 or 2, and stimulation was started 5 days after stopping OCP. Similarly, 50 patients received 4 mg/day oral E2 valerate from day 20 for 5–12 days, until the day before starting stimulation. Results Pretreatment with OCP (mean±SD, 14.5±1.7 days) was significantly longer than with E2 (7.8±1.9 days). Stimulation and embryological characteristics were similar. Ongoing pregnancy rates (46.0% vs. 44.0%; risk difference, –2.0% [95% CI –21.2% to 17.3%]), as well as implantation (43.5% vs. 47.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.0% vs. 48.0%), clinical miscarriage (7.1% vs. 7.7%), and live birth (42.0% vs. 40.0%) rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions This is the first study to directly compare these two methods of cycle scheduling in GnRH antagonist cycles. Our results fail to show statistically significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between pretreatment with OCP and E2 for IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol. Although the study is limited by its sample size, our results may contribute to a future meta-analysis. An interesting future direction would be to extend our study to women with decreased ovarian reserve, as these are the patients in whom an increase in oocyte yield—due to the hypothetical beneficial effect of steroid pretreatment on follicular synchronization—could more easily be demonstrated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov http://NCT01501448. PMID:24074027

  15. The Schedule and Duration of Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients with Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Published Results of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Richard J.; Oosterlinck, Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Intravesical chemotherapy has been studied in randomized clinical trials for >30 yr; however, the optimal schedule and duration of treatment are unknown. The objective is to determine the effect of schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy on recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer. Methods A systematic review was conducted of the published results of randomized clinical trials that compared intravesical instillations with respect to their number, frequency, timing, duration, dose, or dose intensity. Results One immediate instillation after transurethral resection (TUR) is recommended in all patients. In low-risk patients, no further treatment is recommended before recurrence. In patients with multiple tumors, one immediate instillation is insufficient treatment. Additional instillations may further reduce the recurrence rate; however, no recommendations can be made concerning their optimal duration. A short intensive schedule of instillations within the first 3–4 mo after an immediate instillation may be as effective as longer-term treatment schedules (grade C). Instillations during ?1 yr in intermediate-risk patients seem advisable only when an immediate instillation has not been given (grade C). Higher drug concentrations and optimization of the drug's concentration in the bladder may provide better results (grade C). Conclusions The optimal schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy after an immediate instillation remain unknown. Future studies should focus on the eradication of residual disease after TUR and the prevention of late recurrences. PMID:18207317

  16. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance. PMID:19909536

  17. Effects of different accessibility of reinforcement schedules on choice in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stockhorst, Ursula

    1994-01-01

    Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight students were randomly assigned to three groups. In Phase 1, the duration of the less profitable schedule equaled the mean delay to reinforcement in all groups. In Phase 2, waiting time preceding the less profitable schedule was reduced in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. Thus, the schedule was correlated either with a relative delay increase (Group 1) or a delay reduction (Group 2). In Group 3, conditions remained unchanged. As predicted, acceptance of the less profitable schedule decreased in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. The increased acceptance in Group 2 was accompanied by a decreased acceptance of the more profitable (variable-interval 3 s) schedule, resembling a pattern of negative contrast. Response rates were higher under the component preceding (a) the more profitable schedule in Group 1 and (b) the less profitable schedule in Group 2. Implications for the modification of human choice behavior are discussed. PMID:16812743

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of RTS,S/AS02D and RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Candidate Vaccines Given According to Different Schedules in Ghanaian Children

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansong, Daniel; Asante, Kwaku; Kwarteng Owusu, Sandra; Owusu, Ruth; Wireko Brobby, Naana Ayiwa; Dosoo, David; Osei Akoto, Alex; Osei-Kwakye, Kingsley; Adjei, Emmanuel Asafo; Boahen, Kwadwo Owusu; Sylverken, Justice; Adjei, George; Sambian, David; Apanga, Stephen; Kayan, Kingsley; Vekemans, Johan; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Demoitie, Marie-Ange; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Savarese, Barbara; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gyapong, John Owusu; Milligan, Paul; Antwi, Sampson; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Greenwood, Brian; Evans, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background The target delivery channel of RTS,S candidate malaria vaccines in malaria-endemic countries in Africa is the World Health Organisation Expanded Program on Immunization. As an Adjuvant System, age de-escalation and schedule selection step, this study assessed 3 schedules of RTS,S/AS01E and RTS,S/AS02D in infants and young children 5–17 months of age in Ghana. Methodology A Phase II, partially-blind randomized controlled study (blind to vaccine, not to schedule), of 19 months duration was conducted in two (2) centres in Ghana between August 2006 and May 2008. Subjects were allocated randomly (1?1?1?1?1?1) to one of six study groups at each study site, each defining which vaccine should be given and by which schedule (0,1-, 0,1,2- or 0,1,7-months). For the 0,1,2-month schedule participants received RTS,S/AS01E or rabies vaccine at one center and RTS,S/AS01E or RTS,S/AS02D at the other. For the other schedules at both study sites, they received RTS,S/AS01E or RTS,S/AS02D. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of serious adverse events until 10 months post dose 1. Results The number of serious adverse events reported across groups was balanced. One child had a simple febrile convulsion, which evolved favourably without sequelae, considered to be related to RTS,S/AS01E vaccination. Low grade reactions occurred slightly more frequently in recipients of RTS,S/AS than rabies vaccines; grade 3 reactions were infrequent. Less local reactogenicity occurred with RTS,S/AS01E than RTS,S/AS02D. Both candidate vaccines were highly immunogenic for anti-circumsporozoite and anti-Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen antibodies. Recipients of RTS,S/AS01E compared to RTS,S/AS02D had higher peak anti-circumsporozoite antibody responses for all 3 schedules. Three dose schedules were more immunogenic than 2 dose schedules. Area under the curve analyses for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies were comparable between the 0,1,2- and 0,1,7-month RTS,S/AS01E schedules. Conclusions Both candidate malaria vaccines were well tolerated. Anti-circumsporozoite responses were greater with RTS,S/AS01E than RTS,S/AS02D and when 3 rather than 2 doses were given. This study supports the selection of RTS,S/AS01E and a 3 dose schedule for further development in children and infants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00360230 PMID:19806184

  19. Patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care with different resident duty schedules in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Parshuram, Christopher S.; Amaral, Andre C.K.B.; Ferguson, Niall D.; Baker, G. Ross; Etchells, Edward E.; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C.; Stewart, Thomas E.; Willan, Andrew R.; Friedrich, Jan O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Methods: Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents’ physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. Results: We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents’ sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents’ somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents’ knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Interpretation: Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents’ symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. PMID:25667258

  20. Rotator interval.

    PubMed

    Woertler, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    The rotator interval is an anatomically complex region of the shoulder joint that is difficult to evaluate on clinical examination and by imaging. Abnormalities of its components may contribute to instability, shoulder stiffness, and pain and are challenging to diagnose and treat. This article gives an overview of the anatomy, MR anatomy, and normal variants of the rotator interval, together with basic technical aspects of MR imaging of this area. Pathologic conditions of the rotator interval capsule, the long head of biceps tendon, and the pulley system are reviewed and illustrated with several clinical examples. PMID:26021585

  1. Multimode Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Random Environment and Its Application to a Large Scale Hydropower Construction Project

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method. PMID:24550708

  2. Humans' choices in situations of time-based diminishing returns: effects of fixed-interval duration and progressive-interval step size.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, E A; Hackenberg, T D

    1996-01-01

    Four adult humans made repeated choices between two time-based schedules of points exchangeable for money: a fixed-interval schedule and a progressive-interval schedule that began at 0 s and increased in fixed increments following each point delivered by that schedule. Under reset conditions, selection of the fixed schedule not only produced a point but also reset the progressive interval to 0 s. Reset conditions alternated with no-reset conditions, in which the progressive-interval duration was independent of fixed-interval choices. Fixed-interval duration and progressive-interval step size were varied independently across conditions. Subjects were exposed to all step sizes in ascending order at a given fixed-interval value before the value was changed. Switching from the progressive-interval schedule to the fixed-interval schedule was systematically related to fixed-interval duration, particularly under no-reset conditions. Switching occurred more frequently and earlier in the progressive-schedule sequence under reset conditions than under no-reset conditions. Overall, the switching patterns conformed closely to predictions of an optimization account based upon maximization of overall reinforcement density, and did not appear to depend on schedule-controlled response patterns or on verbal descriptions of the contingencies. PMID:8583204

  3. Interval training based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold increases cardiac vagal modulation and decreases high-sensitivity c-reative protein: randomized clinical trial in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamburus, Nayara Y.; Paula, Roberta F. L.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; César, Marcelo C.; Moreno, Marlene A.; da Silva, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity are involved in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and exercise training has been shown to confer a cardiovascular benefit. Objective: To evaluate the effects that interval training (IT) based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) has on heart rate variability (HRV) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as the relationship between both levels, in patients with CAD and/or cardiovascular risk factors (RF). Method: Forty-two men (aged 57.88±6.20 years) were divided into two training groups, CAD-T (n= 12) and RF-T (n= 10), and two control groups, CAD-C (n= 10) and RF-C (n=10). Heart rate and RR intervals in the supine position, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and hs-CRP levels were measured before and after IT. HRV was analyzed by spectral and symbolic analysis. The CAD-T and RF-T underwent a 16-week IT program of three weekly sessions at training intensities based on the VAT. Results: In the RF-T, cardiac sympathetic modulation index and hs-CRP decreased (p<0.02), while cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased (p<0.02). In the CAD-T, cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased, while hs-CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures decreased (p<0.02). Both control groups showed increase in hs-CRP parameters (p<0.02). There was a strong and significant association between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations with hs-CRP. Conclusion: The IT program based on the VAT promoted a decrease in hs-CRP associated with improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:26647745

  4. Alternate-Week versus Continuous Dexamethasone Scheduling on the Risk of Osteonecrosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results from the CCG-1961 Randomized Cohort Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mattano, Leonard A; Devidas, Meenakshi; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Hunger, Stephen P; Steinherz, Peter G.; Gaynon, Paul S; Seibel, Nita L

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable in over 80% of children and adolescents with high-risk features. However, current therapies are associated with symptomatic osteonecrosis that disproportionately affects adolescents, often requires surgery, and is one of the most common causes of short- and long-term morbidity. A strategy is needed to lessen this risk. Methods CCG-1961, a multi-cohort randomized cooperative group trial, evaluated components of therapeutic intensification in 2056 eligible, newly diagnosed high-risk patients (white blood cell count ?50×109/L and/or age ?10 years). To address osteonecrosis, a novel alternate-week dexamethasone schedule (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-6 and 14-20) was compared to standard continuous dexamethasone (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-20) in randomized regimens with either double or single delayed intensification phases, respectively. Randomization was done based on a randomization schedule generated using permuted blocks within strata. Patients were prospectively monitored clinically for osteonecrosis, with confirmatory imaging of suspected sites. Primary analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis and focused on the estimation and comparison of cumulative incidence rates of osteonecrosis both overall and in patient subgroups (age, gender, marrow early response status); final results are herein reported. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002812. Findings Symptomatic osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 143 patients at 377 confirmed skeletal sites, resulting in 139 surgeries. The overall cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was 7·7% (N=2056) at 5 years, correlating with age at ALL diagnosis (1-9 years 1·0% (N=769), 10-15 years 9·9% (N=1025), ?16 years 20·0% (N=262), p<0·0001) and gender (?10 years, female 15·7% (N=525) versus male 9·3% (N=762), p=0·0010). For patients ?10 years old with a rapid response to induction therapy, the use of alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases significantly reduced osteonecrosis incidence compared with continuous dexamethasone (8·7±2·1% (N=420) versus 17·0±2·9% (N=403), p=0·0005), especially those ?16 years (11·3±5·3% (N=84) versus 37·5±11·1% (N=79), p=0·0003; females 17·2±8·1% (N=32) versus 43·9±14·1% (N=23), p=0·050; males 7·7±5·9% (N=53) versus 34·6±11·6% (N=56), p=0·0014). Interpretation Alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases effectively reduces osteonecrosis risk in children and adolescents receiving intensified therapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:22901620

  5. Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session…

  6. Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p?=?0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p?=?0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p?=?0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p?=?0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645

  7. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. PMID:26265792

  8. Interval estimates and their precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Luboš; Vrabec, Michal

    2015-06-01

    A task very often met in in practice is computation of confidence interval bounds for the relative frequency within sampling without replacement. A typical situation includes preelection estimates and similar tasks. In other words, we build the confidence interval for the parameter value M in the parent population of size N on the basis of a random sample of size n. There are many ways to build this interval. We can use a normal or binomial approximation. More accurate values can be looked up in tables. We consider one more method, based on MS Excel calculations. In our paper we compare these different methods for specific values of M and we discuss when the considered methods are suitable. The aim of the article is not a publication of new theoretical methods. This article aims to show that there is a very simple way how to compute the confidence interval bounds without approximations, without tables and without other software costs.

  9. The Effects of Interval Duration on Temporal Tracking and Alternation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Staddon, John E. R.

    2005-01-01

    On cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules, animals typically show a postreinforcement pause that is a function of the immediately preceding time interval ("temporal tracking"). Animals, however, do not track single-alternation schedules--when two different intervals are presented in strict alternation on successive trials. In this experiment,…

  10. Effects of conventional vs high-dose rocuronium on the QTc interval during anesthesia induction and intubation in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery: a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, T.; A?danl?, D.; Bayturan, Ö.; Ç?kr?kc?, C.; Kele?, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia, as well as the induction agents used in anesthesia, may cause corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. The objective of this randomized, double-blind trial was to determine the effects of high- vs conventional-dose bolus rocuronium on QTc duration and the incidence of dysrhythmias following anesthesia induction and intubation. Fifty patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery were randomly allocated to receive conventional-dose (0.6 mg/kg, group C, n=25) or high-dose (1.2 mg/kg, group H, n=25) rocuronium after induction with etomidate and fentanyl. QTc, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were recorded before induction (T0), after induction (T1), after rocuronium (just before laryngoscopy; T2), 2 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T4). The occurrence of dysrhythmias was recorded. In both groups, QTc was significantly longer at T3 than at baseline [475 vs 429 ms in group C (P=0.001), and 459 vs 434 ms in group H (P=0.005)]. The incidence of dysrhythmias in group C (28%) and in group H (24%) was similar. The QTc after high-dose rocuronium was not significantly longer than after conventional-dose rocuronium in patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery who were induced with etomidate and fentanyl. In both groups, compared with baseline, QTc was most prolonged at 2 min after intubation, suggesting that QTc prolongation may be due to the nociceptive stimulus of intubation. PMID:25714880

  11. Enhancing the Selection of Backoff Interval Using Fuzzy Logic over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff—BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066

  12. ISSN 1360-1725 Interval Analysis in MATLAB

    E-print Network

    Higham, Nicholas J.

    , and these are then tested to compare timings and accuracy. We consider univariate and multivariate interval nonlinear's constant, the rate at which a random Fibonacci sequence increases. 1 Introduction The concept of interval

  13. Discrimination of Variable Schedules Is Controlled by Interresponse Times Proximal to Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…

  14. Clairvoyant scheduling of random walks

    E-print Network

    Gacs, Peter

    ´acs (BU) Clairvoyant demon April 25, 2008 1 / 65 #12;Introduction The clairvoyant demon problem 0 1 2 3 4 nodes. In each instant, either X or Y will move. A demon knows both (infinite) walks completely . . ., Y = 0012111443 . . .. The repetitions are the demon's insertions. P´eter G´acs (BU) Clairvoyant

  15. A Model for Residence Time in Concurrent Variable Interval Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakatikyan, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-interval schedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing…

  16. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  17. A computer algorithm to optimize the scheduling of strategic sealift 

    E-print Network

    Lambert, Garrett Randall

    1995-01-01

    Operation Desert Shield. A mathematical model for the problem is proposed and an algorithm is developed and applied to solve the scheduling problem. Results of the algorithm are compared with randomly generated schedules to determine algorithm effectiveness....

  18. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Two-Day Regimen of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Prevention Halted for Concern over Prolonged Corrected QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Jessica; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Somethy, Sok; Phann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Mitprasat, Mashamon; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Soh, Eugene; Timmermans, Ans; Lanteri, Charlotte; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Auayporn, Montida; Tang, Douglas; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min to 3 h of a meal once per month for a planned 4-month period with periodic electrocardiographic and pharmacokinetic assessment. The study was halted after only 6 weeks (69 of 231 projected volunteers enrolled) when four volunteers met a prespecified cardiac safety endpoint of QTcF (Fridericia's formula for correct QT interval) prolongation of >500 ms. The pharmacodynamic effect on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) peaked approximately 4 h after piperaquine dosing and lasted 4 to 8 h. Unblinded review by the data safety monitoring board revealed mean QTcF prolongation of 46 ms over placebo at the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) on day 2. Given that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the few remaining effective antimalarial agents in Cambodia, compressed 2-day treatment courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are best avoided until the clinical significance of these findings are more thoroughly evaluated. Because ECG monitoring is often unavailable in areas where malaria is endemic, repolarization risk could be mitigated by using conventional 3-day regimens, fasting, and avoidance of repeated dosing or coadministration with other QT-prolonging medications. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01624337.) PMID:25092702

  19. The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random

  20. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of agomelatine on the QT/QTc interval: a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and positive-controlled, crossover thorough QT/QTc study conducted in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Caillaud, Marie-Anne; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Seguin, Laure

    2014-11-01

    : The effects of the antidepressant agomelatine up to a supratherapeutic dose (400 mg, single dose) on the QT corrected (QTc) interval were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover thorough QT/QTc study in young healthy volunteers (29 males and 31 females). The primary criterion was the study of male or female population-derived QT-corrected interval (QTcP). The main analysis on the QTcP demonstrated that among the 10 postdose measurement times planned, the largest 1-sided 95% confidence interval upper bound of the difference between agomelatine 50 mg and placebo-adjusted means, and 1 of the differences between agomelatine 400 mg and placebo-adjusted means were both strictly inferior to the 10 millisecond upper-bound threshold of regulatory concern. The assay sensitivity was established with the positive control moxifloxacin (400 mg) and detected an effect on the mean QTcP interval that is around the threshold of regulatory concern (5 milliseconds). No relationship between QTcP and plasma concentrations of agomelatine was observed. In conclusion, agomelatine up to 400 mg has no effect on the QTc interval as demonstrated in the present regulatory thorough QT/QTc study. PMID:24977347

  2. The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…

  3. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  4. Please cite this article in press as: Brown B, et al. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers. Vaccine (2012), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.058

    E-print Network

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Brown B, et al. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers. Vaccine (2012), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.058 ARTICLE IN PRESS GModel JVAC-12859; No.of Pages6 Vaccine xxx (2012) xxx­xxx Contents lists

  5. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  6. Schedule-induced locomotor activity in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, P G; Crow, R E; Cheney, C D

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, humans received tokens either on a fixed-interval schedule for plunger pulling or various response-nondependent fixed-time schedules ranging from 16 to 140 seconds. Locomotor activity such as walking, shifting weight, or pacing was recorded in quarters of the interreinforcement interval to examine the induced characteristics of that behavior in humans. While performance was variable, several characteristics were present that have counterparts in experiments with nonhumans during periodic schedules of food reinforcement: (a) first quarter rates, and sometimes overall rates, of locomotor activity were greater during intervals that terminated in a visual stimulus and token delivery than those without: (b) overall rates of locomotor activity were greater during fixed-time 16-second schedules than during fixed-time 80- or 140-second schedules; (c) rates of locomotor activity decreased during the interreinforcement intervals; (d) locomotor activity was induced by response-dependent and response-nondependent token delivery. These results showed that the rate and temporal pattern of locomotor activity can be schedule-induced in humans. PMID:429959

  7. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  8. Interval Neutrosophic Sets

    E-print Network

    Haibin Wang; Praveen Madiraju; Yanqing Zhang; Rajshekhar Sunderraman

    2004-09-07

    Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework that has been recently proposed. However, neutrosophic set needs to be specified from a technical point of view. To this effect, we define the set-theoretic operators on an instance of neutrosophic set, we call it interval neutrosophic set (INS). We prove various properties of INS, which are connected to the operations and relations over INS. Finally, we introduce and prove the convexity of interval neutrosophic sets.

