Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.
2005-01-01
Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil
2012-01-01
In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…
The Probability of Small Schedule Values and Preference for Random-Interval Schedules
Soreth, Michelle Ennis; Hineline, Philip N
2009-01-01
Preference for working on variable schedules and temporal discrimination were simultaneously examined in two experiments using a discrete-trial, concurrent-chains arrangement with fixed interval (FI) and random interval (RI) terminal links. The random schedule was generated by first sampling a probability distribution after the programmed delay to reinforcement on the FI schedule had elapsed, and thus the RI never produced a component schedule value shorter than the FI and maintained a rate of reinforcement half that of the FI. Despite these features, the FI was not strongly preferred. The probability of obtaining the smallest programmed delay to reinforcement on the RI schedule was manipulated in Experiment 1, and the interaction of this probability and initial link length was examined in Experiment 2. As the probability of obtaining small values in the RI increased, preference for the schedule increased while the discriminated time of reinforcer availability in the terminal link decreased. Both of these effects were attenuated by lengthening the initial links. The results support the view that in addition to the delay to reinforcement, the probability of obtaining a short delay is an important choice-affecting variable that likely contributes to the robust preferences for variable, as opposed to fixed, schedules of reinforcement. PMID:19230514
Reuven Bar-Yehuda; Magnús M. Halldórsson; Hadas Shachnai; Irina Shapira
2002-01-01
We consider the problem of scheduling jobs that are given as groups of non-intersecting segments on the real line. Each job Jj is associated with an interval, Ij, which consists of up to t segments, for some t ? 1, a positive weight, wj, and two jobs are in conflict if any of their segments intersect. Such jobs show up
Perceptions of randomized security schedules.
Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S
2014-04-01
Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. PMID:24131225
Implementing Interval Algebra to schedule mechanically scanned multistatic radars
R. W. Focke; L. O. Wabeke; J. P. de Villiers; M. R. Inggs
2011-01-01
Resource management improves the performance of multisensor systems through efficient sensor scheduling. An algorithm that utilizes Interval Algebra is presented to schedule multistatic measurements. Interval algebra can capture tem- porally ordered sequences in a consistent manner. Multistatic measurements result in better tracks of targets being formed for various reasons. The algorithm is not intended to solve the problem of scheduling
Schedule-induced defecation by rats during ratio and interval schedules of food reinforcement.
Wylie, A M; Layng, M P; Meyer, K A
1993-01-01
Lever pressing in rats was maintained by continuous and intermittent schedules of food while defecation was monitored. In Experiment 1, reinforcement densities were matched across variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules for three pairs of rats. Defecation occurred in all 3 rats on the variable-ratio schedule and in all 3 rats on the yoked variable-interval schedule. In Experiment 2, fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules with similar reinforcement densities maintained lever pressing. Defecation occurred in 3 of 4 rats on the fixed-ratio schedule and in 4 of 4 rats on the fixed-interval schedule. Almost no defecation occurred during continuous reinforcement in either experiment. These results demonstrate that defecation may occur during both ratio and interval schedules and that the inter-reinforcement interval is more important than the behavioral requirements of the schedule in generating schedule-induced defecation. PMID:8283152
Temporal tracking on cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules.
Innis, N K; Staddon, J E
1971-11-01
Pigeons were exposed to four cycles per session of a schedule in which the duration of successive interreinforcement intervals differed by t-sec. A cycle was composed of seven increasing and seven decreasing intervals, from 2t to 8t sec in length. In Exp. 1, postreinforcement pause tracked interval duration on five cyclic schedules, with values of t ranging from 2 to 40 sec. Tracking was better at shorter t values, and when discriminative stimuli signalled increasing and decreasing parts of the cycle. Pooled data for the whole experiment showed postreinforcement pause to bear a power function relationship to interval length, with a smaller exponent than the comparable function for fixed-interval schedules. Tests in a second experiment showed that pigeons trained on an arithmetic progression could also track schedules in which successive intervals followed either a logarithmic or a geometric progression, although tracking was more stable in the logarithmic case. PMID:16811558
Interval Scheduling and Colorful Independent Sets
Wichmann, Felix
in certain generalizations of interval graphs [14]. Intuitively, finding a maximum number of pairwise non problems such as resource allocation [2] or coil coating in steel manufacturing [9]. 2-Union Independent
Earning And Obtaining Reinforcers Under Concurrent Interval Scheduling
MacDonall, James S
2005-01-01
Contingencies of reinforcement specify how reinforcers are earned and how they are obtained. Ratio contingencies specify the number of responses that earn a reinforcer, and the response satisfying the ratio requirement obtains the earned reinforcer. Simple interval schedules specify that a certain time earns a reinforcer, which is obtained by the first response after the interval. The earning of reinforcers has been overlooked, perhaps because simple schedules confound the rates of earning reinforcers with the rates of obtaining reinforcers. In concurrent variable-interval schedules, however, spending time at one alternative earns reinforcers not only at that alternative, but at the other alternative as well. Reinforcers earned for delivery at the other alternative are obtained after changing over. Thus the rates of earning reinforcers are not confounded with the rate of obtaining reinforcers, but the rates of earning reinforcers are the same at both alternatives, which masks their possibly differing effects on preference. Two experiments examined the separate effects of earning reinforcers and of obtaining reinforcers on preference by using concurrent interval schedules composed of two pairs of stay and switch schedules (MacDonall, 2000). In both experiments, the generalized matching law, which is based on rates of obtaining reinforcers, described responding only when rates of earning reinforcers were the same at each alternative. An equation that included both the ratio of the rates of obtaining reinforcers and the ratio of the rates of earning reinforcers described the results from all conditions from each experiment. PMID:16262185
Variable-ratio schedules as variable-interval schedules with linear feedback loops.
McDowell, J J; Wixted, J T
1986-01-01
The mathematical theory of linear systems has been used successfully to describe responding on variable-interval (VI) schedules. In the simplest extension of the theory to the variable-ratio (VR) case, VR schedules are treated as if they were VI schedules with linear feedback loops. The assumption entailed by this approach, namely, that VR and VI-plus-linear-feedback schedules are equivalent, was tested by comparing responding on the two types of schedule. Four human subjects' lever pressing produced monetary reinforcers on five VR schedules, and on five VI schedules with linear feedback loops that reproduced the feedback properties of the VR schedules. Pressing was initiated by instructions in 2 subjects, and was shaped by successive approximation in the other 2. The different methods of response initiation did not have differential effects on behavior. For each of the 4 subjects, the VR and the comparable VI-plus-linear-feedback schedules generated similar average response rates and similar response patterns. The subjects' behavior on both types of schedule was similar to that of avian and rodent species on VR schedules. These results indicate that the assumption entailed by the VI-plus-linear-feedback approach to the VR case is valid and, consequently, that the approach is worth pursuing. The results also confute interresponse-time theories of schedule performance, which require interval and ratio contingencies to produce different response rates. PMID:3805974
A simple BASIC program to generate values for variable-interval schedules of reinforcement.
Hantula, D A
1991-01-01
A BASIC program to generate values for variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement is presented. A VI schedule should provide access to reinforcement with a constant probability over a time horizon. If the values in a VI schedule are calculated from an arithmetic progression, the probability of reinforcement is positively correlated with the time since the last reinforcer was delivered. Fleshler and Hoffman (1962) developed an iterative equation to calculate VI schedule values so that the probability of reinforcement remains constant. This easy-to-use program generates VI schedule values according to the Fleshler and Hoffman equation, randomizes the values, and saves the values in ASCII to a disk file. PMID:16795763
Earning and Obtaining Reinforcers under Concurrent Interval Scheduling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacDonall, James S.
2005-01-01
Contingencies of reinforcement specify how reinforcers are earned and how they are obtained. Ratio contingencies specify the number of responses that earn a reinforcer, and the response satisfying the ratio requirement obtains the earned reinforcer. Simple interval schedules specify that a certain time earns a reinforcer, which is obtained by the…
Neural architecture of choice behaviour in a concurrent interval schedule.
Kalenscher, Tobias; Diekamp, Bettina; Güntürkün, Onur
2003-11-01
Concurrent interval schedules are classic experimental paradigms that are traditionally employed in psychological research on choice behaviour. To analyse the neural basis of choice in a concurrent fixed interval schedule, pigeons were trained to peck on two response keys. Responses were differentially rewarded in key specific short or long time intervals (SI vs. LI). Using tetrodotoxin, we reversibly blocked the neostriatum caudolaterale (NCL, the avian functional equivalent of the prefrontal cortex), avian caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens to examine their contribution. A detailed analysis of baseline choice behaviour revealed that response distribution and key affinity were determined by cued or time-related expectancy for rewards on the SI key. The pigeons' response frequency increased on the SI key and decreased on the LI key with increasing temporal proximity to the SI reward and pigeons switched to the LI key after reward delivery. Pecking bursts on the LI key were negatively correlated with bursts on the SI key. Neostriatum caudolaterale inactivation did not affect pecking activity per se but interfered with reward-related temporal modulation of pecking frequency, switching pattern and coupling of LI to SI pecks. Blockade of caudate-putamen resulted in a complete behavioural halt, while inactivation of nucleus accumbens diminished operant behaviour without affecting consummatory responses. These data suggest that the NCL is tuned via indirect striato-pallial projections to integrate cued or time-related reward expectancy into a response selection process in order to set, maintain or shift goals. The NCL possibly feeds forward the resulting motor commands to the caudate-putamen for execution. PMID:14622165
A quantitative analysis of the responding maintained by interval schedules of reinforcement.
Catania, A C; Reynolds, G S
1968-05-01
Interval schedules of reinforcement maintained pigeons' key-pecking in six experiments. Each schedule was specified in terms of mean interval, which determined the maximum rate of reinforcement possible, and distribution of intervals, which ranged from many-valued (variable-interval) to single-valued (fixed-interval). In Exp. 1, the relative durations of a sequence of intervals from an arithmetic progression were held constant while the mean interval was varied. Rate of responding was a monotonically increasing, negatively accelerated function of rate of reinforcement over a range from 8.4 to 300 reinforcements per hour. The rate of responding also increased as time passed within the individual intervals of a given schedule. In Exp. 2 and 3, several variable-interval schedules made up of different sequences of intervals were examined. In each schedule, the rate of responding at a particular time within an interval was shown to depend at least in part on the local rate of reinforcement at that time, derived from a measure of the probability of reinforcement at that time and the proximity of potential reinforcements at other times. The functional relationship between rate of responding and rate of reinforcement at different times within the intervals of a single schedule was similar to that obtained across different schedules in Exp. 1. Experiments 4, 5, and 6 examined fixed-interval and two-valued (mixed fixed-interval fixed-interval) schedules, and demonstrated that reinforcement at one time in an interval had substantial effects on responding maintained at other times. It was concluded that the rate of responding maintained by a given interval schedule depends not on the overall rate of reinforcement provided but rather on the summation of different local effects of reinforcement at different times within intervals. PMID:5672248
Interresponse Time Structures in Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowers, Matthew T.; Hill, Jade; Palya, William L.
2008-01-01
The interresponse-time structures of pigeon key pecking were examined under variable-ratio, variable-interval, and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules. Whereas the variable-ratio and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules generally resulted in a distinct group of short interresponse times and a broad distribution of longer…
Cost-optimized scheduled maintenance interval for reliability-centered maintenance
W. R. Wessels
2003-01-01
Implementation of a reliability-centered maintenance program is based on performance of proactive maintenance actions that serves to preserve system functionality. Predictive maintenance is a recognized proactive maintenance action that has been underutilized due to quantitative complexity and to the lack of a constraint that defined an optimum scheduled maintenance interval. A cost-optimized scheduled maintenance interval is proposed that uses costs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.
2006-01-01
Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…
Inelastic supply: An economic approach to simple interval schedules
Dougan, James D.
1992-01-01
Economic theory predicts an inverse relationship between the quantity of a commodity supplied to the marketplace and the equilibrium market price of that commodity. This prediction was tested in three experiments. Pigeons responded on simple variable-interval schedules, and quantity of reinforcement supplied was varied in a different way in each experiment. In Experiment 1, quantity supplied was varied by manipulating reinforcement rate while keeping session length constant. In Experiment 2, quantity supplied was varied by manipulating reinforcement rate while keeping reinforcers per session constant. In Experiment 3, quantity supplied was varied by manipulating reinforcer magnitude while keeping number of reinforcers constant. As predicted by economic theory, the obtained behavioral cost (responses per reinforcer) increased as supply decreased. The results could not be explained by simple artifacts such as satiation and time available to respond. In addition, the function relating response rate to reinforcement rate was bitonic in 7 of 9 animals in Experiments 1 and 2, which supports economic and regulatory theories over more traditional reinforcement theories. PMID:16812673
Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N
2004-01-01
Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524
Performances on ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement: Data and theory
Baum, William M.
1993-01-01
Two differences between ratio and interval performance are well known: (a) Higher rates occur on ratio schedules, and (b) ratio schedules are unable to maintain responding at low rates of reinforcement (ratio “strain”). A third phenomenon, a downturn in response rate at the highest rates of reinforcement, is well documented for ratio schedules and is predicted for interval schedules. Pigeons were exposed to multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in which the intervals generated in the variable-ratio component were programmed in the variable-interval component, thereby “yoking” or approximately matching reinforcement in the two components. The full range of ratio performances was studied, from strained to continuous reinforcement. In addition to the expected phenomena, a new phenomenon was observed: an upturn in variable-interval response rate in the midrange of rates of reinforcement that brought response rates on the two schedules to equality before the downturn at the highest rates of reinforcement. When the average response rate was corrected by eliminating pausing after reinforcement, the downturn in response rate vanished, leaving a strictly monotonic performance curve. This apparent functional independence of the postreinforcement pause and the qualitative shift in response implied by the upturn in variable-interval response rate suggest that theoretical accounts will require thinking of behavior as partitioned among at least three categories, and probably four: postreinforcement activity, other unprogrammed activity, ratio-typical operant behavior, and interval-typical operant behavior. PMID:16812686
Fixed-interval smoother from randomly delayed observations
S. Nakamori; A. Hermoso-Carazo; J. Linares-Perez; M. I. Sanchez-Rodriguez
2004-01-01
This paper presents a recursive algorithm for the least-squares linear fixed-interval smoothing problem of discrete-time signals using randomly delayed measurements perturbed by an additive white noise. It is assumed that the autocovariance function of the signal is expressed in a semi-degenerate kernel form and the delay is modelled by a sequence of independent Bernoulli random variables, which indicate if the
Cole, Mark R.
1994-01-01
In Experiment 1, a variable-ratio 10 schedule became, successively, a variable-interval schedule with only the minimum interreinforcement intervals yoked to the variable ratio, or a variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement intervals and reinforced interresponse times yoked to the variable ratio. Response rates in the variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement interval and reinforced interresponse time yoking fell between the higher rates maintained by the variable-ratio schedule and the lower rates maintained by the variable-interval schedule with only interreinforcement interval yoking. In Experiment 2, a tandem variable-interval 15-s variable-ratio 5 schedule became a yoked tandem variable-ratio 5 variable-interval x-s schedule, and a tandem variable-interval 30-s variable-ratio 10 schedule became a yoked tandem variable-ratio 10 variable-interval x-s schedule. In the yoked tandem schedules, the minimum interreinforcement intervals in the variable-interval components were those that equated overall interreinforcement times in the two phases. Response rates did not decline in the yoked schedules even when the reinforced interresponse times became longer. Experiment 1 suggests that both reinforced interresponse times and response rate–reinforcement rate correlations determine response-rate differences in variable-ratio 10 and yoked variable-interval schedules in rats. Experiment 2 suggests a minimal role for the reinforced interresponse time in determining response rates on tandem variable-interval 30-s variable-ratio 10 and yoked tandem variable-ratio 10 variable-interval x-s schedules in rats. PMID:16812732
A GREEDY RANDOMIZED ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR JOB SHOP SCHEDULING
Resende, Mauricio G. C.
A GREEDY RANDOMIZED ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR JOB SHOP SCHEDULING S. BINATO, W.J. HERY, D, of the jobs. In this paper, we describe a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) for the JSP, job shop scheduling, local search, GRASP, intensification, proximal optimality principle
Food deliveries during the pause on fixed-interval schedules1
Shull, Richard L.; Guilkey, Marilyn
1976-01-01
Pigeons were trained on fixed-interval schedules of food delivery. In Experiments I and II, the fixed interval was initiated by the previous fixed-interval reinforcer; in Experiment III, the fixed interval was initiated by the first key peck following the preceding fixed-interval reinforcer (a chain fixed-ratio one, fixed-interval schedule). During the postreinforcement pause, variable-time schedules delivered food independent of any specific response. Rate of food delivery during the pause had only small effects on pause duration in Experiments I and II. In Experiment III, however, pause duration increased systematically with the rate of food delivery during the pause. These data suggest that the momentary proximity to reinforcement delivered via the fixed-interval schedule exerts potent control over pause termination. Additional analysis revealed that pause termination was unaffected by the intermittent delivery of food during the pause. Such data suggest that the temporal control by fixed-interval schedules is highly resistant to interference. PMID:16811957
Küpper-Tetzel, Carolina E; Kapler, Irina V; Wiseheart, Melody
2014-07-01
In laboratory and applied learning experiments, researchers have extensively investigated the optimal distribution of two learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and one relearning session) for the learning of verbatim materials. However, research has not yet provided a satisfying and conclusive answer to the optimal scheduling of three learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and two relearning sessions) across educationally relevant time intervals. Should the to-be-learned material be repeated at decreasing intervals (contracting schedule), constant intervals (equal schedule), or increasing intervals (expanding schedule) between learning sessions? Different theories and memory models (e.g., study-phase retrieval theory, contextual variability theory, ACT-R, and the Multiscale Context Model) make distinct predictions about the optimal learning schedule. We discuss the extant theories and derive clear predictions from each of them. To test these predictions empirically, we conducted an experiment in which participants studied and restudied paired associates with a contracting, equal, or expanding learning schedule. Memory performance was assessed immediately, 1 day, 7 days, or 35 days later with free- and cued-recall tests. Our results revealed that the optimal learning schedule is conditional on the length of the retention interval: A contracting learning schedule was beneficial for retention intervals up to 7 days, but both equal and expanding learning schedules were better for a long retention interval of 35 days. Our findings can be accommodated best by the contextual variability theory and indicate that revisions are needed to existing memory models. Our results are practically relevant, and their implications for real-world learning are discussed. PMID:24500777
Bouts of Responding on Variable-Interval Schedules: Effects of Deprivation Level
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shull, Richard L.
2004-01-01
Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the…
More on concurrent interval-ratio schedules: a replication and review.
Heyman, G M; Herrnstein, R J
1986-01-01
It has been suggested that the failure to maximize reinforcement on concurrent variable-interval, variable-ratio schedules may be misleading. Inasmuch as response costs are not directly measured, it is possible that subjects are optimally balancing the benefits of reinforcement against the costs of responding. To evaluate this hypothesis, pigeons were tested in a procedure in which interval and ratio schedules had equal response costs. On a concurrent variable time (VT), variable ratio-time (VRT) schedule, the VT schedule runs throughout the session and the VRT schedule is controlled by responses to a changeover key that switches from one schedule to the other. Reinforcement is presented independent of response. This schedule retains the essential features of concurrent VI VR, but eliminates differential response costs for the two alternatives. It therefore also eliminates at least one significant ambiguity about the reinforcement maximizing performance. Pigeons did not maximize rate of reinforcement on this procedure. Instead, their times spent on the alternative schedules matched the relative rates of reinforcement, even when schedule parameters were such that matching earned the lowest possible overall rate of reinforcement. It was further shown that the observed matching was not a procedural artifact arising from the constraints built into the schedule. PMID:3805975
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Sung-Min; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwun, Jonghyung
This letter proposes an efficient uplink scheduling algorithm for the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with variable frame-duration according to the voice activity in IEEE 802.16e/m systems. The proposed algorithm dynamically changes the grant-interval to save the uplink bandwidth, and it uses the random access scheme when the voice activity changes from silent-period to talk-spurt. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the VoIP capacity by 26 percent compared to the conventional extended real-time polling service (ertPS).
Randomized Scheduling Algorithm for Queueing Networks
Shah, Devavrat
2012-01-01
There has recently been considerable interest in design of low-complexity, myopic, distributed and stable scheduling algorithms for constrained queueing network models that arise in the context of emerging communication ...
Kirby, Michael; Kennedy, Craig H
2003-01-01
The effects of rapid-eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) in rats were studied in relation to variable-interval (VI) reinforcement schedule value. Initially, lever pressing was maintained on a VI 30-s schedule of food pellet delivery. After a baseline was established, rats were repeatedly exposed to 96 hr of REMSD and control conditions of an equivalent duration. Responding decreased following REMSD but not after exposure to control conditions. Lever pressing was then maintained on a VI 15-s schedule of food pellet delivery and exposure to the REMSD and control conditions was repeated. Under this condition following repeated REMSD exposures, rates of lever pressing became similar to baseline responding. A VI 30-s schedule of food pellet delivery was then reinstated and REMSD and control conditions were repeated. Lever pressing following exposure to the REMSD condition decreased for 3 of 4 rats. Results suggest that VI schedule value influences the effects of REMSD on responding. PMID:14674732
Hunter, Ian; Davison, Michael
1982-01-01
Five pigeons were trained over 43 experimental conditions on a variety of concurrent variable-interval schedules on which the forces required on the response keys were varied. The results were well described by the generalized matching law with log reinforcement ratios and log force ratios exerting independent (noninteractive) effects on preference. A further analysis using the Akaike criterion, an information-theoretic measure of the efficiency of a model, showed that overall reinforcement rate and overall force requirement did not affect preference. Unlike reinforcement rate changes, force requirement increases did not change the response rate on the alternate key, and an extension of Herrnstein's absolute response rate function for force variation on a single variable-interval schedule is suggested. PMID:16812264
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, John E.
2014-01-01
The Federal Aviation Administration's Next Generation Air Transportation System will combine advanced air traffic management technologies, performance-based procedures, and state-of-the-art avionics to maintain efficient operations throughout the entire arrival phase of flight. Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) operations are expected to use sophisticated airborne spacing capabilities to meet precise in-trail spacing from top-of-descent to touchdown. Recent human-in-the-loop simulations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have found that selection of the assigned spacing goal using the runway schedule can lead to premature interruptions of the FIM operation during periods of high traffic demand. This study compares three methods for calculating the assigned spacing goal for a FIM operation that is also subject to time-based metering constraints. The particular paradigms investigated include: one based upon the desired runway spacing interval, one based upon the desired meter fix spacing interval, and a composite method that combines both intervals. These three paradigms are evaluated for the primary arrival procedures to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport using the entire set of Rapid Update Cycle wind forecasts from 2011. For typical meter fix and runway spacing intervals, the runway- and meter fix-based paradigms exhibit moderate FIM interruption rates due to their inability to consider multiple metering constraints. The addition of larger separation buffers decreases the FIM interruption rate but also significantly reduces the achievable runway throughput. The composite paradigm causes no FIM interruptions, and maintains higher runway throughput more often than the other paradigms. A key implication of the results with respect to time-based metering is that FIM operations using a single assigned spacing goal will not allow reduction of the arrival schedule's excess spacing buffer. Alternative solutions for conducting the FIM operation in a manner more compatible with the arrival schedule are discussed in detail.
Joslyn, C. (Cliff)
2004-01-01
We review our approach to the representation and propagation of hybrid uncertainties through high-complexity models, based on quantities known as random intervals. These structures have a variety of mathematical descriptions, for example as interval-valued random variables, statistical collections of intervals, or Dempster-Shafer bodies of evidence on the Borel field. But methods which provide simpler, albeit approximate, representations of random intervals are highly desirable, including p-boxes and traces. Each random interval, through its cumulative belief and plausibility measures functions, generates a unique p-box whose constituent CDFs are all of those consistent with the random interval. In turn, each p-box generates an equivalence class of random intervals consistent with it. Then, each p-box necessarily generates a unique trace which stands as the fuzzy set representation of the p-box or random interval. In turn each trace generates an equivalence class of p-boxes. The heart of our approach is to try to understand the tradeoffs between error and simplicity introduced when p-boxes or traces are used to stand in for various random interval operations. For example, Joslyn has argued that for elicitation and representation tasks, traces can be the most appropriate structure, and has proposed a method for the generation of canonical random intervals from elicited traces. But alternatively, models built as algebraic equations of uncertainty-valued variables (in our case, random-interval-valued) propagate uncertainty through convolution operations on basic algebraic expressions, and while convolution operations are defined on all three structures, we have observed that the results of only some of these operations are preserved as one moves through these three levels of specificity. We report on the status and progress of this modeling approach concerning the relations between these mathematical structures within this overall framework.
Pigeons’ Choices with Token Stimuli in Concurrent Variable-Interval Schedules
Mazur, James E.; Biondi, Dawn R.
2014-01-01
Twelve pigeons responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights for some pigeons, and white circles on the response keys for others). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for food on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Across conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response keys. The main findings were that the pigeons’ response percentages varied as a function of the number of tokens earned at any given moment, and they were determined by both the delays to food and by the number of food deliveries in the exchange periods. In some conditions, tokens had to be earned but were not visible during the variable-interval schedules for one or both keys. When one key had visible tokens and the other did not, the pigeons showed a preference for the key without visible tokens. A model based on the matching law and a hyperbolic delay-discounting equation could account for the main patterns of choice responding, and for how response percentages changed as successive tokens were earned. The results are consistent with the view that the token stimuli served as discriminative stimuli that signaled the current delays to food. PMID:23460072
Catania, A. Charles; Sagvolden, Terje; Keller, Kenneth J.
1988-01-01
The responding maintained by a reinforcer depends on the relation of the reinforcer not merely to the response that produces it but also to other preceding responses. Early responses in a sequence that ends in a reinforcing consequence make smaller contributions to later response rates than more recent ones, by virtue of the longer delays that separate them from the reinforcer. This study shows that the relation between a response and a later reinforcer contributes to responding only if no other reinforcers intervene; in other words, each reinforcer blocks responses that precede it from the effects of later reinforcers. Pigeons' pecks were maintained by fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement. When FI 60-s (short) and FI 75-s (long) schedules began simultaneously within constant 150-s cycles, long FIs did not affect short-FI performances, but short FIs eliminated the first 60 s of long-FI performances. Removing either short-FI reinforcers or short-FI stimuli showed that short-FI reinforcers and not short-FI stimuli blocked the first 60 s of the long-FI performance from the retroactive effects of the long-FI reinforcer. With FI 15-s and FI 75-s schedules, the short-FI reinforcer was followed by reduced long-FI responding, but a schedule that prevented discrimination based on time since a reinforcer eliminated this proactive effect of the short-FI reinforcer. In other words, the retroactive effects were reinforcer effects whereas the proactive effects were discriminative effects. Quantitative descriptions of variable-interval performances, in which reinforcer effects may operate in the absence of temporal discriminative effects, can be derived from these relations. PMID:16812532
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.
