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|Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-intervalschedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-intervalschedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-intervalschedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-intervalschedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the fixed-intervalschedule. Thus the programmed delays to reinforcement on the random alternative were never shorter and were often longer than the fixed interval. Despite this feature, the fixed schedule was not strongly preferred. Increases in the probability used to generate the randominterval resulted in decreased preferences for the fixed schedule. In addition, the number of consecutive choices on the preferred alternative varied directly with preference, whereas the consecutive number of choices on the nonpreferred alternative was fairly constant. The probability of choosing the random alternative was unaffected by the immediately prior interval encountered on that schedule, even when it was very long relative to the average value. The results loosely support conceptions of a “preference for variability” from foraging theory and the “utility of behavioral variability” from human decision-making literatures.

Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Cardinal, Claudia D; Field, Douglas P; Flannery, Barbara A; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N

In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…

Researchers have demonstrated that rats' rates of operant responding that are maintained by 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement will increase if food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming within the same session. The authors investigated whether a similar induction effect would be observed when rats pressed a lever for 1% sucrose that was delivered by concurrent random-intervalschedules of reinforcement. Results demonstrated that upcoming noncontingent food-pellet delivery increased absolute response rates on the concurrent schedules in 10 of 12 possible instances. Upcoming food-pellet delivery also increased subjects' sensitivity to reinforcement on the concurrent schedules, as measured by the generalized matching law (W. M. Baum, 1974), in 5 of 6 possible instances. The present results extended the finding of induction to responding on concurrent schedules. They also added to evidence suggesting that the effect occurs because the reinforcing value of the weak reinforcer (i.e., the 1% sucrose) has been increased. PMID:17503690

An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response- cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money on a three-component multiple reinforcement schedule. During baseline, responding in all components produced money

CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS; Andrew E Brandt; GABRIEL D. SEARCY

Undergraduates were exposed to a mixed fixed-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. Values of the schedule components were adjusted so that interreinforcer intervals in one component were longer than those in another component. Following this, a mixed fixed-interval 5-s fixed-interval 20-s schedule (Experiment 1) or six fixed-intervalschedules in which the values ranged from 5 to 40 s (Experiment 2) were in effect. In both experiments, response rates under the fixed-intervalschedules were higher when the interreinforcer intervals approximated those produced under the fixed-ratio schedule, whereas the rates were lower when the interreinforcer intervals approximated those produced under the different-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. The present results demonstrate that the effects of behavioral history were under control of the interreinforcer intervals as discriminative stimuli.

In fixed-interval (FI) and response-initiated fixed-interval (RIFI) schedules of reinforcement, a response is required after an interval has elapsed for delivery of reinforcement. In RIFI schedules, a response is required to initiate each interval as well. The objective of this experiment was a systematic comparison of performance in the two schedule types over a range of interval durations. Four pigeons were exposed to FI and RIFI schedules of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240?s. Interfood intervals were longer and more variable in RIFI than corresponding FI schedules. In addition, response rates early in the RIFI schedules were higher than in corresponding FI schedules. However, the distribution of first-response latencies, mean breakpoints, and normalized response gradients suggest that temporal discrimination was equivalent in the two schedules. PMID:23897546

Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

Pigeons were exposed to a multiple fixed-interval one-minute fixed-interval three-minute schedule of reinforcement following training on either a multiple fixed-interval one-minute fixed-interval one-minute schedule or a multiple fixed-interval three-minute fixed-interval three-minute schedule. For all birds, large negative local contrast effects developed during the first of four three-minute intervals in a component; response rate was depressed and postreinforcement pause lengthened in this interval. Positive local contrast effects were evident during the first of 12 one-minute intervals in a component for five of six birds; at asymptote, the pause was very short and response rate slightly elevated during this interval. Overall positive contrast was generally transient and varied considerably across subjects, while overall negative contrast effects, if they occurred, appeared only after a large number of sessions.

Progressive-interval performances are described using measures that have proven to be successful in the analysis of fixed-interval responding. Five rats were trained with schedules in which the durations of consecutive intervals increased arithmetically as each interval was completed (either 6-s or 12-s steps for different subjects). The response patterns that emerged with extended training (90 sessions) indicated that performances had come under temporal control. Postreinforcement pausing increased as a function of the interval duration, the pauses were proportional to the prevailing duration, and the likelihood of the first response within an interval increased as the interval elapsed. To assess the resistance of these patterns to disruption, subjects were trained with a schedule that generated high response rates and short pauses (variable ratio). When the progressive-intervalschedule was reinstated, pausing was attenuated and rates were elevated, but performances reverted to earlier patterns with continued exposure. The results indicated that temporal control by progressive-intervalschedules, although slow to develop, is similar in many respects to that for fixed-intervalschedules.

Contingencies of reinforcement specify how reinforcers are earned and how they are obtained. Ratio contingencies specify the number of responses that earn a reinforcer, and the response satisfying the ratio requirement obtains the earned reinforcer. Simple intervalschedules specify that a certain time earns a reinforcer, which is obtained by the first response after the interval. The earning of reinforcers

Key pecking of three pigeons was studied under a conjunctive schedule that specified both a fixed-interval and an adjusting fixed-ratio requirement. The fixed-intervalschedule was 6 min for one pigeon and 3 min for the other two. The size of the ratio requirement was determined within each cycle of the fixed interval by the duration of the pause before responding began. The fixed-ratio value was at maximum at the start of each fixed interval and decreased linearly until the first response occurred (adjusting fixed-ratio schedule). A peck produced food when the number of responses remaining on the fixed-ratio schedule was completed and when the fixed interval had elapsed. If no response occurred during the interval, the fixed-ratio requirement decreased to one and a single response after the interval elapsed produced food. The initial value of the adjusting fixed-ratio schedule was studied over a range of 0 to 900. Increases in the adjusting fixed-ratio schedule to about 300 responses increased both pause duration and running response rate and also modified the pattern of responding from that obtained under the fixed-intervalschedule. Higher values of the adjusting fixed ratio generally decreased pause duration and running response rate and also disrupted responding. Interreinforcement time under the conjunctive schedule was increased substantially when the adjusting fixed-ratio size exceeded 300 responses.