  9. Optimal External Memory Interval Management

    E-print Network

    Arge, Lars; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    2012-02-17

    In this paper we present the external interval tree, an optimal external memory data structure for answering stabbing queries on a set of dynamically maintained intervals. The external interval tree can be used in an optimal ...

  10. THE LBFS STRUCTURE AND RECOGNITION OF INTERVAL GRAPHS

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Lorna

    that are linear in nature. Fifty years ago, Benzer [1] used interval graphs to model genetic structure and, since as archaeology, biology, psychology, sociology, management, genetics, engineering, scheduling, transportation families where the well-known Lexicographic Breadth First Search (LBFS) plays an important algorithmic

  11. Schedule shifts, cancer and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Julia; Halberg, Franz; de la Pena, Salvador Sanchez; Nelson, Walter; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Stoynev, Alexander; Haus, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Prompted by a recent report of the possible carcinogenic effect of shiftwork focusing on the disruption of circadian rhythms, we review studies involving shifts in schedule implemented at varying intervals in unicells, insects and mammals, including humans. Results indicate the desirability to account for a broader-than-circadian view. They also suggest the possibility of optimizing schedule shifts by selecting intervals between consecutive shifts associated with potential side-effects such as an increase in cancer risk. Toward this goal, marker rhythmometry is most desirable. The monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate present the added benefit of assessing cardiovascular disease risks resulting not only from an elevated blood pressure but also from abnormal variability in blood pressure and/or heart rate of normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. PMID:19227006

  12. Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todorov, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal duration. This duration of exposure was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to the rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component was studied. Results are plotted and discussed.

  13. Scheduling to minimize power consumption using submodular functions

    E-print Network

    Zadimoghaddam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    We develop logarithmic approximation algorithms for extremely general formulations of multiprocessor multi-interval offline task scheduling to minimize power usage. Here each processor has an arbitrary specified power ...

  14. Multichannel interval timer (MINT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype Multichannel INterval Timer (MINT) has been built for measuring signal Time of Arrival (TOA) from sensors placed in blast environments. The MINT is intended to reduce the space, equipment costs, and data reduction efforts associated with traditional analog TOA recording methods, making it more practical to field the large arrays of TOA sensors required to characterize blast environments. This document describes the MINT design features, provides the information required for installing and operating the system, and presents proposed improvements for the next generation system.

  15. Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

  16. 47 CFR 1.1103 - Schedule of charges for equipment approval, experimental radio services (or service).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1103 Section 1.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1103 Schedule of charges for equipment...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1155 Schedule of regulatory fees and...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1156 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1156 Section 1.1156 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1156 Schedule of regulatory fees and...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1103 - Schedule of charges for equipment approval, experimental radio services (or service).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1103 Section 1.1103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1103 Schedule of charges for equipment...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1155 Schedule of regulatory fees and...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1104 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1104 Section 1.1104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1104 Schedule of charges for applications...

  2. Concurrent Second-Order Schedules: Some Effects of Variations in Response Number and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Diane M.; Sumpter, Catherine E.; Temple, W.; Foster, T. Mary

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects on concurrent performance of independent manipulations of response-unit duration and number, 6 hens were exposed to concurrent second- order schedules of reinforcement. Each first-order operant unit required completion of a fixed-ratio schedule within the time specified by a fixed- interval schedule, with one further…

  3. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  4. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  5. An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.

  6. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  7. A study of the impact of scheduling parameters in heterogeneous computing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Sarah S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for exploring system scheduler parameter settings in a heterogeneous computing environment. Through the coupling of simulation and optimization techniques, this work investigates optimal scheduling intervals, the impact of job arrival prediction on scheduling, as well as how to best apply fair use policies. The developed simulation framework is quick and modular, enabling decision makers to further explore decisions in real-time regarding scheduling policies or parameter changes.

  8. Scheduler's assistant: a tool for intelligent scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Neal L.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project was to use expert system technology to aid in the scheduling activities performed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The WSMR range scheduling problem presents a complex interactive environment. A human factors approach was undertaken, in that, the goal was to implement a system which mimics current WSMR scheduling procedures. The results of this project have produced a prototypic scheduling tool, called Scheduler's Assistant (SA), to aid WSMR range schedulers to generate a daily schedule. The system provides resource conflict detection and resolution advice through a series of cooperating expert systems. Immediate advantages of the system are increased safety, insurance of proper schedule execution and improved speed for turnaround time of sudden schedule changes. Additional benefits of SA include: expandability as future operations grow, allows for rapid redeployment for changing resources, promotes efficient management of WSMR resources, provides a formal representation of knowledge such that years of range personnel experience is preserved and enables the flexibility of a scheduling aid as opposed to a rigid methodology. Prior development efforts by Perceptics have produced a sophisticated expert system development tool, called Knowledge Shaper, which was used to implement all of the expert systems. The development of SA included a library of routines (the SA toolbox) to permit the manipulation of internal data tables and define a data transfer protocol to and from the SA environment. The combination of Knowledge Shaper and the SA toolbox provide a powerful set of design tools for the development of future scheduling applications.

  9. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  10. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  11. Optimizing Operating Room Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Levine, Wilton C; Dunn, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the management of an operating room (OR) schedule and use of the schedule to add value to an organization. We review the methodology of an OR block schedule, daily OR schedule management, and post anesthesia care unit patient flow. We discuss the importance of a well-managed OR schedule to ensure smooth patient care, not only in the OR, but throughout the entire hospital. PMID:26610624

  12. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  13. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  14. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  15. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  16. Student and Faculty Preferences for Class Scheduling Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    A random sample of 55 faculty and 593 students in 28 classes was surveyed to determine class scheduling preferences for three-semester-hour courses and to relate them to existing scheduling patterns at Moraine Valley Community College. Fifty-five percent of the students preferred two 90-minute class sessions per week, 27% preferred one three-hour…

  17. Effects of primary reinforcement on pigeons' initial-link responding under a concurrent chains schedule with nondifferntial terminal links.

    PubMed Central

    Ploog, B O

    2001-01-01

    The effect of primary reinforcement on initial-link responding under concurrent-chains schedules with nondifferential terminal links was assessed in 12 pigeons. The iniitial and terminal links were variable-interval schedules (always the same for both alternatives). The positions (left or right key) of the initial-link stimuli (red or green) were randomized while the correlation between color and food amount remained constant within each condition. The terminal-link stimuli were always presented on the center key. Except in two control groups and conditions, the terminal-link stimuli were the same color (nondifferential, blue or yellow). Over six conditions, the differences in food amont and the durations of the initial- and terminal-link schedules were manipulated. In 57 of 60 cases, birds generated choice proportions above .50 in favor of the initial-link stimlus that was correlated with the larger reinforcer. There was some indication that preference increased with shortened terminal-link durations. Because the terminal-link stimuli were nondifferential, differential responding in the initial links cannot be explained easily by conditioned reinforcement represented by the terminal-link stimuli. Thus, primiary reinforcement has a direct effect on initial-link responding in concurrent-chains schedules. PMID:11516116

  18. Subjective probability intervals: how to reduce overconfidence by interval evaluation.

    PubMed

    Winman, Anders; Hansson, Patrik; Juslin, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Format dependence implies that assessment of the same subjective probability distribution produces different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that the overconfidence bias that occurs when participants produce intervals for an uncertain quantity is almost abolished when they evaluate the probability that the same intervals include the quantity. The authors successfully apply a method for adaptive adjustment of probability intervals as a debiasing tool and discuss a tentative explanation in terms of a naive sampling model. According to this view, people report their experiences accurately, but they are naive in that they treat both sample proportion and sample dispersion as unbiased estimators, yielding small bias in probability evaluation but strong bias in interval production. PMID:15521796

  19. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1107 Section 1.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1107 Schedule of charges for applications...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1108 Schedule of charges for applications...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1102 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1102 Section 1.1102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1102 Schedule of charges for applications...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1108 Schedule of charges for applications...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1154 - Schedule of annual regulatory charges and filing locations for common carrier services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1154 Section 1.1154 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1154 Schedule of annual regulatory charges...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1182 - Schedule of fees for products and services provided by the Commission in connection with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1182 Section 1.1182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1182 Schedule of fees for products and...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1107 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1107 Section 1.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1107 Schedule of charges for applications...

  6. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  7. A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. PMID:25254244

  8. Scheduling Network Traffic Thomas Bonald, James Roberts

    E-print Network

    Bonald, Thomas

    queuing theory that provide useful insights into the expected gains and limits of scheduling, taking wired and wireless links. Using simple queuing models that take into account the random nature they share links with data flows. Section 4 identifies the conditions in which sim- ple FIFO queuing

  9. 47 CFR 1.1104 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for media services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for media services. 1.1104 Section 1.1104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1104 Schedule of charges...

  10. Two or three primary dose regime for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Thumburu, Kiran K.; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms ‘Haemophilus Vaccines’ or ‘Haemophilus influenzae type b’ and ‘conjugate vaccine’, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54–90) and 65% (95% CI 23–84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72–85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342

  11. Determinants of human performance on concurrent schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, P J; Lowe, C F

    1993-01-01

    Six experiments, each with 5 human adults, were conducted to investigate the determinants of human performance on multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules. A two-key procedure was employed in which subjects' key presses produced points exchangeable for money. Variables manipulated across experiments were (a) changeover delay (Experiments 2, 4, and 6), (b) ordinal cues related to scheduled reinforcement frequencies (Experiments 3 and 4), and (c) instructions describing the ordinal relations between schedule-correlated stimuli and scheduled reinforcement frequency (Experiments 5 and 6). The performances of only 13 of the 30 subjects could be described by the generalized matching equation and were within a range of values typical of those reported in the animal literature. Eight subjects showed indifference, 9 undermatched, 7 approximated matching, 3 overmatched, and a further 3 responded exclusively to the richer component of the concurrent schedules. These differing modes of responding were closely related to the different types of performance rules reported by subjects in postexperimental questionnaires. The results are in good agreement with those from studies of human performance on single schedules, suggesting that rule-governed behavior, in interaction with contingencies, may be an important determinant of human choice. PMID:8433066

  12. Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    in this paper can be illus- trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis- itors that a dinosaur, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older". This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14

  13. Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    in this paper can be illus­ trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis­ itors that a dinosaur here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older''. This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14

  14. A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

  15. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  16. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  17. An assessment of fixed interval timing in free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): an analysis of individual performance.

    PubMed

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Sokolowski, Michel B C; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  18. An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  19. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  20. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  1. Ubiquity of schedule-induced polydipsia1

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Spaced feeding of individual food pellets to food-deprived rats induced excessive drinking after pellet delivery if water was continuously available. When access to water was restricted to a portion of the inter-pellet interval, and competition from food-reinforced bar pressing was removed, excessive drinking occurred whenever drinking was possible. This finding extends the generality of accounts of excessive behavior that implicate induction by apparently unrelated scheduling characteristics of the environment. PMID:4815396

  2. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  3. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (?1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (?1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg?1·min?1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg?1·min?1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (? ?2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  4. A new method for wavelength interval selection that intelligently optimizes the locations, widths and combinations of the intervals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Ma, Pan; Lin, Chen-Chen; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-03-21

    In this study, a new algorithm for wavelength interval selection, known as interval variable iterative space shrinkage approach (iVISSA), is proposed based on the VISSA algorithm. It combines global and local searches to iteratively and intelligently optimize the locations, widths and combinations of the spectral intervals. In the global search procedure, it inherits the merit of soft shrinkage from VISSA to search the locations and combinations of informative wavelengths, whereas in the local search procedure, it utilizes the information of continuity in spectroscopic data to determine the widths of wavelength intervals. The global and local search procedures are carried out alternatively to realize wavelength interval selection. This method was tested using three near infrared (NIR) datasets. Some high-performing wavelength selection methods, such as synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), moving window partial least squares (MW-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), genetic algorithm PLS (GA-PLS) and interval random frog (iRF), were used for comparison. The results show that the proposed method is very promising with good results both on prediction capability and stability. The MATLAB codes for implementing iVISSA are freely available on the website: . PMID:25665981

  5. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  6. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  7. Subjective Probability Intervals: How to Reduce Overconfidence by Interval Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winman, Anders; Hansson, Patrik; Juslin, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Format dependence implies that assessment of the same subjective probability distribution produces different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that the overconfidence bias that occurs when participants produce intervals for an uncertain quantity is almost…

  8. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  9. Advice Complexity and Barely Random Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Dennis; Královi?, Richard

    Recently, a new measurement - the advice complexity - was introduced for measuring the information content of online problems. The aim is to measure the bitwise information that online algorithms lack, causing them to perform worse than offline algorithms. Among a large number of problems, a well-known scheduling problem, job shop scheduling with unit length tasks, and the paging problem were analyzed within this model. We observe some connections between advice complexity and randomization. Our special focus goes to barely random algorithms, i.e., randomized algorithms that use only a constant number of random bits, regardless of the input size. We adapt the results on advice complexity to obtain efficient barely random algorithms for both the job shop scheduling and the paging problem.

  10. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  11. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  12. A joint model for interval-censored functional decline trajectories under informative observation.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, Mary Louise; Sabelnykova, Veronica; Nathoo, Farouk Salim; Lau, Francis; Downing, Michael G

    2015-12-20

    Multi-state models are useful for modelling disease progression where the state space of the process is used to represent the discrete disease status of subjects. Often, the disease process is only observed at clinical visits, and the schedule of these visits can depend on the disease status of patients. In such situations, the frequency and timing of observations may depend on transition times that are themselves unobserved in an interval-censored setting. There is a potential for bias if we model a disease process with informative observation times as a non-informative observation scheme with pre-specified examination times. In this paper, we develop a joint model for the disease and observation processes to ensure valid inference because the follow-up process may itself contain information about the disease process. The transitions for each subject are modelled using a Markov process, where bivariate subject-specific random effects are used to link the disease and observation models. Inference is based on a Bayesian framework, and we apply our joint model to the analysis of a large study examining functional decline trajectories of palliative care patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179520

  13. The fixed-interval scallop in human affairs

    PubMed Central

    Poppen, Roger

    1982-01-01

    “Fixed-interval scalloping” is used to describe certain everyday patterns of behavior in textbooks and other educational communications. This is a misleading use of the term. It implies that the behavior is accounted for by the schedule, when, in fact, many other variables are operating. This paper reviews eleven such variables and the research evidence on them. These variables provide a more adequate account of complex behavior and point up areas of limited knowledge requiring further research in both laboratory and applied settings. Extrapolating from basic research on human fixed-performance suggests that there are phenomena of mutual interest to both basic and applied behavior analysts. PMID:22478564

  14. The Master Schedule - Pattern for a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparacio, Stephen

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four types of master scheduling: (1) traditional or manual scheduling, (2) computer scheduling, (3) ultra-sophisticated scheduling such as flexible-modular scheduling, and (4) innovative noncomputer assisted scheduling within the traditional school framework. (Author/DN)

  15. APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS: AN

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    To (Constrained Or Unconstrained) Global Optimization In a typical real­life application problem, we need to find/Or Inequalities In some real­life problems, there are so many constraints on the problem that even finding in the book. 1 WHAT ARE INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS? The Majority Of Real­Life Application Problems Lead

  16. APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS: AN

    E-print Network

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    or Unconstrained) Global Optimization In a typical real-life application problem, we need to find an alternative x in the book. 1 WHAT ARE INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS? Most Real-Life Application Problems Lead to (Constrained function f(x) is usually called an objective function). For example: in data processing, we must find

  17. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  18. Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

  19. Choice between Single and Multiple Reinforcers in Concurrent-Chains Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Pigeons responded on concurrent-chains schedules with equal variable-interval schedules as initial links. One terminal link delivered a single reinforcer after a fixed delay, and the other terminal link delivered either three or five reinforcers, each preceded by a fixed delay. Some conditions included a postreinforcer delay after the single…

  20. The Isolation of Motivational, Motoric, and Schedule Effects on Operant Performance: A Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

  1. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  2. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Wood, KM, Olive, B, LaValle, K, Thompson, H, Greer, K, and Astorino, TA. Dissimilar physiological and perceptual responses between sprint interval training and high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 244-250, 2016-High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine. PMID:26691413

  3. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054

  4. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

  5. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  6. Energy-Efficient BOP-Based Beacon Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eui-Jik; Youm, Sungkwan; Choi, Hyo-Hyun

    Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require the energy efficiency and scalability. Although IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee which is being considered as general technology for WSNs enables the low duty-cycling with time synchronization of all the nodes in network, it still suffer from its low scalability due to the beacon frame collision. Recently, various algorithms to resolve this problem are proposed. However, their manners to implement are somewhat ambiguous and the degradation of energy/communication efficiency is serious by the additional overhead. This paper describes an Energy-efficient BOP-based Beacon transmission Scheduling (EBBS) algorithm. EBBS is the centralized approach, in which a resource-sufficient node called as Topology Management Center (TMC) allocates the time slots to transmit a beacon frame to the nodes and manages the active/sleep schedules of them. We also propose EBBS with Adaptive BOPL (EBBS-AB), to adjust the duration to transmit beacon frames in every beacon interval, adaptively. Simulation results show that by using the proposed algorithm, the energy efficiency and the throughput of whole network can be significantly improved. EBBS-AB is also more effective for the network performance when the nodes are uniformly deployed on the sensor field rather than the case of random topologies.

  7. Scheduler software for tracking and data relay satellite system loading analysis: User manual and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, R.; Dunn, C.; Mccord, J.; Simeone, L.

    1980-01-01

    A user guide and programmer documentation is provided for a system of PRIME 400 minicomputer programs. The system was designed to support loading analyses on the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The system is a scheduler for various types of data relays (including tape recorder dumps and real time relays) from orbiting payloads to the TDRSS. Several model options are available to statistically generate data relay requirements. TDRSS time lines (representing resources available for scheduling) and payload/TDRSS acquisition and loss of sight time lines are input to the scheduler from disk. Tabulated output from the interactive system includes a summary of the scheduler activities over time intervals specified by the user and overall summary of scheduler input and output information. A history file, which records every event generated by the scheduler, is written to disk to allow further scheduling on remaining resources and to provide data for graphic displays or additional statistical analysis.