2012-01-01
Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…
Packing Random Intervals E. G. Coffman, Jr., 1 Bjorn Poonen 2 and Peter Winkler 3
Coffman Jr., E. G.
1 Packing Random Intervals E. G. Coffman, Jr., 1 Bjorn Poonen 2 and Peter Winkler 3 Sept. 22, 1994 packing, has been studied by Justicz, Scheinermann, and Winkler [3]. Within this same probability model
Rendao Ye; Tiefeng Ma; Songgui Wang
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider the interval estimation problem on the process capability indices in general random effect model\\u000a with balanced data. The confidence intervals for three commonly used process capability indices are developed by using the\\u000a concept of generalized confidence interval. Furthermore, some simulation results on the coverage probability and expected\\u000a value of the generalized lower confidence limits are
Schaal, D W; Shahan, T A; Kovera, C A; Reilly, M P
1998-03-01
Three experiments were conducted to test an interpretation of the response-rate-reducing effects of unsignaled nonresetting delays to reinforcement in pigeons. According to this interpretation, rates of key pecking decrease under these conditions because key pecks alternate with hopper-observing behavior. In Experiment 1, 4 pigeons pecked a food key that raised the hopper provided that pecks on a different variable-interval-schedule key met the requirements of a variable-interval 60-s schedule. The stimuli associated with the availability of the hopper (i.e., houselight and keylight off, food key illuminated, feedback following food-key pecks) were gradually removed across phases while the dependent relation between hopper availability and variable-interval-schedule key pecks was maintained. Rates of pecking the variable-interval-schedule key decreased to low levels and rates of food-key pecks increased when variable-interval-schedule key pecks did not produce hopper-correlated stimuli. In Experiment 2, pigeons initially pecked a single key under a variable-interval 60-s schedule. Then the dependent relation between hopper presentation and key pecks was eliminated by arranging a variable-time 60-s schedule. When rates of pecking had decreased to low levels, conditions were changed so that pecks during the final 5 s of each interval changed the keylight color from green to amber. When pecking produced these hopper-correlated stimuli, pecking occurred at high rates, despite the absence of a peck-food dependency. When peck-produced changes in keylight color were uncorrelated with food, rates of pecking fell to low levels. In Experiment 3, details (obtained delays, interresponse-time distributions, eating times) of the transition from high to low response rates produced by the introduction of a 3-s unsignaled delay were tracked from session to session in 3 pigeons that had been initially trained to peck under a conventional variable-interval 60-s schedule. Decreases in response rates soon after the transition to delayed reinforcement were accompanied by decreases in eating times and alterations in interresponse-time distributions. As response rates decreased and became stable, eating times increased and their variability decreased. These findings support an interpretation of the effects of delayed reinforcement that emphasizes the importance of hopper-observing behavior. PMID:9540229
Generalized confidence intervals for process capability indices in the one-way random model
K. M. Kurian; Thomas Mathew; G. Sebastian
2008-01-01
The method of generalized confidence intervals is proposed as an alternative method for constructing confidence intervals\\u000a for process capability indices under the one-way random model for balanced as well as unbalanced data. The generalized lower\\u000a confidence limits and the coverage probabilities for three commonly used capability indices were studied via simulation, separately\\u000a for balanced and unbalanced cases. Simulation results showed
True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.
Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie
2013-01-01
We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008
MEASURES OF DISTORTION IN POSSIBILISTIC APPROXIMATIONS OF CONSISTENT RANDOM SETS AND INTERVALS
C. JOSLYN
2001-04-01
The availability of probability or possibility measures for random set (Dempster-Shafer evidence theoretical) structures are highly desirable. Probabilistic conditions involve disjointness or specificity, while possibilistic conditions involve consonance of the underlying focal elements. Consistency results in possibilistic distributions, but not measures, but then a unique approximation is available. Especially in random interval measurement situations, this condition is common. In this paper we develop some of the mathematical ideas necessary to develop a measure of the distortion introduced by this consonant approximation of a consistent random set.
Kanungo, Suman; Desai, Sachin N.; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Sinha, Anuradha; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yang, Jae Seung; Lopez, Anna Lena; Manna, Byomkesh; Bannerjee, Barnali; Ali, Mohammad; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Clemens, John D.; Sur, Dipika; Wierzba, Thomas F.
2015-01-01
Background A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the immune response was not significantly increased following the second dose compared to that after the first dose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an extended four week dosing schedule on vibriocidal response. Methodology/Principal Findings In this double blind randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 356 Indian, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year or older were randomized to receive two doses of oral cholera vaccine at 14 and 28 day intervals. We compared vibriocidal immune responses between these schedules. Among adults, no significant differences were noted when comparing the rates of seroconversion for V. cholerae O1 Inaba following two dose regimens administered at a 14 day interval (55%) vs the 28 day interval (58%). Similarly, no differences in seroconversion were demonstrated in children comparing the 14 (80%) and 28 day intervals (77%). Following 14 and 28 day dosing intervals, vibriocidal response rates against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were 45% and 49% in adults and 73% and 72% in children respectively. Responses were lower for V. cholerae O139, but similar between dosing schedules for adults (20%, 20%) and children (28%, 20%). Conclusions/Significance Comparable immune responses and safety profiles between the two dosing schedules support the option for increased flexibility of current OCV dosing. Further operational research using a longer dosing regimen will provide answers to improve implementation and delivery of cholera vaccination in endemic and epidemic outbreak scenarios. PMID:25764513
Higa, Jennifer J.; Thaw, Jean M.; Staddon, John E. R.
1993-01-01
Recent developments reveal that animals can rapidly learn about intervals of time. We studied the nature of this fast-acting process in two experiments. In Experiment 1 pigeons were exposed to a modified fixed-time schedule, in which the time between food rewards (interfood interval) changed at an unpredictable point in each session, either decreasing from 15 to 5 s (step-down) or increasing from 15 to 45 s (step-up). The birds were able to track under both conditions by producing postreinforcement wait times proportional to the preceding interfood-interval duration. However, the time course of responding differed: Tracking was apparently more gradual in the step-up condition. Experiment 2 studied the effect of having both kinds of transitions within the same session by exposing pigeons to a repeating (cyclic) sequence of the interfood-interval values used in Experiment 1. Pigeons detected changes in the input sequence of interfood intervals, but only for a few sessions—discrimination worsened with further training. The dynamic effects we observed do not support a linear waiting process of time discrimination, but instead point to a timing mechanism based on the frequency and recency of prior interfood intervals and not the preceding interfood interval alone. PMID:16812693
Hierarchical production planning and scheduling with random demand and production failure
Mohammad Z. Meybodi; Bobbie L. Foote
1995-01-01
A multiple-objective hierarchical production planning and scheduling model is developed that integrates aggregate type decisions, family disaggregate decisions, lotsizing and scheduling of the jobs. It is assumed that demand and production failure are subject to uncertainties. Stochastic programming with recourse using a constraint sample approximation method is used to incorporate random demand and production failure into the model. The model
N. S. Witte
2004-01-01
The probability for the exclusion of eigenvalues from an interval (-x,x) symmetrical about the origin for a scaled ensemble of Hermitian random matrices, where the Fredholm kernel is a type of Bessel kernel with parameter a(a generalisation of the sine kernel in the bulk scaling case), is considered. It is shown that this probability is the square of a t-function,
Single-Sample Discrimination of Different Schedules' Reinforced Interresponse Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki
2009-01-01
Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…
DIFFERENT BREEDING SCHEDULES AT 6 MONTH INTERVALS IN FOUR BREEDS OF SHEEP
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Dorset, Finnsheep, Composite I (50% Finnsheep, 25% Dorset, and 25% Rambouillet), and Composite II (50% Finnsheep, 25% Suffolk, and 25% Targhee) sheep were evaluated under three twice-a-year breeding schedules. Lactation status had a significant effect on conception rate but number of lambs suckling...
Monique J. Roobol; Anna Grenabo; Fritz H. Schröder; Jonas Hugosson
Background The incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially since it became common practice to screen asymptomatic men for the disease. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) was initiated in 1993 to determine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening affects prostate cancer mortality. Variations in the screening algorithm, such as the interval between screening rounds, likely influence
M. J. Roobol; A. Grenabo; F. H. Schröder; J. Hugosson
2007-01-01
Background: The incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially since it became common practice to screen asymptomatic men for the disease. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) was initiated in 1993 to determine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening affects prostate cancer mortality. Variations in the screening algorithm, such as the interval between screening rounds, likely influence
Random Coverage with Guaranteed Connectivity: Joint Scheduling for
Chen, Yuanzhu Peter
do we schedule sensor nodes to save energy and meet both constraints of sensing coverage and network to save energy and meet both constraints of sensing coverage and network connec- tivity? This problem delay. In this example, sensing coverage, network connectivity, and energy efficiency are equally
Random-ratio schedules of reinforcement: the role of early wins and unreinforced trials
John Haw
2008-01-01
The distribution of rewards in both variable-ratio and random-ratio schedules is examined with specific reference to gambling behaviour. In particular, it is the number of early wins and unreinforced trials that is suggested to be of importance in these schedules, rather than the often-reported average frequency of wins. Gaming machine data are provided to demonstrate the importance of early wins
Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.
2012-01-01
Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…
Distributed Random Access Algorithm: Scheduling and Congesion Control
Jiang, Libin
This paper provides proofs of the rate stability, Harris recurrence, and ?-optimality of carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) algorithms where the random access (or backoff) parameter of each node is adjusted dynamically. ...
Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule among Drug Users – A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hwang, Lu-Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Tran, Thanh Quoc; Clark, April; Xia, Rui; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine; Williams, Mark
2010-01-01
Background Hepatitis B vaccine provides a model for improving uptake and completion of multi-dose vaccinations in the drug-using community. Methods DASH project conducted randomized controlled trial among not-in-treatment current drug users in two urban neighborhoods. Neighborhoods were cluster-randomized to receive a standard (HIV information) or enhanced (HBV vaccine acceptance/adherence) behavioral intervention; participants within clusters were randomized to a standard (0, 1, 6 mo) or accelerated (0, 1, 2 mo) vaccination schedule. Outcomes were completion of three-dose vaccine and HBV seroprotection. Results Of those screening negative for HIV/HBV, 77% accepted HB vaccination and 75% of those received all 3 doses. Injecting drug users (IDUs) on the accelerated schedule were significantly more likely to receive 3 doses (76%) than those on the standard schedule (66%, p=.04), although for drug users as a whole the adherence was 77% and 73%. No difference in adherence was observed between behavioral intervention groups. Predictors of adherence were older age, African American race, stable housing, and alcohol use. Cumulative HBV seroprotection (?10 mIU/mL) was gained by 12 months by 65% of those completing. Seroprotection at 6 months was greater for the accelerated schedule group. Conclusions The accelerated vaccine schedule improves hepatitis B vaccination adherence among IDU. PMID:20936979
Marco Chiani
2015-02-14
We derive the probability $\\psi(a,b)=\\Pr(a\\leq \\lambda_{\\min}({\\bf M}), \\lambda_{\\max}({\\bf M})\\leq b)$ that all eigenvalues of a random matrix $\\bf M$ lie within an arbitrary interval $[a,b]$, when $\\bf M$ is a real or complex finite dimensional Wishart, double Wishart, or Gaussian symmetric/hermitian matrix. We give efficient recursive formulas allowing, for instance, the exact evaluation of $\\psi(a,b)$ for Wishart matrices with number of variates $500$ and degrees of freedom $1000$. We also prove that the probability that all eigenvalues are within the limiting spectral support (given by the Marchenko-Pastur or the semicircle laws) tends for large dimensions to the universal values $0.6921$ and $0.9397$ for the real and complex cases, respectively. Applications include improved bounds for the probability that a Gaussian measurement matrix has a given restricted isometry constant in compressed sensing.
Age-related effects of blocked and random practice schedules on learning a new technology.
Jamieson, B A; Rogers, W A
2000-11-01
Computer technology is pervasive in today's society. Issues of training must be investigated to ensure that older individuals are capable of interacting with such technology. In the present research a simulated automatic teller machine (ATM) served as a prototypical technology for which issues of training and transfer could be investigated. The focus of the study was on the potential benefits of a random practice schedule (wherein trial types are intermixed) relative to a blocked practice schedule (wherein trial types are grouped together). Both younger and older adults benefited from random practice for the acquisition of the ability to perform transactions on an ATM. Moreover, random practice was beneficial for both age groups in the transfer of learning to novel tasks on a novel ATM. These data have general implications for theories of training and specific implications for the development of training protocols for older adults and new technologies. PMID:11078104
Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.
2007-01-01
Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…
Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong
2014-01-01
Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005
2014-01-01
Background The inter-patient classification schema and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards are important to the construction and evaluation of automated heartbeat classification systems. The majority of previously proposed methods that take the above two aspects into consideration use the same features and classification method to classify different classes of heartbeats. The performance of the classification system is often unsatisfactory with respect to the ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) and supraventricular ectopic beat (SVEB). Methods Based on the different characteristics of VEB and SVEB, a novel hierarchical heartbeat classification system was constructed. This was done in order to improve the classification performance of these two classes of heartbeats by using different features and classification methods. First, random projection and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble were used to detect VEB. Then, the ratio of the RR interval was compared to a predetermined threshold to detect SVEB. The optimal parameters for the classification models were selected on the training set and used in the independent testing set to assess the final performance of the classification system. Meanwhile, the effect of different lead configurations on the classification results was evaluated. Results Results showed that the performance of this classification system was notably superior to that of other methods. The VEB detection sensitivity was 93.9% with a positive predictive value of 90.9%, and the SVEB detection sensitivity was 91.1% with a positive predictive value of 42.2%. In addition, this classification process was relatively fast. Conclusions A hierarchical heartbeat classification system was proposed based on the inter-patient data division to detect VEB and SVEB. It demonstrated better classification performance than existing methods. It can be regarded as a promising system for detecting VEB and SVEB of unknown patients in clinical practice. PMID:24981916
Mahendru, Rajiv; Yadav, Shweta
2011-01-01
Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol alone with dinoprostone followed by misoprostol, all inserted intravaginally in induction of labor at term and the obstetrical outcome. Material and Methods A pilot study comprising 111 primigravidae, >37 gestational weeks with singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation having an unfavorable Bishop score admitted for labor induction, were considered and randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n=55) with intravaginal 25mcg misoprostol 4 hourly (six doses at the most) and and group II (n=56), with dinoprostone 0.5mg followed eight hours later by 25mcg misoprostol induction to vaginal delivery time was found to be significantly different, being 14.8 h in group-I and shorter in group-II with a mean of 11.6 h. Vaginal delivery rates within 12 h (groups-I and ?II: 47.2%, as compared to 60.7%, respectively) were found to be higher with dinoprostone-misoprostol induction, as well as vaginal delivery rates in 24 h, 80.0% and 91.1%. The need for oxytocin augmentation was more frequent in the misoprostol than in the dinoprostone-misoprostol group, (61.8%, and 39.3%), and all these observations were statistically significant. Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern occurred more frequently (18.2%) in group-I in contrast to 5.3% in group-II, as was the incidence rate of (18.2%) who had passage of meconium in group-I, this rate being significantly different from group-II having meconium passage in 3 cases, a rate of 5.3%. Conclusion Using dinoprostone followed by vaginal misoprostol is safe and effective for induction of labor with less need for oxytocin augmentation and shorter induction delivery interval. PMID:24591967
Poage, Scott Tabor
1957-01-01
Element by Days for Station K 30 IV. The Percentage of Observations of Each Element by Days for Station K 31 V. Comparison of Results - Radio Study g6 VI. Precision Intervals for Radio Study 48 VII ' Control Limits by Workers - Library Study 59 VIII... in Element R - Corrected Random Library Study 72 72 73 73 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT This research was undertaken with three express ob)ectives: To determine the limits of the feasibility of the regular interval technique of work sampling, to esti- mate...
Random Sequential Generation of Intervals for the Cascade Model of Food Webs
Yoshiaki Itoh
2011-01-01
The cascade model generates a food web at random. In it the species are labeled from 0 to $m$, and arcs are given at random between pairs of the species. For an arc with endpoints $i$ and $j$ ($i
Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Peng, C.-K.; Ladin, Zvi; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Goldberger, Ary L.
1995-01-01
Complex fluctuation of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being (1) uncorrelated white noise, (2) short-range correlations, or (3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that sucessfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations.
Interval versus continuous training in patients with severe COPD: a randomized clinical trial
R. Coppoolse; A. M. W. J. Schols; E. M. Baarends; R. Mostert; M. A. Akkermans; P. P. Janssen; E. F. M. Wouters
1999-01-01
Limited information is available regarding the physiological responses to different types of exercise training in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was two fold: firstly, to investigate the physiological response to training at 60% of achieved peak load in patients with severe COPD; and secondly to study the effects of interval (I) versus
Confidence Intervals for the Overall Effect Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanchez-Meca, Julio; Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio
2008-01-01
One of the main objectives in meta-analysis is to estimate the overall effect size by calculating a confidence interval (CI). The usual procedure consists of assuming a standard normal distribution and a sampling variance defined as the inverse of the sum of the estimated weights of the effect sizes. But this procedure does not take into account…
The Random Partition Masking Model For Interval-Censored And Masked Competing Risks Data
Yu, Qiqing
causes in a series system. The study is motivated by a cancer research data (from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) with interval-censored time and masked failure cause. The NPMLE based on this data set are analyzing. In this study, 375 women with stages I - III unilateral invasive breast cancer are surgically
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callantine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Omar, Faisal G.; Prevot, Thomas
2012-01-01
NASA?s Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) is a multi-year effort to demonstrate high-throughput, fuel-efficient arrivals at a major U.S. airport using NASA-developed scheduling automation, controller decision-support tools, and ADS-B-enabled Flight-Deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics. First-year accomplishments include the development of a concept of operations for managing scheduled arrivals flying Optimized Profile Descents with equipped aircraft conducting FIM operations, and the integration of laboratory prototypes of the core ATD-1 technologies. Following each integration phase, a human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate and refine controller tools, procedures, and clearance phraseology. From a ground-side perspective, the results indicate the concept is viable and the operations are safe and acceptable. Additional training is required for smooth operations that yield notable benefits, particularly in the areas of FIM operations and clearance phraseology.
le Roux, Stanzi M; Cotton, Mark F; Golub, Jonathan E; le Roux, David M; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J
2009-01-01
Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children. Methods We investigated adherence to study medication in a two centre, randomized trial comparing daily to three times a week dosing of isoniazid. The study was conducted at two tertiary paediatric care centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Over a 5 year period, we followed 324 HIV-infected children aged ? 8 weeks. Adherence information based on pill counts was available for 276 children. Percentage adherence was calculated by counting the number of pills returned. Adherence ? 90% was considered to be optimal. Analysis was done using summary and repeated measures, comparing adherence to the two dosing schedules. Mean percentage adherence (per child during follow-up time) was used to compare the mean of each group as well as the proportion of children achieving an adherence of ? 90% in each group. For repeated measures, percentage adherence (per child per visit) was dichotomized at 90%. A logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations, to account for within-individual correlation, was used to evaluate the impact of the dosing schedule. Adjustments were made for potential confounders and we assessed potential baseline and time-varying adherence determinants. Results The overall adherence to isoniazid was excellent, with a mean adherence of 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.5-95.9); similar mean adherence was achieved by the group taking daily medication (93.8%; 95% CI 92.1-95.6) and by the three times a week group (95.5%; 95% CI 93.8-97.2). Two-hundred and seventeen (78.6%) children achieved a mean adherence of ? 90%. Adherence was similar for daily and three times a week dosing schedules in univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% CI 0.66-1.17; P = 0.38) and multivariate (adjusted OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.11; P = 0.23) models. Children from overcrowded homes were less adherent (adjusted OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P = 0.02). Age at study visit was predictive of adherence, with better adherence achieved in children older than 4 years (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.32; P = 0.01). Conclusion Adherence to isoniazid was excellent regardless of the dosing schedule used. Intermittent dosing of isoniazid prophylaxis can be considered as an alternative to daily dosing, without compromising adherence or efficacy. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00330304 PMID:19886982
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.
1987-01-01
We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
2012-01-01
Background Flexibility of vaccination schedule and lower antigen content can facilitate pandemic vaccine coverage. We assessed the immune response and safety of AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine containing half of the registered adult haemagglutinin (HA) antigen content, administered as a two-dose schedule at intervals of 21?days or 6?months in both young and elderly adults. Methods In this open-label randomized trial, healthy adults aged 18–60?years (N?=?163) and >60?years (N?=?143) received AS03A-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 vaccine containing 1.9??g HA on Day 0. A second dose was given on Day 21 (n?=?177) or Day 182 (n?=?106). Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses were analyzed on Days 0, 21, 42, 182, 364 and additionally on Day 203 for subjects vaccinated on Day 182. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Results The HI antibody response in both age strata 21?days after the first dose met and exceeded all regulatory acceptance criteria although the results suggested a lower response in the older age stratum (geometric mean titres [GMTs] for HI antibodies of 420.5 for subjects aged 18–60?years and 174.4 for those >60?years). A second dose of AS03A adjuvanted A/H1N1/2009 vaccine induced a further increase in antibody titres and the response was similar whether the second dose was administered at 21?days (GMTs of 771.8 for 18–60?years and 400.9 for >60?years) or 6?months (GMTs of 708.3 for 18–60?years and 512.1 for >60?years) following the first dose. Seroprotection rates remained high at 6?months after one dose or two doses while at 12?months rates tended to be higher for the 6?month interval schedule (93.3% for 18–60?years and 80.4% for >60?years) than the 21?day schedule (82.3% for 18–60?years and 50.0% for >60?years). Reactogenicity/safety profiles were similar for both schedules, there was no evidence of an increase in reactogenicity following the second dose. Conclusions The results indicate that flexibility in the dosing interval for AS03A adjuvanted vaccine may be possible. Such flexibility could help to reduce the logistic stress on delivery of pandemic vaccination programmes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00975884 PMID:22824474
Zhang, Guang-He; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting
2012-01-01
Wireless body sensor network (WBSN), a key building block for m-Health, demands extremely stringent resource constraints and thus lightweight security methods are preferred. To minimize resource consumption, utilizing information already available to a WBSN, particularly common to different sensor nodes of a WBSN, for security purposes becomes an attractive solution. In this paper, we tested the randomness and distinctiveness of the 128-bit biometric binary sequences (BSs) generated from interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 20 healthy subjects as well as 30 patients suffered from myocardial infarction and 34 subjects with other cardiovascular diseases. The encoding time of a biometric BS on a WBSN node is on average 23?ms and memory occupation is 204 bytes for any given IPI sequence. The results from five U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests suggest that random biometric BSs can be generated from both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients and can potentially be used as authentication identifiers for securing WBSNs. Ultimately, it is preferred that these biometric BSs can be used as encryption keys such that key distribution over the WBSN can be avoided. PMID:22049370
Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
2015-01-01
Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, “unaffected” hand to the untrained, “affected” hand) has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effects. This was done using a mechanistic, randomized, single-blinded pretest-posttest design. Sixty-four able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to the Short and Long Interval Training Groups and the Short and Long Interval Control Groups. The Short and Long Interval Training Groups used a prosthesis simulator in their training program. The Short and Long Interval Control Groups executed a sham training program, that is, a dummy training program in which the same muscles were trained as with the prosthesis simulator. The Short Interval Training Group and the Short Interval Control Groups trained on consecutive days, while the Long Interval Training Group and Long Interval Control Group trained twice a week. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and at two points in time after the training. Training was performed with the “unaffected” arm; tests were performed with the “affected” arm. The outcome measurements were: the movement time (the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task); the duration of maximum hand opening, (the opening of the prosthetic hand while grasping an object); and the grip-force control (the error from the required grip-force during a tracking task). Intermanual transfer was found in movement times, but not in hand opening or grip-force control. The length of the inter-training interval did not affect the magnitude of intermanual transfer effects. No difference in the intermanual transfer effect in upper-limb prosthesis training was found for training on a daily basis as compared to training twice a week. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3888 PMID:26075396
Sopon Cheewadhanaraks; Krantarat Peeyananjarassri; Chainarong Choksuchat; Kriengsak Dhanaworavibul; Thanapan Choobun; Sathana Bunyapipat
2009-01-01
Aim: To determine the optimal interval of injections of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg in the long-term treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Method: 112 patients with symptomatic endometriosis were randomized to receive either injections every month for 6 months, then every 3 months for a total of 15 months or injections every 3 months for 15 months. The primary outcome
Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar
2015-01-01
Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon’s implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike’s preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF’s exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron’s ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational theories about UP states during slow wave sleep and present possible extensions of the model in the context of spike-frequency adaptation. PMID:26203657
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2007-01-01
This resource explores the essential concepts involved in teaching students about recurrence intervals. It examines issues with 'random' events, probability, and recurrence intervals versus forecasting, and provides links to examples and other resources.
On Non-Randomness of the Permutation after RC4 Key Scheduling
study a weakness of the RC4 Key Scheduling Al- gorithm (KSA) that has already been noted by Mantin and Mironov. Consider the RC4 permutation S of N (usually 256) bytes and denote it by SN after the KSA. Under reasonable assumptions we present a simple proof that each permutation byte after the KSA is significantly
Scheduling Intervals for Reconfigurable Computing
Wenyin Fu; Katherine Compton
2008-01-01
The use of reconfigurable hardware to accelerate computing intensive part of the applications has long been shown to provide large execution speedups. However, the long configuration latency and the limited amount of reconfigurable hardware resources demands careful arbitration of those resources among the applications in the system. In past efforts, we demonstrated that effective allocation of reconfigurable hardware resources can
Olofsson, Per; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Kessler, Jörg; Tendal, Britta; Yli, Branka M; Devoe, Lawrence
2014-06-01
We reappraised the five randomized controlled trials that compared cardiotocography plus ECG ST interval analysis (CTG+ST) vs. cardiotocography. The numbers enrolled ranged from 5681 (Dutch randomized controlled trial) to 799 (French randomized controlled trial). The Swedish randomized controlled trial (n = 5049) was the only trial adequately powered to show a difference in metabolic acidosis, and the Plymouth randomized controlled trial (n = 2434) was only powered to show a difference in operative delivery for fetal distress. There were considerable differences in study design: the French randomized controlled trial used different inclusion criteria, and the Finnish randomized controlled trial (n = 1483) used a different metabolic acidosis definition. In the CTG+ST study arms, the larger Plymouth, Swedish and Dutch trials showed lower operative delivery and metabolic acidosis rates, whereas the smaller Finnish and French trials showed minor differences in operative delivery and higher metabolic acidosis rates. We conclude that the differences in outcomes are likely due to the considerable differences in study design and size. This will enhance heterogeneity effects in any subsequent meta-analysis. PMID:24797452
Warriner, Amy H.; Outman, Ryan C.; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G.