The behavior engendered by the fixed-intervalschedule is characterized by its variability within and across intervals. The present experiment was designed to assess further the magnitude of interval-to-interval dynamics and to explore conditions which might enhance control by response number for subsequent output. Pigeons were exposed to three experimental manipulations after responding had stabilized under a fixed-interval five-minute schedule. First, a discrete five-stimulus counter was added so that the key color changed after a fixed number of responses. Then additional grain presentations were made at the end of the interval so that high response output was differentially reinforced in the presence of the counter stimuli. Finally, the counter stimuli were presented as an irregular clock (i.e., independently of responding), but the durations were yoked to performance under the counter condition. The data show that response number can exert influence from one interval to the next, but this source of control is weak and not influenced by the experimental manipulations. Results from the clock arrangement indicate that behavior is controlled largely by the stimulus conditions prevailing at the time of interval onset.

|Contingencies of reinforcement specify how reinforcers are earned and how they are obtained. Ratio contingencies specify the number of responses that earn a reinforcer, and the response satisfying the ratio requirement obtains the earned reinforcer. Simple intervalschedules specify that a certain time earns a reinforcer, which is obtained by the…

\\u000a In dealing with real-valued random variables, the median of the distribution is the ‘central tendency’ summary measure associated\\u000a with its ‘middle position’. When available random elements are interval-valued, the lack of a universal ranking of values\\u000a makes it impossible to formalize the extension of the concept of median as a middle-position summary measure. Nevertheless,\\u000a the use of a generalized L

Beatriz Sinova; María Casals; Ana Colubi; María Gil

The present experiments examined whether the rate and type of events maintaining responding help determine physostigmine's behavioral effects. The first two experiments examined the acute and chronic effects of physostigmine, respectively, on lever pressing of rats under variable-intervalschedules of food presentation. The third examined the chronic effects of physostigmine on lever pressing under random-intervalschedules of shock avoidance. Three different variable intervals (18, 56, and 180 s) and two different randomintervals (20 and 60 s) were studied, each associated with a distinctive stimulus. Baseline rates of responding were directly related to the scheduled rate of food delivery or shock avoidance. Acute administration of 0.154-1.233 mumol/kg (0.1-0.8 mg/kg) physostigmine sulfate produced monotonic decreases in overall response rate under all schedules of food presentation. Acute effects (per cent of control response rate) did not differ systematically under the various interval values. Large doses (i.e., 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) suppressed the rate of food delivery as well. When initially administered, 0.967 mumol/kg (0.4 mg/kg) physostigmine salicylate also suppressed avoidance response rates and per cent shocks avoided. Tolerance developed to the effects of this dose of physostigmine salicylate on pellet or shock-avoidance frequency more rapidly than to effects on overall response rate. Tolerance to the latter developed only very gradually and could in the case of shock-avoidance response rates be considered partial at best. Tolerance was not affected by the scheduled rate of food or shock presentation. Blood acetylcholinesterase levels showed no recovery during chronic physostigmine. Tolerance is discussed in terms of the reinforcement-loss hypothesis. PMID:2498941

|Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

In three experiments, 8 human subjects participated in a study of the effects of smoked marijuana on progressive-intervalschedule performance. A two-component chained progressive-interval fixed-intervalschedule of point delivery was used. In the progressive-interval component, the interval length began at 20 s and increased either geometrically or arithmetically (by either 20 s, 40 s, 80 s, 100 s, or 160 s) on each subsequent interval. After this interval elapsed, a single button press produced the fixed-interval component, with a total of five reinforcers of varying magnitude ($0.05, $0.20, or $0.40) available on a fixed-interval 20-s schedule. After the five reinforcer deliveries, the schedule returned to the initial progressive-interval component. Several relationships were found among rates of responding, postreinforcement pauses and drug administration in the progressive-interval component: (a) Postreinforcement pauses increased as the temporal requirements of the progressive-intervalschedule increased; (b) rates of responding during successive progressive-interval components rapidly decreased to low rates of responding after the first few progressions; (c) postreinforcement pauses decreased systematically as dose of smoked marijuana increased; and (d) rates of responding increased after smoking active marijuana but not after smoking placebo cigarettes. Results are discussed in the context of behavioral control and relevance to other studies that have investigated the effects of smoked marijuana on schedule performance.

This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem called the active intervalscheduling problem in hierarchical wireless sensor networks for long-term periodical monitoring applications. To improve the report sensitivity of the hierarchical wireless sensor networks, an efficient scheduling algorithm is desired. In this paper, we propose a compact genetic algorithm (CGA) to optimize the solution quality for sensor network maintenance. The

Ming-Hui Jin; Cheng-Yan Kao; Yu-Cheng Huang; D. Frank Hsu; Ren-Guey Lee; Chih-Kung Lee

|Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…

Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.

Three groups of rats pressed a lever for milk reinforcers on various simple reinforcement schedules (one schedule per condition). In Group M, each pair of conditions included a mixed-ratio schedule and a fixed-ratio schedule with equal average response:reinforcer ratios. On mixed-ratio schedules, reinforcement occurred with equal probability after a small or a large response requirement was met. In Group R, fixed-ratio and random-ratio schedules were compared in each pair of conditions. For all subjects in these two groups, the frequency distributions of interresponse times of less than one second were very similar on all ratio schedules, exhibiting a peak at about .2 seconds. For comparison, subjects in Group V responded on variable-intervalschedules, and few interresponse times as short as .2 seconds were recorded. The results suggest that the rate of continuous responding is the same on all ratio schedules, and what varies among ratio schedules is the frequency, location, and duration of pauses. Preratio pauses were longer on fixed-ratio schedules than on mixed-ratio or random-ratio schedules, but there was more within-ratio pausing on mixed-ratio and random-ratio schedules. Across a single trial, the probability of an interruption in responding decreased on fixed-ratio schedules, was roughly constant on random-ratio schedules, and often increased and then decreased on mixed-ratio schedules. These response patterns provided partial support for Mazur's (1982) theory that the probability of instrumental responding is directly related to the probability of reinforcement and the proximity of reinforcement. PMID:16812321

The problem of finding a high quality timetable for personnel in a hospital ward has been addressed by many researchers, personnel managers and schedulers over a number of years. Nevertheless, automated nurse rostering practice is not common yet in hospitals. Many head nurses are currently still spending several days per month on constructing their rosters by hand. In recent years,