  8. Competing Schedulers Itai Ashlagi

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Daniel

    Tennenholtz Microsoft Israel R&D Center Herzlia, Israel and Faculty of Industrial Eng. and Management Technion@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract Previous work on machine scheduling has considered the case of agents who control the scheduled settings, different machines cannot be con- sidered to be fully cooperative as they may belong to compet

  9. Fundamentals of School Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Gwen

    The ability of the school administrator to schedule teachers' and students' time so that each receives the most from each school day has become an essential skill. This book has been prepared for school administrators at the elementary and middle school levels who need appropriate management techniques for scheduling students into classes. Chapter…

  10. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  11. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  12. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  13. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule...Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of...

  14. Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

  15. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  16. Are accidents scheduled. [safety management problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C.

    1976-01-01

    Two major sets of safety problems associated with project scheduling are examined. The first set involves problems resulting from the improper scheduling of the safety tasks. The second involves problems which result from inadequate attention to scheduling of those project tasks which lead to tests and operations and includes condensed schedules, modified schedules, schedule workarounds, eliminated portions of the schedules and strung out schedules.

  17. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  18. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  19. Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed. PMID:26474047

  20. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  1. The Behavioral Economics of Choice and Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, J.; Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple behavioral economic model (BEM) describing how reinforcement and interval timing interact. The model assumes a Weber-law-compliant logarithmic representation of time. Associated with each represented time value are the payoffs that have been obtained for each possible response. At a given real time, the response with the highest payoff is emitted. The model accounts for a wide range of data from procedures such as simple bisection, metacognition in animals, economic effects in free-operant psychophysical procedures and paradoxical choice in double-bisection procedures. Although it assumes logarithmic time representation, it can also account for data from the time-left procedure usually cited in support of linear time representation. It encounters some difficulties in complex free-operant choice procedures, such as concurrent mixed fixed-interval schedules as well as some of the data on double bisection, that may involve additional processes. Overall, BEM provides a theoretical framework for understanding how reinforcement and interval timing work together to determine choice between temporally differentiated reinforcers. PMID:19618985

  2. Improved Confidence Intervals for the Youden Index

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guogen

    2015-01-01

    The Youden Index is a summary measurement of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the accuracy of a diagnostic test with ordinal or continuous endpoints. The bootstrap confidence interval based on the adjusted proportion estimate was shown to have satisfactory performance among the existing confidence intervals, including the parametric interval via the delta method. In this article, we propose two confidence intervals using the square-and-add limits based on the Wilson score method. We compare the two proposed intervals with the existing interval with extensive simulation studies. The new interval based on the empirical proportion estimate generally has better performance than that based on the adjusted proportion estimate. A real example from a clinical trial of prostate cancer is illustrated for the application of the new intervals. PMID:26132806

  3. On Centralized Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his inspiration and encouragement

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    On Centralized Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his, called smooth sets, have the property that their quantity within each interval is proportional numbers is (#, #)­smooth if abs(|I| · # - |I #A|)

  4. On Distributed Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his inspiration and encouragement

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    On Distributed Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his, called smooth sets, have the property that their quantity within each interval is proportional numbers is (#, #)­smooth if abs(|I| · # - |I #A|)

  5. On Distributed Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his inspiration and encouragement

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    On Distributed Smooth Scheduling Dedicated to the memory of Professor Shimon Even for his, called smooth sets, have the property that their quantity within each interval is proportional is (, )-smooth if abs(|I| · - |I A|)

  6. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  7. Fuzzy Scheduling Wolfgang Slany

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Fuzzy Scheduling Wolfgang Slany Christian Doppler Laboratory for Expert Systems E184/2, TU Wien, A Expertensysteme Christian Doppler Laboratory for Expert Systems Technische Universit¨at Wien Institut f

  8. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  9. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  10. Optimal Bidding, Scheduling, and Deployment of Battery Systems in California Day-Ahead Energy Market

    E-print Network

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    . Utilizing second-life / used batteries is also considered. Without loss of generality, our focus-demand bids, economic and self-schedule bids, charge and discharge schedules, second-life batteries in real-time market n Number of segments in Economic bids i Economic bid segment index k Random price

  11. Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower and

    E-print Network

    Briand, Cyril

    Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower of scheduling n jobs on a single machine. A fixed processing time and an execution interval are associated with each job. Preemption is not allowed. The objective is to find a feasible job sequence that minimizes

  12. Random machines and Human mind Random machines

    E-print Network

    Perronnin, Florence

    Random machines and Human mind Random machines How algorithms emulate randomness Jean-Marc Vincent1;Random machines and Human mind Outline of the lecture 1 Random machines Why generate random numbers ? Random machines Pseudo-random generators 2 and Human mind Randomness detection Generate randomness 2 / 36

  13. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  14. Non-Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling Dependent Tasks in Distributed Heterogeneous Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Gurdeep S. Hura

    2005-09-01

    The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary random scheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

  15. Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this

  16. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  17. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  18. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  19. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  20. Robust optimization of dose schedules in radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Badri, Hamidreza; Leder, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A major difficulty of choosing an optimal radiation schedule is the uncertainty of model parameters due to geometric and patient specific uncertainties. This paper proposes a method for determining the optimal fractionation schedule in the Linear Quadratic (LQ) model with multiple normal tissue toxicity constraints in the presence of uncertainties in model parameters. To this end, we assumed uncertainty in the LQ model can take two forms: (i) estimation errors for parameters of constant but unknown value, and (ii) stochasticity of random variables. For the unknown parameters, we formulated our problem as a conservative model whose solution is immune to the parameter drifts. When the underlying distributions of uncertain parameters are known, we developed a model which required the decision maker to specify a probability that determined the feasibility of normal tissues constraints and risk factor in the objective function. We proved that our problem can be solved efficiently through a decision variable transf...

  1. Cues Produced by Reward and Nonreward and Temporal Cues Influence Responding in the Intertrial Interval and to the Conditioned Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…

  2. Primary Analysis of a Phase II Randomized Trial Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0212: Impact of Different Total Doses and Schedules of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation on Chronic Neurotoxicity and Quality of Life for Patients With Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, Aaron H.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina; Movsas, Benjamin; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Choy, Hak

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dose and fractionation schedule of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on the incidence of chronic neurotoxicity (CNt) and changes in quality of life for selected patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LD SCLC who achieved a complete response after chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation were eligible for randomization to undergo PCI to a total dose of 25 Gy in 10 daily fractions (Arm 1) vs. the experimental cohort of 36 Gy. Those receiving 36 Gy underwent a secondary randomization between daily 18 fractions (Arm 2) and twice-daily 24 fractions (Arm 3). Enrolled patients participated in baseline and follow-up neuropsychological test batteries along with quality-of-life assessments. Results: A total of 265 patients were accrued, with 131 in Arm 1, 67 in Arm 2, and 66 in Arm 3 being eligible. There are 112 patients (42.2%) alive with 25.3 months of median follow-up. There were no significant baseline differences among groups regarding quality-of-life measures and one of the neuropsychological tests, namely the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. However, at 12 months after PCI there was a significant increase in the occurrence of CNt in the 36-Gy cohort (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis revealed increasing age to be the most significant predictor of CNt (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Because of the increased risk of developing CNt in study patients with 36 Gy, a total PCI dose of 25 Gy remains the standard of care for patients with LD SCLC attaining a complete response to initial chemoradiation.

  3. Optimal Scheduling of Multiclass Parallel Machines Jay Sethuraman*

    E-print Network

    Sethuraman, Jay

    5963 Optimal Scheduling of Multiclass Parallel Machines Jay Sethuraman* 1 Introduction Motivated many known results in a fairly elegant manner, yielding simple ap- proximation algorithms whose relaxation, and then we present a simple (randomized) rounding scheme. The interested reader is referred

  4. Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dwight W.

    This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…

  5. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292

  6. An information model based weld schedule database

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Hicken, G.K.; Gershanok, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

  7. Feasibility Criteria for Interval Management Operations as Part of Arrival Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Ian M.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Castle, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that aims to provide more precise inter-aircraft spacing to yield throughput improvements and greater use of fuel efficient trajectories for arrival and approach operations. To participate in an IM operation, an aircraft must be equipped with avionics that provide speeds to achieve and maintain an assigned spacing interval relative to another aircraft. It is not expected that all aircraft will be equipped with the necessary avionics, but rather that IM fits into a larger arrival management concept developed to support the broader mixed-equipage environment. Arrival management concepts are comprised of three parts: a ground-based sequencing and scheduling function to develop an overall arrival strategy, ground-based tools to support the management of aircraft to that schedule, and the IM tools necessary for the IM operation (i.e., ground-based set-up, initiation, and monitoring, and the flight-deck tools to conduct the IM operation). The Federal Aviation Administration is deploying a near-term ground-automation system to support metering operations in the National Airspace System, which falls within the first two components of the arrival management concept. This paper develops a methodology for determining the required delivery precision at controlled meter points for aircraft that are being managed to a schedule and aircraft being managed to a relative spacing interval in order to achieve desired flow rates and adequate separation at the meter points.

  8. Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Hai, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...

  9. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  10. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  11. Reducing Pausing at Rich-to-Lean Schedule Transitions: Effects of Variable-Ratio Schedules and Noncontingent Timeouts

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Adam Thornton

    2012-08-31

    as an index of the aversive stimulation at rich-lean transitions and as an analog measure of aberrant behavior in clinical settings. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of arranging rich-lean transitions between variable-ratio (VR) schedules or random...

  12. Bootstrap confidence intervals in a complex situation: A sequential paired clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining a confidence interval for the difference between two treatments in a simplified sequential paired clinical trial, which is analogous to setting an interval for the drift of a random walk subject to a parabolic stopping boundary. Three bootstrap methods of construction are applied: Efron's accelerated bias-covered, the DiCiccio-Romano, and the bootstrap-t. The results are compared with a theoretical approximate interval due to Siegmund. Difficulties inherent in the use of these bootstrap methods in a complex situations are illustrated. The DiCiccio-Romano method is shown to be the easiest to apply and to work well. 13 refs.

  13. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  14. Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.

  15. Methodologies for building robust schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John H.

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is the name of a Computer Aided Scheduling System designed and built for NASA. COMPASS can be used to develop schedule of activities based upon the temporal relationships of the activities and their resource requirements. COMPASS uses this information, and guided by the user, develops precise start and stop times for the activities. In actual practice however, it is impossible to know with complete certainty what the actual durations of the scheduled activities will really be. The best that one can hope for is knowledge of the probability distribution for the durations. This paper investigates methodologies for using a scheduling tool like COMPASS that is based upon definite values for the resource requirements, while building schedules that remain valid in the face of the schedule execution perturbations. Representations for the schedules developed by these methodologies are presented, along with a discussion of the algorithm that could be used by a computer onboard a spacecraft to efficiently monitor and execute these schedules.

  16. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Scheduling Applications of the Knapsack Problem and Sudoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessoms, E.; Clark, M.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    We applied algorithmic approaches to both theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). When using a theoretical approach to scheduling, assigning a numerical value, or score, to a telescope period is only half of the problem. The other half consists of using the score to determine the best global arrangement of the telescope periods in order to maximize the scientific throughput of the telescope. The naive brute-force approach of trying all possible schedules is too computationally expensive. Instead we applied a well-studied approach from operations research, known as dynamic programming. Specifically, we found the so-called ``knapsack'' algorithm to be a good fit to this problem. On the other hand, we cannot actually achieve maximum theoretical efficiency due to many practical constraints on telescope scheduling. The most severe practical constraints are fixed periods that must be scheduled at a specific date and time regardless of possible score and windowed periods that must be scheduled in regular, recurring intervals. The primary difficulty in scheduling fixed and windowed sessions is that they have the potential to conflict and even to generate irresolvable conflicts (double booking). In working on this problem, we realized it shared many characteristics with the game of Sudoku. In Sudoku, there are many possible arrangements of the recurring numbers 1 through 9 (telescope sessions). Some of these are fixed (the hints) and the others must live in windows (distinct groups having one instance each of each digit). Sudoku puzzles are solved algorithmically using a heuristic-guided brute-force search. We followed a similar approach. A full brute-force search is, again, too computationally expensive, but we found ways to restrict the search enough to make it feasible. We used a number of heuristics but found the largest gains came from partitioning the problem into distinct subsets than can each be scheduled independently and from ordering the search in such a way that earlier choices had the greatest impact on reducing the computational complexity of later choices.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W?) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W?, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W? (?14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (?8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (?10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (?6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (?6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V?O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  18. -2 -MATURITY SCHEDULE*

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    ;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;- 2 - MATURITY SCHEDULE* Due: June 1 Principal Amount Due and December 1 in each year, beginning on December 1, 2015. Any bidder electing to designate a maturity of term bonds shall specify the current serial bonds by year of maturity that are to comprise the term bonds

  19. Time Schedule Academic Calendar

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    , seven days a week for the following changes: local and permanent ad- dresses, telephone numbers noted.) *Address Change Service 225 Schmitz Hall 543-3868 STAR Online: www.washington.edulregistral STAR Online www.washington.edulstudentslstaron/inel · Address Changes · Class Schedule (current quarter

  20. ADVISER EDITION Time Schedule

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Change Service is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the following changes: local noled.) *Address Change Service 225 Schmitz Hall 543-3868 STAR Online: www.washington.edulragistral STAR Online www.washington.edu/studentslstaronline/ · Address Changes · Class Schedule (current quarter

  1. Time Schedule Academic Calendar

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    a day, seven days a week for the following changes: local and permanent ad- dresses, telephone numbers code unless otherwise nOled.) *Address Change Service 225 Schmitz Hall MyUW on http depts.washington.edulregistral MyUW www.washington.edu/studentsl · Address Changes · Class Schedule

  2. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  3. Ethanol self-administration in mice under a second-order schedule.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Richard J; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2015-09-01

    Long Fixed-Interval (FI) schedules, particularly second-order schedules, can engender substantial responding before drug or ethanol delivery that is uninfluenced by the direct effects of the drug or ethanol. Thus, these schedules can be used to study the effects of medications upon drug- or ethanol-seeking, uninfluenced by the direct effects of the self-administered drug or ethanol. Long FI second-order schedules are frequently used in primates and occasionally in rats. Under second-order schedules, completion of one response requirement, e.g., a Fixed Ratio 10 (FR10:S), produces a brief stimulus presentation, e.g., a 1-s 80-dB 4-kHZ tone, and this FR10:S serves as the response unit under another schedule, e.g., an FI 1800-s. Thus, the first FR10 completed after 1800 s would result in delivery both of the tone and of reinforcement, e.g., 10 × 0.01 mL 16% (w/v) ethanol. To examine if such schedules could be effectively used in mice, which have advantages in neurobiological and genetic studies, we trained eight C57BL/6J mice to respond under the schedule just described. This schedule maintained substantial responding. The temporal pattern of behavior was typical of an FI schedule with responding accelerating across the interval. We also examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of fluvoxamine on this responding, and these were modest. Finally, we examined responding when alcohol and/or tone deliveries were withheld, and found that extinction occurred most rapidly when both were withheld. This work demonstrates that long FI schedules of ethanol delivery may be useful in studying ethanol seeking in mice. PMID:26254963

  4. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  5. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  6. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  7. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  8. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  9. Interval Arithmetic Kalman Filtering Steven Reece

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Interval Arithmetic Kalman Filtering Steven Reece Abstract The problem of robust estimation. The Kalman filter, which is probably the most popular model­based data fusion method, is extended filter (BDF), is proposed which combines interval arithmetic with statistical Kalman filter estimation

  10. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  11. CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STANDARD ERROR INTERVALS: WHAT DO THEY MEAN IN TERMS OF STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...

  12. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  13. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

  14. Scheduling Jobs with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrolho, António; Crisóstomo, Manuel

    Most scheduling problems are NP-hard, the time required to solve the problem optimally increases exponentially with the size of the problem. Scheduling problems have important applications, and a number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to determine relatively good solutions in polynomial time. Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) are successfully used to solve scheduling problems, as shown by the growing numbers of papers. GA are known as one of the most efficient algorithms for solving scheduling problems. But, when a GA is applied to scheduling problems various crossovers and mutations operators can be applicable. This paper presents and examines a new concept of genetic operators for scheduling problems. A software tool called hybrid and flexible genetic algorithm (HybFlexGA) was developed to examine the performance of various crossover and mutation operators by computing simulations of job scheduling problems.

  15. Practical Scheffe-type credibility intervals for variables of a groundwater model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous Scheffe-type credibility intervals (the Bayesian version of confidence intervals) for variables of a groundwater flow model calibrated using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori procedure were derived by Cooley [1993b]. It was assumed that variances reflecting the expected differences between observed and model-computed quantities used to calibrate the model are known, whereas they would often be unknown for an actual model. In this study the variances are regarded as unknown, and variance variability from observation to observation is approximated by grouping the data so that each group is characterized by a uniform variance. The credibility intervals are calculated from the posterior distribution, which was developed by considering each group variance to be a random variable about which nothing is known a priori, then eliminating it by integration. Numerical experiments using two test problems illustrate some characteristics of the credibility intervals. Nonlinearity of the statistical model greatly affected some of the credibility intervals, indicating that credibility intervals computed using the standard linear model approximation may often be inadequate to characterize uncertainty for actual field problems. The parameter characterizing the probability level for the credibility intervals was, however, accurately computed using a linear model approximation, as compared with values calculated using second-order and fully nonlinear formulations. This allows the credibility intervals to be computed very efficiently.Simultaneous Scheffe-type credibility intervals for variables of a groundwater flow model calibrated using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori procedure were developed. The variances reflecting the expected differences between the observed and model-computed quantities were unknown, and variance variability from observation to observation was approximated by grouping the data so that each group was characterized by a uniform variance. Nonlinearity of the statistical model greatly affected some of the credibility intervals, indicating that credibility intervals computed using the standard linear model approximation may often be inadequate to characterize uncertainty for actual field problems.

  16. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  17. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our work and results may be outdated when this paper is published.

  18. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  19. Reconstruction of dynamical systems from interspike intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, T. )

    1994-06-13

    Attractor reconstruction from interspike interval (ISI) data is described, in rough analogy with Taken's theorem for attractor reconstruction from time series. Assuming a generic integrate-and-fire model coupling the dynamical system to the spike train, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the system states and interspike interval vectors of sufficiently large dimension. The correspondence has an important implication: interspike intervals can be forecast from past history. We show that deterministically driven ISI series can be distinguished from stochastically driven ISI series on the basis of prediction error.

  20. Importance of QT interval in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Anand; Teo, Swee-Guan; Bin Omar, Abdul Razakjr; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2014-12-01

    Long QT interval is an important finding that is often missed by electrocardiogram interpreters. Long QT syndrome (inherited and acquired) is a potentially lethal cardiac channelopathy that is frequently mistaken for epilepsy. We present a case of long QT syndrome with multiple cardiac arrests presenting as syncope and seizures. The long QTc interval was aggravated by hypomagnesaemia and drugs, including clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Multiple drugs can cause prolongation of the QT interval, and all physicians should bear this in mind when prescribing these drugs. PMID:25630313

  1. Duration of the earth-formation interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levskii, L. K.

    The duration of the formation interval of prototerrestrial matter is estimated on the basis of the iodine-xenon and plutonium-xenon dating techniques. The formation interval is shown to include two phases: (1) a galactic (nebular) phase corresponding to the independent existence of two sources and lasting 150 million years; and (2) a planetesimal (accretion) phase lasting not more than 140 million years. The total duration of the formation interval from the termination of nucleosynthesis to the formation of the planet amounts to not more than 300-400 million years.