2012-01-01
Purpose Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. Methods Group randomized, controlled trial of women ?65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) vs. usual care (control). Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Results Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p<0.0001). When including only those medically appropriate, we found a difference of 19% between the two groups (p<0.0001). DXA receipt was greater in main clinic patients compared to satellite clinic patients (20.9% main clinic vs. 10.1% satellite clinic). The cost to print and mail the intervention was $0.79 per patient, per mailing. The number of women to whom intervention needed to be mailed to yield one extra DXA performed was 9, at a cost of $7.11. Conclusions DXA scan completion was significantly improved through use of a mailed osteoporosis brochure and the availability for patients to self-schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multi-faceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening. PMID:22836812
Warriner, Amy H; Outman, Ryan C; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R
2012-12-01
Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. A group randomized, controlled trial of women ?65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) versus usual care (control) was undertaken. Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p?schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multifaceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening. PMID:22836812
Mary Ann D. Chutuape; Suzanne H. Mitchell; Harriet de Wit
1994-01-01
Ethanol (ETOH) preference was measured following ETOH preload doses in normal social drinkers. Eleven Ss participated in a 5-session, double-blind choice study. In Session 1, Ss sampled an ETOH beverage (0.8 g\\/kg). In Sessions 2–5, they consumed a preload beverage containing placebo or ETOH (0.25 or 0.5 g\\/kg). One hour later, they responded on 2 concurrent randomratio (RR) schedules. One
Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio
2009-01-01
A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson’s r, and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students’ positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of randomization was a public middle school. The bootstrap estimate indicated that expectancies explained 21% of the variability in students’ intentions (r = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.50]). This case study illustrates the use of a nonparametric bootstrap with cluster randomized data and the danger posed if outliers are not identified and addressed. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Prevention researchers will benefit from the authors’ detailed description of this nonparametric bootstrap approach for cluster randomized data and their thoughtful discussion of the potential impact of cluster sizes and outliers. PMID:19685290
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randell, Jordan; Searle, Rob; Reed, Phil
2012-01-01
Schedules of reinforcement typically produce reliable patterns of behaviour, and one factor that can cause deviations from these normally reliable patterns is schizotypy. Low scorers on the unusual experiences subscale of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences performed as expected on a yoked random-ratio (RR), random-interval…
Jeffrey J. Miceli; Thomas G. Tensfeldt; Thomas Shiovitz; Richard J. Anziano; Cedric O'Gorman; Rachel H. Harrigan
2010-01-01
Background: Antipsychotic agents have been associated with a prolonged QT interval. Data on the effects of ziprasidone and haloperidol on the QTc interval are lacking.Objective: This study aimed to characterize the effects of 2 high-dose intramuscular injections of ziprasidone and haloperidol on the QTc interval at Tmax.Methods: This randomized, single-blind study enrolled patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in whom
John B. Nezlek
2001-01-01
Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conduct- ing studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multi- ple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multi- ple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing
Sylvester, Richard J.; Oosterlinck, Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred
2008-01-01
Objectives Intravesical chemotherapy has been studied in randomized clinical trials for >30 yr; however, the optimal schedule and duration of treatment are unknown. The objective is to determine the effect of schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy on recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer. Methods A systematic review was conducted of the published results of randomized clinical trials that compared intravesical instillations with respect to their number, frequency, timing, duration, dose, or dose intensity. Results One immediate instillation after transurethral resection (TUR) is recommended in all patients. In low-risk patients, no further treatment is recommended before recurrence. In patients with multiple tumors, one immediate instillation is insufficient treatment. Additional instillations may further reduce the recurrence rate; however, no recommendations can be made concerning their optimal duration. A short intensive schedule of instillations within the first 3–4 mo after an immediate instillation may be as effective as longer-term treatment schedules (grade C). Instillations during ?1 yr in intermediate-risk patients seem advisable only when an immediate instillation has not been given (grade C). Higher drug concentrations and optimization of the drug's concentration in the bladder may provide better results (grade C). Conclusions The optimal schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy after an immediate instillation remain unknown. Future studies should focus on the eradication of residual disease after TUR and the prevention of late recurrences. PMID:18207317
Frost, Charles; Nepal, Sunil; Byon, Wonkyung; Moore, Kenneth; Reeves, Richard A; Boyd, Rebecca; LaCreta, Frank
2015-05-01
Apixaban is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor indicated for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. This randomized, blinded, 4-way crossover study investigated the potential effect of apixaban on the QTc interval. Forty healthy subjects (39 completers) each received 3 days of the following treatments: blinded apixaban 10?mg once daily (QD), 50?mg QD (supratherapeutic), matched apixaban placebo QD, and a single dose of open-label moxifloxacin 400?mg on Day 3, preceded by 2 days of placebo QD. Triplicate electrocardiograms obtained over 24?hours on Days -1 (baseline) and 3 were read by a blinded third party. The mean placebo-adjusted, time-matched, Fridericia-corrected change from baseline QTc (??QTcF) for apixaban and moxifloxacin was estimated at each time point. The maximum ??QTcF was 1.51?milliseconds (one-sided upper 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.71?milliseconds) after apixaban 50?mg QD, 1.36?milliseconds (one-sided upper 95%CI 3.54?milliseconds) after apixaban 10?mg QD, and 10.21?milliseconds (lower 95%CI 8.07?milliseconds) after moxifloxacin. Concentration-response analysis suggested no evidence of a positive relationship between apixaban concentration and ?QTcF. Apixaban doses up to 50?mg QD for 3 days were well tolerated and did not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. PMID:25501868
2009-01-01
Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance. PMID:19909536
M. Zandieh; M. Gholami
2009-01-01
Much of the research on operations scheduling problems has either ignored setup times or assumed that setup times on each machine are independent of the job sequence. Furthermore, most scheduling problems that have been discussed in the literature are under the assumption that machines are continuously available. Nevertheless, in most real-life industries a machine can be unavailable for many reasons,
Amadori, Sergio; Suciu, Stefan; Selleslag, Dominik; Stasi, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana; Baila, Liliana; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Borlenghi, Erika; Gaidano, Gianluca; Magro, Domenico; Torelli, Giuseppe; Muus, Petra; Venditti, Adriano; Cacciola, Emma; Lauria, Francesco; Vignetti, Marco; de Witte, Theo
2010-01-01
Summary This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m2 on day 1 and 3 mg/m2 on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n=29; B, n=27). The rate of DnP was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 23%–55%) in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45%–78%) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1+8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care. PMID:20230405
2013-01-01
Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical activity and weight loss. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial 70 participants with stable CAD, age 45–75, body mass index 28–40 kg/m2 and no diabetes are randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of intensive exercise or weight loss both succeeded by a 40-week follow-up. The exercise protocol consist of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of VO2peak 3 times weekly for 12 weeks followed by supervised AIT twice weekly for 40 weeks. In the weight loss arm dieticians instruct the participants in a low energy diet (800–1000 kcal/day) for 12 weeks, followed by 40 weeks of weight maintenance combined with supervised AIT twice weekly. The primary endpoint of the study is change in coronary flow reserve after the first 12 weeks’ intervention. Secondary endpoints include cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and anthropometric measures. Discussion The study will compare the short and long-term effects of a protocol consisting of AIT alone or a rapid weight loss followed by AIT. Additionally, it will provide new insight in mechanisms behind the benefits of exercise and weight loss. We wish to contribute to the creation of effective secondary prevention and sustainable rehabilitation strategies in the large population of overweight and obese patients diagnosed with CAD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01724567 PMID:24252596
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Dinov, Ivo
This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California at Berkeley, introduces the concept of confidence intervals. Select an alpha level, sample size, and the number of experiments, and click "Play." For each sample, the applet will show the data points as blue dots and the confidence interval as a red, vertical line. The true population mean is shown as a horizontal purple line, and green ovals indicate which intervals do not contain the true mean.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.
Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…
Interactive Applet: Confidence Intervals
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This applet, designed by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, is designed to help students visualize the concept of confidence intervals by allowing the user to select sample size, standard deviation, and confidence level, then testing random samples. It accompanies "Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics," but does not require use of the text.
BERTRAM O. PLOOG
2001-01-01
The effect of primary reinforcement on initial-link responding under concurrent-chains schedules with nondifferential terminal links was assessed in 12 pigeons. The initial and terminal links were variable-interval schedules (always the same for both alternatives). The positions (left or right key) of the initial-link stimuli (red or green) were randomized while the correlation between color and food amount remained constant within
Woertler, Klaus
2015-07-01
The rotator interval is an anatomically complex region of the shoulder joint that is difficult to evaluate on clinical examination and by imaging. Abnormalities of its components may contribute to instability, shoulder stiffness, and pain and are challenging to diagnose and treat. This article gives an overview of the anatomy, MR anatomy, and normal variants of the rotator interval, together with basic technical aspects of MR imaging of this area. Pathologic conditions of the rotator interval capsule, the long head of biceps tendon, and the pulley system are reviewed and illustrated with several clinical examples. PMID:26021585
39 CFR 3010.7 - Schedule of regular rate changes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...intervals. (c) The Schedule for Regular and Predictable Rate Changes shall provide an explanation that will allow mailers to predict with reasonable accuracy the amounts of future scheduled rate changes. (d) The initial Schedule for Regular and...
39 CFR 3010.7 - Schedule of regular rate changes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...intervals. (c) The Schedule for Regular and Predictable Rate Changes shall provide an explanation that will allow mailers to predict with reasonable accuracy the amounts of future scheduled rate changes. (d) The initial Schedule for Regular and...
39 CFR 3010.7 - Schedule of regular rate changes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...intervals. (c) The Schedule for Regular and Predictable Rate Changes shall provide an explanation that will allow mailers to predict with reasonable accuracy the amounts of future scheduled rate changes. (d) The initial Schedule for Regular and...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-12-16
This lesson plan has students create a confidence interval based on the historic snowfall records of a town in Ohio, the data for which is available online. The class will calculate the mean and standard deviation, applying formulas to the data. The standard deviation of the entire data set as well as a confidence interval will be created. A student handout is available for download here in Word Document format.
Conjoint schedules of timeout deletion in pigeons.
Hackenberg, T D
1992-09-01
This experiment attempted to bring behavior under joint control of two distinct contingencies, one that provided food and a second that extended the periods during which that food was available. Pigeons' responses on each of two keys were reinforced according to a single random-interval schedule of food presentation except during signaled timeout periods during which the schedule was temporarily disabled. By means of a conjoint schedule, responses on the initially less preferred key not only produced food but also canceled impending timeouts. When behavior came to predominate on this conjoint alternative, the consequences of responding on the two keys were reversed. Responding in 3 of 4 pigeons proved sensitive to the conjoint scheduled consequences, as evidenced by systematic shifts in response rates favoring the conjoint key. In 2 of these 3 pigeons, sensitivity to the conjoint contingency was evident under time-in:timeout ratios of 2:1 (time-in = 120 s, timeout = 60 s) and 1:5 (time-in = 30 s, timeout = 150 s), whereas for the other pigeon preference for the conjoint key was observed only under the latter sequence of conditions. There was only weak evidence of control by the conjoint scheduled consequences in the 4th subject, despite extended training and forced exposure to the conjoint alternative. The overall pattern of results is consistent with studies of timeout avoidance but also shares features in common with positively reinforced behavior. PMID:1402605
Arthur G. Snapper; William N. Schoenfeld; Bernard Locke
1966-01-01
After initial regular reinforcement of a lever-pressing response with milk, 6 groups of food-deprived rats were exposed to a concurrent random ratio punishment procedure wherein each group continued to be rewarded but had a different probability of receiving a brief electric foot shock for each response. Response suppression increased with punishment probability, with a marked drop in responding at the
Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications
MinÃ©, Antoine
Motivation Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications Interval Polyhedra: An Abstract Domain to Infer. Cousot The Interval Polyhedra Abstract Domain p. 1 / 25 #12;Motivation Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications Overview Motivation Interval polyhedra domain Applications of interval polyhedra domain Conclusion
Haig, David
2014-01-01
Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos. PMID:24480612
Observing responses in pigeons: effects of schedule component duration and schedule value1
Branch, Marc N.
1973-01-01
Pigeons were exposed to a procedure under which five pecks on one response key (the observing key) changed the schedule on a second key (the food key) from a mixed schedule to a multiple schedule for 25 sec. In Experiment I, a random-ratio 50 schedule alternated with extinction. The duration of the random-ratio 50 schedule component was varied between 1.25 and 320 sec, and extinction was scheduled for a varying time, ranging from the duration of the random-ratio 50 to four times that value. Each set of values was scheduled for a block of sessions. Before observing-key pecks were allowed at each set of parameter values, the pigeons were exposed to a condition where the mixed and multiple schedule alternated every 10 min, and observing-key pecks were not permitted. Rates of pecking on the observing key were high for all values of random-ratio component durations except 1.25 sec. Experiment II was conducted with the random-ratio component duration equal to 40 sec, and the random-ratio schedule was varied from random-ratio 50 to 100, 200, and 400. Observing-key pecking rates were high for all values of the random-ratio schedule except random-ratio 400. In both experiments, observing response rates were relatively little affected, suggesting that neither schedule component duration nor schedule value is a strong determinant of observing responses. PMID:16811715
Mattano, Leonard A; Devidas, Meenakshi; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Hunger, Stephen P; Steinherz, Peter G.; Gaynon, Paul S; Seibel, Nita L
2012-01-01
SUMMARY Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable in over 80% of children and adolescents with high-risk features. However, current therapies are associated with symptomatic osteonecrosis that disproportionately affects adolescents, often requires surgery, and is one of the most common causes of short- and long-term morbidity. A strategy is needed to lessen this risk. Methods CCG-1961, a multi-cohort randomized cooperative group trial, evaluated components of therapeutic intensification in 2056 eligible, newly diagnosed high-risk patients (white blood cell count ?50×109/L and/or age ?10 years). To address osteonecrosis, a novel alternate-week dexamethasone schedule (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-6 and 14-20) was compared to standard continuous dexamethasone (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-20) in randomized regimens with either double or single delayed intensification phases, respectively. Randomization was done based on a randomization schedule generated using permuted blocks within strata. Patients were prospectively monitored clinically for osteonecrosis, with confirmatory imaging of suspected sites. Primary analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis and focused on the estimation and comparison of cumulative incidence rates of osteonecrosis both overall and in patient subgroups (age, gender, marrow early response status); final results are herein reported. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002812. Findings Symptomatic osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 143 patients at 377 confirmed skeletal sites, resulting in 139 surgeries. The overall cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was 7·7% (N=2056) at 5 years, correlating with age at ALL diagnosis (1-9 years 1·0% (N=769), 10-15 years 9·9% (N=1025), ?16 years 20·0% (N=262), p<0·0001) and gender (?10 years, female 15·7% (N=525) versus male 9·3% (N=762), p=0·0010). For patients ?10 years old with a rapid response to induction therapy, the use of alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases significantly reduced osteonecrosis incidence compared with continuous dexamethasone (8·7±2·1% (N=420) versus 17·0±2·9% (N=403), p=0·0005), especially those ?16 years (11·3±5·3% (N=84) versus 37·5±11·1% (N=79), p=0·0003; females 17·2±8·1% (N=32) versus 43·9±14·1% (N=23), p=0·050; males 7·7±5·9% (N=53) versus 34·6±11·6% (N=56), p=0·0014). Interpretation Alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases effectively reduces osteonecrosis risk in children and adolescents receiving intensified therapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:22901620
Scheduling semiconductor wafer fabrication
LAWRENCE M. WEIN
1988-01-01
The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer
Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.
2006-01-01
Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session…
A hybrid genetic algorithm for the job shop scheduling problem
José Fernando Gonçalves; Jorge José De Magalhães Mendes; Maur??cio G. C. Resende
2005-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid genetic algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling problem. The chromosome representation of the problem is based on random keys. The schedules are constructed using a priority rule in which the priorities are defined by the genetic algorithm. Schedules are constructed using a procedure that generates parameterized active schedules. After a schedule is obtained a local
Afshin Dowlati; Robert Chapman; Shanmuga Subbiah; Pingfu Fu; Anne Ness; Tania Cortas; Lauren Patrick; Sherrie Reynolds; Natalie Xu; Nathan Levitan; Percy Ivy; Scot C. Remick
2005-01-01
Summary Rebeccamcyin analogue (RA) is an antitumor antibiotic that results in DNA intercalation and topoisomerase I and II inhibition.\\u000a Phase I trials of the daily 5 schedule and once every 3 week schedule have been completed. Antitumor activity was observed\\u000a during the phase I trials. The purpose of this study is to primarily determine the response rate of 2 different schedules
The Effects of Interval Duration on Temporal Tracking and Alternation Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ludvig, Elliot A.; Staddon, John E. R.
2005-01-01
On cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules, animals typically show a postreinforcement pause that is a function of the immediately preceding time interval ("temporal tracking"). Animals, however, do not track single-alternation schedules--when two different intervals are presented in strict alternation on successive trials. In this experiment,…
ROMERO,VICENTE J.
2000-05-04
In order to devise an algorithm for autonomously terminating Monte Carlo sampling when sufficiently small and reliable confidence intervals (CI) are achieved on calculated probabilities, the behavior of CI estimators must be characterized. This knowledge is also required in comparing the accuracy of other probability estimation techniques to Monte Carlo results. Based on 100 trials in a hypothesis test, estimated 95% CI from classical approximate CI theory are empirically examined to determine if they behave as true 95% CI over spectrums of probabilities (population proportions) ranging from 0.001 to 0.99 in a test problem. Tests are conducted for population sizes of 500 and 10,000 samples where applicable. Significant differences between true and estimated 95% CI are found to occur at probabilities between 0.1 and 0.9, such that estimated 95% CI can be rejected as not being true 95% CI at less than a 40% chance of incorrect rejection. With regard to Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS), though no general theory has been verified for accurately estimating LHS CI, recent numerical experiments on the test problem have found LHS to be conservatively over an order of magnitude more efficient than SRS for similar sized CI on probabilities ranging between 0.25 and 0.75. The efficiency advantage of LHS vanishes, however, as the probability extremes of 0 and 1 are approached.
Discrimination of Variable Schedules Is Controlled by Interresponse Times Proximal to Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki
2012-01-01
In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…
Cyril Gavoille
2000-01-01
We survey in this paper the classical results, and also the most recent results, in the eld of Interval Routing, a well-known strategy to code in a compact way distributed routing algorithms. These results are classied in several themes: characterization, compactness and shortest path, dilation and stretch factor, specic class of graphs (interconnection networks, bounded degree, planar, chordal rings, random
Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind
2014-01-01
Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p?=?0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p?=?0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p?=?0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p?=?0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645
Enhancing the selection of backoff interval using fuzzy logic over wireless Ad Hoc networks.
Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan
2015-01-01
IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff-BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066
Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules
McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Nevin, John A
2012-01-01
Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess resistance to change. Contrary to the generalized matching law, logarithms of response ratios in the two components were not a linear function of log reinforcer ratios, implying a failure of parameter invariance. Over a 2 log unit range, the function appeared linear and indicated undermatching, but in conditions with more extreme reinforcer ratios, approximate matching was observed. A model suggested by McLean (1991), originally for local contrast, predicts these changes in sensitivity to reinforcer ratios somewhat better than models by Herrnstein (1970) and by Williams and Wixted (1986). Prefeeding tests of resistance to change were conducted at each reinforcer ratio, and relative resistance to change was also a nonlinear function of log reinforcer ratios, again contrary to conclusions from previous work. Instead, the function suggests that resistance to change in a component may be determined partly by the rate of reinforcement and partly by the ratio of reinforcers to responses. PMID:22287804
Security Games with Interval Uncertainty Submission 263
Kreinovich, Vladik
game theory for modeling real- world security problems is that the game models require very pre- ciseSecurity Games with Interval Uncertainty Submission 263 ABSTRACT Security games provide a framework including security at the LAX airport, scheduling for the Federal Air Marshals, and patrolling strategies
Mechanism Design for Fractional Scheduling on Unrelated Machines
George Christodoulou; Elias Koutsoupias; Annamária Kovács
2007-01-01
Scheduling on unrelated machines is one of the most general and classical variants of the task scheduling problem. Fractional scheduling is the LP-relaxation of the problem, which is polynomially solvable in the offline setting, and is a useful tool to design deterministic and randomized approximation algorithms. The mechanism design version of the scheduling problem was introduced by Nisan and Ronen
A Model for Residence Time in Concurrent Variable Interval Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Navakatikyan, Michael A.
2007-01-01
A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-interval schedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing…
The temporal organization of behavior on periodic food schedules.
Reid, A K; Bacha, G; Morán, C
1993-01-01
Various theories of temporal control and schedule induction imply that periodic schedules temporally modulate an organism's motivational states within interreinforcement intervals. This speculation has been fueled by frequently observed multimodal activity distributions created by averaging across interreinforcement intervals. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the cost associated with schedule-induced activities and the availability of other activities to determine the degree to which (a) the temporal distributions of activities within the interreinforcement interval are fixed or can be temporally displaced, (b) rats can reallocate activities across different interreinforcement intervals, and (c) noninduced activities can substitute for schedule-induced activities. Obtained multimodal activity distributions created by averaging across interreinforcement intervals were not representative of the transitions occurring within individual intervals, so the averaged multimodal distributions should not be assumed to represent changes in the subject's motivational states within the interval. Rather, the multimodal distributions often result from averaging across interreinforcement intervals in which only a single activity occurs. A direct influence of the periodic schedule on the motivational states implies that drinking and running should occur at different periods within the interval, but in three experiments the starting times of drinking and running within interreinforcement intervals were equal. Thus, the sequential pattern of drinking and running on periodic schedules does not result from temporal modulation of motivational states within interreinforcement intervals. PMID:8433061
Cella, David; Jensen, Sally E; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Korytowsky, Beata; Bhattacharyya, Helen; Motzer, Robert
2014-01-01
A phase II trial in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) found no benefit in efficacy or safety between patients receiving oral sunitinib 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2-week off-treatment (Schedule 4/2) and those receiving 37.5 mg continuous daily sunitinib. We hypothesized that fatigue would have a more variable “on-off” effect with the 4/2 schedule. A total of 292 patients completed two fatigue-related items on Days 1 and 29 of each treatment cycle. Mean absolute slopes were compared across treatments. A planned analysis of item “I feel fatigued” demonstrated that the mean absolute slope was greater in Schedule 4/2 compared to continuous dosing (0.042 vs. 0.032, P = 0.003), and analysis based on the change from Day 1 to Day 29 (0.52 vs. 0.21, P = 0.002) and, separately, Day 29 to the next Day 1 (?0.38 vs. ?0.05, P < 0.001) showed the changes to be significantly larger in Schedule 4/2 than continuous dosing. “I have a lack of energy” showed a similar pattern graphically, however, the planned analysis was not statistically significant based on the absolute slopes but was when Day 1 to Day 29 and Day 29 to Day 1 changes were analyzed separately. The 4/2 arm was associated with a greater degree of variability in fatigue reflecting a possible “on-off” effect whereby patients receiving the 4/2 schedule reported less fatigue at the beginning of each cycle compared to Day 29. The findings can inform care for individuals with advanced RCC receiving intermittent dosing of sunitinib. PMID:25044922
The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2011-01-01
The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random…
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache
2010-12-08
In this book we use only special types of intervals and introduce the notion of different types of interval linear algebras and interval vector spaces using the intervals of the form [0, a] where the intervals are from Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0}. A systematic development is made starting from set interval vector spaces to group interval vector spaces. Vector spaces are taken as interval polynomials or interval matrices or just intervals over suitable sets or semigroups or groups. Main feature of this book is the authors have given over 350 examples. This book has six chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Chapter two introduces the notion of set interval linear algebras of type one and two. Set fuzzy interval linear algebras and their algebras and their properties are discussed in chapter three. Chapter four introduces several types of interval linear bialgebras and bivector spaces and studies them. The possible applications are given in chapter five. Chapter six suggests nearly 110 problems of all levels.
Latour, R.R. [Dynamic Matrix Control Corp., Houston, TX (United States)
1996-05-01
One of the five principal active money-making functions of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) of fuels and petrochemicals is scheduling. Scheduling of what? Processes, shipments, receipts, movements, purchases, sales, deliveries, people, computers, information, businesses and research/development/application. Scheduling is fundamental to all activities and interactions. This editorial is confined to closed-loop real-time scheduling (CLRTS) of manufacturing operations, one of the five active CIM functions: performance measures, multivariable control, rigorous optimization and integration. CLRTS resides at the center of CIMFUELS. Refinery scheduling is a growing proportion of the CIMFUELS business because the incentives are high for good rescheduling. Clear integrated connections (two-way) downward to advanced control promises high returns. Clear integrated connections upward to planning (two-way) also provide high returns. The interesting developments are extending CLRTS activity horizontally across traditional organizational and profit/cost center lines from crude and intermediates supply to products/components manufacturing and/or trading.
Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization
Patil, R.B.
1995-05-01
Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.
Thrailkill, Eric A; Epstein, Leonard H; Bouton, Mark E
2015-01-01
Food variety increases consumption and the rate of instrumental behavior that is reinforced by food in humans and animals. The present experiment investigated the relationship between the variety effect and habituation to food by testing the role of the interval between successive food presentations on responding in an operant food-seeking task. Habituation to food was expected at short, but not long, interfood intervals. The effects of variety on food's long-term reinforcing value were also tested. Four groups of rats were trained to lever-press on different random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement to earn 45-mg food pellets. Half the rats in each group received an unpredictable mix of grain and sucrose pellets, while the other half consistently received sucrose pellets. Response rate began at a high rate and then decreased within each 30-min session for groups that received short inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-3?s and RI-6?s reinforcement schedules) but not in groups that received longer inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-12?s and RI-24?s). A variety effect in the form of higher responding in the mix group than the sucrose-only group was also only evident at the shorter intervals. Habituation and variety effects were also most evident with the short intervals when we controlled for the number of reinforcers earned, suggesting that they were not merely due to rapid satiation. The variety effect also appeared quickly when groups trained with longer inter-pellet intervals (RI-12?s and RI-24?s) were transitioned to shorter intervals (RI-3?s and RI-6?s). There was no effect of variety on resistance to extinction or on resistance to the response-suppressing effects of pre-session feeding. The results more clearly link this version of the variety effect to the short-term effect of variety on food habituation. PMID:25261732
Prediction in random coefficient regression
Rudolf Beran
1995-01-01
Random coefficient regression and autoregressive models are important in diverse applications such as the classical statistical analysis of random and mixed effects models, the modelling of certain econometric and biological time series, and as a means for image compression. This paper develops nonparametric prediction intervals for a random coefficient regression model. The construction of these intervals requires a consistent estimate
The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.