Edmund K. Burke; Patrick De Causmaecker; Sanja Petrovic; Greet Vanden Berghe

The present study was designed to help answer several questions regarding the impact of spacing and expanded retrieval on memory performance in younger and older adults. Three expanded\\/equal intervalschedule pairings, matched in average spacing (1–2–3\\/2–2–2; 1–3–5\\/3–3–3; and 1–3–8\\/4–4–4), were compared, and the effect of retention interval on spaced retrieval benefits was examined by comparing performance on a same day

Correct matches on a matching-to-sample procedure were reinforced under fixed-interval, chained fixed-interval, and fixed-intervalschedules with exteroceptive stimulus changes correlated with time since the last reinforcer (an added clock). For all four pigeons, accuracy changed within the fixed-interval and fixed-intervalschedules with added clock, decreasing from the beginning of the interval to some point in the middle. The performance then became increasingly more accurate until the end of the interval. Under the chained schedules, accuracy also changed within the components. During the initial component, accuracy decreased from the beginning of the fixed interval to some point in the middle or at the end. During the middle component, the performance usually remained at an intermediate level of accuracy. During the terminal component, the initially inaccurate performance became increasingly more accurate throughout the interval. Systematic relationships between response rate and per cent error showed that all four pigeons performed most accurately at high rates. The accuracy of the performance at low rates was also quite high. These relationships held for all three types of schedules through an eight-fold variation in scheduled interreinforcement time.

Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-intervalschedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the rate of key poking. Analysis of the interresponse time distributions (log survivor plots) indicated that key poking occurred in bouts. Prefeeding lengthened the pauses between bouts, shortened the length of bouts (less reliably), and had a relatively small decremental effect on the response rate within bouts. That deprivation level affects mainly between-bout pauses has been reported previously with fixed-ratio schedules. Thus, when the focus is on bouts, the performances maintained by variable-intervalschedules and fixed-ratio schedules are similarly affected by deprivation.

Broadcasters generate a large part of their revenue through advertising, especially in live sports. Scheduling advertisements can be challenging in live broadcasting, however, for sports such as Cricket that have breaks of random lengths and number during which the ads are shown. This uncertainty, coupled with the high price of spots for major competitions, means that improving ad scheduling can

The present studies examined the effects of intermeal interval and pellet magnitude on the development and maintenance of\\u000a schedule-induced polydipsia using a between-subjects design as contrasted with earlier investigations, which have exclusively\\u000a employed within-subject procedures. In Experiment 1, pellets were delivered on one of six fixed-time schedules (20, 40, 60,\\u000a 120,180, and 240 sec) to different groups of rats. Although

Pigeons' pecks on a red key and a green key were followed by access to grain according to pairs of concurrent independent variable-intervalschedules in a combined signal detection/matching law paradigm. Pecks on the red key were reinforced by the richer variable-intervalschedule if a short-duration tone had been presented; pecks on the green key were reinforced by the richer variable-intervalschedule if a long-duration tone had been presented. Pecks on the green key given a short-duration tone, or on the red key given a long-duration tone, were reinforced by the leaner variable-intervalschedule. The data were analyzed according to both signal detection's and the matching law's separate measures of, first, the discrimination of the choices and, second, the bias to make one response or another. Increasing the difficulty of the tone-duration discrimination decreased both methods' measures of the discrimination of the choices and did not change both methods' measures of the bias to make one response or another. Changing the leaner variable-intervalschedule so that it approached the richer variable-intervalschedule decreased signal detection's measure of discrimination but left its measure of response bias and the matching law measures unchanged. Data collected only until a subject's first changeover response following presentation of a long or a short tone showed higher values for both methods' measures of discrimination, no change in signal detection's measure of response bias, and lower values for the matching law's measure of response bias. Relationships between the matching law's and signal detection's methods of analyzing choice are discussed. It is concluded that a signal detection analysis is more efficient for examining changes in the difficulty of a discrimination, whereas a matching law analysis is more effective for examining the effects of changes in relative reinforcer frequency.

|Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone,…

This letter proposes an efficient uplink scheduling algorithm for the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with variable frame-duration according to the voice activity in IEEE 802.16e/m systems. The proposed algorithm dynamically changes the grant-interval to save the uplink bandwidth, and it uses the random access scheme when the voice activity changes from silent-period to talk-spurt. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the VoIP capacity by 26 percent compared to the conventional extended real-time polling service (ertPS).

Oh, Sung-Min; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwun, Jonghyung

Behavioral impairment as a consequence of PCB exposure beginning in utero has been reported in both humans and animals. The present study assessed the behavioral consequences of postnatal exposure to PCBs. Male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were dosed from birth to 20 weeks of age with 7.5 microg/kg/day of a PCB mixture representative of the PCBs typically found in human breast milk (eight monkeys) or vehicle (four monkeys). Blood PCB levels at 20 weeks of age were 0.30-0.37 ppb for control and 1.84-2.84 ppb for treated monkeys, and fat levels were 50-198 and 1694-3560 ppb for the two groups, respectively. Beginning at about 5.0 years of age, monkeys performed under concurrent schedules of reinforcement in which separate randomintervals were in effect on two buttons independently. After steady-state performance was reached, the relative reinforcement ratio on the buttons was changed a total of four times, and performance both during transition and steady state was examined. There was no evidence for treatment-related differences in performance across the series of changes in schedule contingencies. The negative results failed to support the hypothesis that performance on an intermittent schedule, combined with the requirement for shifting response strategy, would prove particularly sensitive to postnatal PCB exposure. Following the concurrent schedules, monkeys were tested under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule preceded by a training procedure consisting of a within-session series of increasing fixed ratios. PCB-treated monkeys emitted more responses than controls over the first few sessions of the PR, which may be indicative of retarded acquisition of their steady-state PR performance. These results extend previous studies in these monkeys on the characterization of PCB-induced behavioral deficits. PMID:10023801

Random unitary beamforming is one of the schemes that can reduce the amount of feedback information in multiuser diversity techniques with multiple-antenna downlink transmission. In Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, throughput performance is greatly improved using AMC (Adaptive Modulation and Coding). Throughput performance is also improved by allocating power among streams appropriately. In random unitary beamforming, the transmitter has only partial channel state information (CSI) of each receiver. Thus, it is difficult for random unitary beamforming to use conventional power allocation methods that assumes that all receivers has full CSI. In this paper, we propose a new scheduling algorithm with power allocation for downlink random unitary beamforming that improves throughput performance without full CSI. We provide numerical results of the proposed scheduling algorithm and compare them to those of the conventional random unitary beamforming scheduling algorithm. We show that random unitary beamforming achieves the best system throughput performance with two transmit antennas. We also show that the proposed algorithm attains higher throughput with the small increase of feedback than the random unitary beamforming scheduling algorithm.