  2. Observation Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  3. CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1987-01-01

    A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

  4. An interval size illusion: the influence of timbre on the perceived size of melodic intervals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Thompson, William Forde

    2005-05-01

    In four experiments, we investigated the influence of timbre on perceived interval size. In Experiment 1, musically untrained participants heard two successive tones and rated the pitch distance between them. Tones were separated by six or seven semitones and varied in timbre. Pitch changes were accompanied by a congruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a dull to a bright timbre), an incongruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a bright to a dull timbre), or no timbre change. Ratings of interval size were strongly influenced by timbre. The six-semitone interval with a congruent timbre change was perceived to be larger than the seven-semitone interval with an incongruent timbre change (interval illusion). Experiment 2 revealed similar effects for musically trained participants. In Experiment 3, participants compared the size of two intervals presented one after the other. Effects of timbre were again observed, including evidence of an interval illusion. Experiment 4 confirmed that timbre manipulations did not distort the perceived pitch of tones. Changes in timbre can expand or contract the perceived size of intervals without distorting individual pitches. We discuss processes underlying interval size perception and their relation to pitch perception mechanisms. PMID:16134451

  5. 1.6 The Nested Intervals Theorem We've seen several applications of the interval halving method.

    E-print Network

    Singman, David

    1.6 The Nested Intervals Theorem We've seen several applications of the interval halving method. They are all closed intervals; 2. The intervals are nested, i.e. I1 I2 I3 . . . 3. The length of the intervals converges to 0, i.e. bn - an 0. This is essentially what the Nested Intervals Theorem says

  6. Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1992-01-01

    Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

  7. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/? and ?/? mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  8. On time interval measurements using BCG.

    PubMed

    Casanella, R; Gomez-Clapers, J; Pallas-Areny, R

    2012-01-01

    Time intervals measured between the electrocardiogram (ECG), the photoplethysmogram (PPG) or the impedance plethysmogram (IPG), have long been used to noninvasively assess cardiovascular function. Recently, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been proposed as an alternative physiological signal to be used in time interval measurements for the same purpose. In this work, we study the behavior of the RJ interval, defined as the time between the R wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the J wave of the BCG, under fast pressure changes induced by paced respiration and tracked by a beat-to-beat blood pressure (SBP and DBP) waveform monitor. The aim of this work is to gain a deeper understanding of these newly proposed time intervals and to further assess their usefulness to determine cardiovascular performance. PMID:23367059

  9. Frequency domain design of interval controller 

    E-print Network

    Park, Wunyong

    1993-01-01

    significant role in the analysis and design of interval systems. Its external properties are also discussed. The image set approach & frequency domain criteria can be used to calculate the IP stability margin. The frequency domain criteria are used...

  10. Towards Optimal Scheduling for Global Computing under Probabilistic, Interval, and Fuzzy Uncertainty,

    E-print Network

    Taufer, Michela

    . To explain the idea (and the necessity) of global computing, it is important to explain how the concept such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special individual computers. III. SUPERCOMPUTING AT PRESENT Since the end of the Cold War, military restrictions

  11. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q . The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  12. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. In terms of repository performance, the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. Underestimation of matrix diffusion in the transport modeling would result in more rapid simulated migration of radionuclide mass to the accessible environment and correspondingly higher simulated dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual in the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) analyses. The flowing interval spacing is appropriate for use in the SZ site-scale transport abstraction model because the 500 m grid block size in the numerical transport model is more than an order of magnitude larger than the expected flowing interval spacing (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042], Section 6.3.1). Therefore, the use of the developed flowing interval spacing parameter is limited to a numerical grid spacing that is at least an order of magnitude greater than the average flowing interval spacing to ensure a reasonable description of transport behavior in a grid. This analysis report supports several features, events, and processes (FEPs) and contributes to the characterization of the SZ as a natural barrier, which provides evidence related to the capability of the SZ to delay movement of radionuclides through the SZ to the accessible environment.

  13. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  14. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  15. Evaluation of prediction intervals for expressing uncertainties in groundwater flow model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, S.; Cooley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of 95% individual prediction intervals for hydraulic heads, streamflow gains, and effective transmissivities computed by groundwater models of two Danish aquifers. To compute the intervals, we assumed that each predicted value can be written as the sum of a computed dependent variable and a random error. Testing was accomplished by using a cross-validation method and by using new field measurements of hydraulic heads and transmissivities that were not used to develop or calibrate the models. The tested null hypotheses are that the coverage probability of the prediction intervals is not significantly smaller than the assumed probability (95%) and that each tail probability is not significantly different from the assumed probability (2.5%). In all cases tested, these hypotheses were accepted at the 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that for the groundwater models of two real aquifers the individual prediction intervals appear to be accurate.We tested the accuracy of 95% individual prediction intervals for hydraulic heads, streamflow gains, and effective transmissivities computed by groundwater models of two Danish aquifers. To compute the intervals, we assumed that each predicted value can be written as the sum of a computed dependent variable and a random error. Testing was accomplished by using a cross-validation method and by using new field measurements of hydraulic heads and transmissivities that were not used to develop or calibrate the models. The tested null hypotheses are that the coverage probability of the prediction intervals is not significantly smaller than the assumed probability (95%) and that each tail probability is not significantly different from the assumed probability (2.5%). In all cases tested, these hypotheses were accepted at the 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that for the groundwater models of two real aquifers the individual prediction intervals appear to be accurate.

  16. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  17. Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems #

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Abhishek

    Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems # Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

  18. Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Abhishek

    Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

  19. Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Abhishek

    Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate-fair CPU scheduling algorithm

  20. Randomness in Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

    2013-05-01

    We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top ?{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

  1. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name,...

  2. 21 CFR 1308.11 - Schedule I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule I. 1308.11 Section 1308.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.11 Schedule I. (a) Schedule I shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical...

  3. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule II. 1308.12 Section 1308.12 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.12 Schedule II. (a) Schedule II shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name,...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.14 Schedule IV. (a) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name,...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.15 - Schedule V.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule V. 1308.15 Section 1308.15 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.15 Schedule V. (a) Schedule V shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical...

  6. Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan

    E-print Network

    Corbalan, Julita

    03/12/2007 1 Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan EEAP Job Scheduling for HPC systems-levels ­ Meta-scheduling · Performance evaluation · Some existing queuing systems Job Scheduling for HPC systems Julita Corbalan Definitions · Job ­ Unit to schedule. Includes a description of the work (executable

  7. Random versus Blocked Practice in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative effects of random vs. blocked practice schedules in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Although there have been repeated suggestions in the literature to use random practice in CAS treatment, no systematic studies exist that have directly compared random with blocked practice in this population.…

  8. Validating common reference intervals in routine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Ross Dallas

    2014-05-15

    Common reference intervals for numerical pathology tests have been proposed for many years as an improvement over the common situation where individual laboratories establish or select and validate their own intervals. However it is important that any intervals that are developed for common use are themselves validated for use in individual laboratories. There are three main aspects to consider, the appropriateness of the interval, methodological factors and population factors. Techniques for assessing method biases are reasonably straightforward with the use of shared samples and appropriate external quality assurance schemes. Validating the local population, which also encompasses the laboratory's method, can be done using a number of healthy subjects, the more the better, or by various "data mining" techniques using the results of tests performed on routine patients. In any of these methods there is the need to consider the selection of subjects, the statistical approach and the acceptance criteria. Only if a proposed common reference interval can be shown to be appropriate in routine laboratories can it become widely adopted and become truly "common". PMID:24144864

  9. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi?ba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  10. Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

  11. Node-based Scheduling with Provable Evacuation Bo Ji and Jie Wu

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Node-based Scheduling with Provable Evacuation Time Bo Ji and Jie Wu Department of Computer, with an aim of minimizing the time interval needed for evacuating all the existing packets. We consider evacuation time problem is equivalent to the classic multigraph edge coloring problem, which is generally NP

  12. Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

    2011-01-01

    Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

  13. Time-Interval Measurement of Stuttering: Modifying Interjudge Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigating interval-by-interval interjudge and intrajudge agreement for stuttered and nonstuttered speech intervals found that training of judges could improve reliability levels; judges with relatively high intrajudge agreement also showed relatively higher interjudge agreement; and interval-by-interval interjudge agreement was…

  14. Scheduling Results for the THEMIS Observation Scheduling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Anwar, Sadaat; Mehall, Greg; Christensen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheduling system intended to assist in the development of instrument data acquisitions for the THEMIS instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and compare results from multiple scheduling algorithms. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted geographical regions of interest and (b) general mapping observations, while respecting spacecraft constraints such as data volume, observation timing, visibility, lighting, season, and science priorities. This tool therefore must address both geometric and state/timing/resource constraints. We describe a tool that maps geometric polygon overlap constraints to set covering constraints using a grid-based approach. These set covering constraints are then incorporated into a greedy optimization scheduling algorithm incorporating operations constraints to generate feasible schedules. The resultant tool generates schedules of hundreds of observations per week out of potential thousands of observations. This tool is currently under evaluation by the THEMIS observation planning team at Arizona State University.

  15. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  16. The MCNP5 Random number generator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F. B.; Nagaya, Y.

    2002-01-01

    MCNP and other Monte Carlo particle transport codes use random number generators to produce random variates from a uniform distribution on the interval. These random variates are then used in subsequent sampling from probability distributions to simulate the physical behavior of particles during the transport process. This paper describes the new random number generator developed for MCNP Version 5. The new generator will optionally preserve the exact random sequence of previous versions and is entirely conformant to the Fortran-90 standard, hence completely portable. In addition, skip-ahead algorithms have been implemented to efficiently initialize the generator for new histories, a capability that greatly simplifies parallel algorithms. Further, the precision of the generator has been increased, extending the period by a factor of 10{sup 5}. Finally, the new generator has been subjected to 3 different sets of rigorous and extensive statistical tests to verify that it produces a sufficiently random sequence.

  17. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases.

  18. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section 141...Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required...monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the...

  19. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section 141...Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required...monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the...

  20. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section 141...Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required...monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the...

  1. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section 141...Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required...monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the...

  2. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section 141...Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required...monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the...

  3. Reactive Schedule Repair of Job Shops

    E-print Network

    Raheja, Amritpal Singh

    Disruptions to job shop schedules are tedious and difficult to incorporate after the schedule has been generated and implemented on the shop floor. In order to deal with such disruptions, a real time reactive scheduling ...

  4. Optimal Scheduling of Urgent Preemptive Tasks

    E-print Network

    Andrei, Stefan

    Tasks' scheduling has always been a central problem in the embedded real-time systems community. As in general the scheduling problem is NP-hard, researchers have been looking for efficient heuristics to solve the scheduling ...

  5. Resampling methods in Microsoft Excel® for estimating reference intervals

    PubMed Central

    Theodorsson, Elvar

    2015-01-01

    Computer- intensive resampling/bootstrap methods are feasible when calculating reference intervals from non-Gaussian or small reference samples. Microsoft Excel® in version 2010 or later includes natural functions, which lend themselves well to this purpose including recommended interpolation procedures for estimating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles.?The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to resampling estimation techniques in general and in using Microsoft Excel® 2010 for the purpose of estimating reference intervals in particular.?Parametric methods are preferable to resampling methods when the distributions of observations in the reference samples is Gaussian or can transformed to that distribution even when the number of reference samples is less than 120. Resampling methods are appropriate when the distribution of data from the reference samples is non-Gaussian and in case the number of reference individuals and corresponding samples are in the order of 40. At least 500-1000 random samples with replacement should be taken from the results of measurement of the reference samples. PMID:26527366

  6. A Multiobjective Interval Programming Model for Wind-Hydrothermal Power System Dispatching Using 2-Step Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jihong, Qu

    2014-01-01

    Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision. PMID:24895663

  7. Decidability of the Logics of the Reflexive Sub-interval and Super-interval Relations over Finite Linear Orders

    E-print Network

    Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

    Decidability of the Logics of the Reflexive Sub-interval and Super-interval Relations over Finite consider the modal operators based on the (reflexive) sub- interval relation and the (reflexive) super. There are three natural definitions of the sub-interval relation [5]: reflexive (the current interval is a sub

  8. Web-based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

  9. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  10. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  11. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  12. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  13. Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

  14. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  15. Using Joint Utilities of the Times to Response and Toxicity to Adaptively Optimize Schedule-Dose Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Braun, Thomas M.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

  16. Exact and Asymptotic Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data: The interval R package

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael P.; Shaw, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    For right-censored data perhaps the most commonly used tests are weighted logrank tests, such as the logrank and Wilcoxon-type tests. In this paper we review several generalizations of those weighted logrank tests to interval-censored data and present an R package, interval, to implement many of them. The interval package depends on the perm package, also presented here, which performs exact and asymptotic linear permutation tests. The perm package performs many of the tests included in the already available coin package, and provides an independent validation of coin. We review analysis methods for interval-censored data, and we describe and show how to use the interval and perm packages. PMID:25285054

  17. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  18. Return Intervals Approach to Financial Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    are not well protected against them. Banks have to properly estimate the risk of their investments and makeReturn Intervals Approach to Financial Fluctuations Fengzhong Wang1 , Kazuko Yamasaki1,2 , Shlomo-Gan 52900, Israel Abstract. Financial fluctuations play a key role for financial markets studies. A new

  19. Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

  20. Physiological adjustments to intensive interval treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, F. S.; Elliott, B. C.; Morton, A. R.; Roberts, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    During a one month training period, eight active men, aged 23-35 years, completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of high intensity interval (5 second work bouts at 16.9 km/hr up 20-25% grade alternated with 10 second rest intervals) treadmill work. In this training period, V?O2, V?E and blood lactate in a 10 minute run at 12.9 km/hr on a level treadmill were unchanged but heart rate during this work decreased by an average of 9 beats/min. During a 4 minute interval work effort at the training intensity, blood lactate accumulation decreased by 40.4%. In exhausting work, mean values of V?O2, V?E and blood lactate increased by 6.2%, 8.2% and 31.6% respectively. Maximal heart rate decreased by an average of 4 beats/min. The average work production of the men in the training sessions improved by 64.5% from 28,160 kgm to 43,685 kgm. No significant improvements were observed in either a short sprint or a stair climbing test which assessed the ability to generate mechanical power from alactacid anaerobic sources. It was concluded that the training regime is an effective method of producing a high total work output in competitive athletes and results in improvements in aerobic power, glycolytic capacity and ability to tolerate the short duration interval work encountered in many games.

  1. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  2. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  3. Towards the Possibility of Objective Interval Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    that the atomic weight of a chemical element is not an exact number; depending on where the sample came from, the atomic weight may differ within a certain interval; see, e.g., [11]. #12;It is desirable to take, atoms of the same element have exactly the same atomic weight, and ­ if their are radioactive ­ exactly

  4. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  5. Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic

    E-print Network

    Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic Algorithm Emulation of Markets Market Interactions and Market Power Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering

  6. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…

  7. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  8. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

    2014-12-01

    WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

  9. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in third molar surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mehra, P; Reebye, U; Nadershah, M; Cottrell, D

    2013-07-01

    This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of different pharmacological regimens on the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in urine and saliva, and to correlate the findings to the clinical course after removal of impacted lower third molars. Eighty patients were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 received placebo; group 2 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week; group 3 received intraoperative dexamethasone; and group 4 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week, in addition to intraoperative dexamethasone. Saliva and urine samples were taken at scheduled intervals. Patients receiving ibuprofen fared significantly better in most parameters. A single dose of dexamethasone alone had a potent but transient beneficial effect when compared to the results with ibuprofen, which showed significant improvement in both subjective and objective parameters. Use of a single dose of intravenous steroids perioperatively helped reduce untoward sequelae, although to a lesser degree and for a shorter duration than continuous ibuprofen. Combining ibuprofen with perioperative dexamethasone added some benefit in some of the measured parameters, but without a statistically significant advantage over using ibuprofen only. PMID:23535007

  10. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Claudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration. PMID:26529697

  11. Altered fractal dynamics of gait: reduced stride-interval correlations with aging and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

  12. A practical scheduling algorithm for Shuttle-based astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Roberts, B. H.; Williamson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the Astro mission series (initial flight planned for March, 1986), the Shuttle will be used as a dedicated stellar astronomy observatory. A modified Spacelab pallet is to be used for the Astro payload, which will consist of three ultraviolet (UV) telescopes and a wide field camera mounted together on a single gimbal mount called the Inertial Pointing System (IPS). Three flights of 7-10 days duration are to be made with the same payload at intervals of 8-9 months. Previous experience has shown that changes in design requirements are inevitable, and the evolution of operational concepts will effect changes in scheduling algorithm software. For these reasons, the design goals of the Astron algorithm and its family of auxiliary software modules have been related to functional modularity, constraint flexibility, user friendliness, and 'light' input requirements. Attention is given to hardware characteristics, environmental constraints, the basic criteria function, 'Cinderella' logic, counters and constraints, and scheduling trends.

  13. Limited matching on concurrent-schedule reinforcement of academic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mace, F. Charles; Neef, Nancy A.; Shade, Doran; Mauro, Benjamin C.