2008-01-01
Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…
Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems
Gupta, Rajesh
Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems Ravindra reclamation techniques under procrastination scheduling to minimize the static and dynamic en- ergy idle intervals through slack reclamation. While using the entire slack for either slowdown
Manning, Jessica; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Somethy, Sok; Phann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Mitprasat, Mashamon; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Soh, Eugene; Timmermans, Ans; Lanteri, Charlotte; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Auayporn, Montida; Tang, Douglas; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis
2014-01-01
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min to 3 h of a meal once per month for a planned 4-month period with periodic electrocardiographic and pharmacokinetic assessment. The study was halted after only 6 weeks (69 of 231 projected volunteers enrolled) when four volunteers met a prespecified cardiac safety endpoint of QTcF (Fridericia's formula for correct QT interval) prolongation of >500 ms. The pharmacodynamic effect on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) peaked approximately 4 h after piperaquine dosing and lasted 4 to 8 h. Unblinded review by the data safety monitoring board revealed mean QTcF prolongation of 46 ms over placebo at the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) on day 2. Given that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the few remaining effective antimalarial agents in Cambodia, compressed 2-day treatment courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are best avoided until the clinical significance of these findings are more thoroughly evaluated. Because ECG monitoring is often unavailable in areas where malaria is endemic, repolarization risk could be mitigated by using conventional 3-day regimens, fasting, and avoidance of repeated dosing or coadministration with other QT-prolonging medications. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01624337.) PMID:25092702
Witkin, J M
1986-03-01
Effects of chlorpromazine (1 to 100 mg/kg) were assessed on two pigeons' responding under various modifications of a multiple schedule of food delivery. During a fixed-interval component, the first response after 5 min produced food; during the subsequent, fixed-ratio component, the 30th response produced food. Modifications of the schedule entailed changes in stimulus conditions imposed during the fixed-ratio component that did not systematically alter characteristics of performance under non-drug conditions. In the first phase of the experiment, distinctive visual stimuli were correlated with each schedule component (conventional multiple schedule); chlorpromazine produced small decreases in fixed-ratio responding (20% at 30 mg/kg). When each response during the fixed-ratio component produced the stimulus correlated with the fixed-interval schedule (fixed-interval discriminative stimulus) for 1.2 s, effects of chlorpromazine were not different from those under the conventional multiple schedule. Chlorpromazine produced greater decreases in fixed-ratio responding (55% at 30 mg/kg) when either the first response of each fixed ratio changed the stimulus correlated with the fixed-ratio schedule to the fixed-interval discriminative stimulus for the remainder of the fixed-ratio component, or when the fixed-interval discriminative stimulus was presented independently of responding according to a matched temporal sequence. When the fixed-interval discriminative stimulus was present continuously during the fixed-ratio component (mixed schedule), chlorpromazine produced even more substantial decreases in fixed-ratio responding (greater than 80% at 30 mg/kg). Effects of chlorpromazine on fixed-interval responding were also modified by the schedules of fixed-interval discriminative stimulus presentation. The effects of chlorpromazine were a joint function of the stimuli prevailing during the multiple schedule and the degree to which responding influenced these stimuli. PMID:3958665
Uninstructed human responding: sensitivity to ratio and interval contingencies1
Matthews, Byron A.; Shimoff, Eliot; Catania, A. Charles; Sagvolden, Terje
1977-01-01
College students' presses on a telegraph key were occasionally reinforced by light onsets in the presence of which button presses (consummatory responses) produced points later exchangeable for money. One student's key presses were reinforced according to a variable-ratio schedule; key presses of another student in a separate room were reinforced according to a variable-interval schedule yoked to the interreinforcement intervals produced by the first student. Instructions described the operation of the reinforcement button, but did not mention the telegraph key; instead, key pressing was established by shaping. Performances were comparable to those of infrahuman organisms: variable-ratio key-pressing rates were higher than yoked variable-interval rates. With some yoked pairs, schedule effects occurred so rapidly that rate reversals produced by schedule reversals were demonstrable within one session. But sensitivity to these contingencies was not reliably obtained with other pairs for whom an experimenter demonstrated key pressing or for whom the reinforcer included automatic point deliveries instead of points produced by button presses. A second experiment with uninstructed responding demonstrated sensitivity to fixed-interval contingencies. These findings clarify prior failures to demonstrate human sensitivity to schedule contingencies: human responding is maximally sensitive to these contingencies when instructions are minimized and the reinforcer requires a consummatory response. PMID:16812006
Tolga Bozkaya Meral Ozsoyoglu
1998-01-01
To support temporal operators and to increase the efficiency of temporal queries,indexing based on temporal attributes is required. We consider the problem of indexing thetemporal dimension in valid time databases. We assume that the temporal information of dataobjects are represented as valid time intervals that have to be managed dynamically by anefficient index structure. Unlike the time intervals in transaction
Plausibility Measures on Intervals
ADRIAN GIURCA
This work intend to motivate the use of plausibility spaces on lattices of intervals. We construct a plausibility of an interval lattice and explain the use of this measure in uncertain expertise. Future work will concern the study of F relating weighted graphs for ranking pages in search engines. AMS Classification. Primary: 68R99, Secondary: 68T30 This work was supported by
Picosecond time interval measurements
John B. Rettig; Laszlo Dobos
1995-01-01
Efficient measurement techniques have been developed to adequately characterize the performance of a new generation of programmable equivalent time sequential sampling oscilloscopes. These instruments provide time interval measurements with increased repeatability and accuracy. The same characterizations are applicable to more general time interval measurement, and subpicosecond repeatability for rise time measurement of fast step generators (<20 ps rise time) has
Stability of an Optimal Schedule in a Job Shop 1
Magdeburg, Universität
Stability of an Optimal Schedule in a Job Shop 1 YN SOTSKOV Institute of Engineering Cybernetics to the calculation of the stability ra dius of an optimal schedule for a job shop problem, when the objective. To this end, ex tensive numerical experiments with randomly generated job shop scheduling problems
Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; del Amo, Alejandro J García; Boccaletti, Stefano
2012-01-01
We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.
Confidence Intervals: Giving Meaning to your results
Gilleland, Eric
Physics · Sampling Verification statistic is a realization of a random process What if the experiment rights reserved. Confidence Intervals (CI's) "If we re-run the experiment 100 times, and create 100 (1. Normal approximation CI's are most common. Quick and easy. #12;copyright 2009, UCAR, all rights
Clouds, Fuzzy Sets and Probability Intervals
Neumaier, Arnold
Clouds, Fuzzy Sets and Probability Intervals Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik, Universit://www.mat.univie.ac.at/#24;neum/ March 31, 2003 Abstract. Clouds are a concept for uncertainty mediating between the concept of a fuzzy set and that of a probability distribution. A cloud is to a random variable more or less what
Clouds, Fuzzy Sets and Probability Intervals
Neumaier, Arnold
Clouds, Fuzzy Sets and Probability Intervals Arnold Neumaier Institut f¨ur Mathematik, Universit://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ March 31, 2003 Abstract. Clouds are a concept for uncertainty mediating between the concept of a fuzzy set and that of a probability distribution. A cloud is to a random variable more or less what
Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?
Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve
2013-08-01
The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed. PMID:24054895
Rob Haydt; Joseph CaraDonna; Franklin Reynolds
The Mach scheduling subsystem provides the policies and mechanisms to schedule and control threads. This paper describes the Mach Scheduling Framework which restruc- tures the subsystem to separate the policies from mechanisms, supports multiple indepen- dent scheduling policies, and provides new functionality for real-time support in Mach. The Scheduling Framework is an evolution of the Mach 3 scheduling system. The
Ordered interval routing schemes
Mustaq Ahmed
2009-01-01
Abstract An Interval Routing Scheme (IRS) represents the routing tables in a network in a space-ecient,way by labeling each vertex with an unique integer address and the outgoing edges at each vertex with disjoint subintervals of these addresses. An IRS that has at most k intervals per edge label is called a k-IRS. In this thesis, we propose a new
Modal Intervals Revisited Part 1: A Generalized Interval Natural Extension
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Modal Intervals Revisited Part 1: A Generalized Interval Natural Extension Alexandre Goldsztejn Abstract The modal intervals theory is an extension of the classical intervals theory which provides richer of its promising potential, the modal intervals theory is not widely used today because of its original
Scheduling to minimize power consumption using submodular functions
Zadimoghaddam, Morteza
2010-01-01
We develop logarithmic approximation algorithms for extremely general formulations of multiprocessor multi-interval offline task scheduling to minimize power usage. Here each processor has an arbitrary specified power ...
Bulk Scheduling with DIANA Scheduler
Ashiq Anjum; Richard McClatchey; Arshad Ali; Ian Willers
2006-01-01
Results from and progress on the development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) Scheduling engine, primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. Scientific analysis tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources and the size of the input and output files and the amount of overall storage space allocated to a
When NMDA Receptor Conductances increase Inter-Spike Interval Variability
Senn, Walter
an important role. 2 Methods We simulate a single compartment leaky integrate-and-fire neuron whose dy- namics-synaptic neurons that fire at random times. The inter-spike intervals are distributed exponentially
Continuous, fixed-ratio, and fixed-interval reinforcement in honey bees
Grossmann, Klaus E.
1973-01-01
Bees learned to enter a Plexiglas tube and to suck small portions of sugar solution; every entry or every fifth entry was reinforced. During an extinction phase, the bees on the fixed-ratio schedule emitted twice as many responses as did those given continuous reinforcement. Bees on a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement emitted lower response rates than did those given fixed-ratio reinforcement. By extending the conditioning procedure for several days, it was possible to maintain responding with fixed-ratio schedules requiring 30 responses per reinforcement and with fixed-interval values up to 90 sec. Under fixed-interval schedules, response rates did not increase toward the end of the reinforcement intervals. PMID:16811686
PROGRESSIVE INTERVAL CENSORING: SOME MATHEMATICAL RESULTS WITH APPLICATIONS TO INFERENCE
Rita Aggarwala
2001-01-01
In this paper, we will introduce a union of two methods of collecting Type-I censored data, namely interval censoring and progressive censoring. We will call the resulting sample a progressively Type-I interval censored sample.We will discuss likelihood point and interval estimation, and simulation of such a censored sample from a random sample of units put on test whose lifetime distribution
Patil, R.B.
1995-05-01
Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.
Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mace, F. Charles; And Others
1994-01-01
Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…
Ant colony system for job shop scheduling with time windows
Rong-Hwa Huang; Chang-Lin Yang
2008-01-01
Scheduling for a job shop production system is an integral aspect of production management. Scheduling operations must minimize\\u000a stock, waste, and idle time and ensure on-time delivery of goods in a time window problem. In this study, due date is considered\\u000a as an interval instead of a time point. This study addresses scheduling with a time window of job shop
Haibin Wang; Praveen Madiraju; Yanqing Zhang; Rajshekhar Sunderraman
2004-09-07
Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework that has been recently proposed. However, neutrosophic set needs to be specified from a technical point of view. To this effect, we define the set-theoretic operators on an instance of neutrosophic set, we call it interval neutrosophic set (INS). We prove various properties of INS, which are connected to the operations and relations over INS. Finally, we introduce and prove the convexity of interval neutrosophic sets.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Kyle Siegrist
This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates a random walk on a discrete time interval from 0 to n. The time n and the probability of a step to the right can be varied. The random variables of interest are the final position, the maximum position, and the time of the last zero.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Norlene Emerson
This lab activity has students use stream discharge data obtained from the USGS Water Resources Division web site in order to calculate recurrence intervals for a local stream. Using the recurrence data generated, the students then make recommendations to the residents of a local town as to what they might do to reduce their loss from the effects of frequent flooding in their community.
Overconfidence in Interval Estimates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua
2004-01-01
Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…
Sampling SIM: Confidence Intervals
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Chance, Beth
Created by authors Beth Chance, Bob delmas and Joan Garfield, this web page provides instructions for teaching confidence intervals using Sampling SIM software. It includes information regarding prerequisite knowledge, common misconceptions, and objectives, as well as links to an activity and a pre/post-test. This resource will provide a nice assessment of the skills obtained during this lesson.
Confidence Intervals & Hypothesis Testing
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
This site, authored by David M. Lane of HyperStat Online, explains the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. Because of the immense similarities between the two procedures many find them to be one in the same. Lane attempts to dispel this common misconception with his brief presentation on the subject.
Concurrent Second-Order Schedules: Some Effects of Variations in Response Number and Duration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sealey, Diane M.; Sumpter, Catherine E.; Temple, W.; Foster, T. Mary
2005-01-01
To examine the effects on concurrent performance of independent manipulations of response-unit duration and number, 6 hens were exposed to concurrent second- order schedules of reinforcement. Each first-order operant unit required completion of a fixed-ratio schedule within the time specified by a fixed- interval schedule, with one further…
Schedule-induced mirror responding in the pigeon1
Cohen, Perrin S.; Looney, Thomas A.
1973-01-01
Two pigeons that were previously exposed to a multiple schedule of reinforcement in the presence of a stuffed and a live pigeon, and two of three naive pigeons, responded on a mirror during exposure to multiple fixed-ratio, fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement for key pecking. Both the topography and temporal pattern of mirror responding were comparable to schedule-induced “attack” on live and stuffed targets. Rate of target responding was reduced when either the mirror was covered with paper or when the multiple schedule was removed. A reversal in the relationship between reinforcement schedules and discriminative stimuli demonstrated that mirror responding was controlled by the stimulus correlated with the higher fixed-ratio schedule. With one component of the multiple schedule held constant at fixed ratio 25 and the ratio requirement of the other component varying from 25 to 150, there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between rate of mirror responding and fixed-ratio schedule in the varied component. As in Flory's study (1969b) there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between target responding and inter-food intervals. The combined results of these studies suggest that the relationship between rate of target responding and reinforcement schedules is controlled primarily by the inter-food intervals resulting from the schedules. PMID:16811671
Zakarevicius. Compliant Thread Scheduling COMPLIANT THREAD SCHEDULING
Rubinstein, Benjamin
Zakarevicius. Compliant Thread Scheduling COMPLIANT THREAD SCHEDULING Alicia Zakarevicius 1 1 methodology in constructing software architectures, which accommodate, and are therefore compliant to with application needs. It has been conjectured that the benefits of the compliant software architecture
Iterative refinement scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biefeld, Eric
1992-01-01
We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.
Scopolamine-induced impairment in concurrent fixed-interval responding in a radial maze task.
Sessions, G R; Pilcher, J J; Elsmore, T F
1998-03-01
The present study investigated the effects of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP: 0.06-1.0 mg/kg IP) and its quartenary analogue, scopolamine methylbromide (SCOPMB), on performance in a radial arm maze foraging task, to dissociate general drug-induced alterations of motor performance from measurement of impairments on more complex behaviors involving timing and memory. In this paradigm. rats are trained to free run a radial maze under an eight-alternative concurrent fixed-interval (FI) schedule of food reinforcement. The eight FIs (55 to 759 s) were assigned randomly to the arms of the maze, with a different pattern for each animal. SCOP produced dose-dependent degradation in response patterning and response rates in the concurrent FI schedules without significantly affecting the rates of arm entries or arm traversal latencies. The peripheral cholinergic antagonist, SCOPMB, generally produced small to moderate depressions in all measures with the exception of patterning of arm entries and pellets earned, but there were no clear dose-response relationships evident in the data. These results are consistent with the notion that central cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the mediation of complex conditioned behaviors. PMID:9512066
Models of Ratio Schedule Performance
Bizo, Lewis A.; Killeen, Peter R.
2008-01-01
Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engeridered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter a (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter ? (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules. PMID:9206029
PLAN-IT: Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.
1987-01-01
A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.
Fomin, Fedor V; Golovach, Petr; Suchan, Karol; Szeider, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; Vatshelle, Martin; Villanger, Yngve
2011-01-01
We initiate the study of a new parameterization of graph problems. In a multiple interval representation of a graph, each vertex is associated to at least one interval of the real line, with an edge between two vertices if and only if an interval associated to one vertex has a nonempty intersection with an interval associated to the other vertex. A graph on n vertices is a k-gap interval graph if it has a multiple interval representation with at most n+k intervals in total. In order to scale up the nice algorithmic properties of interval graphs (where k=0), we parameterize graph problems by k, and find FPT algorithms for several problems, including Feedback Vertex Set, Dominating Set, Independent Set, Clique, Clique Cover, and Multiple Interval Transversal. The Coloring problem turns out to be W[1]-hard and we design an XP algorithm for the recognition problem.
A study of the impact of scheduling parameters in heterogeneous computing environments
Powers, Sarah S [ORNL
2014-01-01
This paper describes a tool for exploring system scheduler parameter settings in a heterogeneous computing environment. Through the coupling of simulation and optimization techniques, this work investigates optimal scheduling intervals, the impact of job arrival prediction on scheduling, as well as how to best apply fair use policies. The developed simulation framework is quick and modular, enabling decision makers to further explore decisions in real-time regarding scheduling policies or parameter changes.
J. Carlier; Philippe Chrétienne
1987-01-01
In this paper, we define Timed Petri Net schedules and study some of their properties. We prove that the set of schedules issued from a firable sequence of the underlying Petri net has a minimum element we call earliest schedule of the sequence. We then propose a polynomial algorithm to compute it. In order to study earliest schedules, we introduce
Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan
1992-01-01
A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, K.
1976-01-01
A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.
Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.
2011-01-01
We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…
Guixiang Shen; Xiaofeng Wang; Yingzhi Zhang; Shaona Chen; Bingkun Chen
2010-01-01
Based on failure data of machining center, according to traditional random theory, analyze tool magazine by FMECA. Fuzzy the parameters of criticality, based on triangle-interval type-2 fuzzy membership function and algorithm of interval number on the type-2 membership function. Make judgment matrixes of interval number. Comprehensive evaluation of criticality rank of every failure mode is made by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation
Ploog, B O
2001-01-01
The effect of primary reinforcement on initial-link responding under concurrent-chains schedules with nondifferential terminal links was assessed in 12 pigeons. The iniitial and terminal links were variable-interval schedules (always the same for both alternatives). The positions (left or right key) of the initial-link stimuli (red or green) were randomized while the correlation between color and food amount remained constant within each condition. The terminal-link stimuli were always presented on the center key. Except in two control groups and conditions, the terminal-link stimuli were the same color (nondifferential, blue or yellow). Over six conditions, the differences in food amont and the durations of the initial- and terminal-link schedules were manipulated. In 57 of 60 cases, birds generated choice proportions above .50 in favor of the initial-link stimlus that was correlated with the larger reinforcer. There was some indication that preference increased with shortened terminal-link durations. Because the terminal-link stimuli were nondifferential, differential responding in the initial links cannot be explained easily by conditioned reinforcement represented by the terminal-link stimuli. Thus, primiary reinforcement has a direct effect on initial-link responding in concurrent-chains schedules. PMID:11516116
Interval Type - State Cancer Profiles
There is no single best interval type (also known as a classification method). The interval types provided in the State Cancer Profiles Maps section enables the user to choose the interval type that they feel is most appropriate for their purpose and audience.
Lee Schwartzberg; Ronald Burkes; Barry Mirtsching; Timothy Rearden; Peter Silberstein; Lorrin Yee; Amy Inamoto; Tom Lillie
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is responsive to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as darbepoetin alfa. Administration of ESAs on a synchronous schedule with chemotherapy administration could benefit patients by reducing clinic visits and potentially enhancing on-time chemotherapy delivery. METHODS: This phase 2, 25-week, open-label study evaluated the noninferiority of darbepoetin alfa administered weekly vs. as an extended dosing schedule
Bootstrapped MRMC confidence intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samuelson, Frank W.; Wagner, Robert F.
2005-04-01
The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) paradigm of Swets and Pickett (1982) for ROC analysis was expressed as a components of variance model by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (1992) and validated by Roe and Metz (1997) for Type I error rates. Our group proposed an analysis of the MRMC components of variance model using bootstrap (Beiden, Wagner, and Campbell, 2000) experiments instead of jackknife pseudo-values. These approaches have been challenged by some contemporary authors (e.g. Zhou, Obuchowski, and McClish, 2002). The purpose of the present paper is to formally compare the models and to carry out validation tests of their performance. We investigate different approaches to statistical inference, including several types of nonparametric bootstrap confidence intervals and report on validation and simulation experiments of Type I errors.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-22
...Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, Schedule L, Schedule M-1, Schedule M-2, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for...
G. H. Cheng; G. H. Huang; Y. P. Li; M. F. Cao; Y. R. Fan
2009-01-01
In this study, a random-boundary-interval linear programming (RBILP) method is developed and applied to the planning of municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) management under dual uncertainties. In the RBILP model, uncertain inputs presented as interval numbers\\u000a can be directly communicated into the optimization process; besides, intervals with uncertain lower and upper bounds can be\\u000a handled through introducing the concept of random
An adaptive drift-diffusion model of interval timing dynamics
Luzardo, Andre; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Rivest, François
2013-01-01
Animals readily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed responding to rapidly changing intervals, sometimes as quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models—widely used to model response times in decision making—have been extended with new learning rules that allow them to accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their drift rate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing—when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favorably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals. PMID:23428705
Interresponse-time shaping by variable-interval-like interresponse-time reinforcement contingencies1
Platt, John R.
1979-01-01
The interresponse-time reinforcement contingencies and distributions of interreinforcement intervals characteristic of certain variable-interval schedules were mimicked by reinforcing each key peck with a probability equal to the duration of the interresponse time it terminated, divided by the scheduled mean interreinforcement interval. The interresponse-time reinforcement contingency was then eliminated by basing the probability of reinforcement on the fifth interresponse time preceding the key peck. Even though distributions of interreinforcement intervals were unaffected by this manipulation, response rates consistently increased. A second experiment replicated this effect and showed it to combine additively with that of mean reinforcement rate. These results provide strong support for the contention that current analyses of variable-interval response rates that ignore the inherent interresponse-time reinforcement contingency may be seriously in error. PMID:16812120
A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy
Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma
2013-01-01
Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742
Improved Approximation Algorithms for Shop Scheduling Problems
David B. Shmoys; Clifford Stein; Joel Wein
1994-01-01
. In the job shop scheduling problem we are given m machines and n jobs; a job consistsof a sequence of operations, each of which must be processed on a specified machine, and the aim is tocomplete all jobs as quickly as possible. This problem is strongly NP-hard even for very restrictivespecial cases. We give the first randomized and deterministic
An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin
2015-08-01
Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.
Thumburu, Kiran K.; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet
2015-01-01
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms ‘Haemophilus Vaccines’ or ‘Haemophilus influenzae type b’ and ‘conjugate vaccine’, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54–90) and 65% (95% CI 23–84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72–85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342
Jacobs, E A; Hackenberg, T D
2000-01-01
Panel pressing was generated and maintained in 5 adult humans by schedules of points exchangeable for money. Following exposure to a variable-interval 30-s schedule and to a linear variable-interval 30-s schedule (which permitted points to accumulate in an unseen "store" in the absence of responding), subjects were exposed to a series of conditions with a point-subtraction contingency arranged conjointly with the linear variable-interval schedule. Specifically, points were added to the store according to the linear-variable interval 30-s schedule and were subtracted from the store according to a ratio schedule. Ratio value varied across conditions and was determined individually for each subject such that the subtraction contingency would result in an approximately 50% reduction in the rate of point delivery. Conditions that included the subtraction contingency were termed negative slope schedules because the feedback functions were negatively sloped across all response rates greater than the inverse of the variable-interval schedule, in this case, two per minute. Overall response rates varied inversely with the subtraction ratio, indicating sensitivity to the negative slope conditions, but were in excess of that required by accounts based on strict maximization of overall reinforcement rate. Performance was also not well described by a matching-based account. Detailed analyses of response patterning revealed a consistent two-state pattern in which bursts of high-rate responding alternated with periods of prolonged pausing, perhaps reflecting the joint influence of local and overall reinforcement rates. PMID:10866350
A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi
1991-01-01
Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.
Bulk Scheduling With the DIANA Scheduler
Ashiq Anjum; Richard McClatchey; Arshad Ali; Ian Willers
2006-01-01
Results from the research and development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) scheduling engine, to be used primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. In Grid analyses, tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources. The central problem in the scheduling of these resources is the coordinated management of computation and
Distributed scheduling with COMPASS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rufat-Latre, Jorge; Culbert, Chris
1991-01-01
COMPASS (COMPuter Aided Scheduling System) is a sophisticated, interactive scheduling tool used within NASA. Like most existing tools, however, COMPASS is a single-user application. There is a large class of scheduling problems which may be better solved by allowing several people at various locations to build separate schedules with shared resources. DISCORS (DIStributed COmputer Resource Scheduling) is a set of services which support a distributed version of COMPASS. This architecture naturally accommodates the integration of user-defined resource models without modifying COMPASS. DISCORS services include the ability to establish and manage communications, to code messages in efficient formats, to provide fault detection and recovery, and to configure schedulers across a network. In its present form, DISCORS effectively supports distributed COMPASS, but fails to run fast and to guarantee efficient schedules. Further enhancements may allow several users to simultaneously and interactively work together to create complex schedules while COMPASS detects and coordinates the resolution of conflicting requests.
Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling
Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)
2006-07-25
A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.
Ubiquity of schedule-induced polydipsia1
Gilbert, R. M.
1974-01-01
Spaced feeding of individual food pellets to food-deprived rats induced excessive drinking after pellet delivery if water was continuously available. When access to water was restricted to a portion of the inter-pellet interval, and competition from food-reinforced bar pressing was removed, excessive drinking occurred whenever drinking was possible. This finding extends the generality of accounts of excessive behavior that implicate induction by apparently unrelated scheduling characteristics of the environment. PMID:4815396
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A random sample of 100 students from a specific high school resulted in 45% of them favoring a plan to implement block scheduling. Is it plausible that...