Average response rate, post-reinforcement pause, elapsed time to the fourth response, average quarter-life, and running rate were examined to see how they reflected changes in fixed-interval performance. Rats were exposed to a mixed schedule of water presentation comprising fixed-intervalschedules of two durations. Changes in responding were produced by varying the duration of the shorter component. The five measures were derived only from the longer schedule component. Post-reinforcement pause, elapsed time to the fourth response in the interval, and quarter-life all showed high, positive inter-correlations (0.78interval performance but changes in the quarter-life value did not necessarily result from similar changes in fixed-interval response pattern. The two measures that adequately described changes in response patterning were post-reinforcement pause and running rate. These two measures also had the advantage of being simple both computationally and in terms of the instrumentation involved in their recording.

Three rats, lever pressing for food delivered on a fixed-interval 128-s schedule, were presented with a 16-s opportunity to drink from a retractable water source. The temporal placement of the water probe within the reinforcement cycle was varied sequentially, in steps of 16 s. Although the lever-pressing pattern was modulated by the intercalated water probe, water consumption during the probe itself was a decreasing function of time from the following reinforcer. These results were interpreted as evidence against the notion that schedule-induced drinking is a "ubiquitous" phenomenon and are congruent with results from other "intruded stimulus" experiments.

Each of three pigeons was studied first under a standard fixed-intervalschedule. With the fixed interval held constant, the schedule was changed to a second-order schedule in which the response unit was the behavior on a small fixed-ratio schedule (first a fixed-ratio 10 and then a fixed-ratio 20 schedule). That is, every completion of the fixed-ratio schedule produced a 0.7-sec darkening of the key and reset the response count to zero for the next ratio. The first fixed-ratio completed after the fixed-intervalschedule elapsed produced the 0.7-sec blackout followed immediately by food. These manipulations were carried out under two different fixed-interval durations for each bird ranging from 3 min to 12 min. The standard fixed-intervalschedules produced the typical pause after reinforcement followed by responding at a moderate rate until the next reinforcement. The second-order schedules also engendered a pause after reinforcement, but responding occurred in bursts separated by brief pauses after each blackout. For a particular fixed-interval duration, post-reinforcement pauses increased slightly as the number of pecks in the response unit increased despite large differences in the rate and pattern of key pecking. Post-reinforcement pause increased with the fixed-interval duration under all response units. These data confirm that the allocation of time between pausing and responding is relatively independent of the rate and topography of responding after the pause.

Shull, Richard L.; Guilkey, Marilyn; Witty, William

Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (<0.4?s) in eight of nine opportunities. In the VR component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates and the proportion of short IRTs in only two of nine opportunities. For two of the three pigeons that were exposed to the 5-s unsignaled delay, response rates and the proportion of short IRTs decreased in both of the components. The 0.5-s signaled delay did not systematically change response rates nor did it change the distribution of short IRTs relative to the immediate reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding. PMID:23900853

This paper presents the displacement, stress and reliability analysis of structures with a mixture of random and interval parameters under uncertain static loads. The structural displacement and stress responses are randominterval variables when some structural parameters/loads are modelled as random variables and others are considered as intervals. The randominterval perturbation method and randominterval moment method are employed to predict the randominterval structural response. The structural reliability is not a deterministic value but an interval as the structural responses are randominterval variables. The expressions for lower and upper bounds of reliability index, probability of failure and reliability of structural elements and systems are then developed by using the combination of the structural reliability theory and interval approach. Truss and frame structures are used as examples to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the presented methods. The probabilistic and interval characteristics of structural static response and reliability are investigated and some useful conclusions are given.

Twelve pigeons responded on concurrent variable-intervalschedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights for some pigeons, and white circles on the response keys for others). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for food on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Across conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response keys. The main findings were that the pigeons' response percentages varied as a function of the number of tokens earned at any given moment, and they were determined by both the delays to food and by the number of food deliveries in the exchange periods. In some conditions, tokens had to be earned but were not visible during the variable-intervalschedules for one or both keys. When one key had visible tokens and the other did not, the pigeons showed a preference for the key without visible tokens. A model based on the matching law and a hyperbolic delay-discounting equation could account for the main patterns of choice responding, and for how response percentages changed as successive tokens were earned. The results are consistent with the view that the token stimuli served as discriminative stimuli that signaled the current delays to food. PMID:23460072

Key pecking of pigeons was maintained by a fixed-interval (FI) 61-s schedule. The effects of resetting and nonresetting unsignaled delays of reinforcement then were examined. The resetting delay was programmed as a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule, and the nonresetting delay as a fixed-time schedule. Three delay durations (0.5, 1 and 10s) were examined. Overall response rates were decreased by one and 10-s delays and increased by 0.5-s delays. Response patterns changed from positively accelerated to more linear when resetting or nonresetting 10-s delays were imposed, but remained predominantly positively accelerated when resetting and nonresetting 0.5- and 1-s delays were in effect. In general, temporal control, as measured by quarter-life values, changed less than overall response rates when delays of reinforcement were in effect. The response patterns controlled by FI schedules are more resilient to the nominally disruptive effects of delays of reinforcement than are corresponding overall response rates. PMID:21801816

The responding maintained by a reinforcer depends on the relation of the reinforcer not merely to the response that produces it but also to other preceding responses. Early responses in a sequence that ends in a reinforcing consequence make smaller contributions to later response rates than more recent ones, by virtue of the longer delays that separate them from the reinforcer. This study shows that the relation between a response and a later reinforcer contributes to responding only if no other reinforcers intervene; in other words, each reinforcer blocks responses that precede it from the effects of later reinforcers. Pigeons' pecks were maintained by fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement. When FI 60-s (short) and FI 75-s (long) schedules began simultaneously within constant 150-s cycles, long FIs did not affect short-FI performances, but short FIs eliminated the first 60 s of long-FI performances. Removing either short-FI reinforcers or short-FI stimuli showed that short-FI reinforcers and not short-FI stimuli blocked the first 60 s of the long-FI performance from the retroactive effects of the long-FI reinforcer. With FI 15-s and FI 75-s schedules, the short-FI reinforcer was followed by reduced long-FI responding, but a schedule that prevented discrimination based on time since a reinforcer eliminated this proactive effect of the short-FI reinforcer. In other words, the retroactive effects were reinforcer effects whereas the proactive effects were discriminative effects. Quantitative descriptions of variable-interval performances, in which reinforcer effects may operate in the absence of temporal discriminative effects, can be derived from these relations.