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given a choice between completing one of two available sets of math problems. Reinforcers (nickels) across these alternatives were arranged systematically in separate experimental phases according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules (reinforcement ratios of 2:1, 6:1, and 12:1). Time allocated to the two stacks of math problems stood in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate obtained from each stack, although substantial undermatching and bias were observed for all subjects. However, changes in the schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns until adjunct procedures (e.g., changeover delays, limited holds, timers, and demonstrations) were introduced. The necessity of adjunct procedures in establishing matching in applied situations is discussed as a limitation to quantitative applications of the matching law in applied behavior analysis. PMID:16795839

  14. Airline Crew Scheduling with Potts Neurons

    E-print Network

    M. Lagerholm; C. Peterson; B. Söderberg

    1996-05-11

    A Potts feedback neural network approach for finding good solutions to resource allocation problems with a non-fixed topology is presented. As a target application the airline crew scheduling problem is chosen. The topological complication is handled by means of a propagator defined in terms of Potts neurons. The approach is tested on artificial random problems tuned to resemble real-world conditions. Very good results are obtained for a variety of problem sizes. The computer time demand for the approach only grows like $\\mbox{(number of flights)}^3$. A realistic problem typically is solved within minutes, partly due to a prior reduction of the problem size, based on an analysis of the local arrival/departure structure at the single airports

  15. RANDOM LASSO

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sijian; Nan, Bin; Rosset, Saharon; Zhu, Ji

    2012-01-01

    We propose a computationally intensive method, the random lasso method, for variable selection in linear models. The method consists of two major steps. In step 1, the lasso method is applied to many bootstrap samples, each using a set of randomly selected covariates. A measure of importance is yielded from this step for each covariate. In step 2, a similar procedure to the first step is implemented with the exception that for each bootstrap sample, a subset of covariates is randomly selected with unequal selection probabilities determined by the covariates’ importance. Adaptive lasso may be used in the second step with weights determined by the importance measures. The final set of covariates and their coefficients are determined by averaging bootstrap results obtained from step 2. The proposed method alleviates some of the limitations of lasso, elastic-net and related methods noted especially in the context of microarray data analysis: it tends to remove highly correlated variables altogether or select them all, and maintains maximal flexibility in estimating their coefficients, particularly with different signs; the number of selected variables is no longer limited by the sample size; and the resulting prediction accuracy is competitive or superior compared to the alternatives. We illustrate the proposed method by extensive simulation studies. The proposed method is also applied to a Glioblastoma microarray data analysis. PMID:22997542

  16. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  17. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  18. Course Schedule The course schedule can be viewed online: www.unbc.ca/programs. The schedule will display

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    campus. Please check the Add/Drop deadline dates for each semester in the Academic Calendar online: wwwCourse Schedule The course schedule can be viewed online: www.unbc.ca/programs. The schedule Advisor about your course plan. You may view the current course schedule online at www

  19. Effects of Disulfiram on QTc Interval in non-Opioid Dependent and Methadone-Treated Cocaine Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Thomas S.; Sanders, Nichole; Mancino, Michael; Oliveto, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Methadone and cocaine are each known to prolong the QTc interval, a risk factor for developing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Disulfiram, often administered in the context of methadone maintenance to facilitate alcohol abstinence, has been shown to have some efficacy for cocaine dependence. Disulfiram has differential effects on cocaine and methadone metabolism, but its impact on methadone- or cocaine-induced changes in QTc interval is unclear. Thus, the effects of disulfiram on QTc interval in a subset of cocaine dependent patients participating in a 14 week, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of disulfiram was prospectively determined. Methods Opioid dependent participants were inducted onto methadone (wks 1-2; MT) and both MT and nonopioid dependent (UT) participants were randomized to receive disulfiram (wks 3-14) at one of the following doses: 0, 250, 375, or 500 mg/day. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained prior to study entry and during weeks 2 and 4. Results Complete QTc interval data in 23 MT and 18 UT participants were analyzed. QTc interval tended to be higher in MT relative to UT dependent participants, regardless of disulfiram dose and time point, but disulfiram did not differentially alter QTc interval. QTc interval was, however, significantly greater in participants with recent cocaine use than those with no recent use. Conclusions These results suggest that cocaine use and possibly MT status, but not disulfiram, are risk factors for QTc prolongation. PMID:23648640

  20. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Scheduled out-patient endoscopy and lack of compliance in a minority serving tertiary institution

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Danielle S.; Egbuonnu, Nneka; Umunakwe, Chukwuma; Fullum, Terrence M.; Ford, Debra H.; Anders, Kyle B.; McDonald-Pinkett, Shelly; Smoot, Duane T.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lack of adherence to appointments wastes resources and portends a poorer outcome for patients. We sought to determine if the type of scheduled endoscopic procedures affect compliance. Methods We reviewed the final endoscopy schedule from January 2010 to August 2010 in an inner city teaching hospital that serves a predominantly African American population. The final schedule only includes patients who did not cancel, reschedule or notify the facility of their inability to adhere to their care plan up to 24 hours prior to their procedures. All patients had face to face consultation with gastroenterologists or surgeons prior to scheduling. We identified patients who did not show up for their procedures. We used Poisson regression models to calculate Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results Of 2,183 patients who were scheduled for outpatient endoscopy, 400 (18.3%) patients were scheduled for Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD), 1,335 (61.2%) for colonoscopy and 448 (20.5%) for both EGD and colonoscopy. The rate of non compliance was 17.5%, 22.8% and 22.1%, respectively. When compared to those scheduled for only EGD, patients scheduled for colonoscopy alone (RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.13-1.92) and patients scheduled for both EGD and colonoscopy (RR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.84) were less likely to show up for their procedures. Conclusions Our study suggests a high rate of non-compliance with scheduled out-patient endoscopy, particularly for colonoscopy. Since this may be a contributing factor to colorectal cancer disparities, increased community outreach on colorectal cancer education is needed and may help to reduce non compliance. PMID:22197978

  3. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  4. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  5. Estimating 100-year flood confidence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, R. J.; Hromadka, T. V.

    The estimation of the 100-year flood, or more generally the T-year flood, is a basic problem in hydrology. An important source of uncertainty in this estimate is that caused by the uncertain estimation of parameters of the flood distribution. This uncertainty can have a significant effect on the flood design value, and its quantification is an important aspect of evaluating the risk involved in a chosen level of flood protection. In this paper, simulation is used to determine confidence intervals for the flood design value. The simulation allows verification of Stedinger's formula not only as it applies to confidence intervals, but also verifies the formula as an approximation to percentiles as well.

  6. Single Interval Rényi Entropy At Low Temperature

    E-print Network

    Bin Chen; Jie-qiang Wu

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we calculate the R\\'enyi entropy of one single interval on a circle at finite temperature in 2D CFT. In the low temperature limit, we expand the thermal density matrix level by level in the vacuum Verma module, and calculate the first few leading terms in $e^{-\\pi/TL}$ explicitly. On the other hand, we compute the same R\\'enyi entropy holographically. After considering the dependence of the R\\'enyi entropy on the temperature, we manage to fix the interval-independent constant terms in the classical part of holographic R\\'enyi entropy. We furthermore extend the analysis in Xi Dong's paper to higher orders and find exact agreement between the results from field theory and bulk computations in the large central charge limit. Our work provides another piece of evidence to support holographic computation of R\\'enyi entropy in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence, even with thermal effect.

  7. Prediction interval estimation techniques for empirical modeling strategies and their applications to signal validation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Brandon P.

    The basis of this work was to evaluate both parametric and non-parametric empirical modeling strategies applied to signal validation or on-line monitoring tasks. On-line monitoring methods assess signal channel performance to aid in making instrument calibration decisions, enabling the use of condition-based calibration schedules. The three non-linear empirical modeling strategies studied were: artificial neural networks (ANN), neural network partial least squares (NNPLS), and local polynomial regression (LPR). The evaluation of the empirical modeling strategies includes the presentation and derivation of prediction intervals for each of three different model types studied. An estimate and its corresponding prediction interval contain the measurements with a specified certainty, usually 95%. The prediction interval estimates were compared to results obtained from bootstrapping via Monte Carlo resampling, to validate their expected accuracy. Properly determined prediction interval estimates were obtained that consistently captured the uncertainty of the given model such that the level of certainty of the intervals closely matched the observed level of coverage of the prediction intervals over the measured values. In most cases the expected level of coverage of the measured values within the prediction intervals was 95%. The prediction intervals were required to perform adequately under conditions of model misspecification. The results also indicate that instrument channel drifts are identifiable by observing the drop in the level of coverage of the prediction intervals to relatively low values, e.g. 30%. A comparative evaluation of the different empirical models was also performed. The evaluation considers the average estimation errors and the stability of the models under repeated Monte Carlo resampling. The results indicate the large uncertainty of ANN models applied to collinear data, and the utility of the NNPLS model for the same purpose. While the results from the LPR models remained consistent for data with or without collinearity, assuming proper regularization was applied. All of the methods studied herein were applied to a simulated data set for an initial evaluation of the methods, and data from two different U.S. nuclear power plants for the purposes of signal validation for on-line monitoring tasks.

  8. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Shihalov, G. M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the problem of characterization of chaotic dynamics at the input of a threshold device described by an integrate-and-fire (IF) or a threshold crossing (TC) model from the output sequences of interspike intervals (ISIs). We consider the conditions under which quite short sequences of spiking events provide correct identification of the dynamical regime characterized by the single positive Lyapunov exponent (LE). We discuss features of detecting the second LE for both types of the considered models of events generation.

  9. DIMACS Technical Report 200337 Perfect interval filament graphs

    E-print Network

    DIMACS Technical Report 2003­37 Perfect interval filament graphs by Fanica GAVRIL 1 DIMACS, Rutgers are disjoint, their curves do not intersect; FI={ f i | iÎI} is a family of interval filaments and its intersection graph is an interval filament graph. The interval filament graphs contain the polygon

  10. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  11. Simplified interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Yin; Liao, Shih-Hui; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a self-evolving interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (FNN) for various applications. As type-1 fuzzy systems cannot effectively handle uncertainties in information within the knowledge base, we propose a simple interval type-2 FNN, which uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets in the premise and the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type in the consequent of the fuzzy rule. The TSK-type consequent of fuzzy rule is a linear combination of exogenous input variables. Given an initially empty the rule-base, all rules are generated with on-line type-2 fuzzy clustering. Instead of the time-consuming K-M iterative procedure, the design factors ql and qr are learned to adaptively adjust the upper and lower positions on the left and right limit outputs, using the parameter update rule based on a gradient descent algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach yields fewer test errors and less computational complexity than other type-2 FNNs. PMID:24808041

  12. Block Scheduling's Missteps, Successes and Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Documents Virginia's history of adoption and implementation of block scheduling, highlights common forms of block scheduling, and describes mistakes that caused schools to abandon block scheduling. Describes three key variables (time, teachers, and students) in the use of block scheduling to improve student achievement. (PKP)

  13. Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered as a 2-dose schedule compared with the licensed 3-dose schedule

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda M; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Schulze, Karin; Ramjattan, Brian; Hillemanns, Peter; Catteau, Grégory; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Schuind, Anne; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS 04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) administered according to its licensed vaccination schedule (3-dose, 3D) and formulation (20 µg of each HPV antigen; 20/20F) has previously been demonstrated. This partially-blind, controlled, randomized trial (NCT00541970) evaluated 2-dose (2D) schedules using the licensed 20/20F or an alternative formulation containing 40 µg of each antigen (40/40F), compared with the licensed 3D schedule. Healthy females stratified by age (9–14, 15–19, 20–25 y) were randomized to receive 2 doses of 20/20F at Months (M) 0,6 (n = 240), 40/40F at M0,6 (n = 241) or 40/40F at M0,2 (n = 240), or 3 doses of 20/20F at M0,1,6 (licensed schedule/formulation, n = 239). One month after the last dose, the 3D schedule was not immunologically superior to 2D schedules except in the 40/40F M0,2 group for HPV-16 (lower limit of 95% CI geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratio [2D/3D] <0.5). For both HPV-16 and HPV-18, the 2D schedules in girls 9–14 y were immunologically non-inferior to the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y (the age group in which efficacy has been demonstrated) (upper limit of 95% CI for GMT ratio [3D/2D] <2) one month after the last dose. At Month 24, non-inferiority was maintained for the 2D M0,6 schedules in girls 9–14 y vs. the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. These results indicate that the HPV-16/18 vaccine on a 2D M0,6 schedule is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in girls 9–14 y and that the 2D schedule is likely adequate for younger females. PMID:22048171

  15. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  16. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  17. On parallel machine scheduling 1

    E-print Network

    Magdeburg, Universität

    On parallel machine scheduling 1 machines with setup times. The setup has to be performed by a single server. The objective is to minimize even for the case of two identical parallel machines. This paper presents a pseudopolynomial

  18. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

  19. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  20. Web Page-level Queue Scheduling

    E-print Network

    Chiba, Shigeru

    -level Queue Scheduling Web Web Web 1 Web (HTML) Servlet JSP Web Page-level Queue Scheduling Servlet Java API Servlet 2 Web 3 4 5 6 7 2 Web Web Web CGI ­1­ #12;J2EE Web Web Web CPU Web I/O bound CPU I/O 1 50 1 0 1000 Scheduling Page-level Queue Scheduling Web 4 ­3­ #12;( ) 4 Page-level Queue Scheduling Java Servlet Java API

  1. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  2. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  3. Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Differing in Interval Duration.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-12-01

    Tucker, WJ, Sawyer, BJ, Jarrett, CL, Bhammar, DM, and Gaesser, GA. Physiological responses to high-intensity interval exercise differing in interval duration. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3326-3335, 2015-We determined the oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses to 2 high-intensity interval exercise protocols differing in interval length. On separate days, 14 recreationally active males performed a 4 × 4 (four 4-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 3-minute recovery at 50 W) and 16 × 1 (sixteen 1-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 1-minute recovery at 50 W) protocol on a cycle ergometer. The 4 × 4 elicited a higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (2.44 ± 0.4 vs. 2.36 ± 0.4 L·min) and "peak" V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (90-99% vs. 76-85% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and HR (95-98% HRpeak vs. 81-95% HRpeak) during the high-intensity intervals. Average power maintained was higher for the 16 × 1 (241 ± 45 vs. 204 ± 37 W), and recovery interval V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR were higher during the 16 × 1. No differences were observed for blood lactate concentrations at the midpoint (12.1 ± 2.2 vs. 10.8 ± 3.1 mmol·L) and end (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 mmol·L) of the protocols or ratings of perceived exertion (7.0 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4) and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores (91 ± 15 vs. 93 ± 12). Despite a 4-fold difference in interval duration that produced greater between-interval transitions in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR and slightly higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 during the 4 × 4, mean HR during each protocol was the same, and both protocols were rated similarly for perceived exertion and enjoyment. The major difference was that power output had to be reduced during the 4 × 4 protocol to maintain the desired HR. PMID:25970496

  4. Two Efficient Twin ELM Methods With Prediction Interval.

    PubMed

    Ning, Kefeng; Liu, Min; Dong, Mingyu; Wu, Cheng; Wu, ZhanSong

    2015-09-01

    In the operational optimization and scheduling problems of actual industrial processes, such as iron and steel, and microelectronics, the operational indices and process parameters usually need to be predicted. However, for some input and output variables of these prediction models, there may exist a lot of uncertainties coming from themselves, the measurement error, the rough representation, and so on. In such cases, constructing a prediction interval (PI) for the output of the corresponding prediction model is very necessary. In this paper, two twin extreme learning machine (TELM) models for constructing PIs are proposed. First, we propose a regularized asymmetric least squares extreme learning machine (RALS-ELM) method, in which different weights of its squared error loss function are set according to whether the error of the model output is positive or negative in order that the above error can be differentiated in the parameter learning process, and Tikhonov regularization is introduced to reduce overfitting. Then, we propose an asymmetric Bayesian extreme learning machine (AB-ELM) method based on the Bayesian framework with the asymmetric Gaussian distribution (AB-ELM), in which the weights of its likelihood function are determined as the same method in RALS-ELM, and the type II maximum likelihood algorithm is derived to learn the parameters of AB-ELM. Based on RALS-ELM and AB-ELM, we use a pair of weights following the reciprocal relationship to obtain two nonparallel regressors, including a lower-bound regressor and an upper-bound regressor, respectively, which can be used for calculating the PIs. Finally, some discussions are given, about how to adjust the weights adaptively to meet the desired PI, how to use the proposed TELMs for nonlinear quantile regression, and so on. Results of numerical comparison on data from one synthetic regression problem, three University of California Irvine benchmark regression problems, and two actual industrial regression problems show the effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:25423657

  5. A Prospective, double-blinded randomized controlled study comparing two different Trendelenburg tilts in laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy positioning

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Shibananda; Das, Anjan; Dutta, Sanjib; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Das, Tanuka; Banu, Rezina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bispectral index (BIS) used for intra-operative depth assessment under general anesthesia (GA) can be altered by different factors. This study was designed to detect the alteration in BIS reading with two different Trendelenburg (TBG) tilt in laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) procedure. Materials and Methods: A prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was designed involving 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II female patients, aged 35-60 years, scheduled to undergo LAVH under GA. Patients were divided into two groups with TBG >30° and TBG <30°. BIS readings; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate were recorded in supine position. Patients were then shifted to desired TBG position either (>30°) or (<30°) as per group allotment. Data were recorded at 30 min intervals and all the patients were followed upto 24 h postoperatively for any recall. Results: A rise in BIS value was noticed, when position was changed from supine to head down in both groups. During comparison between two groups with different angulations, TBG >30° showed a higher BIS value than TBG <30°. This statistically significant (P < 0.05) trend was observed at all the 30, 60, 90, and 120th min interval. Interestingly, BIS values returned to preoperative levels following adopting final supine position. No incidence of awareness was reported in both the series throughout the study. Conclusion: Though awareness remains unaltered BIS value gets increased with higher angle of inclination in TBG position during LAVH operation. PMID:25810654

  6. Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

  7. Time of effect duration and administration interval for sitagliptin in patients with kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Frieder; Hartmann, Bertram; Czock, David

    2014-06-01

    A measure correlating the time course of the effect with the time course of concentrations could be helpful in drug dosing. We propose a new equation with explicit solutions for calculating the effect duration. A specific effect fraction is selected (fr) and the time of fractional effect duration (TED.fr) can be derived as a function of the elimination half-life by combining linear elimination kinetics with sigmoid effect dynamics. This new measure is applied to the example of sitagliptin, whose elimination half-life increases from 10.1 to 28.4 h in patients with kidney failure. Under normal multiple-dose conditions, the 24-h sitagliptin administration interval corresponds to a 0.90 time of fractional effect duration (TED.90). A dose reduction to one-fourth or 25 mg every 24 h is proposed for patients with kidney failure; this results in a TED.90 of 45 h, i.e. 21 h longer than the proposed 24-h administration interval (+88 %). The proportional dosing alternative of 100 mg every 96 h would result in a TED.90 of 64 h, which is 32 h less than the 96-h administration interval (-33 %). With a half dose of 50 mg and a doubled administration interval of 48 h, the TED.90 is 51 h in kidney failure, only 3 h longer than the latter administration interval (+6 %). We conclude that our general equation can be applied to rapidly calculate the specific time of effect duration for the different dose schedules. PMID:24353117

  8. Low-bias high-speed quantum random number generator via shaped optical pulses

    E-print Network

    Kwiat, Paul

    Low-bias high-speed quantum random number generator via shaped optical pulses Michael A. Wayne generator (QRNG) based on the digitized time interval between random photon arrivals. By tailoring, secure quantum random number generation at rates exceeding 110 Mbit/s. ©2010 Optical Society of America

  9. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  10. An Evaluation of a Flight Deck Interval Management Algorithm Including Delayed Target Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Barmore, Bryan; Leonard, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature air traffic management technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise timebased scheduling in the terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools enabling precise schedule conformance; and Interval Management (IM), which consists of flight deck automation that enables aircraft to achieve or maintain precise in-trail spacing. During high demand operations, TMA-TM may produce a schedule and corresponding aircraft trajectories that include delay to ensure that a particular aircraft will be properly spaced from other aircraft at each schedule waypoint. These delayed trajectories are not communicated to the automation onboard the aircraft, forcing the IM aircraft to use the published speeds to estimate the target aircraft's estimated time of arrival. As a result, the aircraft performing IM operations may follow an aircraft whose TMA-TM generated trajectories have substantial speed deviations from the speeds expected by the spacing algorithm. Previous spacing algorithms were not designed to handle this magnitude of uncertainty. A simulation was conducted to examine a modified spacing algorithm with the ability to follow aircraft flying delayed trajectories. The simulation investigated the use of the new spacing algorithm with various delayed speed profiles and wind conditions, as well as several other variables designed to simulate real-life variability. The results and conclusions of this study indicate that the new spacing algorithm generally exhibits good performance; however, some types of target aircraft speed profiles can cause the spacing algorithm to command less than optimal speed control behavior.