Reasoning about opportunistic schedules
B. Fox; K. Kempf
1987-01-01
The scheduling of jobs and resources In a manufacturing environment is important because o f its basic impact on production costs, but is difficult because of the problems of combinatorial complexity and executwnal uncertainty. Scheduling suffers from combinatorial complexity because there are a very large number of schedules which can be generated f o r a set of jobs and
The effects of morphine on fixed-interval patterning and temporal discrimination.
Odum, A L; Schaal, D W
2000-01-01
Changes produced by drugs in response patterns under fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement have been interpreted to result from changes in temporal discrimination. To examine this possibility, this experiment determined the effects of morphine on the response patterning of 4 pigeons during a fixed-interval 1-min schedule of food delivery with interpolated temporal discrimination trials. Twenty of the 50 total intervals were interrupted by choice trials. Pecks to one key color produced food if the interval was interrupted after a short time (after 2 or 4.64 s). Pecks to another key color produced food if the interval was interrupted after a long time (after 24.99 or 58 s). Morphine (1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg) decreased the index of curvature (a measure of response patterning) during fixed intervals and accuracy during temporal discrimination trials. Accuracy was equally disrupted following short and long sample durations. Although morphine disrupted temporal discrimination in the context of a fixed-interval schedule, these effects are inconsistent with interpretations of the disruption of response patterning as a selective overestimation of elapsed time. The effects of morphine may be related to the effects of more conventional external stimuli on response patterning. PMID:11029024
Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner
1988-01-01
The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.
Interval neutrosophic sets and Topology
Francisco Gallego Lupianez
2009-01-01
Purpose – In 2005, Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) to neutrosophic sets (NS), and other researchers introduced the notion of interval neutrosophic set (INSs), which is an instance of NS, and studied various properties. The notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval is also due to Smarandache. The purpose of this paper is to study relations
Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.
1996-01-01
Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…
SQL Extension for Interval Data
Nikos A. Lorentzos; Yannis G. Mitsopoulos
1997-01-01
IXSQL, an extension to SQL, is proposed for the management of interval data. IXSQL is syntactically and semantically upwards consistent with SQL2. Its specification has been based both on theoretical results and actual user requirements for the management of temporal data, a special case of interval data. Design decisions and implementation issues are also discussed
Maintaining Knowledge About Temporal Intervals
James F. Allen
1983-01-01
An interval-based temporal logic is introduced, together with a computationally effective reasoning algorithm based on constraint propagation. This system is notable in offering a delicate balance between expressive power and the efficiency of its deductive engine. A notion of reference intervals is introduced which captures the temporal hierarchy implicit in many domains, and which can be used to precisely control
Interval Computations Guaranteed Nonlinear Parameter
Kearfott, R. Baker
Computations Luc Jaulin and Eric Walter The problem of estimating the parameters of a nonlinear model from vector. Most often, however, (e.g. when the model output is nonlinear with respect to the parametersInterval Computations No 3, 1993 Guaranteed Nonlinear Parameter Estimation via Interval
Parameter Estimation Using Interval Computations
Laurent Granvilliers; Jorge Cruz; Pedro Barahona
2004-01-01
Parameter estimation is the problem of flnding values of the unknowns of a mathe- matical model for simulating a complex system. A model is generally given by difierential equations or systems of equations or inequalities. Interval computations are numerical computations over sets of real numbers. In this paper intervals are used to model uncertainty in parameter estimation problems, for instance
Charts With Variable Sampling Intervals
Marion R. Reynolds; Raid W. Amin; Jesse C. Arnold; Joel A. Nachlas
1988-01-01
The usual practice in using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling intervals. This article considers the properties of the chart when the sampling interval between each pair of samples is not fixed but rather depends on what is observed in the first sample. The idea is that the time
Matching and maximizing with variable-time schedules.
DeCarlo, L T
1985-01-01
Pigeons were offered choices between a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers throughout the session and a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers only when the pigeon was spending time on it. The subjects could maximize the overall rate of reinforcement in this situation by biasing their time allocation towards the latter schedule. This arrangement provides an alternative to concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules for testing whether animals maximize overall rates or match relative rates, and has the advantage of being free of the asymmetrical response requirements present with those schedules. The results were contrary to those predicted by maximizing: The bias it predicts did not appear. PMID:3981085
A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.
1993-01-01
Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. More attention must be paid to this problem in terms of communications scheduling. A method based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters has been developed to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both the TDRSS network and user resources. This method calculates required separation angles at TDRS and produces potential interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method also can be used as the basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. This paper describes the method and its proposed application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to missions operating at Ku-band, including Space Shuttle, are discussed.
Two-dose measles vaccination schedules.
Rosenthal, S R; Clements, C J
1993-01-01
As measles continues to exact a high toll on infant mortality, particularly in developing countries, optimal strategies for the control of the disease are under discussion. As part of this debate, the place of 2-dose measles immunization schedules is reviewed regarding their potential as a strategy to improve measles control. To date, WHO has not recommended the use of a 2-dose schedule. A number of industrialized countries have already adopted a 2-dose schedule, often choosing to administer measles vaccine in the same injection as mumps and rubella vaccines. However, at present not enough is known about such schedules in developing countries to make global recommendations. Further research should include randomized controlled trials of early 2-dose schedules to investigate both technical and epidemiological issues such as the effect of blunting immunity and the duration of antibody. Long-term safety should be determined through studies of adequate size. Programmes already using 2-dose schedules are encouraged to evaluate their impact on disease incidence, cost, vaccine usage, and effect on coverage. Until further evaluation is complete, a high and timely coverage with one dose of measles vaccine in all areas remains the first priority for all immunization programmes. PMID:8324862
DISTRIBUTION-FREE PREDICTION INTERVALS IN MIXED LINEAR MODELS
Jiming Jiang; Weihong Zhang
2002-01-01
This paper considers prediction intervals for a future observation in the context of mixed linear models. For such prediction problems, it is reasonable to assume that the future observation is independent of the current ones. Our approach is distribution-free, that is, we do not assume that the distributions of the random effects and errors are normal or specified up to
The Master Schedule - Pattern for a School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparacio, Stephen
1973-01-01
Discusses four types of master scheduling: (1) traditional or manual scheduling, (2) computer scheduling, (3) ultra-sophisticated scheduling such as flexible-modular scheduling, and (4) innovative noncomputer assisted scheduling within the traditional school framework. (Author/DN)
The spring scheduling coprocessor: a scheduling accelerator
Wayne P. Burleson; Jason Ko; Douglas Niehaus; Krithi Ramamritham; John A. Stankovic; Gary Wallace; Charles C. Weems
1999-01-01
The spring scheduling coprocessor is a novel very large scale integration (VLSI) accelerator for multiprocessor real-time systems. The coprocessor can be used for static as well as online scheduling. Many different policies and their combinations can be used (e.g., earliest deadline first, highest value first, or resource-oriented policies such as earliest available time first). In this paper, we describe a
Requested meals versus scheduled meals
Ciampolini, Mario
2012-01-01
Background Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis). In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight). In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea. Methods We trained a “recognizing request” meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls. Results In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001), as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood glucose, significantly lower energy intake, and recovery from diarrhea, whereas scheduled meals are associated with high blood glucose, higher energy intake, and persistence of diarrhea. The disparities in blood glucose levels and energy intake disprove the null hypothesis, suggesting the need for a change from scheduled to requested meals early on in food administration, ie, during the neonatal period. PMID:22536091
Choice between Single and Multiple Reinforcers in Concurrent-Chains Schedules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazur, James E.
2006-01-01
Pigeons responded on concurrent-chains schedules with equal variable-interval schedules as initial links. One terminal link delivered a single reinforcer after a fixed delay, and the other terminal link delivered either three or five reinforcers, each preceded by a fixed delay. Some conditions included a postreinforcer delay after the single…
Performance of two species of quail on basic reinforcement schedules1
Cloar, F. Thomas; Melvin, Kenneth B.
1968-01-01
Two bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and two Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were trained to peck a response key to obtain food. In general, performance on fixed ratio 20 and variable- and fixed-interval 60-sec schedules was comparable to the response patterns of other species under these schedules. PMID:5645877
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico
2011-01-01
Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…
Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation
Ward, Karen
that a dinosaur that they are looking at is 14,000,005 years old. An impressed visitor asks how scientists can ago, when I started working here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older''. This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur
Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation
Ward, Karen
that a dinosaur that they are looking at is 14,000,005 years old. An impressed visitor asks how scientists can, when I started working here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older". This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which
Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation
Kreinovich, Vladik
in this paper can be illus trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis itors that a dinosaur here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older''. This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14
Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation
Kreinovich, Vladik
in this paper can be illus- trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis- itors that a dinosaur, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older". This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14
Automated telescope scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Mark D.
1988-01-01
With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.
1991-01-01
The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.
Prediction Intervals for IFR Distributions
Jagdish K. Patel
1980-01-01
Several prediction intervals for the class of increasing failure rate distributions are obtained. They extend some known results on 1-or 2-parameter exponential distributions. The use of these results requires no new tables.
Doppler integration intervals and correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashkenazi, V.; McLintock, D. N.; Sykes, R. M.
1980-01-01
Numerical tests have been carried out to determine the effect of changing the adopted integration time intervals used in the reduction of satellite Doppler data and to establish the contribution of geometrical correlation between adjacent Doppler counts. This has been done by using observational data obtained from a recent United Kingdom Doppler campaign involving 13 primary triangulation stations. Nine different integration intervals were used, ranging from the smallest possible 4.6 s Doppler count to the largest practical interval of 2 min. The tests were carried out for both uncorrelated and correlated Doppler counts. The correlation model used was the standard geometrical correlation pattern for adjacent Doppler counts and range differences. The results of the analysis seem largely to confirm the current mode of practice of using uncorrelated Doppler counts corresponding to time intervals ranging from 20 to 40 s.
The Effects of Block Scheduling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn
1999-01-01
Research reveals important generalizations about block scheduling. A/B schedules are easier to implement than 4/4 schedules, which must be adapted to allow some year-long courses. Merely changing the school bell schedule will not guarantee better student performance. However, block scheduling typically improves climate, attendance, and…
Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity
2014-01-01
Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054
Software Pipelining: An Effective Scheduling Technique for VLIW Machines
Monica S. Lam
1988-01-01
Abstract This paper shows that software pipelining is an effective and viable scheduling technique for VLIW processors In software pipelining, iterations of a loop in the source program are continuously initiated at constant intervals, before the preceding iterations complete The advantage of software pipelining is that optimal performance can be achieved with compact object code
On Transactional Scheduling in Distributed Transactional Memory Systems
Ravindran, Binoy
. This includes serializing transaction executions to avoid conflicts based on transactions' predicted read/write access sets [8] or collision probability [7]. In addition, conflicts can be minimized by #12;2 Junwhan present a distributed transactional memory (TM) scheduler called Bi-interval that optimizes the execution
A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.
2013-01-01
One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…
Interval Logics and Their Decision Procedures, Part I: An Interval Logic
Y. S. Ramakrishna; P. M. Melliar-smith; Louise E. Moser; Laura K. Dillon; G. Kutty
1996-01-01
We present an interval logic, called future interval logic (FIL), for the specification and verification of concurrent systems. Interval logics allow reasoning to be carried out at the level of time intervals, rather than instants. However, unlike some other interval logics, the primitive objects in our semantic model for FIL are not intervals, but instants. An intervals is formed by
hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals The STAT menu Confidence Intervals Practice finding confidence intervals for the population mean #12;hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Confidence Intervals The STAT menu The Statistics menu is accessed from the ORANGE
2012-11-16
This major final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule, payments for Part B drugs, and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. It also implements provisions of the Affordable Care Act by establishing a face-to-face encounter as a condition of payment for certain durable medical equipment (DME) items. In addition, it implements statutory changes regarding the termination of non-random prepayment review. This final rule with comment period also includes a discussion in the Supplementary Information regarding various programs . (See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in this final rule with comment period.) PMID:23155552
Distributed QR Factorization Based on Randomized Algorithms
Zemen, Thomas
-sum algorithm; randomized communication schedule; fault-tolerance 1 Introduction We consider the distributedDistributed QR Factorization Based on Randomized Algorithms Hana Strakov´a1 , Wilfried N. Gansterer of Algorithms Hana.Strakova@univie.ac.at, Wilfried.Gansterer@univie.ac.at 2 Forschungszentrum Telekommunication
The Stealth distributed scheduler
Phillip Krueger; Rohit Chawla
1991-01-01
The justification, design, and performance of the Stealth distributed scheduler is discussed. The goal of Stealth is to exploit the unused computing capacity of a workstation-based distributed system (WDS) without undermining the predictability in quality of service that a WDS provides to workstation owners. It is shown that the liberal approach taken by the Stealth distributed scheduler is a promising
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.
1991-01-01
Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.
Trimester Schedule. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012
2012-01-01
Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…
A Prediction Interval for a Score on a Parallel Test Form.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lord, Frederic M.
1981-01-01
Given any observed number-right score on a test, a method is described for obtaining a predicition interval for the corresponding number-right score on a randomly parallel form of the same test. The interval can be written down directly from published tables of the hypergeometric distribution. (Author)
Hassan Ghasemi; Claudio A. Canizares
This paper discusses the estimation of uncertainty intervals associated with the electromechanical modes identi- fied from ambient data resulting from random load switching throughout the day in power systems. A connection between the second order statistical properties, including confidence intervals, of the identified electromechanical modes and the variance o f the parameters of a selected linear model is demonstrated. The
Confidence Intervals Estimation in the Identification of Electromechanical Modes From Ambient Noise
Hassan Ghasemi; Claudio A. Canizares
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the estimation of uncertainty intervals associated with the electromechanical modes identified from ambient data resulting from random load switching throughout the day in power systems. A connection between the second order statistical properties, including confidence intervals, of the identified electromechanical modes and the variance of the parameters of a selected linear model is demonstrated. The results of
Search Space Characterization for a Telescope Scheduling Application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
This paper presents a technique for statistically characterizing a search space and demonstrates the use of this technique within a practical telescope scheduling application. The characterization provides the following: (i) an estimate of the search space size, (ii) a scaling technique for multi-attribute objective functions and search heuristics, (iii) a "quality density function" for schedules in a search space, (iv) a measure of a scheduler's performance, and (v) support for constructing and tuning search heuristics. This paper describes the random sampling algorithm used to construct this characterization and explains how it can be used to produce this information. As an example, we include a comparative analysis of an heuristic dispatch scheduler and a look-ahead scheduler that performs greedy search.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John
2007-01-01
TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.
High resolution time interval meter
Martin, A.D.
1986-05-09
Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.
Temporal context calibrates interval timing
Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Shadlen, Michael N.
2010-01-01
We use our sense of time to identify temporal relationships between events and to anticipate actions. How well we can exploit temporal contingencies depends on the variability of our measurements of time. We asked humans to reproduce time intervals drawn from different underlying distributions. As expected, production times were more variable for longer intervals. Surprisingly however, production times exhibited a systematic regression towards the mean. Consequently, estimates for a sample interval differed depending on the distribution from which it was drawn. A performance-optimizing Bayesian model that takes the underlying distribution of samples into account provided an accurate description of subjects’ performance, variability and bias. This finding suggests that the central nervous system incorporates knowledge about temporal uncertainty to adapt internal timing mechanisms to the temporal statistics of the environment. PMID:20581842
Subjective Probability Intervals: How to Reduce Overconfidence by Interval Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winman, Anders; Hansson, Patrik; Juslin, Peter
2004-01-01
Format dependence implies that assessment of the same subjective probability distribution produces different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that the overconfidence bias that occurs when participants produce intervals for an uncertain quantity is almost…
Are accidents scheduled. [safety management problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, C.
1976-01-01
Two major sets of safety problems associated with project scheduling are examined. The first set involves problems resulting from the improper scheduling of the safety tasks. The second involves problems which result from inadequate attention to scheduling of those project tasks which lead to tests and operations and includes condensed schedules, modified schedules, schedule workarounds, eliminated portions of the schedules and strung out schedules.
A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.
1991-01-01
Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. A method to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both TDRSS network and user resources, based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters, was developed. The steps of this method calculate required separation angles at TDRSS and produce interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method also can be used as the basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. Described here are the proposed method and its potential application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to planned missions, including the Earth Observing System, the Space Station Manned Base, and the Space Shuttle are discussed.
Vienna proposal for interval standardization
Arnold Neumaier; Bo Einarsson; Maarten van Emden; Michel Hack; Nate Hayes; Ulrich Kulisch; Jens Maurer; Ian McIntosh; Sylvain Pion; John Pryce; Hermann Schichl; Wolff von Gudenberg; Paul Zimmermann; Dan Zuras
2008-01-01
This document contains a detailed proposal for a future IEEE 1788 standard on interval arithmetic. It is written in a form that should be not too difficult to transform into a formal, complete and fully precise document specifying the standard to be. Part 1 contains a concise summary of the basic assumptions (some of which may be con- troversial) upon
NASA Schedule Management Handbook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2011-01-01
The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.
Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.
2013-01-01
Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.
Generating and evaluating alternate schedules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, Surender D.
1993-01-01
The demand for and availability of Space Network resources are subject to short-term fluctuations and long-term changes. Generation of acceptable schedules under changing demand and resource availability will require the use of different scheduling policies. This paper identifies several such scheduling policies. It defines metrics for evaluating schedules using the criteria directly related to these scheduling policies. Then it applies the metrics to compare several schedules generated for a scenario representative of 1998 SN demand and resources. Finally, the paper describes a method for using these metrics to evaluate schedules based on multiple criteria.
Interval selection: Applications, algorithms, and lower bounds
Thomas Erlebach; Frits C. R. Spieksma
2003-01-01
Given a set of jobs, each consisting of a number of weighted intervals on the real line, and a positive integer m, we study the problem of selecting a maximum weight subset of the intervals such that at most one interval is selected from each job and, for any point p on the real line, at most m intervals containing
Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower and
Briand, Cyril
Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower of scheduling n jobs on a single machine. A fixed processing time and an execution interval are associated with each job. Preemption is not allowed. The objective is to find a feasible job sequence that minimizes
A TEST OF INTERVAL EQUIVALENCE
Willer, David
1967-07-01
are of metric level would be rendered as x = y + e when either or both values are interval. 5 97 FOOTNOTES 1. See Norman R. Campbell, Foundations of Science, New York: Dover Publications, 1957, Part II. 2. See James S. Coleman, Introduction !£Mathematical... joins to produce quantities, our measurements could be limited, as has been suggested by Coleman,2 to the counting of such objects as people or social relationships, or we could accept the manipulative limits of comparative ordinal measurement. Hempel 3...
Spectral Theory of Multiple Intervals
Jorgensen, Palle; Tian, Feng
2012-01-01
We present a model for spectral theory of families of selfadjoint operators, and their corresponding unitary one-parameter groups (acting in Hilbert space.) The models allow for a scale of complexity, indexed by the natural numbers $\\mathbb{N}$. For each $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$, we get families of selfadjoint operators indexed by: (i) the unitary matrix group U(n), and by (ii) a prescribed set of $n$ non-overlapping intervals. Take $\\Omega$ to be the complement in $\\mathbb{R}$ of $n$ fixed closed finite and disjoint intervals, and let $L^{2}(\\Omega)$ be the corresponding Hilbert space. Moreover, given $B\\in U(n)$, then both the lengths of the respective intervals, and the gaps between them, show up as spectral parameters in our corresponding spectral resolutions within $L^{2}(\\Omega)$. Our models have two advantages: One, they encompass realistic features from quantum theory, from acoustic wave equations and their obstacle scattering; as well as from harmonic analysis. Secondly, each choice of the parameters in our ...
Distributed multi-hop scheduling and medium access with delay and throughput constraints
Vikram Kanodia; Chengzhi Li; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Bahareh Sadeghi; Edward W. Knightly
2001-01-01
Providing quality of service in random access multi-hop wireless networks requires support from both medium access and packet scheduling algorithms. However, due to the distributed nature of ad hoc networks, nodes may not be able to determine the next packet that would be transmitted in a (hypothetical) centralized and ideal dynamic priority scheduler. In this paper, we develop two mechanisms
Rajeev Motwani; Prabhakax Raghavan
1995-01-01
The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the area of randomized algorithms.During this period, randomized algorithms went from being a tool in computational number theory to finding widespread application in many types of algorithms. Two benefits of randomization have spearheaded this growth: simplicity and speed. For many applications, a randomized algorithm is the simplest algorithm available, or the
Allocation of complex, sequential operants on multiple and concurrent schedules of reinforcement.
Schwartz, B
1986-05-01
Pigeons could produce food by pecking exactly four times on each of two keys, in any order. In the first experiment, these response sequences were reinforced on a series of multiple schedules of variable-interval reinforcement. In the second experiment, these response sequences were reinforced on a series of concurrent schedules of reinforcement. In both experiments, highly stereotyped response sequences developed. If these response sequences were treated as individual responses, the resulting data conformed to what is typically reported in studies of multiple and concurrent schedules involving individual responses. For example, behavioral contrast was observed with the multiple schedules, and matching was observed with the concurrent schedules. However, schedule manipulation had no effect on within-sequence characteristics of responses like accuracy, stereotypy, or rate. These data constitute further evidence that response sequences can become functional behavioral units. PMID:16812450
Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen
2006-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Research Randomizer, made available by the Social Psychology Network (SPN), is a program (JavaScript) that assists researchers and students "who want an easy way to perform random sampling or assign participants to experimental conditions." A tutorial at the site works through example situations and explains how to use the Research Randomizer. The Research Randomizer is an excellent tool for researchers desiring simulations of random sampling in experimental situations.
Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.
2013-08-01
To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.
Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Civeit, Thomas
2013-01-01
The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.
Modal Intervals Revisited Part 2: A Generalized Interval Mean-Value
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Modal Intervals Revisited Part 2: A Generalized Interval Mean-Value Extension Alexandre Goldsztejn Abstract In Modal Intervals Revisited Part 1, new extensions to generalized in- tervals (intervals whose interpretations as the extensions to modal intervals and therefore enhance the interpreta- tions of the classical
Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration
Gouvêa, Thiago S.; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V.; Paton, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473
Robust optimization of dose schedules in radiotherapy
Badri, Hamidreza; Leder, Kevin
2015-01-01
A major difficulty of choosing an optimal radiation schedule is the uncertainty of model parameters due to geometric and patient specific uncertainties. This paper proposes a method for determining the optimal fractionation schedule in the Linear Quadratic (LQ) model with multiple normal tissue toxicity constraints in the presence of uncertainties in model parameters. To this end, we assumed uncertainty in the LQ model can take two forms: (i) estimation errors for parameters of constant but unknown value, and (ii) stochasticity of random variables. For the unknown parameters, we formulated our problem as a conservative model whose solution is immune to the parameter drifts. When the underlying distributions of uncertain parameters are known, we developed a model which required the decision maker to specify a probability that determined the feasibility of normal tissues constraints and risk factor in the objective function. We proved that our problem can be solved efficiently through a decision variable transf...
Sums and products of interval algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foulis, D. J.; Greechie, R. J.; Bennett, M. K.
1994-11-01
An interval algebra is an interval from zero to some positive element in a partially ordered Abelian group, which, under the restriction of the group operation to the interval, is a partial algebra. In this paper we study interval algebras from a categorical point of view, and show that Cartesian products and horizontal sums are effective as categorical products and coproducts, respectively. We show that the category of interval algebras admits a tensor product, and introduce a new class of interval algebras, which are in fact orthoalgebras, called ?-algebras.
An information model based weld schedule database
Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicken, G.K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gershanok, G.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-08-01
As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.
Herrnstein, R. J.; Heyman, G. M.
1979-01-01
Four pigeons on concurrent variable interval, variable ratio approximated the matching relationship with biases toward the variable interval when time spent responding was the measure of behavior and toward the variable ratio when frequency of pecking was the measure of behavior. The local rates of responding were consistently higher on the variable ratio, even when there was overall preference for the variable interval. Matching on concurrent variable interval, variable ratio was shown to be incompatible with maximization of total reinforcement, given the observed local rates of responding and rates of alternation between the schedules. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjects were losing reinforcements at a rate of about 60 per hour by matching rather than maximizing. PMID:16812126
Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Dwight W.
This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…
A comparison of list schedules for parallel processing systems
Thomas L. Adam; K. Mani Chandy; J. R. Dickson
1974-01-01
The problem of scheduling two or more processors to minimize the execution time of a program which consists of a set of partially ordered tasks is studied. Cases where task execution times are deterministic and others in which execution times are random variables are analyzed. It is shown that different algorithms suggested in the literature vary significantly in execution time
Stability of Scheduled Message Communication over Degraded Broadcast Channels
K. C. V. Kalyanarama Sesha Sayee; Utpal Mukherji
2006-01-01
We consider scheduled message communication over a discrete memoryless degraded broadcast channel. The framework we consider here models both the random message arrivals and the subsequent reliable communication by suitably combining techniques from queueing theory and information theory. The channel from the transmitter to each of the re- ceivers is quasi-static, flat, and with independent fades ac ross the receivers.
An enhanced decomposition algorithm for multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling
David P. Morton
1996-01-01
Handling uncertainty in natural inflow is an important part of a hydroelectric scheduling model. In a stochastic programming formulation, natural inflow may be modeled as a random vector with known distribution, but the size of the resulting mathematical program can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We develop an
A modified evolutionary programming for flow shop scheduling
Ling Wang; Da-Zhong Zheng
2003-01-01
In order to avoid premature convergence and to balance the exploration and exploitation abilities of simple evolutionary programming, this paper proposes a Modified Evolutionary Programming (MEP) for flow shop scheduling. Firstly, multiple populations are designed to perform a parallel search with random initialisation in divided solution spaces. Secondly, multiple mutation operators are designed to enhance the search templates. Thirdly, selection
Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking
Jiang, Hai, 1979-
2006-01-01
Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...
The Spring Scheduling CoProcessor: A Scheduling Accelerator
Wayne Burleson; Jason Ko; Douglas Niehaus; Krithi Ramamritham; John A. Stankovic; Gary Wallace; Charles C. Weems
1993-01-01
We present SSCoP, a novel VLSI scheduling accelerator for multi-processor real-timesystems. The co-processor can be used for static scheduling as well as for on-line scheduling.Many different policies such as earliest deadline first, highest value first, or resourceorientedpolicies, for example, earliest available time first, or their combinations can beused. When any on-line scheduling algorithm is used it is important to assess
Scheduling with genetic algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.
1994-01-01
In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.
Intelligent retail logistics scheduling
Rowe, J.; Jewers, K. [Stamford House, London (United Kingdom); Codd, A.; Alcock, A. [Inference Corp., Slough, Berkshire (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.
Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.
1973-01-01
Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.