Catania, A. Charles; Sagvolden, Terje; Keller, Kenneth J.

Microinjections of the irreversible dopamine antagonist EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline), into nucleus accumbens but not into dorsal striatum, markedly decreased response rates on a fixed intervalschedule of reinforcement. These preferential effects in nucleus accumbens could be prevented by selectively activating either D1 or D2 receptors. These data demonstrate a critical role for mesolimbic dopamine systems in the mediation of fixed intervalschedule-controlled operant behavior. PMID:9295219

Considering alternative machines for operations, forbidden intervals during which machines cannot be available and a job’s\\u000a batch size greater than one in the real manufacturing environment, this paper studies the batch splitting scheduling problem\\u000a on alternative machines with forbidden intervals, based on the objective to minimize the makespan. A scheduling model is established,\\u000a taking before-arrival set-up, processing, and transfer time

Yan-wei Zhao; Hai-yan Wang; Xin-li Xu; Wan-liang Wang

In squirrel monkeys responding under a schedule in which responding postponed the delivery of electric shock, the presentation of response-dependent shock under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule increased the rate of responding. When the schedule of shock-postponement was eliminated, so that the only shocks delivered were those produced by responses under the FI schedule, a pattern of positively accelerated responding developed and was maintained over an extended period. When responses did not produce shocks (extinction), responding decreased. When shocks were again presented under the FI schedule, the previous pattern of responding quickly redeveloped. In general, response rates were directly related to the intensity of the shock presented, and inversely related to the duration of the fixed-interval. These results raise fundamental questions about the traditional classification of stimuli as reinforcers or punishers. The basic similarities among FI schedules of food presentation, shock termination, and shock presentation strengthen the conclusion that the schedule under which an event is presented and the characteristics of the behavior at the time the event is presented, are of overriding importance in determining the effect of that event on behavior.

An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of an auditory model on blocked, random, and mixed practice schedules of three five-segment timing sequences (relative time constant). We were interested in whether or not the auditory model differentially affected the learning of relative and absolute timing under blocked and random practice. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of eight practice conditions, which differed in practice schedule (blocked-blocked, blocked-random, random-blocked, random-random) and auditory model (no model, model). The results indicated that the auditory model enhanced relative timing performance on the delayed retention test regardless of the practice schedule, but it did not influence the learning of absolute timing. Blocked-blocked and blocked-random practice conditions resulted in enhanced relative timing retention performance relative to random-blocked and random-random practice schedules. Random-random and blocked-random practice schedules resulted in better absolute timing than blocked-blocked or random-blocked practice, regardless of the presence or absence of an auditory model during acquisition. Thus, considering both relative and absolute timing, the blocked-random practice condition resulted in overall learning superior to the other practice schedules. The results also suggest that an auditory model produces an added effect on learning relative timing regardless of the practice schedule, but it does not influence the learning of absolute timing. PMID:19177949

When employing fuzzy random variable in some real programming problems, it is not easy to specify the fuzzy values of random variables. But it is relatively easy to obtain the boundaries of the values of random variables. Hence, it is a good idea for people to determine the values of random variables as intervals. In this paper, we introduce the

The lever pressing of four food- and water-deprived rats was reinforced on concurrent variable-intervalschedules. Food reinforced one response, and water reinforced the other. Response rates in baseline were higher in the food component than in the water component. After response patterns and body weights had stabilized, the animals were given access to either food only, water only, both food and water, or neither food nor water (baseline) before daily sessions. Giving food before a session decreased per cent time in the food component, decreased overall response rates for food, and increased overall response rates for water. Giving water before a session increased per cent time in the food component, increased overall response rates for food, and decreased overall response rates for water. Giving both food and water before a session resulted in a combination of prefeeding and prewatering effects. More food and more water were consumed when both were available than when only one was available before a session.

Willis, Richard D.; Van Hartesveldt, Carol; Loken, Kristen K.; Hall, Deborah C.

|The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

The tension between exploitation of the best options and exploration of alternatives is a ubiquitous problem that all organisms face. To examine this trade-off across species, pigeons and people were trained on an eight-armed bandit task in which the options were rewarded on a variable interval (VI) schedule. At regular intervals, each option's VI changed, thus encouraging dynamic increases in exploration in response to these anticipated changes. Both species showed sensitivity to the payoffs that was often well modeled by Luce's (1963) decision rule. For pigeons, exploration of alternative options was driven by experienced changes in the payoff schedules, not the beginning of a new session, even though each session signaled a new schedule. In contrast, people quickly learned to explore in response to signaled changes in the payoffs. PMID:21380732

Racey, Deborah; Young, Michael E; Garlick, Dennis; Pham, Jennifer Ngoc-Minh; Blaisdell, Aaron P

Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called intervalrandom frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called intervalrandom frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list. PMID:23602956

Job-shop scheduling is a difficult problem, both theoretically and practically. The theoretical problems stem from the search for optimal schedules subject to a limited number of constraints, while the complexity of practical problems is due to the number and variety of constraints that are not rigid in the actual situations. Indeed, in real world descriptions there are many vaguely formulated

Pigeons were exposed to fixed-intervalschedules of food reinforcement with durations of 300 sec, 100 sec, or 40 sec. A range of doses of d-amphetamine was administered to each pigeon, and the resulting behavior was analyzed at several levels of detail. Average rates in different portions of the intervals predicted the magnitude of the drug's effect, but a finer analysis showed that average rates did not adequately characterize the behavior in some parts of the intervals. The probability of responding in different parts of an interval without drug was also a good predictor of the magnitude of the effect of d-amphetamine, and at the same time was more descriptive of the interval-to-interval performance. Analyses of the control performance indicated that responding in individual intervals could be described as consisting of two parts: a very low, or zero, rate at the beginning of the interval followed by an abrupt transition to a slightly, but reliably, positively accelerated rate maintained until reinforcement.