  11. Hourly Wind Speed Interval Prediction in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouch, M.; Ouarda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The long and extended warm and dry summers, the low rate of rain and humidity are the main factors that explain the increase of electricity consumption in hot arid regions. In such regions, the ventilating and air-conditioning installations, that are typically the most energy-intensive among energy consumption activities, are essential for securing healthy, safe and suitable indoor thermal conditions for building occupants and stored materials. The use of renewable energy resources such as solar and wind represents one of the most relevant solutions to overcome the increase of the electricity demand challenge. In the recent years, wind energy is gaining more importance among the researchers worldwide. Wind energy is intermittent in nature and hence the power system scheduling and dynamic control of wind turbine requires an estimate of wind energy. Accurate forecast of wind speed is a challenging task for the wind energy research field. In fact, due to the large variability of wind speed caused by the unpredictable and dynamic nature of the earth's atmosphere, there are many fluctuations in wind power production. This inherent variability of wind speed is the main cause of the uncertainty observed in wind power generation. Furthermore, producing wind power forecasts might be obtained indirectly by modeling the wind speed series and then transforming the forecasts through a power curve. Wind speed forecasting techniques have received substantial attention recently and several models have been developed. Basically two main approaches have been proposed in the literature: (1) physical models such as Numerical Weather Forecast and (2) statistical models such as Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, Neural Networks. While the initial focus in the literature has been on point forecasts, the need to quantify forecast uncertainty and communicate the risk of extreme ramp events has led to an interest in producing probabilistic forecasts. In short term context, probabilistic forecasts might be more relevant than point forecasts for the planner to build scenarios In this paper, we are interested in estimating predictive intervals of the hourly wind speed measures in few cities in United Arab emirates (UAE). More precisely, given a wind speed time series, our target is to forecast the wind speed at any specific hour during the day and provide in addition an interval with the coverage probability 0interval we need to estimate the lower band (resp. upper band) which corresponds to the (1-p)/2-th (resp. (1+p)/2-th) conditional quantile. In this paper, a kernel-smoothed estimator of the conditional quantiles is introduced. The proposed non-parametric approach has many advantages since it is flexible because it does not need a specification of the model to work with (such as normal distribution or a linear relation). Here, we use a covariable that is correlated to the wind speed. In practice, many possible choices of the covariate are available. In fact, in addition to its historical data, the wind speed is highly correlated to temperature, humidity and wind direction. In this paper a comparison, in terms of Mean Absolute Prediction Errors and Interquartile Range, between those choices will be provided to show which covariates are more suitable to forecast wind speed.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  13. Affectionate Writing Reduces Total Cholesterol: Two Randomized, Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Kory; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Hesse, Colin; Pauley, Perry M.

    2007-01-01

    In two 5-week trials, healthy college students were randomly assigned either to experimental or control groups. Participants in the experimental groups wrote about their affection for significant friends, relatives, and/or romantic partners for 20 minutes on three separate occasions; on the same schedule, those in the control groups wrote about…

  14. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  15. The Effect of Instrumental Timbre on Interval Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Ritson, Caroline R.; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or “pure”), flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals (“interval-differences”). Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music). Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1) timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2) the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult. PMID:24066179

  16. The effect of instrumental timbre on interval discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Ritson, Caroline R; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or "pure"), flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals ("interval-differences"). Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music). Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1) timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2) the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult. PMID:24066179

  17. An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…

  18. CCBKE Session Key Negotiation for Fast and Secure Scheduling of Scientific Applications in

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    . Our scheme is designed based on randomness-reuse strategy and Internet Key Exchange (IKE) scheme; scheduling; efficiency; communication security; authenticated key exchange 1. Introduction Great changesCloud, while a large number of enterprises and institutions have established their own private cloud

  19. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Hawaii International Conferenceon SystemSciences-1996 Introduction to Partitioning and Scheduling Minitrack

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Ishfaq

    Proceedings of the 29th Annual Hawaii International Conferenceon SystemSciences- 1996 Introduction execu- tion time by considering the trade-off between load balancing and communication minimization to scheduling tasks based on the interval or- dered task graph theory. Cherkasova, Kotov, and Rokicki discuss

  20. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  1. Interaction of Reinforcement Schedules, a Behavioral Prosthesis, and Work-Related Behavior in Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Richard R.; McEntee, Julie E.; Saunders, Muriel D.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of variable-interval (VI) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement for work-related behavior and an organizer for the work materials (behavioral prosthesis) were evaluated with 3 adults with severe or profound mental retardation. The participants had been recommended for study because of high rates of off-task and aberrant…

  2. Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Rea, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep/wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Methods Twenty-one participants were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week for each subject based upon estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour “blue” light (?max = 470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning “dim” light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as previous week at the end of the second week. Results We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep/wake schedule advancement and morning “blue” light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 young adults during a two week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the “blue” and “dim” light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian time. Conclusions This wholesale change in circadian clock gene expression may reflect significant advances in circadian time (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures. PMID:23562184

  3. Evaluation of risk of nephrotoxicity with high dose, extended-interval colistin administration

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Arun; Shoukat, Mujeeb

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the risk of nephrotoxicity with high-dose, extended-interval regimen of colistin administration in critical ill patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients suffering from sepsis due to Gram-negative infection susceptible only to colistin. The dosing schedule for colistin was 9 million units stat followed by 4.5 million units at 12 hourly interval (adjusted as per body weight and renal functions). The serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were estimated at the start of therapy and daily during therapy. Results: Thirty-one patients suffering ventilator associated pneumonia (61.29%), blood stream infections (29.03%) and urinary tract infections (9.67%) due to Gram-negative multiple drug resistance organisms were assessed. Most commonly isolated organism were Acinetobacter baumannii (54.83%), Klebsiella pneumonia (16.12%) and Pseudomonas (29.03%). Five patients (16.12%) developed acute kidney injury within 4-5 days of start of therapy and returned to baseline after 6 days with no patient requiring renal replacement therapy or discontinuation of colistin. Conclusion: Our study showed that high-dose, extended-interval colistin can be given to critically ill patients without any significant risk of nephrotoxicity. PMID:25097354

  4. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E

    2012-05-26

    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed. PMID:22535750

  5. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine administered according to 2- and 3-dose schedules in girls aged 9-14 years: Results to month 12 from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18(2D)) vs. 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D)) in healthy girls aged 9-14 y. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive HPV-16/18(2D) at months (M) 0,6 (N = 359), HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M0,6 (N = 358) or HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M0,2,6 (N = 358). The primary objective was non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M7 in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I) and total vaccinated cohort, respectively. Secondary objectives included non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7, non-inferiority/superiority at M12, HPV-16/18 neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of T-cells/B-cells, reactogenicity and safety. Antibody responses at M7 for HPV-16/18(2D) were superior to those for HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) (lower limit of 95% confidence interval for geometric mean titer ratio (GMR) was >1): HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) GMRs were 1.69 [1.49-1.91] for anti-HPV-16 and 4.52 [3.97-5.13] for anti-HPV-18; HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) GMRs were 1.72 [1.54-1.93] for anti-HPV-16 and 3.22 [2.82-3.68] for anti-HPV-18; p = 0.0001 for all comparisons. Non-inferiority/superiority was also demonstrated at M12. Among initially seronegative girls in the ATP-I, neutralizing antibody titers were at least 1.8-fold higher for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7 and M12. Frequencies of HPV-16/18-specific T-cells and B-cells were in similar ranges between groups. Reactogenicity and safety were in line with the known profile of each vaccine. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine compared with 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in girls (9-14 years). PMID:26062002

  6. Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

  7. Food-deprivation effects on punished schedule-induced drinking in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, E; Pellón, R

    1995-01-01

    Food-deprived rats (at 80% of their free-feeding weights) were exposed to a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food-pellet presentation and developed schedule-induced drinking. Lick-dependent signaled delays (10 s) to food presentation led to decreased drinking, which recovered when the signaled delays were discontinued. A major effect of this punishment contingency was to increase the proportion of interpellet intervals without any licks. The drinking of yoked control rats, which received food at the same times as those exposed to the signaled delay contingency (masters), was not consistently reduced. When food-deprivation level was changed to 90%, all master and yoked control rats showed decreases in punished or unpunished schedule-induced drinking. When the body weights were reduced to 70%, most master rats increased punished behavior to levels similar to those of unpunished drinking. This effect was not observed for yoked controls. Therefore, body-weight loss increased the resistance of schedule-induced drinking to reductions by punishment. Food-deprivation effects on punished schedule-induced drinking are similar to their effects on food-maintained lever pressing. This dependency of punishment on food-deprivation level supports the view that schedule-induced drinking can be modified by the same variables that affect operant behavior in general. PMID:7622981

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  9. RCPAQAP First Combined Measurement and Reference Interval Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Rd; Koetsier, Sabrina DA

    2014-11-01

    Reference intervals are commonly considered to allow for between-laboratory bias. The RCPAQAP Liquid Serum Chemistry Program has collected data on laboratory measurements as well as reference intervals. This allows assessment of the between-laboratory variation in results, reference intervals and the information transmitted by the combination of these factors. For the majority of common chemistry analytes, the between-laboratory variation in reference intervals is greater than the variation in results. Additionally the reference interval variation is generally not related to bias between the results. Use of common reference intervals, either as an average of the current intervals in use, or the intervals proposed by the AACB Harmonisation Group, improved the variation seen in the information produced by different laboratories. PMID:25678729

  10. Supporting an Interval Training Program with the Astrojumper Video Game

    E-print Network

    Ras, Zbigniew W.

    Supporting an Interval Training Program with the Astrojumper Video Game Andrea Nickel, Hugh Kinsey Wartell. Supporting an Interval Training Program with the Astrojumper Video Game. In electronic Training Program with the Astrojumper Video Game}, booktitle = {Meaningful Play 2012}, year = {2012

  11. Confidence intervals for the difference in paired Youden indices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haochuan; Qin, Gengsheng

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of accuracy between two diagnostic tests can be implemented by investigating the difference in paired Youden indices. However, few literature articles have discussed the inferences for the difference in paired Youden indices. In this paper, we propose an exact confidence interval for the difference in paired Youden indices based on the generalized pivotal quantities. For comparison, the maximum likelihood estimate-based interval and a bootstrap-based interval are also included in the study for the difference in paired Youden indices. Abundant simulation studies are conducted to compare the relative performance of these intervals by evaluating the coverage probability and average interval length. Our simulation results demonstrate that the exact confidence interval outperforms the other two intervals even with small sample size when the underlying distributions are normal. A real application is also used to illustrate the proposed intervals. PMID:23090764

  12. Metronomic cyclophosphamide schedule-dependence of innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression in an implanted glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Waxman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment activates robust innate anti-tumor immunity and induces major regression of large, implanted brain tumor xenografts when administered on an intermittent, every 6-day schedule, but not on a daily low-dose or a maximum-tolerated dose CPA schedule. Here, we used an implanted GL261 glioma model to compare five intermittent metronomic CPA schedules to elucidate the kinetics and schedule dependence of innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression. Tumor-recruited natural killer cells induced by two every 6-day treatment cycles were significantly ablated one day after a third CPA treatment, but largely recovered several days later. Natural killer and other tumor-infiltrating innate immune cells peaked 12 days after the last CPA treatment on the every 6-day schedule, suggesting that drug-free intervals longer than 6 days may show increased efficacy. Metronomic CPA treatments spaced 9 or 12 days apart, or on an alternating 6 and 9 day schedule, induced extensive tumor regression, similar to the 6-day schedule, however, the tumor-infiltrating natural killer cell responses were not sustained, leading to rapid resumption of tumor regrowth after day 24, despite ongoing metronomic CPA treatment. Increasing the CPA dose prolonged the period of tumor regression on the every 9-day schedule, but natural killer cell activation was markedly decreased. Thus, while several intermittent metronomic CPA treatment schedules can activate innate immune cell recruitment leading to major tumor regression, sustained immune and anti-tumor responses are only achieved on the 6-day schedule. However, even with this schedule, some tumors eventually relapse, indicating a need for further improvements in immunogenic metronomic therapies. PMID:25069038

  13. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  14. A planning and scheduling lexicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

    1989-01-01

    A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

  15. Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Emi; Yamashita, Miki; Haraguchi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33). Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80–280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral. PMID:24860471

  16. PERSISTENCE OF WANDERING INTERVALS IN SELF-SIMILAR AFFINE INTERVAL EXCHANGE TRANSFORMATIONS

    E-print Network

    Hubert, Pascal

    BRESSAUD, PASCAL HUBERT, AND ALEJANDRO MAASS Abstract. In this article we prove that given a self transformations, substitutive systems, wandering sets. 1 #12;2 Xavier Bressaud, Pascal Hubert, Alejandro Maass, we prove the following result: Theorem 1. Let T(,) be a self-similar interval exchange transformation

  17. Pigeons' Memory for Number of Events: Effects of Intertrial Interval and Delay Interval Illumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Chris; Santi, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained at a 0-s baseline delay to discriminate sequences of light flashes (illumination of the feeder) that varied in number but not time (2f/4s and 8f/4s). During training, the intertrial interval was illuminated by the houselight for Group Light, but it was dark for Group Dark. Testing conducted with dark delay…

  18. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  19. Green Scheduling: Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Power Reduction

    E-print Network

    Pappas, George J.

    and the scheduling problem is presented as designing a hybrid automaton. Tasks are constructed by extracting million refrigerator compressors and microwaves trigger, causing massive spikes in energy demand. Human be applied to such resource sharing problems, they impose stringent constraints on the task model. Generally

  20. Dose-dense epirubicin and paclitaxel with G-CSF: a study of decreasing intervals in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lalisang, R I; Voest, E E; Wils, J A; Nortier, J W; Erdkamp, F L; Hillen, H F; Wals, J; Schouten, H C; Blijham, G H

    2000-01-01

    Anthracyclines and taxanes are very effective drugs in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. With G-CSF support, the dose-intensity of this combination can be increased by reducing the interval between chemotherapy cycles, the so-called ‘shortening of cycle time’. We treated 36 patients with advanced breast cancer in a multicentre phase I/II study. The treatment regimen consisted of epirubicin 75 mg m?2followed by paclitaxel 135 mg m?2(3 h) in combination with G-CSF. At least six patients were treated in each cohort and were evaluated over the first three cycles. Starting at an interval of 14 days, in subsequent cohorts of patients the interval could be shortened to 10 days. An 8-day interval was not feasible due mainly to incomplete neutrophil recovery at the day of the next scheduled cycle. In the 10-day interval cohort it was feasible to increase the paclitaxel dose to 175 mg m?2. The haematological and non-haematological toxicity was relatively mild. No cumulative myelosuppression was observed over at least three consecutive cycles. In combination with G-CSF, epirubicin 75 mg m?2and paclitaxel 175 mg m?2could be safely administered every 10 days over at least three cycles, enabling a dose intensity of 52 and 122 mg m?2per week, respectively. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864197

  1. Calculating Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes Using Noncentral Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Deborah

    This paper provides a brief review of the concepts of confidence intervals, effect sizes, and central and noncentral distributions. The use of confidence intervals around effect sizes is discussed. A demonstration of the Exploratory Software for Confidence Intervals (G. Cuming and S. Finch, 2001; ESCI) is given to illustrate effect size confidence…

  2. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  3. Interactive Fuzzy Interval Reasoning for smart Web shopping

    E-print Network

    Hua, Kien A.

    convenient interval inputs for online shopping. In order to serve different customers basedInteractive Fuzzy Interval Reasoning for smart Web shopping Fuyu Liu, Hongli Geng, Yan-Qing Zhang Web customers. The Interactive Fuzzy Interval Reasoning method is used to design the Web shopping

  4. Computation of equilibrium states and bifurcations using interval analysis

    E-print Network

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Computation of equilibrium states and bifurcations using interval analysis: Application to food and bifurcations of equilibria in food chain models. The method used is based on interval analysis, in particular; Computational method; Interval analysis 1 Introduction Food chain modeling provides challenges in the fields

  5. Randomized Algorithms Robert Elsasser

    E-print Network

    Elsässer, Robert

    Randomized Algorithms Robert Els¨asser 15. June 2011 Program of the day: · Random walks on graphs Robert Els¨asser Universit¨at Paderborn Randomized Algorithms SS 11 0 #12;Markov Chains and Random Walks neighbor v2 of v1. At step i > 0, we proceed to a randomly chosen neighbor vi of vi-1. Robert Els

  6. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Preteens and Teens (7-18 years) 2015 Recommended Immunizations [ ...

  7. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  8. Optimal scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance

    E-print Network

    Cho, Philip Y

    2011-01-01

    The effective scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance in the Air Force is crucial to overall mission accomplishment. An effective maintenance scheduling policy maximizes the use of maintenance resources and aircraft ...

  9. Online Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Optimal Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.1.2 Our Proposed Online Algorithm CHASEOnline Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with Intermittent Energy Sources and Co entitled: Online Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with Intermittent Energy Sources and Co

  10. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01 Antimony-125 1 .01 Arsenic-73 10...

  11. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01 Antimony-125 1 .01 Arsenic-73 10...

  12. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01 Antimony-125 1 .01 Arsenic-73 10...

  13. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01 Antimony-125 1 .01 Arsenic-73 10...

  14. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01 Antimony-125 1 .01 Arsenic-73 10...

  15. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children Recommend on Facebook ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Recommended immunizations ...

  16. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission...Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold...

  17. Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithms Ursula Fissgus

    E-print Network

    Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithms Ursula Fissgus Computer Science Department University Halle memory machine. We present a scheduling derivation step based on the genetic algorithm paradigm, data parallelism, genetic algorithms. 1 Introduction Several applications from scientific computing, e

  18. 7 CFR 58.440 - Make schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...schedule. A uniform schedule should be established and followed as closely as possible for the various steps of setting, cutting, cooking, draining the whey and milling the curd, to promote a uniform quality of...

  19. 7 CFR 58.440 - Make schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...schedule. A uniform schedule should be established and followed as closely as possible for the various steps of setting, cutting, cooking, draining the whey and milling the curd, to promote a uniform quality of...

  20. 49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665.21 Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a manufacturer shall contact the operator of FTA's bus testing program. Contact information and...

  1. Scheduling from the perspective of the application

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, F.; Wolski, R.

    1996-12-31

    Metacomputing is the aggregation of distributed and high-performance resources on coordinated networks. With careful scheduling, resource-intensive applications can be implemented efficiently on metacomputing systems at the sizes of interest to developers and users. In this paper we focus on the problem of scheduling applications on metacomputing systems. We introduce the concept of application-centric scheduling in which everything about the system is evaluated in terms of its impact on the application. Application-centric scheduling is used by virtually all metacomputer programmers to achieve performance on metacomputing systems. We describe two successful metacomputing applications to illustrate this approach, and describe AppLeS scheduling agents which generalize the application-centric scheduling approach. Finally, we show preliminary results which compare AppLeS-derived schedules with conventional strip and blocked schedules for a two-dimensional Jacobi code.

  2. 49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  3. 49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  4. 14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  5. 14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  6. 49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  7. 14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  8. 14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  9. 14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  10. 14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  11. 14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  12. 49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  13. 14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  14. 14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  15. 14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  16. 49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...

  17. Production Scheduling with Energy Efficiency Constraints 

    E-print Network

    Lee, J.; Kozman, T. A.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    developed for three different due date assignment methods. Minton et al. [6] described a simple heuristic approach to solve large-scale constraint satisfaction and scheduling problems. Anwar and Nagi [7] formulated an integrated scheduling and lot... and scheduling problems. Artificial Intelligence, 58, 61-205. [7] ANWAR, M. F. and NAGI, R., 1997, Integrated lot-sizing and scheduling for just-in-time production of complex assemblies with finite set-ups. International Journal of Production Research, 35...