The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Scheduling Applications of the Knapsack Problem and Sudoku
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sessoms, E.; Clark, M.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Shelton, A.
2009-09-01
We applied algorithmic approaches to both theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). When using a theoretical approach to scheduling, assigning a numerical value, or score, to a telescope period is only half of the problem. The other half consists of using the score to determine the best global arrangement of the telescope periods in order to maximize the scientific throughput of the telescope. The naive brute-force approach of trying all possible schedules is too computationally expensive. Instead we applied a well-studied approach from operations research, known as dynamic programming. Specifically, we found the so-called ``knapsack'' algorithm to be a good fit to this problem. On the other hand, we cannot actually achieve maximum theoretical efficiency due to many practical constraints on telescope scheduling. The most severe practical constraints are fixed periods that must be scheduled at a specific date and time regardless of possible score and windowed periods that must be scheduled in regular, recurring intervals. The primary difficulty in scheduling fixed and windowed sessions is that they have the potential to conflict and even to generate irresolvable conflicts (double booking). In working on this problem, we realized it shared many characteristics with the game of Sudoku. In Sudoku, there are many possible arrangements of the recurring numbers 1 through 9 (telescope sessions). Some of these are fixed (the hints) and the others must live in windows (distinct groups having one instance each of each digit). Sudoku puzzles are solved algorithmically using a heuristic-guided brute-force search. We followed a similar approach. A full brute-force search is, again, too computationally expensive, but we found ways to restrict the search enough to make it feasible. We used a number of heuristics but found the largest gains came from partitioning the problem into distinct subsets than can each be scheduled independently and from ordering the search in such a way that earlier choices had the greatest impact on reducing the computational complexity of later choices.
Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.
Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas
2014-01-01
Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455
Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults
Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping
2014-01-01
A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients.
Relation Algebras of Intervals Robin Hirsch \\Lambda
Hirsch, Robin
system and gives a construction of an interval algebra which achieves that combination and has someRelation Algebras of Intervals Robin Hirsch \\Lambda October 27, 1995 Abstract Given a representation of a relation algebra we construct relation algebras of pairs and of intervals
Min and Max Extreme Interval Values
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.
2011-01-01
The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.
Scripting Interactive Environments with Interval Scripts
Claudio Pinhanez; Aaron Bobick
In this paper we present a new paradigm for high-level scripting of computer characters and stories in interactive environments called interval scripts. In this paradigm, the actions of characters and users are associated with temporal intervals and scripting is accomplished by establishing temporal constraints between the intervals. Unlike previous constraint-based interaction languages, we employ a strong temporal algebra (based in
The measurement of the QT interval.
Postema, Pieter G; Wilde, Arthur A M
2014-08-01
The evaluation of every electrocardiogram should also include an effort to interpret the QT interval to assess the risk of malignant arrhythmias and sudden death associated with an aberrant QT interval. The QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T-wave, and should be corrected for heart rate to enable comparison with reference values. However, the correct determination of the QT interval, and its value, appears to be a daunting task. Although computerized analysis and interpretation of the QT interval are widely available, these might well over- or underestimate the QT interval and may thus either result in unnecessary treatment or preclude appropriate measures to be taken. This is particularly evident with difficult T-wave morphologies and technically suboptimal ECGs. Similarly, also accurate manual assessment of the QT interval appears to be difficult for many physicians worldwide. In this review we delineate the history of the measurement of the QT interval, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the current standards of the measurement of the QT interval, we provide a glimpse into the future and we discuss several issues troubling accurate measurement of the QT interval. These issues include the lead choice, U-waves, determination of the end of the T-wave, different heart rate correction formulas, arrhythmias and the definition of normal and aberrant QT intervals. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities and which support accurate assessment of the QT interval and its interpretation. PMID:24827793
Interval observers for uncertain biological systems
J. L. Gouzeb; A. Rapaport; M. Z. Hadj-Sadok
2000-01-01
We present a technique for the dynamic estimation of bounds on unmeasured variables (or parameters) of an uncertain dynamical system. Our approach is purely deterministic and relies on interval observers: from (possibly time varying) intervals on the uncertainty and measurements, we compute guaranteed intervals for the unmeasured variables. This method is applicable for a class of non-linear systems met in
Cristian Cadar; Periklis Akritidis; Manuel Costa; Jean-Philippe Martin; Miguel Castro
2008-01-01
Attacks that exploit memory errors are still a serious problem. We present data randomization, a new technique that provides probabilistic protection against these attacks by xoring data with random masks. Data randomization uses static analysis to partition instruction operands into equivalence classes: it places two operands in the same class if they may refer to the same object in an
STADAN and data relay satellite simulation (emphasis on the scheduler)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerne, B.; Shustermann, N.; Pease, P.
1972-01-01
A set of computer programs was developed which can be used to simulate the operation of NASA's Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN). The simulation consists of two major modules, a computerized algorithmic satellite scheduler (CASS) and a generalized evaluation model simulator (GEMS). CASS generates in-view time intervals of satellites over ground stations, and using these candidate passes, produces a schedule of service times for specific satellites to be serviced by specific ground stations in an attempt to fulfill certain inputted service requirements. GEMS than examines how well STADAN fulfills this schedule in terms of the availability and dependability of different (inputted) complements of equipment at the ground stations. The simulation was modified to allow for the introduction of one or more tracking and data relay satellites, which can serve as orbital receiving and command stations.
Distributed intelligent scheduling of FMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zuobao; Cheng, Yaodong; Pan, Xiaohong
1995-08-01
In this paper, a distributed scheduling approach of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is presented. A new class of Petri nets called networked time Petri nets (NTPN) for system modeling of networking environment is proposed. The distributed intelligent scheduling is implemented by three schedulers which combine NTPN models with expert system techniques. The simulation results are shown.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Shannon
2008-01-01
Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…
Schedulability analysis of global edf
Sanjoy K. Baruah; Theodore P. Baker
2008-01-01
The multiprocessor edf scheduling of sporadic task systems is studied. A new sufficient schedulability test is presented and proved correct. It\\u000a is shown that this test generalizes the previously-known exact uniprocessor edf-schedulability test, and that it offers non-trivial quantitative guarantees (including a resource augmentation bound) on\\u000a multiprocessors.
Intervals between bone density testing.
Reid, Ian R; Gamble, Gregory D
2014-02-01
There is a wide range of practices regarding times between bone density (BMD) measurements in osteopenic women. If decisions to treat osteoporosis are to be based on absolute fracture risk, then projections of fracture risk are a logical basis for determining appropriate intervals for BMD testing. Fracture risk depends mainly on age and BMD, and bone loss in older women is relatively constant at ?1% annually, so it is possible to project fracture risk into the future and estimate when an individual's risk will approach the threshold for intervention. Modeling scenarios for a range of osteopenic baseline BMDs in 65-year-old women shows a remarkable consistency in the doubling time for Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)-assessed fracture risk: 5 to 6 years. This estimate is of immediate relevance to clinical practice in that it can be used to determine how long to wait before reassessing BMD and fracture risk in women whose other risk factors are stable. PMID:23893403
Project Scheduling (3) Corequisite
Barrash, Warren
) CMGT 111 Construction Materials & Methods Lab (1) CMGT 460 Project Cost Controls (3) FA SP CMGT 320 FA) CMGT 475 Construction Project Management (3) MATH 108 College Algebra (4) Construction ElectiveSYMBOLS CMGT 417 Project Scheduling (3) Corequisite Offered FALL Only CMGT 240 Intro
Project Scheduling (3) Corequisite
Barrash, Warren
Construction Project Management (3) MATH 108 College Algebra (4) MGMT 301 Leadership Skills (3) ENGL 101 460 Project Cost Controls (3) FA SP FA CE 210/211 Surveying & Lab (3) CMGT 410 Concrete Formwork/Lab CMGT 360/361 4 Concrete Formwork Construction CMGT 410 3 Project Scheduling CMGT 417 3 Business
Computerized shop floor scheduling
ELIYAHU M. GOLDRATT
1988-01-01
Computerized shop floor scheduling is probably one of the most glaring examples of an area in which the tremendous efforts and investments of a large number of companies have produced at best only a partial solution. One of the more successful attempts is known as OPT (optimized production technology) on which numerous papers have been published highlighting the various aspects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.
2007-01-01
Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…
A molecular analysis of multiple schedule interactions: negative contrast1
Marcucella, Henry; MacDonall, James S.
1977-01-01
The present experiments investigated the relationship between changes in the relative reinforced interresponse-time distributions and the occurrence of positive and negative contrast in multiple variable-interval—variable-interval and multiple variable-interval—extinction schedules of reinforcement. Experiment I demonstrated that changes in the interresponse-time distributions were consistently correlated with response-rate changes referred to as positive and negative contrast. Corresponding changes in the reinforced interresponse-time distributions suggested that negative contrast resulted as an inductive effect of selectively reinforcing long interresponse times in the altered component at the moment the baseline schedule was reintroduced. Experiment II demonstrated that the magnitude of the negative-contrast effect could be significantly decreased if the altered component schedule was modified in order to prevent the reinforcement of these interresponse times during the first few sessions of baseline recovery. The results supported a proposal that interresponse time—reinforcer relations may act as amplifiers or attenuators of negative contrast. PMID:16812015
A. Faggionato
2008-09-16
We consider a stationary and ergodic random field {\\omega(b)} parameterized by the family of bonds b in Z^d, d>1. The random variable \\omega(b) is thought of as the conductance of bond b and it ranges in a finite interval [0,c_0]. Assuming that the set of bonds with positive conductance has a unique infinite cluster C, we prove homogenization results for the random walk among random conductances on C. As a byproduct, applying the general criterion of \\cite{F} leading to the hydrodynamic limit of exclusion processes with bond-dependent transition rates, for almost all realizations of the environment we prove the hydrodynamic limit of simple exclusion processes among random conductances on C. The hydrodynamic equation is given by a heat equation whose diffusion matrix does not depend on the environment. We do not require any ellipticity condition. As special case, C can be the infinite cluster of supercritical Bernoulli bond percolation.
RVLS Confidence Interval on a Proportion
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
This applet allows you to explore the validity of confidence intervals on a proportion with various values for sample size (N) and population proportion (Pi). After you specify N, Pi, the level of confidence, and the number of simulations you wish to perform, the applet samples data according to your specification and computes a confidence interval for each simulation. The proportion of simulations for which the confidence interval contains Pi is recorded. If the method for constructing confidence intervals is valid, then about 95% of the 95% confidence intervals should contain Pi.
Confidence Intervals in Qtl Mapping by Bootstrapping
Visscher, P. M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C. S.
1996-01-01
The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. PMID:8725246
A LabVIEW program for determining confidence intervals of Abel-inverted radial emission profiles
George C.-Y. Chan; Gary M. Hieftje
2005-01-01
A LabVIEW-based program for the determination of confidence intervals in Abel inversion is described in detail. Confidence intervals are determined from the noise level in the input lateral-emission profile. It is first assumed that the noise-free lateral profile is a smooth and continuous function which can be satisfactorily approximated by a polynomial fit. Random noise is then added to produce
Age-related alterations in the fractal scaling of cardiac interbeat interval dynamics
NIKHIL IYENGAR; C.-K. PENG; RAYMOND MORIN; ARY L. GOLDBERGER; LEWIS A. LIPSITZ
1996-01-01
1.0. In the group of healthy elderly subjects, the interbeat interval time series had two scaling regions. Over the short range, interbeat interval fluctuations resembled a random walk process (Brownian noise, ~1 = 1.5), whereas over the longer range they resembled white noise (CX = 0.5). Short ((x,)- and long-range ((x1) scaling exponents were significantly different in the elderly subjects
SO - SCHEDULE ORGANIZER COMPUTER PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collazo, F. F.
1994-01-01
The Schedule Organizer SO, Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SO contains the following primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds twenty-five groups of up to twenty-five names for each group. The other file holds twenty-five records, each of which may hold a task schedule title. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout; there is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the last schedule title deleted by the user. The time span of SO is nineteen months. This parameter can be modified by the user. The SO program requires the VMS Operating System on a DEC VAX computer and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The memory requirement for the program is 61KB. SO can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. SO was developed in 1985.
Feasibility Criteria for Interval Management Operations as Part of Arrival Management Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levitt, Ian M.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Castle, Michael W.
2014-01-01
Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that aims to provide more precise inter-aircraft spacing to yield throughput improvements and greater use of fuel efficient trajectories for arrival and approach operations. To participate in an IM operation, an aircraft must be equipped with avionics that provide speeds to achieve and maintain an assigned spacing interval relative to another aircraft. It is not expected that all aircraft will be equipped with the necessary avionics, but rather that IM fits into a larger arrival management concept developed to support the broader mixed-equipage environment. Arrival management concepts are comprised of three parts: a ground-based sequencing and scheduling function to develop an overall arrival strategy, ground-based tools to support the management of aircraft to that schedule, and the IM tools necessary for the IM operation (i.e., ground-based set-up, initiation, and monitoring, and the flight-deck tools to conduct the IM operation). The Federal Aviation Administration is deploying a near-term ground-automation system to support metering operations in the National Airspace System, which falls within the first two components of the arrival management concept. This paper develops a methodology for determining the required delivery precision at controlled meter points for aircraft that are being managed to a schedule and aircraft being managed to a relative spacing interval in order to achieve desired flow rates and adequate separation at the meter points.
Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats.
Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A
2003-01-01
Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block. Also, at each variable-interval duration, a block of sessions was conducted with a schedule that imposed a variable-ratio 4 response requirement after each variable interval (i.e., a tandem variable-time variable-ratio 4 schedule). The total rate of lever pressing increased as a function of the rate of reinforcement and as a result of imposing the variable-ratio requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times indicated that lever pressing occurred in bouts that were separated by pauses. Increasing the rate of reinforcement increased total response rate by increasing the rate of initiating bouts and, less reliably, by lengthening bouts. Imposing the variable-ratio component increased response rate mainly by lengthening bouts. This pattern of results is similar to that reported previously with key poking as the response. Also, response rates within bouts were relatively insensitive to either variable. PMID:14674726
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota
This model-eliciting activity has students create rules to allow them to judge whether or not the shuffle feature on a particular iPod appears to produce randomly generated playlists. Because people's intuitions about random events and randomly generated data are often incorrect or misleading, this activity initially focuses students' attention on describing characteristics of 25 playlists that were randomly generated. Students then use these characteristics to come up with rules for judging whether a playlist does NOT appear to be randomly generated. Students test and revise their rules (model) using five additional playlsits. Then, they apply their model to three particular playlists that have been submitted to Apple by an unhappy iPod owner who claims the shuffle feature on his iPod is not generating random playlists. In the final part of the activity, students write a letter to the ipod owner, on behalf of Apple, explaining the use of their model and their final conclusion about whether these three suspicious playlists appear to have been randomly generated. This lesson provides an introduction to the fundamental ideas of randomness, random sequences and random samples.
1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.
US Bonneville Power Administration
1993-10-01
Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.
Bootstrap confidence intervals in a complex situation: A sequential paired clinical trial
Morton, S.C.
1988-06-01
This paper considers the problem of determining a confidence interval for the difference between two treatments in a simplified sequential paired clinical trial, which is analogous to setting an interval for the drift of a random walk subject to a parabolic stopping boundary. Three bootstrap methods of construction are applied: Efron's accelerated bias-covered, the DiCiccio-Romano, and the bootstrap-t. The results are compared with a theoretical approximate interval due to Siegmund. Difficulties inherent in the use of these bootstrap methods in a complex situations are illustrated. The DiCiccio-Romano method is shown to be the easiest to apply and to work well. 13 refs.
Interval estimation for statistical control
ABDURRAHAM, N.M.
2002-08-22
In order to develop meaningful statistical control limits when applicable based upon the normal distribution, the mean and the standard deviation of a population must be known. In cases when an accurate approximation of the standard deviation is not known, the calculation of reasonable statistical control limits can be performed by using the Student's t-distribution. The Student's t-value for n-1 degrees of freedom (n is the sample size) and the confidence intervals that correspond to 20 and 30 (95.45% and 99.73% respectively) is used to determine control limits from a relatively small data set. The control limits with this method are obtained by multiplying the calculated standard deviation of the data set by the appropriate t-value for the specified confidence level and degrees of freedom While the t-distribution method is needed primarily for a small sample size (n <30), it approaches the normal distribution with increasing n, and hence can be used for any size sample.
Energy-Saving Service Scheduling for Low-End Cyber-Physical Systems
Wei Jiang; Guangze Xiong; Xuyang Ding
2008-01-01
Energy consumption and timely requirements are two key factors affecting the performance of mission-critical cyber-physical systems. Little work deals with scheduling a set of time-sensitive services in a finite time interval. We consider a server serving N users in time interval [0, T]. Each user demands its service to be completed in a strict deadline. Based on convex power-speed relationship,
Tsai, T F; Yu, Y X; Jia, L L; Putvatana, R; Zhang, R; Wang, S; Halstead, S B
1998-01-01
Live attenuated SA14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine has been safe and effective in >100 million immunized children, but its current administration schedule of two doses given a year apart does not lend itself to inclusion in established Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) schedules of childhood immunization. Immune responses to immunization at shorter intervals were compared in middle-school-aged children immunized with two doses separated by 1 month (n = 116) or 2.5 months (n = 115). Two vaccine lots were compared. Seroconversion to the vaccine was observed in 100% of vaccinees immunized in the 1-month schedule and in 94% (lot 2) and 100% (lot 1) of vaccinees immunized in the 2.5-month schedule. Geometric mean titers were almost 2-fold higher with the longer schedule. The routine administration of JE SA14-14-2 vaccine to infants in an EPI schedule should be possible using either interval. PMID:9419193
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.
2011-01-01
Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Peter M.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D?, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.
Revisiting conjugate schedules.
MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T
2015-07-01
The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349
Giovannoni, J J; Wing, R A; Ganal, M W; Tanksley, S D
1991-01-01
We present a general method for isolating molecular markers specific to any region of a chromosome using existing mapping populations. Two pools of DNA from individuals homozygous for opposing alleles for a targeted chromosomal interval, defined by two or more linked RFLP markers, are constructed from members of an existing mapping population. The DNA pools are then screened for polymorphism using random oligonucleotide primers and PCR (1). Polymorphic DNA bands should represent DNA sequences within or adjacent to the selected interval. We tested this method in tomato using two genomic intervals containing genes responsible for regulating pedicle abscission (jointless) and fruit ripening (non-ripening). DNA pools containing 7 to 14 F2 individuals for each interval were screened with 200 random primers. Three polymorphic markers were thus identified, two of which were subsequently shown to be tightly linked to the selected intervals. The third marker mapped to the same chromosome (11) but 45 cM away from the selected interval. A particularly attractive attribute of this method is that a single mapping population can be used to target any interval in the genome. Although this method has been demonstrated in tomato, it should be applicable to any sexually reproducing organism for which segregating populations are being used to construct genetic linkage maps. Images PMID:1684420
Targeted Estimation of Binary Variable Importance Measures with Interval-Censored Outcomes
van der Laan, Mark J.; Page, Kimberly
2015-01-01
In most experimental and observational studies, participants are not followed in continuous time. Instead, data is collected about participants only at certain monitoring times. These monitoring times are random and often participant specific. As a result, outcomes are only known up to random time intervals, resulting in interval-censored data. In contrast, when estimating variable importance measures on interval-censored outcomes, practitioners often ignore the presence of interval censoring, and instead treat the data as continuous or right-censored, applying ad hoc approaches to mask the true interval censoring. In this article, we describe targeted minimum loss–based estimation (TMLE) methods tailored for estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes. We demonstrate the performance of the interval-censored TMLE procedure through simulation studies and apply the method to analyze the effects of a variety of variables on spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance among injecton drug users, using data from the “International Collaboration of Incident HIV and HCV in Injecting Cohorts” project. PMID:24637001
Sharma, Shishir
2013-05-07
the distributed directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.5 Forwarding of add edge messages and notifiers by the directory. . . . 32 3.6 Flow of values from predecessors to successors via the invocation of notifiers... when portable performance is desired across different machines due to differences in hardware characteristics such as, memory latency and network bandwidth. The scheduling of a parallel application is closely related to the manner in which the par...
Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.
Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A
2015-05-01
Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824
Revisiting Interval Graphs for Network Science
Loe, Chuan Wen
2015-01-01
The vertices of an interval graph represent intervals over a real line where overlapping intervals denote that their corresponding vertices are adjacent. This implies that the vertices are measurable by a metric and there exists a linear structure in the system. The generalization is an embedding of a graph onto a multi-dimensional Euclidean space and it was used by scientists to study the multi-relational complexity of ecology. However the research went out of fashion in the 1980s and was not revisited when Network Science recently expressed interests with multi-relational networks known as multiplexes. This paper studies interval graphs from the perspective of Network Science.
Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco
2015-01-01
Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W?) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W?, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W? (?14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (?8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (?10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (?6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (?6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V?O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German
2014-08-01
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.
Random root movements in weightlessness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.
Chandra, Abhishek
Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionateÂfair CPU scheduling algorithm
Chandra, Abhishek
Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems # Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionateÂfair CPU scheduling algorithm
Chandra, Abhishek
Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate-fair CPU scheduling algorithm
Recovering cyclic schedules from delay
Ricki Wegner; Informatik LS
1999-01-01
A closed single-server system is considered in which n items are scheduled to circulateat a fixed period. Each service is recognizable and is scheduled for its individual point of time;it is non-preemptive and its length depends only on which item is being served.Aberratingfrom this desired schedule, some of the items start out with delays. While an item isdelayed,the time between
Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan
Corbalan, Julita
03/12/2007 1 Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan EEAP Job Scheduling for HPC systems-levels Meta-scheduling · Performance evaluation · Some existing queuing systems Job Scheduling for HPC systems of queued jobs Job Scheduling for HPC systems Julita Corbalan #12;03/12/2007 2 Definitions · Jobs can
Resource allocation and scheduling in cloud computing
Eman Elghoneimy; Othmane Bouhali; Hussein Alnuweiri
2012-01-01
Cloud computing is a platform that hosts applications and services for businesses and users to accesses computing as a service. In this paper, we identify two scheduling and resource allocation problems in cloud computing. We describe Hadoop MapReduce and its schedulers, and present recent research efforts in this area including alternative schedulers and enhancements to existing schedulers. The second scheduling
Static-Priority Scheduling on Multiprocessors
Bjorn Anderssont; Sanjoy K. Baruah; Jan Jonsson
2001-01-01
The preemptive scheduling of systems of periodic tasks on a platform comprised of several identical processors is considered. A scheduling algorithm is proposed for static- priority scheduling of such systems; this algorithm is a sim- ple extension of the uniprocessor rate-monotonic schedul- ing algorithm. It is proven that this algorithm successfully schedules any periodic task system with a worst-case uti-
Pfair Scheduling of Generalized Pinwheel Task Systems
Sanjoy K. Baruah; Shun-shii Lin
1998-01-01
The scheduling of generalized pinwheel task systems is considered. It is shown that pinwheel scheduling is closely related to the fair scheduling of periodic task systems. This relationship is exploited to obtain new scheduling algorithms for generalized pinwheel task systems. When compared to traditional pinwheel scheduling algorithms, these new algorithms are both more efficient from a run-time complexity point of
COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris
1992-01-01
COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.
GENERALIZED CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR THE PROCESS CAPABILITY INDICES
Yi-Ping Chang
2001-01-01
In this paper, we construct interval estimates for the process capability indices by using the concept of generalized confidence interval. It can be shown that the generalized confidence intervals are equivalent to the Bayesian confidence intervals.
Multiple Regression: The Confidence Interval of rho
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lowry, Richard
This page will calculate the 0.95 and 0.99 confidence intervals for rho, based on the Fisher r-to-z transformation. To perform the calculations, enter the values of r and n in the designated places, then click the "calculate" button. Note that the confidence interval of rho is symmetrical around the observed r only with large values of n.
Multiple Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci
Chen-Hung Kao; Zhao-Bang Zeng; Robert D. Teasdale
A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM
Solving discrete minimax problems using interval arithmetic
2004-08-02
Notice that, in geometrical sense, inner pruning step is equivalent to one step of the extended interval Newton's method [9, 1, 5] applied to equation f(y) ? ˜f= 0, y ? Y . 4.2 Outer Pruning Step ..... In K. Nickel, editor, Interval Mathematics 1980, ...
Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic
Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic Algorithm Emulation of Markets Market Research Center Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic Algorithm Emulation of Markets. This emulation used a genetic-algorithm market simulator and a market simulator based on a genetic programming
Interval estimation of process capability index cpk
N. F. Zhang; G. A. Stenback; D. M. Wardrop
1990-01-01
Several sampling distribution properties of the estimator for Cpk. are presented under the assumption that the data are normal, independent and identically distributed. In particular, the expectation, variance and skewness are derived. Since the sampling distribution is only weakly skewed, we concluded that a symmetric interval estimator for Cpk . might be reasonable. We developed such a symmetric interval estimator
Optimal Confidence Interval for a Ranked Parameter
K. Alam; K. M. Lal Saxena; Yung Liang Tong
1973-01-01
There are given k univariate distributions, indexed by a real-valued parameter ?, and k independent observations, one from each distribution. Let ?* denote the largest among the values of ? associated with the given distributions. This article is concerned with the estimation of ?*. A class of confidence intervals and a subclass of “optimal” confidence intervals for ?* are given.
Interval arithmetic in power flow analysis
Zian Wang; Fernando L. Alvarado
1992-01-01
The authors describe a method for taking uncertainty into account during power flow solutions with uncertain input data. The method is based on interval arithmetic which takes into consideration the uncertainty of the nodal information, and is able to provide strict bounds for the solutions to the problem: all possible solutions are included within the bounds given by interval arithmetic.
Induction in the Timed Interval Calculus
Axel Wabenhorst
2003-01-01
The Timed Interval Calculus, a timed-trace formalism based on set theory, is introduced. It is extended with an induction law and a unit for concatenation, which facilitates the proof of properties over trace histories. The effectiveness of the extended Timed Interval Calculus is demonstrated via a benchmark case study, the mine pump. Specifically, a safety property relating to the operation
Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Confidence Intervals
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lane, David M.
This applet simulates sampling from a population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For each sample, the 95% and 99% confidence intervals on the mean are computed based on the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Exercises accompany the applet to help students understand what confidence intervals mean.
CUSUM Charts With Variable Sampling Intervals
Marion R. Reynolds; Raid W. Amin; Jesse C. Arnold
1990-01-01
A standard cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart for controlling the process mean takes samples from the process at fixed-length sampling intervals and uses a control statistic based on a cumulative sum of differences between the sample means and the target value. This article proposes a modification of the standard CUSUM scheme that varies the time intervals between samples depending on the
Practical Scheffe-type credibility intervals for variables of a groundwater model
Cooley, R.L.