We consider a version of the total flow time single machine scheduling problem where uncertainty about processing times is\\u000a taken into account. Namely an interval of equally possible processing times is considered for each job, and optimization is\\u000a carried out according to a robustness criterion. We propose the first mixed integer linear programming formulation for the\\u000a resulting optimization problem and

Using an Edgeworth expansion to speed up the asymptotics, we develop one-sided coverage intervals for a proportion based on a stratified simple random sample. To this end, we assume the values of the population units are generated from independent random variables with a common mean within each stratum. These stratum means, in turn, may either be free to vary or

Summary Random covering intervals are placed on the real line in a Poisson manner. Lebesgue measure governs their (random) locations\\u000a and an arbitrary measure ? governs their (random) lengths. The uncovered set is a regenerative set in the sense of Hoffmann-Jørgensen's\\u000a generalization of regenerative phenomena introduced by Kingman. Thus, as has previously been obtained by Mandelbrot, it is\\u000a the closure of

Dorset, Finnsheep, Composite I (50% Finnsheep, 25% Dorset, and 25% Rambouillet), and Composite II (50% Finnsheep, 25% Suffolk, and 25% Targhee) sheep were evaluated under three twice-a-year breeding schedules. Lactation status had a significant effect on conception rate but number of lambs suckling...

A joint channel adaptive rate control and random- ized scheduling algorithm based on learning automata (LA) (4) is presented. The scheduling is performed at the medium access control (MAC) layer whereas the rate selection takes place at the Physical\\/Link (PHY\\/LINK) layer. The two components residing in the two layers exchange minimal amount of information and adaptively achieve the best throughput

In this paper, we provide a new class of randomized approximation algorithms for scheduling problems by directly interpreti ng solutions to so-called time-indexed LPs as probabilities. The most general model we consider is sched- uling unrelated parallel machines with release dates (or ev en network scheduling) so as to minimize the average weighted completion time. The crucial idea for these

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance were assessed across measures of behavior and evaluated using commonly employed stability criteria. Stability of response rate and pause was identified better by assessments that evaluated variability and trend, rather than just variability. Between-subject differences in rate of acquisition and terminal values of steady-state performance of pause were observed, and stable pause durations took longer to develop than did stable key-pecking rates. Relative variability in response rate and pause duration decreased as the means increased. A temporally organized pattern of key-pecking (the so-called FI scallop) developed within 50 sessions of exposure to the schedule. Overall ambulation decreased during the early sessions of exposure and further analyses showed greater rates of ambulation during the pause than after it for 4 of the 6 pigeons. Performance under the FI 3-min schedule developed relatively slowly, and key-pecking, pause, and ambulation developed at different rates.

Berry, Meredith S; Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance were assessed across measures of behavior and evaluated using commonly employed stability criteria. Stability of response rate and pause was identified better by assessments that evaluated variability and trend, rather than just variability. Between-subject differences in rate of acquisition and terminal values of steady-state performance of pause were observed, and stable pause durations took longer to develop than did stable key-pecking rates. Relative variability in response rate and pause duration decreased as the means increased. A temporally organized pattern of key-pecking (the so-called FI scallop) developed within 50 sessions of exposure to the schedule. Overall ambulation decreased during the early sessions of exposure and further analyses showed greater rates of ambulation during the pause than after it for 4 of the 6 pigeons. Performance under the FI 3-min schedule developed relatively slowly, and key-pecking, pause, and ambulation developed at different rates. PMID:22693362

Berry, Meredith S; Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

The results of a number of studies have implicated beta adrenergic receptors in the brain in the actions of proven antidepressant drugs. This suspected involvement of central beta adrenergic receptors made it of interest to characterize the behavioral effects of centrally acting beta adrenergic agonists. Clenbuterol and prenalterol, unlike most beta adrenergic agonists, penetrate into the central nervous system after peripheral administration. In the present study, the effects of these agonists on behavior maintained under a multiple fixed-interval 5-min, fixed-ratio 30-response schedule were determined. Both compounds, in a dose-dependent manner, reduced response rate under both components of the multiple schedule. Under the fixed-interval component, clenbuterol and prenalterol altered the temporal pattern of responding. At no dose tested was there evidence for any stimulant action of either of the drugs. The effects of clenbuterol and prenalterol on behavior maintained under the multiple schedule appeared to be a result of an interaction of the agonists with beta adrenergic receptors. This was evidenced by the ability of the beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol to block the effects of the agonists. The behavioral effects of clenbuterol and prenalterol appear, in general, to be similar to effects reported previously for tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibiting antidepressant drugs. PMID:2886645

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative reinforcement VI), there is a fundamental mathematical equivalence between reward gain and shock reduction. We also provide the first normative account of how animals should respond on a negative VI schedule, showing that it is better to space responses evenly than to respond with a variable interresponse time (IRT). Published data from rats, however, indicate that these animals respond irregularly, often with a burst of activity immediately following a shock. While this is irrational in the experimental setting, it may represent an appropriate response to the heterogeneity of stimuli commonly encountered in natural environments. We discuss the broader implications of our analysis for understanding how animals evaluate appetitive and aversive stimuli.

Mallpress, Dave E.W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

This study presents a nonlinear dynamical model for operant responses under the FI reinforcement schedule based on the synergetic\\u000a concept. The model simulates different types of behavioral dynamics seen in the extended return map (ERM) patterns, as well\\u000a as the “scalloped-curve” using data averaged over a whole session. We compared our results with the performance of a very\\u000a popular model

Several multiple imputation techniques are described for simple random samples with ignorable nonresponse on a scalar outcome variable. The methods are compared using both analytic and Monte Carlo results concerning coverages of the resulting intervals for the population mean. Using m = 2 imputations per missing value gives accurate coverages in common cases and is clearly superior to single imputation

Provides equations for computing confidence-interval estimates and conducting "F" tests for intraclass correlation coefficients defined using three-way random-effects models for crossed and nested designs. The estimates and tests use mean squares from analyses of variance. (Author/SLD)

|An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of an auditory model on blocked, random, and mixed practice schedules of three five-segment timing sequences (relative time constant). We were interested in whether or not the auditory model differentially affected the learning of relative and absolute timing under blocked and random practice.…