  18. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  19. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  20. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  1. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  2. 19 CFR 162.45a - Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

  3. 19 CFR 162.45a - Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

  4. 19 CFR 162.45a - Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

  5. 19 CFR 162.45a - Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

  6. 19 CFR 162.45a - Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

  7. Flexible shift scheduling of physicians.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Jens O; Bard, Jonathan F; Kolisch, Rainer

    2009-09-01

    This research addresses a shift scheduling problem in which physicians at a German university hospital are assigned to demand periods over a planning horizon that can extend up to several weeks. When performing the scheduling it is necessary to take into account a variety of legal and institutional constraints that are imposed by a national labor agreement, which governs all physicians in German university hospitals. Currently, most medical departments develop their staff schedules manually at great cost and time. To solve the problem, a new modeling approach is developed that requires shifts to be generated implicitly. Rather than beginning with a predetermined number of shift types and start times, shifts are allowed to start at every pre-defined period in the planning horizon and extend up to 13 h with an hour-long break included. The objective is to find an assignment such that the total hours that have to be paid out as overtime are minimal under the restrictions given by the labor agreement. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program and solved with CPLEX. During the solution process individual lines-of-work are constructed for each physician. Using data from an anesthesia department, computational results indicate that high quality schedules can be obtained much more quickly than by current practice. PMID:19739361

  8. Instruction Booklet Schedule of Classes

    E-print Network

    Pfrender, Michael

    The Hours Of Instruction Booklet Schedule of Classes Summer 2015 The classes listed class searches via summersession.nd.edu for uptodate information. Registration instructions and details may be found at http://summersession.nd.edu #12;FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT Each

  9. Instruction Booklet Schedule of Classes

    E-print Network

    Pfrender, Michael

    The Hours Of Instruction Booklet Schedule of Classes Summer 2014 The classes listed class searches via summersession.nd.edu for uptodate information. Registration instructions and details may be found at http://summersession.nd.edu #12;FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT Each

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  11. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  12. Flexible Scheduling: Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makemson, Carroll; Early, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the kind of library media program that elementary students should have, focusing on the library schedule and its impact on student achievement. Considers time for collaborative planning with teachers; availability for multitasking in the library; and information literacy skills instruction integrated with content instruction. (LRW)

  13. Integrated production and maintenance scheduling 

    E-print Network

    Whitaker, Laura Oakes

    1996-01-01

    of maintenance being scheduled in this study. The topic was motivated by the electronic assembly industry. With increased automation of the assembly process, on-line information, such as quality or rate of the assembly process, has become more readily available...

  14. Enhanced Personal Contact With HIV Patients Improves Retention in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial in 6 US HIV Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lytt I.; Giordano, Thomas P.; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E.; Craw, Jason A.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Malitz, Faye; Moore, Richard D.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Holman, Susan; Rose, Charles E.; Girde, Sonali; Sullivan, Meg; Metsch, Lisa R.; Saag, Michael; Mugavero, Michael J.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Ferreira, Cintia; Koppelman, Lisa; McDoom, Maya; Naisteter, Michal; Osella, Karina; Ruiz, Glory; Skolnik, Paul; Sullivan, Meg; Gibbs-Cohen, Sophia; Desrivieres, Elana; Frederick, Mayange; Gravesande, Kevin; Holman, Susan; Johnson, Harry; Taylor, Tonya; Wilson, Tracey; Cheever, Laura; Malitz, Faye; Mills, Robert; Craw, Jason; Gardner, Lytt; Girde, Sonali; Marks, Gary; Batey, Scott; Gaskin, Stephanie; Mugavero, Michael; Murphree, Jill; Raper, Jim; Saag, Michael; Thogaripally, Suneetha; Willig, James; Zinski, Anne; Arya, Monisha; Bartholomew, David; Biggs, Tawanna; Budhwani, Hina; Davila, Jessica; Giordano, Tom; Miertschin, Nancy; Payne, Shapelle; Slaughter, William; Jenckes, Mollie; Keruly, Jeanne; McCray, Angie; McGann, Mary; Moore, Richard; Otterbein, Melissa; Zhou, Liming; Garzon, Carolyn; Jean-Simon, Jesline; Mercogliano, Kathy; Metsch, Lisa; Rodriguez, Allan; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Shika, Marvin; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Corwin, Marla

    2014-01-01

    Background.?The aim of the study was to determine whether enhanced personal contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients across time improves retention in care compared with existing standard of care (SOC) practices, and whether brief skills training improves retention beyond enhanced contact. Methods.?The study, conducted at 6 HIV clinics in the United States, included 1838 patients with a recent history of inconsistent clinic attendance, and new patients. Each clinic randomized participants to 1 of 3 arms and continued to provide SOC practices to all enrollees: enhanced contact with interventionist (EC) (brief face-to-face meeting upon returning for care visit, interim visit call, appointment reminder calls, missed visit call); EC + skills (organization, problem solving, and communication skills); or SOC only. The intervention was delivered by project staff for 12 months following randomization. The outcomes during that 12-month period were (1) percentage of participants attending at least 1 primary care visit in 3 consecutive 4-month intervals (visit constancy), and (2) proportion of kept/scheduled primary care visits (visit adherence). Results.?Log-binomial risk ratios comparing intervention arms against the SOC arm demonstrated better outcomes in both the EC and EC + skills arms (visit constancy: risk ratio [RR], 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09–1.36] and 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09–1.36], respectively; visit adherence: RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05–1.11] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02–1.09], respectively; all Ps < .01). Intervention effects were observed in numerous patient subgroups, although they were lower in patients reporting unmet needs or illicit drug use. Conclusions.?Enhanced contact with patients improved retention in HIV primary care compared with existing SOC practices. A brief patient skill-building component did not improve retention further. Additional intervention elements may be needed for patients reporting illicit drug use or who have unmet needs. Clinical Trials Registration.?CDCHRSA9272007. PMID:24837481

  15. Scheduling Malleable Applications in Multicluster Systems

    E-print Network

    Sonmez, Omer Ozan

    for malleability in our KOALA multicluster scheduler with the help of our DYNACO framework for application malleability. In addition, we show the results of experiments with scheduling malleable workloads with KOALA present the design of the support for malleability in our KOALA [1] multicluster scheduler by means

  16. Scheduling Wireless Links with Successive Interference Cancellation

    E-print Network

    Scheduling Wireless Links with Successive Interference Cancellation Olga Goussevskaia Department@tik.ee.ethz.ch Abstract--In this paper we study the problem of scheduling wireless links in a model where successive in strength significantly. It has been shown that the problem of scheduling wireless links with successive

  17. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1335 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1335 Section 52.1335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1335 Compliance schedules. (a) The compliance schedule for the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1335 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1335 Section 52.1335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1335 Compliance schedules. (a) The compliance schedule for the...

  20. Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case

    E-print Network

    Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case Master Thesis April 2007 Supervisor: Jens Clausen #12;Abstract This Master Theses is about solving the aircraft landing problem dynamically. Given an original landing schedule for the incoming aircraft this schedule are rescheduled whenever an aircraft

  1. 10 CFR 30.71 - Schedule B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B. 30.71 Section 30.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 30.71 Schedule B. Byproduct material Microcuries Antimony 122 (Sb 122) 100 Antimony 124 (Sb 124) 10 Antimony 125 (Sb 125) 10 Arsenic 73 (As 73)...

  2. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice... Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold a... the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please contact...

  3. Creating Activity Schedules Using Microsoft Power Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Kinney, Elisabeth M.; Root, Shannon; Stromer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We describe how Power Point presentation software can be used to create computer activity schedules to teach individuals with special needs. Presented are the steps involved in creating activity schedules with close-ended and open-ended activities, and for preparing schedules that include photos, sounds, text, and videos that can be used to…

  4. Student Systems Suite Event Classroom Scheduling

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    of the screen are drop down buttons. · Click on the plus sign (+) next to Event Management drop down button. BStudent Systems Suite Event Classroom Scheduling #12;Event Classroom Scheduling Page 2 © Purdue University ­ Student Systems Suite Table of Contents REQUEST TO SCHEDULE A CLASSROOM FOR ANY EVENT

  5. Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker

    E-print Network

    Coffman Jr., E. G.

    Mutual Exclusion Scheduling Brenda S. Baker Edward G. Coffman, Jr. AT&T Bell Laboratories 600 Mutual exclusion scheduling is the problem of scheduling unit­time tasks non­preemptively on m processors by a mutual exclusion graph G in which each vertex represents a task requiring one unit of running time

  6. Scheduling Rooted Forests with Communication Garth Isaak

    E-print Network

    Isaak, Garth

    Scheduling Rooted Forests with Communication Delays Garth Isaak Abstract We show that a greedy algorithm for scheduling unit time jobs on two ma- chines with unit communication delays produces an optimal schedule when the precedence constraints are given by a rooted forest. We also give a min/max relationship

  7. Random Lens Imaging

    E-print Network

    Fergus, Rob

    2006-09-02

    We call a random lens one for which the function relating the input light ray to the output sensor location is pseudo-random. Imaging systems with random lensescan expand the space of possible camera designs, allowing new ...

  8. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    PubMed Central

    Späti, Jakub; Aritake, Sayaka; Meyer, Andrea H.; Kitamura, Shingo; Hida, Akiko; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood. To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on interval timing and to assess the ability of a pacemaker-based mechanism to account for the data, we measured timing performance in eighteen young healthy male subjects across two epochs of sustained wakefulness of 38.67 h each, conducted prior to (under entrained conditions) and following (under free-running conditions) a 28 h sleep-wake schedule, using the methods of duration estimation and duration production on target intervals of 10 and 40 s. Our findings of opposing oscillatory time courses across both epochs of sustained wakefulness that combine with increasing and, respectively, decreasing, saturating exponential change for the tasks of estimation and production are consistent with the hypothesis that a pacemaker emitting pulses at a rate controlled by the circadian oscillator and increasing with time awake determines human short-term interval timing; the duration-specificity of this pattern is interpreted as reflecting challenges to maintaining stable attention to the task that progressively increase with stimulus magnitude and thereby moderate the effects of pacemaker-rate changes on overt behavior. PMID:25741253

  9. Is it time for flexibility in botulinum inter-injection intervals?

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwadamilola O; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2015-12-01

    Based largely on old retrospective reports, the recommendation of injecting BoNT as infrequently as possible, with the lowest possible dose, was formed. While BoNT is inherently immunogenic, with improved production, most patients no longer develop immune resistance and poor response to BoNT is often due to other factors. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using abobotulinumtoxinA for cervical dystonia (CD) by the German Dystonia Study Group, half of the patients treated with 250 and 500 U, and 39% in the 1000 U group required retreatment after 8 weeks. In a RCT comparing onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA for CD by Benecke et al., waning of effect was noted in 70 days for both toxins. Finally, two long-term prospective trials employing flexible intervals, with reinjections based on patient's request, have been performed using incobotulinumtoxinA. In the CD study, 22.5% were re-injected in <10 weeks and 24.6% between 10 and 12 weeks. In the blepharospasm study, the median injection interval was 6-10 weeks for 23.7% and 10-12 weeks for 32.3%) While long-term studies utilizing flexible/shortened intervals, with vigilance over immunogenicity are needed, the majority of current evidence no longer support the very stringent adherence to strict 90-day BoNT injection intervals. PMID:26440738

  10. Interval discrimination across different duration ranges with a look at spatial compatibility and context effects

    PubMed Central

    Mioni, Giovanna; Stablum, Franca; Grondin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a time discrimination task was used to investigate the effect of different contexts for intervals varying from 400 to 1600 ms. A potential time-space interaction was controlled, and participants used both manual responses (Experiments 1 and 2) and vocal responses (Experiment 3). Three ranges of durations were employed (short, middle and long), and within each range condition, three standard values were used (400, 700, and 1000 ms; 700, 1000, and 1300 ms; and 1000, 1300, and 1600 ms). Within each range, standard intervals were randomized (Experiments 1 and 3) or remained constant (Experiment 2) within a block of trials. Our results suggest that context influences time discrimination performances only when the temporal range under investigation is below 1300 ms and the temporal intervals varied within blocks. In the case of temporal intervals longer than 1300 ms, participants presented a tendency to respond “long” independently of the procedure used. Moreover, our results suggested that performances in a discrimination task are mainly influenced by the fact of varying standard durations within blocks, and not much by the time-space compatibility. PMID:25071680

  11. The Interval approach to braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph D.; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI

    2005-06-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of ''straight gauges'', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical ''brane-bending'' modes.

  12. Target inference from collections of genomic intervals

    PubMed Central

    Krasnitz, Alexander; Sun, Guoli; Andrews, Peter; Wigler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Finding regions of the genome that are significantly recurrent in noisy data are a common but difficult problem in present day computational biology. Cores of recurrent events (CORE) is a computational approach to solving this problem that is based on a formalized notion by which “core” intervals explain the observed data, where the number of cores is the “depth” of the explanation. Given that formalization, we implement CORE as a combinatorial optimization procedure with depth chosen from considerations of statistical significance. An important feature of CORE is its ability to explain data with cores of widely varying lengths. We examine the performance of this system with synthetic data, and then provide two demonstrations of its utility with actual data. Applying CORE to a collection of DNA copy number profiles from single cells of a given tumor, we determine tumor population phylogeny and find the features that separate subpopulations. Applying CORE to comparative genomic hybridization data from a large set of tumor samples, we define regions of recurrent copy number aberration in breast cancer. PMID:23744040

  13. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  14. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  15. Statistical Properties of Extreme Solar Activity Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioznova, A. V.; Blinov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A study of long-term solar variability reflected in indirect indices of past solar activity leads to stimulating results. We compare the statistics of intervals of very low and very high solar activity derived from two cosmogenic radionuclide records and look for consistency in their timing and physical interpretation. According to the applied criteria, the numbers of minima and of maxima are 61 and 68, respectively, from the 10Be record, and 42 and 46 from the 14C record. The difference between the enhanced and depressed states of solar activity becomes apparent in the difference in their statistical distributions. We find no correlation between the level or type (minimum or maximum) of an extremum and the level or type of the predecessor. The hypothesis of solar activity as a periodic process on the millennial time scale is not supported by the existing proxies. A new homogeneous series of 10Be measurements in polar ice covering the Holocene would be of great value for eliminating the existing discrepancy in the available solar activity reconstructions.

  16. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  17. An evaluation of sampling methods used to produce insect growth models for postmortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Lecheta, Melise C; Moura, Mauricio O; LaMotte, Lynn R

    2015-03-01

    Many authors produced carrion insect development data for predicting the age of an insect from a corpse. Under some circumstances, this age value is a minimum postmortem interval. There are no standard protocols for such experiments, and the literature includes a variety of sampling methods. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation of how the choice of sampling method can be expected to influence the performance of the resulting predictive model. We calculated 95 % inverse prediction confidence limits for growth curves of the forensically important carrion flies Chrysomya megacephala and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Calliphoridae) at a constant temperature. Confidence limits constructed on data for entire age cohorts were considered to be the most realistic and were used to judge the effect of various subsampling schemes from the literature. Random subsamples yielded predictive models very similar to those of the complete data. Because taking genuinely random subsamples would require a great deal of effort, we imagine that it would be worthwhile only if the larval measurement technique were especially slow and/or expensive. However, although some authors claimed to use random samples, their published methods suggest otherwise. Subsampling the largest larvae produced a predictive model that performed poorly, with confidence intervals about an estimate of age being unjustifiably narrow and unlikely to contain the true age. We believe these results indicate that most forensic insect development studies should involve the measurement of entire age cohorts rather than subsamples of one or more cohorts. PMID:24929639

  18. Motivation Valued Outranking Digraphs Random Performance Tableaux Random Outranking Digraphs Conclusion Random Outranking Digraphs

    E-print Network

    Bisdorff, Raymond

    Motivation Valued Outranking Digraphs Random Performance Tableaux Random Outranking Digraphs/CSC Leuven, January, 2009 Motivation Valued Outranking Digraphs Random Performance Tableaux Random Outranking Motivation Valued Outranking Digraphs Random Performance Tableaux Random Outranking Digraphs Conclusion

  19. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  20. Going to Work: Understanding Work Schedules 

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Rosemarie

    2000-07-20

    go to work, call your supervisor at least 4 hours before you are scheduled to work. That way he or she can find a replacement for you. Don?t have a friend, spouse or parent call and lie for you. If you are able, you should call. The work schedule..._fman Assistant Professor and Extension Individual and Family Development Specialist, The Texas A&M University System L-2368 6-00 Understanding Work Schedules A work schedule tells you when to report for work. Employers use schedules to get work done in the least...

  1. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  2. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  3. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  4. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was significantly higher than that in HIIT ZLS group. The maximum average peak torque for isometric left knee contraction was enhanced after 6-week training in all three groups. It was suggested that HITT can be used in weightlessness to maintain the cardiopulmonary function in a relatively short training period, but the effect of HIIT on the maintenance of muscle function still need further study. (Supported by State Key Laboratory Grant NO. SMFA10A04 and The Twelfth Five Year Plan of Medical and Health Research Grant NO. BWS11J055)

  5. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ? 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the DI group, yet strength gains were similar, the creatine supplementation appeared to bolster adaptations for the DI group, even in the presence of significantly less volume. However, further research is needed with the inclusion of a control group not receiving supplementation combined and resistance training with decreasing rest intervals to further elucidate such hypotheses. PMID:22032491

  6. Assessment of the Correlation between Appointment Scheduling and Patient Satisfaction in a Pediatric Dental Setup.

    PubMed

    Katre, Amar N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The practice of modern pediatric dentistry requires delivery of quality care in combination with adherence to excellent business as well as time management principles. A definite appointment schedule should be presented to the parents on the first or second appointment. More importantly, the prescribed schedule should be followed to the best of the professional abilities of the pediatric dentist. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the co-relation between appointment scheduling and patient satisfaction in a pediatric dental setup with the objective of understanding the parameters related to appointment scheduling to increase patient satisfaction. Method. A total of 40 patients, who visited the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, YMT Dental College & Hospital, for dental treatment were selected on a random basis. A questionnaire with a set of 6 questions with a rating scale of 1-5 to assess the patient satisfaction related to appointment scheduling was prepared. Results. A significant number of the patients were happy with the existing appointment scheduling system barring a few exceptions. PMID:25610464

  7. Fixed interval/fixed ratio performance in adult monkeys exposed in utero to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, S G; Rice, D C; Burbacher, T M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies in monkeys and rodents have shown the fixed interval/fixed ratio (FI/FR) schedule to be a sensitive indicator of neurotoxicity. In the present study, monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed in utero to methylmercury (MeHg). Maternal doses of MeHg of 50, 70, or 90 micrograms/kg b.wt./day resulted in infant blood mercury levels at birth ranging from 1.04 to 2.45 ppm. Monkeys were tested on a multiple FI/FR schedule of reinforcement at 8-10 years of age. Four FI/FR cycles were run per session. Pause time and run rate were calculated for FI and FR components, as well as FI quarter-life and local FI response rates. MeHg treatment and sex effects were investigated by fitting a linear orthogonal polynomial regression to each monkey's profile across sessions and performing two-way ANOVAs on the resulting linear and intercept terms. There were no treatment-related effects on either the FI or FR component for pause time or run rate. Analysis of the quarter-life revealed a significant treatment by sex effect as well as a main effect for sex. Post hoc t-tests revealed a significant difference in quarter-life of treated male and female monkeys and a marginal difference between treated and control males. The FI run rate of the male monkeys was significantly greater than that of the female monkeys whereas the FR run rate of the males was marginally greater. These results indicate that there may be a differential effect of MeHg on male and female monkeys, which could be interpreted as an effect on temporal discrimination. Overall, adult monkeys exposed to in utero MeHg exhibited a very limited sex-related effects on the FI/FR intermittent schedule of reinforcement. PMID:8888018

  8. A comparison study of modal parameter confidence intervals computed using the Monte Carlo and Bootstrap techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Cornwell, P.J.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of two techniques used to estimate the statistical confidence intervals on modal parameters identified from measured vibration data. The first technique is Monte Carlo simulation, which involves the repeated simulation of random data sets based on the statistics of the measured data and an assumed distribution of the variability in the measured data. A standard modal identification procedure is repeatedly applied to the randomly perturbed data sets to form a statistical distribution on the identified modal parameters. The second technique is the Bootstrap approach, where individual Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements are randomly selected with replacement to form an ensemble average. This procedure, in effect, randomly weights the various FRF measurements. These weighted averages of the FRFs are then put through the modal identification procedure. The modal parameters identified from each randomly weighted data set are then used to define a statistical distribution for these parameters. The basic difference in the two techniques is that the Monte Carlo technique requires the assumption on the form of the distribution of the variability in the measured data, while the bootstrap technique does not. Also, the Monte Carlo technique can only estimate random errors, while the bootstrap statistics represent both random and bias (systematic) variability such as that arising from changing environmental conditions. However, the bootstrap technique requires that every frequency response function be saved for each average during the data acquisition process. Neither method can account for bias introduced during the estimation of the FRFs. This study has been motivated by a program to develop vibration-based damage identification procedures.