1999-01-01
Simultaneous Scheffe-type credibility intervals (the Bayesian version of confidence intervals) for variables of a groundwater flow model calibrated using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori procedure were derived by Cooley [1993b]. It was assumed that variances reflecting the expected differences between observed and model-computed quantities used to calibrate the model are known, whereas they would often be unknown for an actual model. In this study the variances are regarded as unknown, and variance variability from observation to observation is approximated by grouping the data so that each group is characterized by a uniform variance. The credibility intervals are calculated from the posterior distribution, which was developed by considering each group variance to be a random variable about which nothing is known a priori, then eliminating it by integration. Numerical experiments using two test problems illustrate some characteristics of the credibility intervals. Nonlinearity of the statistical model greatly affected some of the credibility intervals, indicating that credibility intervals computed using the standard linear model approximation may often be inadequate to characterize uncertainty for actual field problems. The parameter characterizing the probability level for the credibility intervals was, however, accurately computed using a linear model approximation, as compared with values calculated using second-order and fully nonlinear formulations. This allows the credibility intervals to be computed very efficiently.Simultaneous Scheffe-type credibility intervals for variables of a groundwater flow model calibrated using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori procedure were developed. The variances reflecting the expected differences between the observed and model-computed quantities were unknown, and variance variability from observation to observation was approximated by grouping the data so that each group was characterized by a uniform variance. Nonlinearity of the statistical model greatly affected some of the credibility intervals, indicating that credibility intervals computed using the standard linear model approximation may often be inadequate to characterize uncertainty for actual field problems.
Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.
2011-01-01
Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…
A quality control framework for bus schedule reliability Jie Lin a,*, Peng Wang b
Illinois at Chicago, University of
) devices provide necessary data; data envelopment analysis (DEA) yields a valid summary measure from for each route-direction's DEA scores. If a route-direction's most recent DEA score is below its lower: Schedule adherence; Data envelopment analysis (DEA); Panel data analysis (PDA); Confidence interval
Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael
2003-01-01
This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…
Flow-Based Transmission Scheduling in Delay Tolerant Networks with bandwidth constraint
Zhenguo Yangt; Liusheng Huang; Mingjun Xiao; Wang Liu
2010-01-01
Routing is one of the most challenging problems in Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) due to network partitioning and intermittent connectivity. Most existing protocols are based on unlimited bandwidth. Previous protocols based on limited bandwidth (MaxProp, RAPID, etc) only consider the scenario that each node has at most one contact opportunity during any time interval, and discuss the packet scheduling mechanisms for
Fair On-Line Scheduling of a Dynamic Set of Tasks on a Single Resource
Sanjoy K. Baruah; Johannes E. Gehrk; C. Greg Plaxton; Ion Stoica; Hussein M. Abdel-wahab; Kevin Jeffay
1997-01-01
Consider a set of “tasks” competing for the use of a single “resource”, where (i) only one task is allowed to use the resource at a time, (ii) the resource is scheduled in unit-time intervals, (iii) each task requires a specific fraction of the resource capacity over an extended period, and (iv) tasks arrive and depart at any time.We refer
Stark, Philip B.
Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...
The detection of high impedance faults using random fault behavior
Carswell, Patrick Wayne
1988-01-01
prevent it from detecting arcing faults under certain fault scenarios. Past research into the behavior of arcing high impedance faults has demon- strated them to be very random in nature. That is, the actual bursts occur in random intervals of time... and with random intensity. The new algorithm presented attempts to utilize this random behavior as well as time to discriminate the pres- ence of high impedance arcing faults from normal system operations which may also generate a, high frequency current signal...
RECORDS RETENTION & DISPOSITION SCHEDULE AGENCY NUMBER SCHEDULE NUMBER
Rusu, Adrian
, upon expiration of their retention periods, will be deemed to have no continuing value to the State. It is in accordance with state college, state government, and federal government codes, statutes and regulations. All NUMBER SCHEDULE APPROVAL: Unless in litigation, the records covered by this schedule, upon expiration
CHROMIUM SUPPLEMENTATION SHORTENS QTC INTERVAL DURATION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We investigated the potential effects of chromium supplementation on QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received 1000 'g of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic) daily for 3 months, fo...
K. Krishnamoorthy; Thomas Mathew
2003-01-01
The lognormal distribution is widely used to describe the distribution of positive random variables; in particular, it is used to model data relevant to occupational hygiene and to model biological data. A problem of interest in this context is statistical inference concerning the mean of the lognormal distribution. For obtaining confidence intervals and tests for a single lognormal mean, the
The effect of ingestion time interval on the interaction between itraconazole and triazolam
Pertti J. Neuvonen; Anu Varhe; Klaus T. Olkkola
1996-01-01
Background: The plasma concentrations and effects of triazolam are markedly increased when it is ingested with itraconazole. The dependence of this interaction on the time interval of their ingestion and the possibility of avoiding the interaction by a correct daily dosing was studied.Methods: Ten healthy volunteers took part in this randomized crossover study of five phases, each separated by 4
Dissociating Temporal Preparation Processes as a Function of the Inter-Trial Interval Duration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vallesi, Antonino; Lozano, Violeta N.; Correa, Angel
2013-01-01
Preparation over time is a ubiquitous capacity which implies decreasing uncertainty about when critical events will occur. This capacity is usually studied with the variable foreperiod paradigm, which consists in the random variation of the time interval (foreperiod) between a warning stimulus and a target. With this paradigm, response time (RT)…
CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.
Cooley, Richard L.; Vecchia, Aldo V.
1987-01-01
A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.
Alan M. Frieze
2006-01-01
We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.
Hall, N.; Kamoun, H.; Sriskandarajah, C.
1994-12-31
Numerous industrial studies have identified significant improvements in productivity that can result from the use of robots to serve (i.e., load parts onto and unload parts from) similar machines producing a family of similar parts. A robotic cell consists of several production machines served by a single robot, often with no intermediate buffers. We consider a class of problems that arise in the scheduling of robotic cells. The objective is the minimization of the steady state cycle time to produce a minimal part set, or equivalently the maximization of long-run throughput rate. Two decisions need to be made simultaneously: finding the optimal robot move cycle, and finding the optimal part sequence through the cell. The results to be described include: efficient algorithms, intractability proofs, the identification of easily solvable special cases, and computationally effective heuristics for hard problems. We also discuss tradeoffs between throughput rate and inventory from combining several minimal part sets together, bounds on cell transition times from initialization into a steady state, and the design of cells and buffers within a larger manufacturing environment. We also report the first progress towards resolving a well-known conjecture for identical part problems. Finally, we provide a list of open problems in robotic cell scheduling. Some of the procedures described have been implemented in a fully operational robotic cell at the University of Toronto. The cell is used for teaching purposes, and access is also provided to industry.
Reactive Schedule Repair of Job Shops
Raheja, Amritpal Singh
Disruptions to job shop schedules are tedious and difficult to incorporate after the schedule has been generated and implemented on the shop floor. In order to deal with such disruptions, a real time reactive scheduling ...
Scheduling algorithms for arbitrary communication networks
Jagabathula, Srikanth
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of designing scheduling schemes for networks with arbitrary topology and scheduling constraints. We address the optimality of scheduling schemes for packet networks in terms of throughput, delay and ...
A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues
Bonomo, Flavia
A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues Kimmo Nurmia , Dries Goossensb , Thomas constrained sports scheduling problem which is modeled from the requirements of various professional sports leagues. We define a sports scheduling problem, introduce the necessary terminology and detail
NCI Shady Grove Metro Shuttle Express Schedule
National Cancer Institute Shady Grove to NIH Campus Schedule NCI Express NOTE: This schedule is subject to change during periods of inclement weather. OPM scheduled delayed opening, closures and changes in
Neural representation of interval encoding and decision making.
Harrington, Deborah L; Boyd, Lara A; Mayer, Andrew R; Sheltraw, Daniel M; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Rao, Stephen M
2004-10-01
Our perception of time depends on multiple psychological processes that allow us to anticipate events. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to differentiate neural systems involved in formulating representations of time from processes associated with making decisions about their duration. A time perception task consisting of two randomly presented standard intervals was used to ensure that intervals were encoded on each trial and to enhance memory requirements. During the encoding phase of a trial, activation was observed in the right caudate nucleus, right inferior parietal cortex and left cerebellum. Activation in these regions correlated with timing sensitivity (coefficient of variation). In contrast, encoding-related activity in the right parahippocampus and hippocampus correlated with the bisection point and right precuneus activation was associated with a measure of memory distortion. Decision processes were studied by examining brain activation during the decision phase of a trial that was associated with the difficulty of interval discriminations. Activation in the right parahippocampus was greater for easier than harder discriminations. In contrast, activation was greater for harder than easier discriminations in systems involved in working memory (left middle-frontal and parietal cortex) and auditory rehearsal (left inferior-frontal and superior-temporal cortex). Activity in the auditory rehearsal network correlated with memory distortion. Our results support the independence of systems that mediate interval encoding and decision processes. The results also suggest that distortions in memory for time may be due to strategic processing in cortical systems involved in either encoding or rehearsal. PMID:15464351
Taufer, Michela
such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special of supercomputing has evolved in the last decades. In the past, the ability to use supercomputers to simulate, in effect, to build a powerful supercomputer out of the existing computers and we do not even need to own
Ward, Karen
such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special has evolved in the last decades. In the past, the ability to use supercomputers to simulate, in effect, to build a powerful supercomputer out of the existing computers and we do not even need to own
Ward, Karen
and other relevant bioinformatics data, weather prediction and climate analysis, etc. For example such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special
2015-01-01
Background It is critically important for AIS patients to avoid perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions. Toward this aim, many institutes use autologous blood storage to perform perioperative transfusions. However, there is no standard timeline for collecting blood for storage. Therefore, the objective of this prospective cohort study was to compare the outcome of two different schedules for collecting autologous blood before operation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Methods Inclusion criteria are AIS patients, younger than 20 years old, female, operated between 2009 and 2013 with posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation who had 1600 mL autologous blood collected before operation. A total of 61 patients were participated in this study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the storage interval. Weekly group (1W-G) consisted of 30 patients with a total of 1600mL blood collected weekly beginning 4 weeks before the operation. Biweekly group (2W-G) consisted of 31 patients with a total of 1600 mL blood collected biweekly beginning 8 weeks before the operation. The instrumented levels, total bleeding, complications during blood transfusion, and hematological examinations (RBC, Hb, Hct, MCH, MCV, MCHC) were evaluated. A hematological examination was performed before blood collection, before the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. Vasovagal reflex (VVR) was evaluated as complications during blood drawing. Result Mean age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in instrumented levels, bleeding during operation, after operation, and collected blood during operation. With the autologous blood, allogeneic blood transfusion was completely avoided. VVR was more frequent in the biweekly group significantly (1W-G 4.2% vs 2W-G 15.3%). In terms of hematological examination, all values showed no significant differences between two groups in the pre-drawing and the pre-operation stage. However, the postoperative Hb and Hct values were higher in the weekly group. Also, MCV and MCHC showed the same behavior with higher values in the weekly group. Conclusion A weekly schedule of autologous blood storage is better than a biweekly storage schedule. PMID:25815051
Coordination Mechanisms for Selfish Scheduling
Nicole Immorlica; Li Li; Vahab S. Mirrokni; Andreas Schulz
2005-01-01
In machine scheduling, a set of jobs must be scheduled on a set of machines so as to minimize some global objective function, such as the makespan considered in this paper. In practice, jobs are often controlled by independent, selfishly acting agents, each of which selects a machine for processing that minimizes the (expected) com- pletion time of its job.
UPDATING THE ARKANSAS IRRIGATION SCHEDULER
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The complexity of scheduling irrigation can be greatly reduced by the use of publicly available computer programs. However, irrigation scheduling is more complicated in humid regions than arid locations, due to factors such as cloudy weather, rainfall, and temperature swings caused by the movement o...
Schedule of Classes Spring 2007
Grether, Gregory
Schedule of Classes Spring 2007 Archival Edition DDAATTEESS && DDEEAADDLLIINNEESS March 20: Last June 11-15: Final examinations #12;2 UCLA Schedule of Classes Spring 2007 What's New? USIE Spring for their spring seminars. Mentorship with faculty sponsors continues during the Spring Quarter as students conduct
Schedule of Classes Spring 2006
Grether, Gregory
Schedule of Classes Spring 2006 Dates and Deadlines March 20: Last day to pay fees March 30 Archival Edition #12;2 UCLA Schedule of Classes Spring 2006 What's New? USIE Spring Seminars --Tentative these studies, student facilitators develop for review and approval a formal syllabus for their spring seminars
Analytical framework for gain scheduling
Wilson J. Rugh
1991-01-01
The gain scheduling approach to the control of nonlinear systems is explained, and its characteristics are examined. On the basis of this framework questions are raised, and implications are drawn for practical design situations. The relationship between the gain scheduling formulation and the extended-linearization approach for nonlinear control design is considered
The Power of Innovative Scheduling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canady, Robert Lynn; Rettig, Michael D.
1995-01-01
A well-crafted school schedule can enhance usage of time, space, and resources; improve instructional climate; help solve instruction-delivery problems; and help establish desired programs and instructional practices. This article discusses scheduling challenges (providing quality time, creating a school climate, and providing varying learning…
Modeling the Cray memory scheduler
Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.
1992-04-01
This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.
Profinet IO IRT Message Scheduling
Zdenek Hanzálek; Pavel Burget; Premysl Sucha
2009-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm that allows one to create a static schedule of the Profinet IO IRT communication, which is an industrial Ethernet protocol standardised in IEC 61158. This algorithm offers an alternative to the available commercial tool, providing comparable results regarding the resulting time schedule length. Furthermore, we extend the problem by useful time constraints providing a greater
Scheduling of Network Television Programs
Jeffrey H. Horen
1980-01-01
Maximizing average audience size is a major objective of national television networks. This paper examines the effect of scheduling programs on audience ratings. We determine the predictability of ratings and the major factors which influence ratings. We measure the extent to which ratings can be changed by rescheduling programs, and then test commonly discussed scheduling strategies and propose new strategies.
Fieldbus scheduling using Boltzmann machine
U. M. AIi; K. Al Jebory
2010-01-01
A centralized access control in fieldbus systems is characterized by the presence of a processing unit acting as link active scheduler (LAS), whose task is to manage the bandwidth, distributing it among all the producing devices, and respecting their time constraints. The bandwidth is distributed on the basis of a scheduling table containing transmission instants for the information produced by
Randomized Scheduling Algorithm for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Leung, Kin K.
, kin.leung}@imperial.ac.uk Abstract--We consider a wireless sensor network in which a routing tree has Sensor Networks (WSNs) can greatly expand our ability to monitor many kinds of environments by gathering information that was previously too expensive to obtain. One of the many application domains of WSNs
Random versus Blocked Practice in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maas, Edwin; Farinella, Kimberly A.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To compare the relative effects of random vs. blocked practice schedules in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Although there have been repeated suggestions in the literature to use random practice in CAS treatment, no systematic studies exist that have directly compared random with blocked practice in this population.…
Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.
Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin
2014-06-01
Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock. PMID:24570386
What Is an Earthquake?: Recurrence Interval
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This activity consists of two exercises on determining recurrence interval; one, a hypothetical example, and the other, using real data from the San Andreas Fault. They provide the learner with a good idea of how valuable the concept can be in assessing earthquake hazards, and of a few of the problems associated with determining and correctly applying recurrence intervals in fault studies. The learner is familiarized with the concept of recurrence interval, and several different ways to determine this value for a given fault. There is also a graphing exercise that looks at real-world data from studies made on the San Andreas fault.
Interval Assignment for Volumes with Holes
BENZLEY, STEVEN; MITCHELL, SCOTT A.; SHEPHERD, JASON F.
1999-09-07
This paper presents a new technique for automatically detecting interval constraints for swept volumes with holes. The technique finds true volume constraints that are not necessarily imposed by the surfaces of the volume. A graphing algorithm finds independent, parallel paths of edges from source surfaces to target surfaces. The number of intervals on two paths between a given source and target surface must be equal; in general, the collection of paths determine a set of linear constraints. Linear programming techniques solve the interval assignment problem for the surface and volume constraints simultaneously.
Retrieval practice over the long term: should spacing be expanding or equal-interval?
Kang, Sean H K; Lindsey, Robert V; Mozer, Michael C; Pashler, Harold
2014-12-01
If multiple opportunities are available to review to-be-learned material, should a review occur soon after initial study and recur at progressively expanding intervals, or should the reviews occur at equal intervals? Landauer and Bjork (1978) argued for the superiority of expanding intervals, whereas more recent research has often failed to find any advantage. However, these prior studies have generally compared expanding versus equal-interval training within a single session, and have assessed effects only upon a single final test. We argue that a more generally important goal would be to maintain high average performance over a considerable period of training. For the learning of foreign vocabulary spread over four weeks, we found that expanding retrieval practice (i.e., sessions separated by increasing numbers of days) produced recall equivalent to that from equal-interval practice on a final test given eight weeks after training. However, the expanding schedule yielded much higher average recallability over the whole training period. PMID:24744260
Approximate Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.
2003-01-01
Investigated the approximate confidence intervals for effect sizes developed by K. Bird (2002) and proposed a more accurate method developed through simulation studies. The average coverage probability for the new method was 0.959. (SLD)
J. C Souto; A Oliver; I Zuazu-Jausoro; A Vives; J Fontcuberta
1996-01-01
Purpose:This study assessed the risk associated with several schedules of perioperative treatment with coumadin in anticoagulated patients who underwent oral surgery.Patients and Methods:A prospective, randomized study compared bleeding complications with six perioperative schedules in 92 patients chronically treated with acenocoumarol. In three of the perioperative schedules, the dose was reduced before surgery and calcium heparin was added. In the other
Neuronal coding and spiking randomness.
Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr; Rospars, Jean-Pierre
2007-11-01
Fast information transfer in neuronal systems rests on series of action potentials, the spike trains, conducted along axons. Methods that compare spike trains are crucial for characterizing different neuronal coding schemes. In this paper we review recent results on the notion of spiking randomness, and discuss its properties with respect to the rate and temporal coding schemes. This method is compared with other widely used characteristics of spiking activity, namely the variability of interspike intervals, and it is shown that randomness and variability provide two distinct views. We demonstrate that estimation of spiking randomness from simulated and experimental data is capable of capturing characteristics that would otherwise be difficult to obtain with conventional methods. PMID:18001270
Interval efficiency assessment using data envelopment analysis
Ying-ming Wang; Richard Greatbanks; Jian-bo Yang
2005-01-01
Abstract This paper studies how to conduct efficiency assessment using data envelopment,analysis (DEA) in interval and\\/or fuzzy input–output environments. A new pair ofinterval DEA models is constructed on the basis ofinterval arithmetic, which differs from the existing DEA models handling interval data in that the former is a linear CCR model,without the need ofextra variable alternations and uses a fixed
Extremal properties of interval control systems
Kamal, Faris Ragheb
1991-01-01
EXTREMAL PROPERTIES OF INTERVAL CONTROL SYSTEMS A Thesis by FARIS RAGHEB KAMAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major...) uhada Jayasuriya (Member) Jo K. Haze (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT Extremal Properties of Interval Control Systems. (May 1991) Faris Ragheb Kamal, B. S. , Texas ASSAM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. M. Dahleh The objective...
Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior
Matthew S. Matell; Warren H. Meck
2000-01-01
Summary Interval timing in the seconds-to-minutes range is be- lieved to underlie a variety of complex behaviors in hu- mans and other animals. One of the more interesting problems in interval timing is trying to understand how the brain times events lasting for minutes with millisec- ond-based neural processes. Timing models proposing the use of coincidence-detection mechanisms (e.g., the detection
Interactive local search for multiple-criteria scheduling
Li, Shijun
1998-01-01
Multiple-criteria scheduling refers to the scheduling problem in which the goodness of a schedule is evaluated using more than one performance criterion. Multiple-criteria scheduling is classified as multiple-attribute scheduling (MAS) and multiple-objective...
Interactive local search for multiple-criteria scheduling
Li, Shijun
1998-01-01
Multiple-criteria scheduling refers to the scheduling problem in which the goodness of a schedule is evaluated using more than one performance criterion. Multiple-criteria scheduling is classified as multiple-attribute scheduling (MAS) and multiple...
Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-06-01
We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes. PMID:20866478
Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-06-01
We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q . The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.
Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing
S. Kuzio
2004-09-22
Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. In terms of repository performance, the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. Underestimation of matrix diffusion in the transport modeling would result in more rapid simulated migration of radionuclide mass to the accessible environment and correspondingly higher simulated dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual in the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) analyses. The flowing interval spacing is appropriate for use in the SZ site-scale transport abstraction model because the 500 m grid block size in the numerical transport model is more than an order of magnitude larger than the expected flowing interval spacing (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042], Section 6.3.1). Therefore, the use of the developed flowing interval spacing parameter is limited to a numerical grid spacing that is at least an order of magnitude greater than the average flowing interval spacing to ensure a reasonable description of transport behavior in a grid. This analysis report supports several features, events, and processes (FEPs) and contributes to the characterization of the SZ as a natural barrier, which provides evidence related to the capability of the SZ to delay movement of radionuclides through the SZ to the accessible environment.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-10-23
...Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...and Losses and Built-In Gains, Schedule M-3 (Form 1120S), Net Income (Loss...622-6665, or through the Internet at Allan.M.Hopkins@irs.gov. [[Page...
Bolch, Tobias
Course Schedule The course schedule can be viewed online: www.unbc.ca/programs. The schedule Advisor about your course plan. You may view the current course schedule online at www your course(s), you may do so online using your Student Online Services or by completing an Add
Mean first passage time calculation for the random walk with random step size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, R.
2006-02-01
We derive an expression for the mean first passage time (MFPT) for the random walk with random step size on a one-dimensional linear lattice. Here both ends of the linear lattice are reflecting boundaries whereas the absorbing boundary is situated anywhere in between. When the size of the lattice is N and the random step size is k, we show that the MFPT ( \\smash{\\mathord{\\buildrel{\\lower3pt\\\\scriptscriptstyle\\leftrightarrow}\\over T}}) associated with the escape of the random walker only through a specific point that is situated anywhere in the interval [0, N] at the limit as k ? ? is \\mathop {\\lim}\
Meneghini, Luigi; Atkin, Stephen L.; Gough, Stephen C.L.; Raz, Itamar; Blonde, Lawrence; Shestakova, Marina; Bain, Stephen; Johansen, Thue; Begtrup, Kamilla; Birkeland, Kåre I.
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE The requirement to inject current basal insulin analogs at a fixed time each day may complicate adherence and compromise glycemic control. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of varying the daily injection time of insulin degludec (IDeg), an ultra-long-acting basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 26-week, open-label, treat-to-target trial enrolled adults (?18 years) with type 2 diabetes who were either insulin naïve and receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (HbA1c = 7–11%) or previously on basal insulin ± OAD(s) (HbA1c = 7–10%). Participants were randomized to 1) once-daily (OD) IDeg in a prespecified dosing schedule, creating 8–40-h intervals between injections (IDeg OD Flex; n = 229); 2) once-daily IDeg at the main evening meal (IDeg OD; n = 228); or 3) once-daily insulin glargine at the same time each day (IGlar OD; n = 230). The primary outcome was noninferiority of IDeg OD Flex to IGlar OD in HbA1c reduction after 26 weeks. RESULTS After 26 weeks, IDeg OD Flex, IDeg OD, and IGlar OD improved HbA1c by 1.28, 1.07, and 1.26% points, respectively (estimated treatment difference [IDeg OD Flex ? IGlar OD]: 0.04% points [–0.12 to 0.20], confirming noninferiority). No statistically significant differences in overall or nocturnal hypoglycemia were found between IDeg OD Flex and IGlar OD. Comparable glycemic control and rates of hypoglycemia were seen with IDeg OD Flex and IDeg OD. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS The use of extreme dosing intervals of 8–40 h demonstrates that the daily injection time of IDeg can be varied without compromising glycemic control or safety. PMID:23340894
Research Ship Information and Schedules
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.
Gang scheduling a parallel machine
Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.
1991-03-01
Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Gang scheduling a parallel machine
Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.
1991-12-01
Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Ren, Kun; Jihong, Qu
2014-01-01
Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision. PMID:24895663
THE EFFECTS OF FIXED VERSUS ESCALATING REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES ON SMOKING ABSTINENCE
Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R. J.
2015-01-01
Studies indicate that when abstinence is initiated, escalating reinforcement schedules maintain continuous abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules. However, these studies were conducted for shorter durations than most clinical trials and also resulted in larger reinforcer value for escalating participants during the 1st week of the experiment. We tested whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintained abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules in a 12-week clinical trial. Smokers (146) were randomized to an escalating reinforcement schedule, a fixed reinforcement schedule, or a control condition. Escalating reinforcement participants received $5.00 for their first breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample <3 ppm, with a $0.50 increase for each consecutive sample. Fixed reinforcement participants received $19.75 for each breath CO sample <3 ppm. Control participants received payments only for delivering a breath CO sample. Similar proportions of escalating and fixed reinforcement participants met the breath CO criterion at least once. Escalating reinforcement participants maintained criterion breath CO levels longer than fixed reinforcement and control participants. Similar to previous short-term studies, escalating reinforcement schedules maintained longer durations of abstinence than fixed reinforcement schedules during a clinical trial. PMID:25640764
CARR,ROBERT D.; VEMPALA,SANTOSH
2000-01-25
The authors present a new technique for the design of approximation algorithms that can be viewed as a generalization of randomized rounding. They derive new or improved approximation guarantees for a class of generalized congestion problems such as multicast congestion, multiple TSP etc. Their main mathematical tool is a structural decomposition theorem related to the integrality gap of a relaxation.