Five undergraduates responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 145 schedule, and 5 others responded under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 20-s schedule. Both groups were then exposed to a differential-reinforcement-of-rates- with-pacing 1 s less than interresponse time (IRT) less than or equal to 2 s schedule. Following this, probe sessions…

A joint channel adaptive rate control and randomizedscheduling algorithm based on learning automata (LA) K. S. Narendra et al., (1989)is presented. The scheduling is performed at the medium access control (MAC) layer whereas the rate selection takes place at the physical\\/link (PHY\\/LINK) layer. The two components residing in the two layers exchange minimal amount of information and adaptively achieve

The times between each of the first thirteen responses after reinforcement (the first twelve interresponse times) were determined for two pigeons whose pecking was reinforced on fixed-intervalschedules of food reinforcement ranging from 0.5 min to 5 min. These interresponse times were classified with respect to their ordinal position in the sequence of responses and with respect to the time since the preceding reinforcement at which the initiating response occurred. The median interresponse time durations were essentially constant after the sixth response after reinforcement regardless of the time at which the interresponse time was initiated. The durations of the first few interresponse times after reinforcement decreased as the number of preceding responses increased and as the time since the preceding reinforcement increased.

Lagrangian relaxation method for jobshop scheduling problems has been studied in the framework of combinatorial auction. In this paper a noncooperative game model is built for the Lagrangian relaxation method, and we prove that the equivalent continuous relaxation computed from the Lagrangian dual problem provides a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium for this game model. Based on this interpretation a randomized

The simultaneous comparison of proportions of success between many treatments and one control group is a common problem in randomized clinical trials or toxicity studies. In this article, three recently recommended asymptotic confidence interval approaches for the difference of proportions are adjusted for multiplicity, taking the correlation into account. The coverage probability of the resulting interval methods is compared in

Frank Schaarschmidt; Egbert Biesheuvel; Ludwig A. Hothorn

Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-intervalschedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

|Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-intervalschedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of randomly generating fixed-interval railway timetables in order to use them as scenarios when drawing up and/or analyzing specifications of future railway infrastructure. The timetables are sampled from a s...

This work is concerned with the growth of age-structured populations whose vital rates vary stochastically in time and with the provision of confidence intervals. In this paper a model Yt + 1(omega) = Xt + 1(omega) Yt(omega) is considered, where Yt is the (column) vector of the numbers of individuals in each age class at time t, X is a matrix of vital rates, and omega refers to a particular realization of the process that produces the vital rates. It is assumed that (Xi) is a stationary sequence of random matrices with nonnegative elements and that there is an integer n0 such that any product Xj + n0...Xj + 1Xj has all its elements positive with probability one. Then, under mild additional conditions, strong laws of large numbers and central limit results are obtained for the logarithms of the components of Yt. Large-sample estimators of the parameters in these limit results are derived. From these, confidence intervals on population growth and growth rates can be constructed. Various finite-sample estimators are studied numerically. The estimators are then used to study the growth of the striped bass population breeding in the Potomac River of the eastern United States. PMID:4023951

|Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-intervalschedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…

We often employ stratified analysis to control the confounding effect due to centers in a multicenter trial or the confounding effect due to trials in a meta-analysis. On the basis of a general risk additive model, we focus discussion on interval estimation of the risk difference (RD) in repeated binary measurements under a stratified randomized clinical trial (RCT) in the presence of noncompliance. We develop five asymptotic interval estimators for the RD in closed form. These include the interval estimator using the weighted least-squares (WLS) estimator, the WLS interval estimator with tanh (-1)(x) transformation, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type interval estimator, the MH interval estimator with tanh (-1)(x) transformation, and the interval estimator using the idea of Fieller's theorem and a randomization-based variance. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to study and compare the finite-sample performance of these interval estimators in a variety of situations. We include an example studying the use of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia events in acute myeloid leukaemia patients published elsewhere to illustrate the use of these estimators. PMID:23786643

Consider a dependent variable y linearly related to one or more independent variables, where several parallel lines must be used to model the relationship due to data points occurring in distinct batches or random observation classes. We suggest an approximate confidence interval for the expected value of y at a specified point in the space of the independent variables. The

This paper considers the design of accelerated life test (ALT) sampling plans under Type I progressive interval censoring with random removals. We assume that the lifetime of products follows a Weibull distribution. Two levels of constant stress higher than the use condition are used. The sample size and the acceptability constant that satisfy given levels of producer's risk and consumer's

Relationships are established between the stochastic ordering of random variables, of their random partial sums, and of counting measures of randomintervals. Two types of results are obtained. Conditions are given under which a stochastic ordering betwee...

One of the main objectives in meta-analysis is to estimate the overall effect size by calculating a confidence interval (CI). The usual procedure consists of assuming a standard normal distribution and a sampling variance defined as the inverse of the sum of the estimated weights of the effect sizes. But this procedure does not take into account…

Parallel machine scheduling problems, which are important discrete optimization problems, may occur in many applications. For example, load balancing in network communication channel assignment, parallel processing in large-size computing, task arrangement in flexible manufacturing systems, etc., are multiprocessor scheduling problem. In the traditional parallel machine scheduling problems, it is assumed that the problems are considered in offline or online environment.

Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children. Methods We investigated adherence to study medication in a two centre, randomized trial comparing daily to three times a week dosing of isoniazid. The study was conducted at two tertiary paediatric care centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Over a 5 year period, we followed 324 HIV-infected children aged ? 8 weeks. Adherence information based on pill counts was available for 276 children. Percentage adherence was calculated by counting the number of pills returned. Adherence ? 90% was considered to be optimal. Analysis was done using summary and repeated measures, comparing adherence to the two dosing schedules. Mean percentage adherence (per child during follow-up time) was used to compare the mean of each group as well as the proportion of children achieving an adherence of ? 90% in each group. For repeated measures, percentage adherence (per child per visit) was dichotomized at 90%. A logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations, to account for within-individual correlation, was used to evaluate the impact of the dosing schedule. Adjustments were made for potential confounders and we assessed potential baseline and time-varying adherence determinants. Results The overall adherence to isoniazid was excellent, with a mean adherence of 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.5-95.9); similar mean adherence was achieved by the group taking daily medication (93.8%; 95% CI 92.1-95.6) and by the three times a week group (95.5%; 95% CI 93.8-97.2). Two-hundred and seventeen (78.6%) children achieved a mean adherence of ? 90%. Adherence was similar for daily and three times a week dosing schedules in univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% CI 0.66-1.17; P = 0.38) and multivariate (adjusted OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.11; P = 0.23) models. Children from overcrowded homes were less adherent (adjusted OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P = 0.02). Age at study visit was predictive of adherence, with better adherence achieved in children older than 4 years (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.32; P = 0.01). Conclusion Adherence to isoniazid was excellent regardless of the dosing schedule used. Intermittent dosing of isoniazid prophylaxis can be considered as an alternative to daily dosing, without compromising adherence or efficacy. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00330304

le Roux, Stanzi M; Cotton, Mark F; Golub, Jonathan E; le Roux, David M; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J