  9. Randomized Algorithms Robert Elsasser

    E-print Network

    Elsässer, Robert

    Randomized Algorithms Robert Els¨asser 20. April 2011 Program of the day: · Computing shortest paths Robert Els¨asser Universit¨at Paderborn Randomized Algorithms SS 11 0 #12;2. Computing Distances2 n) using a randomized algorithms. Robert Els¨asser Universit¨at Paderborn Randomized Algorithms SS

  10. Randomized Algorithms Robert Elsasser

    E-print Network

    Elsässer, Robert

    Randomized Algorithms Robert Els¨asser 27. April 2011 Program of the day: · Computing shortest paths Robert Els¨asser Universit¨at Paderborn Randomized Algorithms SS 11 0 #12;2. Computing Distances2 n) using a randomized algorithms. Robert Els¨asser Universit¨at Paderborn Randomized Algorithms SS

  11. Treatment of Calves with Bovine Respiratory Disease: Duration of Therapy and Posttreatment Intervals.

    PubMed

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    When treating bovine respiratory disease, it is important to consider the decision to initiate treatment, the treatment regimen used, and whether to continue treatment. It is necessary to define the duration of drug exposure and when a success/failure decision will be made. No data are available to define the optimal duration of antimicrobial exposure. A pattern seen in human pneumonia studies is that shorter durations of therapy were equivalent with longer durations. Some studies suggest defining success or failure based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may lead to earlier than optimal intervention. Optimal intervals are best defined by randomized clinical trials. PMID:26253265

  12. Electrically pumped random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades extensive research has been carried out to study the lasing characteristics of random media. Some unexpected phenomena of random lasing action have also been discovered. Nevertheless, random laser technologies have never been commercialized for any practical application. So, is there anything missing in the study of random lasers? Will there be a solution to this dilemma? In this topical review, we will investigate the obstacles preventing the commercialization of random laser technologies, give an overview of the current progress of electrically pumped random lasers, and explain the reasons why it is necessary to further develop random laser diodes for practical applications.

  13. Extended flowering intervals of bamboos evolved by discrete multiplication.

    PubMed

    Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A; Davis, Charles C

    2015-07-01

    Numerous bamboo species collectively flower and seed at dramatically extended, regular intervals - some as long as 120 years. These collective seed releases, termed 'masts', are thought to be a strategy to overwhelm seed predators or to maximise pollination rates. But why are the intervals so long, and how did they evolve? We propose a simple mathematical model that supports their evolution as a two-step process: First, an initial phase in which a mostly annually flowering population synchronises onto a small multi-year interval. Second, a phase of successive small multiplications of the initial synchronisation interval, resulting in the extraordinary intervals seen today. A prediction of the hypothesis is that mast intervals observed today should factorise into small prime numbers. Using a historical data set of bamboo flowering observations, we find strong evidence in favour of this prediction. Our hypothesis provides the first theoretical explanation for the mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon. PMID:25963600

  14. Contrasting diversity values: statistical inferences based on overlapping confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(?)?=?0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  15. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(?)?=?0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  16. IBM system/360 assembly language interval arithmetic software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Computer software designed to perform interval arithmetic is described. An interval is defined as the set of all real numbers between two given numbers including or excluding one or both endpoints. Interval arithmetic consists of the various elementary arithmetic operations defined on the set of all intervals, such as interval addition, subtraction, union, etc. One of the main applications of interval arithmetic is in the area of error analysis of computer calculations. For example, it has been used sucessfully to compute bounds on sounding errors in the solution of linear algebraic systems, error bounds in numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, as well as integral equations and boundary value problems. The described software enables users to implement algorithms of the type described in references efficiently on the IBM 360 system.

  17. NCI Shady Grove Shuttle Schedule

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute Shady Grove Metro Shuttle Schedule NCI Shady Grove Shady Grove Metro Departure NCI SG Departure SGM -- 6:00 AM -- 6:15 AM 6:15 AM 6:30 AM 6:30 AM 6:45 AM 6:45 AM 7:00 AM 7:00 AM 7:15 AM 7:15 AM 7:30 AM 7:30 AM 7:45

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  20. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  1. Scheduled Peripheral Component Interconnect Arbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Scott Alan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for arbitrating access of a communication bus. In one embodiment, a method includes performing steps on one or more processors. The steps include: receiving an access request from a device of the communication bus; evaluating a bus schedule to determine an importance of the device based on the access request; and selectively granting access of the communication bus to the device based on the importance of the device.

  2. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Elsasser, Robert; Friedrich, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  3. Changes in crash risk following re-timing of traffic signal change intervals.

    PubMed

    Retting, Richard A; Chapline, Janella F; Williams, Allan F

    2002-03-01

    More than I million motor vehicle crashes occur annually at signalized intersections in the USA. The principal method used to prevent crashes associated with routine changes in signal indications is employment of a traffic signal change interval--a brief yellow and all-red period that follows the green indication. No universal practice exists for selecting the duration of change intervals, and little is known about the influence of the duration of the change interval on crash risk. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential crash effects of modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with a proposed recommended practice published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. A sample of 122 intersections was identified and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Of 51 eligible experimental sites, 40 (78%) needed signal timing changes. For the 3-year period following implementation of signal timing changes, there was an 8% reduction in reportable crashes at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites (P = 0.08). For injury crashes, a 12% reduction at experimental sites relative to those occurring at control sites was found (P = 0.03). Pedestrian and bicycle crashes at experimental sites decreased 37% (P = 0.03) relative to controls. Given these results and the relatively low cost of re-timing traffic signals, modifying the duration of traffic signal change intervals to conform with values associated with the Institute of Transportation Engineers' proposed recommended practice should be strongly considered by transportation agencies to reduce the frequency of urban motor vehicle crashes. PMID:11829291

  4. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ?7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance. PMID:24206175

  5. Age-related alterations in the fractal scaling of cardiac interbeat interval dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, N.; Peng, C. K.; Morin, R.; Goldberger, A. L.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    We postulated that aging is associated with disruption in the fractallike long-range correlations that characterize healthy sinus rhythm cardiac interval dynamics. Ten young (21-34 yr) and 10 elderly (68-81 yr) rigorously screened healthy subjects underwent 120 min of continuous supine resting electrocardiographic recording. We analyzed the interbeat interval time series using standard time and frequency domain statistics and using a fractal measure, detrended fluctuation analysis, to quantify long-range correlation properties. In healthy young subjects, interbeat intervals demonstrated fractal scaling, with scaling exponents (alpha) from the fluctuation analysis close to a value of 1.0. In the group of healthy elderly subjects, the interbeat interval time series had two scaling regions. Over the short range, interbeat interval fluctuations resembled a random walk process (Brownian noise, alpha = 1.5), whereas over the longer range they resembled white noise (alpha = 0.5). Short (alpha s)- and long-range (alpha 1) scaling exponents were significantly different in the elderly subjects compared with young (alpha s = 1.12 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.14, respectively, P = 0.009; alpha 1 = 0.75 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.10, respectively, P = 0.002). The crossover behavior from one scaling region to another could be modeled as a first-order autoregressive process, which closely fit the data from four elderly subjects. This implies that a single characteristic time scale may be dominating heartbeat control in these subjects. The age-related loss of fractal organization in heartbeat dynamics may reflect the degradation of integrated physiological regulatory systems and may impair an individual's ability to adapt to stress.

  6. Effect of Sub Maximal Dynamic and Static Exercises on QTc interval in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lokesh; Datta, Anjum; Sircar, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The QTc interval depends largely on cardiac repolarization since the duration of cardiac depolarization is fairly constant in the normal heart. QTc at rest as well as during exercise has many clinical implications. In this study, we have compared the relative effects of dynamic and static exercise on QTc. Aim To measure QTc interval in young men at rest and also assess how it is further modulated by submaximal dynamic and static exercises. Materials and Methods This observational study was conducted in the Department of Physiology on 30 non-obese young men randomly selected from the students of our institute after obtaining the consent and institutional ethical clearance. Continuous blood pressure monitoring and ECG recording was done in the subjects. Baseline (pre-exercise), post submaximal dynamic (Harvard’s step test) and post submaximal static exercise (hand-grip exercise) recordings of ABP and ECG were taken for analysis. The measured QT interval was corrected for heart rate using the formula of Bazett et al., {QTc=QT/RR1/2}.Statistical analysis was done using Graph pad Prism 5 software (California, USA). The baseline and post-exercise data were compared using paired t-test. A p<0.05 was taken to be statistical significant. Results There were statistically significant increases in HR, SBP, DBP and QTc interval after dynamic exercise in comparison to the baseline values (p<0.05). Significant increase in HR (p<0.05) with no significant change in QTc and other cardiovascular parameters were recorded following static exercise (p>0.05). Conclusion Significant increase in QTc interval was observed after dynamic exercise, however, no change in QTc was observed following static exercise, and hence we conclude that static exercises may not be useful in assessing the cardiovascular status of an individual or in predicting cardiovascular events. PMID:26266113

  7. The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 ? 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

  8. Hydrologic studies in wells open through large intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes activities, data, and preliminary data interpretation from the INEL Oversight Program R D-1 project titled Hydrologic Studies In Wells Open Through Large Intervals.'' The project is designed to use a straddle-packer system to isolate, hydraulically test, and sample specific intervals of monitoring wells that are open (uncased, unscreened) over large intervals of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The objectives of the project are to determine and compare vertical variations in water quality and aquifer properties that have previously only been determined in an integrated fashion over the entire thickness of the open interval of the observation wells.

  9. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  10. How random is a random vector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-12-01

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the "generalized variance" of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the "Wilks standard deviation" -the square root of the generalized variance-is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the "uncorrelation index" -a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation-is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: "randomness measures" and "independence indices" of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to "randomness diagrams"-tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of "independence indices" yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Bangerter Filters and Patching for the Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia in Children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether visual acuity improvement with Bangerter filters is similar to improvement with patching as initial therapy for children with moderate amblyopia. Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants 186 children, 3 to <10 years old, with moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/80). Methods Children were randomly assigned to receive either daily patching or to use a Bangerter filter on the spectacle lens in front of the fellow eye. Study visits were scheduled at 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks. Main outcome measure Visual acuity in amblyopic eye at 24 weeks. Results At 24 weeks, amblyopic eye improvement averaged 1.9 lines in the Bangerter group and 2.3 lines in the patching group (difference in mean visual acuities between groups adjusted for baseline acuity = 0.38 line). The upper limit of a 1-sided 95% confidence interval was 0.76 line, which slightly exceeded a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of < 0.75 line. Similar percentages of subjects in each group improved ?3 lines (Bangerter group 38% versus patching group 35%, P=0.61) or had 20/25 or better amblyopic eye acuity (36% versus 31%, respectively, P=0.86). There was a lower treatment burden in the Bangerter group as measured with the Amblyopia Treatment Index. With Bangerter filters, neither a fixation switch to the amblyopic eye nor induced blurring in the fellow eye to worse than that of the amblyopic eye was required for visual acuity improvement. Conclusion Because the average difference in visual acuity improvement between Bangerter filters and patching was less than half a line, and there was lower burden of treatment on the child and family, Bangerter filter treatment is a reasonable option to consider for initial treatment of moderate amblyopia. PMID:20163869

  12. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids. PMID:25532191

  13. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading. Therefore, editors and policymakers should continue to emphasize the inclusion of interval estimates in research. PMID:26579002

  14. WE-D-BRE-04: Modeling Optimal Concurrent Chemotherapy Schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, J; Deasy, J O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) has become a more common cancer treatment option with a better tumor control rate for several tumor sites, including head and neck and lung cancer. In this work, possible optimal chemotherapy schedules were investigated by implementing chemotherapy cell-kill into a tumor response model of RT. Methods: The chemotherapy effect has been added into a published model (Jeong et al., PMB (2013) 58:4897), in which the tumor response to RT can be simulated with the effects of hypoxia and proliferation. Based on the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, the temporal concentration of chemotherapy agent was estimated. Log cell-kill was assumed and the cell-kill constant was estimated from the observed increase in local control due to concurrent chemotherapy. For a simplified two cycle CCRT regime, several different starting times and intervals were simulated with conventional RT regime (2Gy/fx, 5fx/wk). The effectiveness of CCRT was evaluated in terms of reduction in radiation dose required for 50% of control to find the optimal chemotherapy schedule. Results: Assuming the typical slope of dose response curve (?50=2), the observed 10% increase in local control rate was evaluated to be equivalent to an extra RT dose of about 4 Gy, from which the cell-kill rate of chemotherapy was derived to be about 0.35. Best response was obtained when chemotherapy was started at about 3 weeks after RT began. As the interval between two cycles decreases, the efficacy of chemotherapy increases with broader range of optimal starting times. Conclusion: The effect of chemotherapy has been implemented into the resource-conservation tumor response model to investigate CCRT. The results suggest that the concurrent chemotherapy might be more effective when delayed for about 3 weeks, due to lower tumor burden and a larger fraction of proliferating cells after reoxygenation.

  15. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  16. Randomized Clinical Trial of Weekly vs. Triweekly Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy Concurrent With Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Sang-Young; Lee, Won-Moo; Kim, Kidong; Park, Sang-Il; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Cho, Chul-Koo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Lee, Eui-Don

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare compliance, toxicity, and outcome of weekly and triweekly cisplatin administration concurrent with radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In this open-label, randomized trial, 104 patients with histologically proven Stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer were randomly assigned by a computer-generated procedure to weekly (weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, six cycles) and triweekly (cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks, three cycles) chemotherapy arms during concurrent radiotherapy. The difference of compliance and the toxicity profiles between the two arms were investigated, and the overall survival rate was analyzed after 5 years. Results: All patients tolerated both treatments very well, with a high completion rate of scheduled chemotherapy cycles. There was no statistically significant difference in compliance between the two arms (86.3% in the weekly arm, 92.5% in the triweekly arm, p > 0.05). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was more frequent in the weekly arm (39.2%) than in the triweekly arm (22.6%) (p = 0.03). The overall 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the triweekly arm (88.7%) than in the weekly arm (66.5%) (hazard ratio 0.375; 95% confidence interval 0.154-0.914; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Triweekly cisplatin 75-mg/m{sup 2} chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy is more effective and feasible than the conventional weekly cisplatin 40-mg/m{sup 2} regimen and may be a strong candidate for the optimal cisplatin dose and dosing schedule in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer.

  17. Potential confounding in the association between short birth intervals and increased neonatal, infant, and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Jamie; Walker, Neff

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent steep declines in child mortality have been attributed in part to increased use of contraceptives and the resulting change in fertility behaviour, including an increase in the time between births. Previous observational studies have documented strong associations between short birth spacing and an increase in the risk of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality, compared to births with longer preceding birth intervals. In this analysis, we compare two methods to estimate the association between short birth intervals and mortality risk to better inform modelling efforts linking family planning and mortality in children. Objectives Our goal was to estimate the mortality risk for neonates, infants, and young children by preceding birth space using household survey data, controlling for mother-level factors and to compare the results to those from previous analyses with survey data. Design We assessed the potential for confounding when estimating the relative mortality risk by preceding birth interval and estimated mortality risk by birth interval in four categories: less than 18 months, 18–23 months, 24–35 months, and 36 months or longer. We estimated the relative risks among women who were 35 and older at the time of the survey with two methods: in a Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for potential confounders and also by stratifying Cox regression by mother, to control for all factors that remain constant over a woman's childbearing years. We estimated the overall effects for birth spacing in a meta-analysis with random survey effects. Results We identified several factors known for their associations with neonatal, infant, and child mortality that are also associated with preceding birth interval. When estimating the effect of birth spacing on mortality, we found that regression adjustment for these factors does not substantially change the risk ratio for short birth intervals compared to an unadjusted mortality ratio. For birth intervals less than 18 months, standard regression adjustment for confounding factors estimated a risk ratio for neonatal mortality of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 2.18–2.37). This same effect estimated within mother is 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.52–1.63), a decline of almost one-third in the effect on neonatal mortality. Conclusions Neonatal, infant, and child mortality are strongly and significantly related to preceding birth interval, where births within a short interval of time after the previous birth have increased mortality. Previous analyses have demonstrated this relationship on average across all births; however, women who have short spaces between births are different from women with long spaces. Among women 35 years and older where a comparison of birth spaces within mother is possible, we find a much reduced although still significant effect of short birth spaces on child mortality. PMID:26562139

  18. Timeline-Based Space Operations Scheduling with External Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We describe a timeline-based scheduling algorithm developed for mission operations of the EO-1 earth observing satellite. We first describe the range of operational constraints for operations focusing on maneuver and thermal constraints that cannot be modeled in typical planner/schedulers. We then describe a greedy heuristic scheduling algorithm and compare its performance to both the prior scheduling algorithm - documenting an over 50% increase in scenes scheduled with estimated value of millions of dollars US. We also compare to a relaxed optimal scheduler showing that the greedy scheduler produces schedules with scene count within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules.

  19. 76 FR 65424 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration...Ezogabine Into Schedule V AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...in humans with histories of recreational abuse of sedative-hypnotics...frequently than Schedule IV drugs (diazepam and...

  20. 17 CFR Schedule A to Part 286 - Schedule A to Part 286

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule A to Part 286 A Schedule A to Part 286 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...