On Job Scheduling with Preemption Penalties
Feifeng Zheng; Yinfeng Xu; Chung Keung Poon
2009-01-01
This paper studies the problem of online job scheduling in a model with preemption penalty introduced by Zheng et al. [11].\\u000a In such a model with preemption penalty parameter ?, the scheduler has to pay a penalty of ? times the weight of each aborted job. We consider two cases according to the scheduler’s knowledge of ? (ratio of length
Rotation scheduling: a loop pipelining algorithm
Liang-Fang Chao; Andrea S. LaPaugh; Edwin Hsing-Mean Sha
1993-01-01
We consider the resource-constrained scheduling of loops with interiteration dependencies. A loop is modeled as a data flow graph (DFG) , where edges are labeled with the number of iterations between dependencies. We design a novel and flexible technique, called rotation scheduling, for scheduling cyclic DFG's using loop pipelining. The rotation technique re- peatedly transforms a schedule to a more
Contents of Lecture 12 Instruction Scheduling Basics
of instruction scheduling is to improve performance by reducing the number of pipeline stalls suffered during Scheduling vs. Register Allocation The goal of instruction scheduling is to reduce pipeline stall. If register allocation results in spill code, the instruction scheduler is usually run a second time in order
The Case for Fair Multiprocessor Scheduling
Anand Srinivasan; Philip Holman; James H. Anderson; Sanjoy K. Baruah
2003-01-01
Partitioning and global scheduling are two approaches for scheduling real-time tasks on multi- processors. Though partitioning is sub-optimal, it has traditionally been preferred; this is mainly due to the fact that well-understood uniprocessor scheduling algorithms can be used on each proces- sor. In recent years, global-scheduling algorithms based on the concept of \\
hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Real Estate
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Real Estate The STAT menu Confidence Intervals Practice finding confidence intervals Real Estate #12;hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Real Estate hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Confidence Intervals Real Estate The STAT menu The Statistics menu
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip
2010-01-01
Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet
1996-01-01
Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).
Methotrexate hepatotoxicity in psoriasis. Consideration of liver biopsies at regular intervals.
Robinson, J K; Baughman, R D; Auerbach, R; Cimis, R J
1980-04-01
Fibrosis of the liver developed to a degree that contraindicated further treatment with methotrexate in 11 of 43 patients who had been receiving maintenance therapy with methotrexate for psoriasis. Liver biopsy had been performed prior to initiation of methotrexate therapy and was repeated at 12- to 18-month intervals. In this retrospective study, age of the patient and duration of therapy have been found to be significant factors in those patients receiving only the weekly oral dosage schedule. Yearly biopsies of the liver are recommended for patients who receive methotrexate throughout their courses of therapy. PMID:7369769
... birth. Now playing: Overview FAQ E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Scheduling a c-section Cesarean birth (also called c-section) ...
[Updating immunization schedules in France].
Guérin, N
2004-01-01
Complete updating of the immunization schedules can be a major problem in children arriving in France from developing countries either to join their families or to be adopted. It is necessary to determine which vaccinations have already been administered prior to arrival in France and if necessary complete the schedule in accordance with the French immunization schedule. In case of doubt or difficulty in reading or interpreting records, it may be helpful to obtain a translation or consult the prevailing immunization schedule in the country of origin. In case of doubt about the quality of previous vaccination due to missing immunization records, the child should be considered as exposed and undergo vaccination. For vaccination requiring a series of injections, circulating antibodies should be measured after the first dose. The series should be completed only if results show a primary reaction. This approach avoids administration of unnecessary doses. PMID:15224564
Manned Mars mission schedule report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferguson, W.; Robinson, J.; Calfee, C.
1986-01-01
The schedules for hardware for the initial manned Mars mission are provided. The mission is determined to be a 1999 opposition mission and the vehicle hardware configuration for the mission is depicted.
Diversity ALOHA--A Random Access Scheme for Satellite Communications
G. Choudhury; S. S. Rapparort
1983-01-01
A generalization of the slotted ALOHA random access scheme is considered in which a user transmits multiple copies of the same packet. The multiple copies can be either transmitted simultaneously on different frequency channels (frequency diversity) or they may be transmitted on a single high-speed channel but spaced apart by random time intervals (time diversity). In frequency diversity, two schemes
Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zi?ba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.
2014-07-01
Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.
Planning and scheduling for success
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manzanera, Ignacio
1994-01-01
Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.
Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn
1988-01-01
Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.
Scheduling: A guide for program managers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue
2014-12-01
WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.
Foreperiod and range effects on time interval categorization.
Laflamme, Vincent; Zakay, Dan; Gamache, Pierre-Luc; Grondin, Simon
2015-07-01
One factor influencing the perceived duration of a brief interval is the length of the period preceding it, namely the foreperiod (FP). When multiple FPs are varied randomly within a testing session, longer FPs result in longer perceived duration. The purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics modulate this effect. In a task where participants were asked to categorize the duration of target intervals with respect to a 100-ms standard, the FPs were distributed over a 150-, 300-, or 900-ms range with the midpoint (1000 ms) of these distributions being kept constant. The results indicate that the effect of the length of variable FPs on perceived duration was much stronger in the 900-ms range condition. More specifically, this effect is due to the differences between the shortest FPs. The results also reveal that, overall, there are more short responses in the 300-ms condition than in the other range conditions. Moreover, the data reveal that the narrower the distribution, the better the discrimination. One interpretation of the main result (range effect) is that a wider distribution leads to an increased prior uncertainty towards the foreperiod length. PMID:26022698
McLean, Anthony P.; Blampied, Neville M.
1995-01-01
Behavioral momentum theory relates resistance to change of responding in a multiple-schedule component to the total reinforcement obtained in that component, regardless of how the reinforcers are produced. Four pigeons responded in a series of multiple-schedule conditions in which a variable-interval 40-s schedule arranged reinforcers for pecking in one component and a variable-interval 360-s schedule arranged them in the other. In addition, responses on a second key were reinforced according to variable-interval schedules that were equal in the two components. In different parts of the experiment, responding was disrupted by changing the rate of reinforcement on the second key or by delivering response-independent food during a blackout separating the two components. Consistent with momentum theory, responding on the first key in Part 1 changed more in the component with the lower reinforcement total when it was disrupted by changes in the rate of reinforcement on the second key. However, responding on the second key changed more in the component with the higher reinforcement total. In Parts 2 and 3, responding was disrupted with free food presented during intercomponent blackouts, with extinction (Part 2) or variable-interval 80-s reinforcement (Part 3) arranged on the second key. Here, resistance to change was greater for the component with greater overall reinforcement. Failures of momentum theory to predict short-term differences in resistance to change occurred with disruptors that caused greater change between steady states for the richer component. Consistency of effects across disruptors may yet be found if short-term effects of disruptors are assessed relative to the extent of change observed after prolonged exposure. PMID:16812750
Signalled and unsignalled percentage reinforcement of performance under a chained schedule1
Branch, Marc N.
1977-01-01
Pigeons were trained to peck a key under a chained fixed-ratio 15 fixed-interval 25-sec schedule of food presentation. In Experiment 1, blocks of sessions in which 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of the sequences ended with food presentation were conducted. When food presentation was omitted, a timeout of equal duration replaced it. As the frequency of food presentation decreased so did the frequency of completing the chained schedule. In Experiment 2, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the sequences terminated with food presentation and outcomes were signalled, i.e., completion of the fixed ratio resulted in either a stimulus correlated with the fixed-interval 25-sec schedule or a stimulus correlated with extinction. As the frequency of food presentation decreased, the number of sequences completed per session increased for two pigeons and remained high for a third. In Experiments 3 and 4, assessments of the effects of signalling the outcome of the chained schedule were made with response-independent presentation of events at the end of the sequence. Again, signalling the outcome of the chained schedule led to more chains being completed per session than did not signalling the outcome. Stimuli differentially paired with food presentation have powerful behavioral effects that may be attributed to the potency of these stimuli as conditioned reinforcers. PMID:16811982
Confidence intervals with a priori parameter bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lokhov, A. V.; Tkachov, F. V.
2015-05-01
We review the methods of constructing confidence intervals that account for a priori information about one-sided constraints on the parameter being estimated. We show that the so-called method of sensitivity limit yields a correct solution of the problem. Derived are the solutions for the cases of a continuous distribution with non-negative estimated parameter and a discrete distribution, specifically a Poisson process with background. For both cases, the best upper limit is constructed that accounts for the a priori information. A table is provided with the confidence intervals for the parameter of Poisson distribution that correctly accounts for the information on the known value of the background along with the software for calculating the confidence intervals for any confidence levels and magnitudes of the background (the software is freely available for download via Internet).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.
Olson, D J; Kamil, A C; Balda, R P
1993-04-01
Two groups of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained to use either a stay or shift response strategy in a radial maze analogue. Each trial had a preretention stage, a retention interval, and a postretention test. In Experiment 1, acquisition with a 5-min retention interval was studied. Response strategy did not affect the rate at which the task was learned. Performance following longer retention intervals was tested in Experiments 2-4. Changes in retention intervals were presented in trial blocks of increasing duration in Experiment 2 and were randomly presented between trials in Experiment 3. Experiment 4 extended the retention interval to 24 hr. No difference in performance was found between the 2 groups in any of these experiments. These results suggest a flexible relationship between spatial memory and response requirement in food-hoarding birds for at least 1 spatial memory task. PMID:8505594
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...
Dual models of interval DEA and its extension to interval data
Tomoe Entani; Yutaka Maeda; Hideo Tanaka
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new DEA with an interval efficiency. An original DEA model is to evaluate each DMU optimistically. There is another model called “Inverted DEA” to evaluate each DMU pessimistically. But, there are no relations essentially between DEA and inverted DEA. Thus, we formulate a DEA model with an interval efficiency which consists
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS TO EARTHQUAKERESISTANT ENGINEERING
Kreinovich, Vladik
APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS TO EARTHQUAKERESISTANT ENGINEERING: HOW TO COMPUTE, USA Abstract. One of the main sources of destruction during earthquake is resonance. There- fore, the following idea has been proposed. We design special control linkages between floors that are normally
Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zou, Guang Yong
2007-01-01
Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…
Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.
2011-01-01
The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…
Interval and Ellipsoidal Uncertainty Models Andrzej Bargiela
Bargiela, Andrzej
noise will still perform well in real noise. With good knowledge of the plant and its environment representation of noise. While the filtered-white-Gaussian noise model can be defined on grounds of mathematical is to match the noise representation to the extent of prior knowledge. Both interval and ellipsoidal
Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Colin
2014-01-01
The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…
Interval Arithmetic: from Principles to Implementation
van Emden, Maarten
, subtraction, multiplication and division) are likewise de#12;ned mathematically and we provide algorithms point standard, ap- proximation, extended reals, in#12;nity, signed zero, interval division 1 decimals in the result is meaningful. A good early summary of this is Forsythe's \\The Pitfalls of Numerical
Optimal interval clustering: Application to Bregman clustering
Nielsen, Frank
Optimal interval clustering: Application to Bregman clustering and statistical mixture learning University Partition X = {x1, ..., xn} into k pairwise disjoint clusters C1 X, ..., Ck X: X = k i=1 Ci k-means: Minimize the sum of intra-cluster variances: minp1,...,pk n i=1 mink j=1 xi - pj 2 k-means is NP-hard when
A propositional modal logic of time intervals
Joseph Y. Halpern; Yoav Shoham
1991-01-01
: In certain areas of artificial intelligence there is need to represent continuouschange and to make statements that are interpreted with respect to timeintervals rather than time points. To this end we develop a modal temporal logicbased on time intervals, a logic which can be viewed as a generalization of pointbasedmodal temporal logic. We discuss related logics, give an intuitive
Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics J-P. Merlet INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France Abstract: A robot is typical of systems that are inherently submitted to uncertainties although they should be highly reliable (i.e. for a robot used in surgical applications). The sources of uncertainties
Optimum minimum variance fixed interval smoothing
Garry A. Einicke
2005-01-01
The paper describes an optimal minimum-variance fixed-interval smoother. The optimal solution involves a cascade of a Kalman predictor and an adjoint Kalman predictor. Speech enhancement and nonlinear demodulation examples are presented which demonstrate that optimal and extended Kalman smoothers can provide performance benefits.
Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population
Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian
2014-01-01
Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Siegrist, Kyle
Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on random samples. The author provides examples, exercises, and applets concerning many different topics. Some of these include: sample mean, law of large numbers, sample variance, partial sums, central limit theorem, special properties of normal samples, order statistics, and sample covariance and correlation. Additionally, the author provides links to external resources for students wanting to engage further with the topic. This is simply one of seventeen lessons. They are all easily accessible as the author has formatted his site much like an online textbook.
User requirements for a patient scheduling system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, W.
1979-01-01
A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.
Prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after spinal surgery: randomized clinical trial
Per Rotbøll Nielsen; Lars Damkjær Jørgensen; Benny Dahl; Tom Pedersen; Hanne Tønnesen
2010-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the outcome after spinal surgery when adding prehabilitation to the early rehabilitation.Design: A randomized clinical study.Setting: Orthopaedic surgery department.Subject: Sixty patients scheduled for surgery followed by inpatient rehabilitation for degenerative lumbar disease.Interventions: The patients were computer randomized to prehabilitation and early rehabilitation (28 patients) or to standard care exclusively (32 patients). The intervention began two months prior
An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.
2011-01-01
This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…
An effective hybrid PSO-based algorithm for flow shop scheduling with limited buffers
Bo Liu; Ling Wang; Yi-Hui Jin
2008-01-01
In this paper, an effective hybrid algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (HPSO) is proposed for permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSSP) with the limited buffers between consecutive machines to minimize the maximum completion time (i.e., makespan). First, a novel encoding scheme based on random key representation is developed, which converts the continuous position values of particles in PSO to
A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Robust Runway Scheduling Bala Chandran and Hamsa Balakrishnan
Gummadi, Ramakrishna
sequences, the uncertainty in the system could result in the aircraft violating important safety constraints throughput and the probability that random deviations of aircraft from the schedule violate system successive aircraft, earliest and latest times for each aircraft, precedence constraints among aircraft
Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Lay, Brendan; Grove, J Robert; Medic, Nikola; Razman, Rizal
2012-01-01
To overcome the weakness of the contextual interference (CI) effect within applied settings, Brady, 2008 recommended that the amount of interference be manipulated. This study investigated the effect of five practice schedules on the learning of three field hockey skills. Fifty-five pre-university students performed a total of 90 trials for each skill under blocked, mixed or random practice orders. Results showed a significant time effect with all five practice conditions leading to improvements in acquisition and learning of the skills. No significant differences were found between the groups. The findings of the present study did not support the CI effect and suggest that either blocked, mixed, or random practice schedules can be used effectively when structuring practice for beginners. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect did not surface when using sport skills.There appears to be no difference between blocked and random practice schedules in the learning of field hockey skills.Low (blocked), moderate (mixed) or high (random) interference practice schedules can be used effectively when conducting a multiple skill practice session for beginners. PMID:24149204
Development of Real Time Scheduler for Master of Science Thesis in System-on-Chip Design
Jantsch, Axel
, the smallest RTOS would probably be too big for our application. The main purpose of this master thesis are described in advance; that will be extracted for future work. Secondly, a scheduler based on RTOS concept PSoC Programmable System on Chip RAM Random Access Memory RM Rate Monotonic ROM Read Only Memory RTOS
A Hybrid Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm to Solve Flow Shop Scheduling Problems
S. Chandrasekaran; S. G. Ponnambalam; R. K. Suresh; N. Vijayakumar
2006-01-01
This paper presents a method of applying particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to a flow shop scheduling problem. Permutation encoding of job indices is used to represent particles. One particle of the initial swarm is generated using NEH heuristic (M. Nawaz, Jr., 1995) and the remaining particles are generated randomly. A continuous swap mechanism is used to improve the performance
Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.
1989-01-01
Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.
A RACH Preamble Detection Scheme Using Variable Coherent Correlation Intervals for WCDMA Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Young Nam; Joo, Jung Suk
A new random access channel (RACH) preamble detection scheme using variable coherent correlation intervals (CCIs) is proposed. It is shown first that it is enough to employ two CCIs for supporting a user equipment (UE) velocity of 300km/h, and then a CCI selection criterion is proposed. Computer simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme can provide a robust detection performance in time-varying fading channel environments.
Brian Ginsberg; Karen M. Gil; Margaret Muir; Frederick Sullivan; David A. Williams; Peter S. A. Glass
1995-01-01
This study systematically compared 2 opiods, morphine (MOR) and fentayl (FEN), and 2 lockout intervals, long (L) and short (S) in patients utilizing patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Seventy-eight women undergoing gynecological surgery were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: MOR-S (7 min), MOR-L (11 min), FEN-S (5 min), FEN-L (8 min). PCA measures obtained durinh the first 24 h after
Physical Maps and Interval Sandwich Problems: Bounded Degrees Help
Shamir, Ron
Physical Maps and Interval Sandwich Problems: Bounded Degrees Help Haim Kaplan \\Lambda Department@math.tau.ac.il. Abstract The problems of Interval Sandwich (IS) and Intervalizing Colored Graphs (ICG) have received a lot. Consider the following problem: INTERVAL SANDWICH (IS): INSTANCE: A triple S = (V; E; F ), where V is a set
Interval Computations The VPI Software Package for Variable
Kearfott, R. Baker
Interval Computations No 2, 1993 The VPI Software Package for Variable Precision Interval Arithmetic Jeffrey S. Ely The VPI (Variable Precision Interval) software package is a collection of rou and research applications to which the author has put it. VPI . . VPI (Variable Precision Interval
Towards ant colony optimization of neuro-fuzzy interval rules
J. Paetz
2005-01-01
Neuro-fuzzy rules can be used in their fuzzy form and in an interval form that is a cut of the corresponding membership function. Such interval rules can be derived whenever a precise interval rule is useful in the application area. An example where interval rules can be applied is the area of virtual screening in chemistry. Current research focusses on
Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.
The Maximum Clique Problem in Multiple Interval Graphs
Francis, Mathew C; Ochem, Pascal
2012-01-01
Multiple interval graphs are variants of interval graphs where instead of a single interval, each vertex is assigned a set of intervals on the real line. A graph is said to be a $t$-interval graph if each vertex can be assigned a set that is the union of $t$ closed intervals on the real line so that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the sets they are assigned have a non-empty intersection. The MAXCLIQUE problem, or the problem of finding the size of the maximum clique, for $t$-interval graphs is known to be NP-complete when $t\\geq 3$ and is polynomial-time solvable when $t=1$. We show that MAXCLIQUE is already NP-complete for 2-interval graphs. We also show the NP-completeness of the MAXCLIQUE problem for some other variants of multiple interval graphs like 3-track graphs, unit 3-interval graphs and unit 4-track graphs.
Reconstructing RSA Private Keys from Random Key Bits
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Reconstructing RSA Private Keys from Random Key Bits Nadia Heninger and Hovav Shacham Princeton. If read in a 1, that bit must be 1. If read in 0, original bit could have been 0 or 1. The decay order to reconstruct from about 25% of bits. [HSHCPCFAF 08] Reconstruct an AES key schedule from 30% of bits. [Tsow 09
Randomized Finite-State Distributed Algorithms as Markov Chains
Marie Duflot; Laurent Fribourg; Claudine Picaronny
2001-01-01
Distributed randomized algorithms, when they operate under a memoryless scheduler, behave as finite Markov chains: the probability at n-th step to go from a configuration x to another one y is a constant p that depends on x and y only. By Markov theory, we thus know that, no matter where the algorithm starts, the probability for the algorithm to
Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial
Keith B Allen; Gary L Griffith; David A Heimansohn; Robert J Robison; Robert G Matheny; John J Schier; Edward B Fitzgerald; Carl J Shaar
1998-01-01
Background. Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications.Methods. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups
Barrett, J E
1983-04-01
Lever pressing by squirrel monkeys and key pecking by pigeons were maintained under a multiple 3-min fixed-interval (FI), 30-response fixed-ratio (FR) schedule by the presentation of food. These responses, which differed under the two schedules, but were similar for both species, were used to compare the effects of antipsychotic compounds from different pharmacological classes. Except for differences in potency levels, the effects of intermediate doses of haloperidol and molindone were similar in monkeys and pigeons; these compounds decreased responding under the fixed-interval schedule at doses that did not affect fixed-ratio responding. Similar effects also occurred with chlorpromazine, promazine and thiothixene in pigeons. With monkeys, however, intermediate doses of promazine decreased fixed-ratio responding more than responding maintained under the fixed-interval schedule, while chlorpromazine and thiothixene produced similar effects on responding under both schedules. The effects of novel antipsychotic, clozapine, differed from those of the other agents in both monkeys and pigeons. With both species clozapine increased fixed interval responding at doses that did not affect responding under the fixed-ratio schedule. Doses required to reduce responding at least 50% were approximately 5 to 160 times greater for pigeons than for monkeys for all drugs except clozapine which was equipotent in both species. In monkeys the order of potency was haloperidol greater than molindone = thiothixene greater than chlorpromazine greater than clozapine greater than promazine, whereas in pigeons the order was haloperidol greater than thiothixene greater than clozapine greater than molindone greater than promazine greater than chlorpromazine. PMID:6134249
Using interval logic for order assembly
Cui, Z. [Advanced Computation Laboratory, London (United Kingdom)
1994-12-31
Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.
Reliable prediction intervals with regression neural networks.
Papadopoulos, Harris; Haralambous, Haris
2011-10-01
This paper proposes an extension to conventional regression neural networks (NNs) for replacing the point predictions they produce with prediction intervals that satisfy a required level of confidence. Our approach follows a novel machine learning framework, called Conformal Prediction (CP), for assigning reliable confidence measures to predictions without assuming anything more than that the data are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). We evaluate the proposed method on four benchmark datasets and on the problem of predicting Total Electron Content (TEC), which is an important parameter in trans-ionospheric links; for the latter we use a dataset of more than 60000 TEC measurements collected over a period of 11 years. Our experimental results show that the prediction intervals produced by our method are both well calibrated and tight enough to be useful in practice. PMID:21719251
Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, Victor A.
2013-01-01
The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.
Towards Energy Aware Scheduling for Precedence Constrained Parallel
Scheduling Algorithm (1) · schedule tasks via the ETF scheduling algorithm · scale down PE's voltages for all non-criNcal jobs #12;ETF scheduling algorithm · ETF · Execute Early task first algorithm (ETF) · Scale down PE's voltages for cri
14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 406.139 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 406...Transportation Adjudications § 406.139 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
14 CFR 13.217 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 13...FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.217 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
49 CFR 1503.627 - Joint procedural or discovery schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint procedural or discovery schedule. 1503...Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.627 Joint procedural or discovery schedule. ...schedule. If the parties agree to a joint procedural or discovery schedule,...
40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....
40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....
40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....
40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....
40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....
75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-02-19
...BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission...Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold...
Heuristic Decomposition Algorithms for Generalized Shop Scheduling
Magdeburg, Universität
Heuristic Decomposition Algorithms for Generalized Shop Scheduling Problems Karin Kr¨uger Otto generalized shop scheduling problems, where arbitrary precedence constraints among the operations are given (general shop), sequence--dependent changeover times between the processing of operations are taken
Transportation Routing and Scheduling: Alternatives and Innovations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dembowski, Frederick L.
1988-01-01
There are two basic approaches offered in current computerized transportation routing and scheduling programs: the mathematical programming approach and the intuitive optimization approach. Lists questions that an informed buyer should ask of the routing and scheduling company. (MLF)
Optimal scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance
Cho, Philip Y
2011-01-01
The effective scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance in the Air Force is crucial to overall mission accomplishment. An effective maintenance scheduling policy maximizes the use of maintenance resources and aircraft ...
Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithms Ursula Fissgus
Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithms Ursula Fissgus Computer Science Department University Halle memory machine. We present a scheduling derivation step based on the genetic algorithm paradigm, data parallelism, genetic algorithms. 1 Introduction Several applications from scientific computing, e
OHRM Professional Development & Learning Management PROGRAM SCHEDULE
Qiu, Weigang
OHRM Professional Development & Learning Management PROGRAM SCHEDULE Spring 2013 (February 2013;OHRM Professional Development & Learning Management PROGRAM SCHEDULE Spring 2013 (February 2013 June: Central Office at 41 st Street Lean Six Sigma: An Introduction to Quality and Productivity Improvement (C
29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...
Operations scheduling in job-shops
Srinivasan, Anand
1996-01-01
) by solving the simplified machine scheduling problem and using its solution to generate the solution to the complete scheduling problem by "adding-on" the material handling activities. The relative performance of the two approaches is studied by testing a...
Adaptable search neighborhoods for Resource Constrained Scheduling
Balakrishnan, Ramamoorthy
1993-01-01
Resource Constrained Scheduling problem (RCSP) is a scheduling problem in which each activity may require more than one resource and resources may not be available in the same quantity throughout the planning period. This thesis describes a...
Automated and Optimized Project Scheduling Using BIM
Faghihi, Vahid
2014-04-04
Construction project scheduling is one of the most important tools for project managers in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. The Construction schedules allow project managers to track and manage the time, cost...
Scheduling from the perspective of the application
Berman, F.; Wolski, R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Metacomputing is the aggregation of distributed and high-performance resources on coordinated networks. With careful scheduling, resource-intensive applications can be implemented efficiently on metacomputing systems at the sizes of interest to developers and users. In this paper we focus on the problem of scheduling applications on metacomputing systems. We introduce the concept of application-centric scheduling in which everything about the system is evaluated in terms of its impact on the application. Application-centric scheduling is used by virtually all metacomputer programmers to achieve performance on metacomputing systems. We describe two successful metacomputing applications to illustrate this approach, and describe AppLeS scheduling agents which generalize the application-centric scheduling approach. Finally, we show preliminary results which compare AppLeS-derived schedules with conventional strip and blocked schedules for a two-dimensional Jacobi code.
Bounded Validity Checking of Interval Duration Logic
Babita Sharma; Supratik Chakraborty
2005-01-01
A rich dense-time logic called Interval Duration Logic(IDL) is useful for specifying quantitative properties of timed systems. The logic is undecidable in general. However, several approaches can be used for checking validity (and model checking) of IDL formulae in practice. In this paper, we propose bounded validity checking of IDL formulae by polynomially reducing this to finding un-satisfying assignment of
CENTENNIAL DRIVE SERVICE HOURS SERVICE INTERVALS
minutes SERVICE HOURS SERVICE INTERVALS Orange Route Strawberry Gate 6:30 am 7:30 am 7:40 am 9:40 am 9 Orange Route Strawberry Gate CYCLOTRO N ROAD CHUROAD SMOO T ROAD CALVIN ROAD GLASER ROAD McMILLANROAD ALVAREZ ROAD LEE ROAD LAWRENCE ROAD B65 B90 B55 B69 B74 *Light Signal Strawberry Gate Blackberry Gate B50
Empirical Prediction Intervals for County Population Forecasts
Stefan Rayer; Stanley K. Smith; Jeff Tayman
2009-01-01
Population forecasts entail a significant amount of uncertainty, especially for long-range horizons and for places with small\\u000a or rapidly changing populations. This uncertainty can be dealt with by presenting a range of projections or by developing\\u000a statistical prediction intervals. The latter can be based on models that incorporate the stochastic nature of the forecasting\\u000a process, on empirical analyses of past
Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Patricia Cashman
Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.