\\u000a In this paper, we have done thorough mathematical analysis and extensive simulations on the distributed, lightweight and location-free\\u000a node scheduling scheme proposed in [11]. The basic idea of this scheduling scheme is to organize sensor nodes into disjoint\\u000a node sets, which work alternately to extend network lifetime effectively. Distinguished from the work in [11], we reevaluate\\u000a the performance of this

|An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.

?Backoff-based Random Access ? Easy to use, but again achieving optimality in the idea continuous case ? In practical discrete system ? Pay the price of short-term fairness ? Hard to achieve “really” optimality using random access, but good performance

OBJECTIVES Among patients unlikely to attend a scheduled colonoscopy, we examined the impact of peer coach versus educational brochure\\u000a support and compared these with concurrent patients who did not receive support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS From health system data, we identified 275 consecutive patients aged >50 who kept <75% of visits to 4 primary care practices\\u000a and scheduled for a first colonoscopy from February 1,

Barbara J. Turner; Mark Weiner; Sheila D. Berry; Karen Lillie; Kevin Fosnocht; Christopher S. Hollenbeak

Background Although, in Western countries, oxaliplatin-based regimens have been established as a gold standard treatment for patients with stage III or high risk stage II colon cancer after curative resection, in Japan fluorouracil-based regimens have been widely accepted and recommended in the guidelines for adjuvant settings in patients with stage III colon cancer. S-1, an oral preparation evolved from uracil and tegafur, has equivalent efficacy to uracil and tegafur/leucovorin for treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer and might be a suitable regimen in an adjuvant setting. However, the completion rate of the standard six-week cycle of the S-1 regimen is poor and the establishment of an optimal treatment schedule is critical. Therefore, we will conduct a multicenter randomized phase II trial to compare six-week and three-week cycles to establish the optimal schedule of S-1 adjuvant therapy for patients with stage III colon cancer after curative resection. Methods/Design The study is an open-label, multicenter randomized phase II trial. The primary endpoint of this study is three-year disease-free survival rate. Secondary endpoints are the completion rate of the treatment, relative dose intensity, overall survival, disease-free survival, and incidence of adverse events. The sample size was 200, determined with a significance level of 0.20, power of 0.80, and non-inferiority margin of a 10% absolute difference in the primary endpoint. Discussion Although S-1 has not been approved yet as a standard treatment of colon cancer in an adjuvant setting, it is a promising option. Moreover, in Japan S-1 is a standard treatment for patients with stage II/III gastric cancer after curative resection and a promising option for patients with colorectal liver metastases in an adjuvant setting. However, a six-week cycle of treatment is not considered to be the best schedule, and some clinicians use a modified schedule, such as a three-week cycle to keep a sufficient dose intensity with few adverse events. Therefore, it will be useful to determine whether a three-week cycle has an equal or greater efficacy and tolerance to side-effects compared with the standard six-week cycle schedule, and thus may be the most suitable treatment schedule for S-1 treatment. Trial registration The University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006750.

Background Flexibility of vaccination schedule and lower antigen content can facilitate pandemic vaccine coverage. We assessed the immune response and safety of AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine containing half of the registered adult haemagglutinin (HA) antigen content, administered as a two-dose schedule at intervals of 21?days or 6?months in both young and elderly adults. Methods In this open-label randomized trial, healthy adults aged 18–60?years (N?=?163) and >60?years (N?=?143) received AS03A-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 vaccine containing 1.9??g HA on Day 0. A second dose was given on Day 21 (n?=?177) or Day 182 (n?=?106). Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses were analyzed on Days 0, 21, 42, 182, 364 and additionally on Day 203 for subjects vaccinated on Day 182. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Results The HI antibody response in both age strata 21?days after the first dose met and exceeded all regulatory acceptance criteria although the results suggested a lower response in the older age stratum (geometric mean titres [GMTs] for HI antibodies of 420.5 for subjects aged 18–60?years and 174.4 for those >60?years). A second dose of AS03A adjuvanted A/H1N1/2009 vaccine induced a further increase in antibody titres and the response was similar whether the second dose was administered at 21?days (GMTs of 771.8 for 18–60?years and 400.9 for >60?years) or 6?months (GMTs of 708.3 for 18–60?years and 512.1 for >60?years) following the first dose. Seroprotection rates remained high at 6?months after one dose or two doses while at 12?months rates tended to be higher for the 6?month intervalschedule (93.3% for 18–60?years and 80.4% for >60?years) than the 21?day schedule (82.3% for 18–60?years and 50.0% for >60?years). Reactogenicity/safety profiles were similar for both schedules, there was no evidence of an increase in reactogenicity following the second dose. Conclusions The results indicate that flexibility in the dosing interval for AS03A adjuvanted vaccine may be possible. Such flexibility could help to reduce the logistic stress on delivery of pandemic vaccination programmes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00975884

Epidemiological surveys demonstrate that caffeine, the main psychoactive ingredient of coffee, is a positive correlate in drug abuse. To characterize the behavioral nature of caffeine interactions with other psychomotor stimulants, we examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on the behavioral responses to nicotine, amphetamine, cocaine, the selective D1 agonist SKF-82958 and the selective D2 receptor agonist NPA, in rats responding under a fixed interval (FI) schedule of food reinforcement. Following stabilization of rates and temporal patterns of responding (mathematically expressed as quarter-life values, QL), twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rats responding under a 5-min FI schedule of food reinforcement were divided into two groups; one (twelve rats) maintained on tap water (control) and the other (nine rats) on caffeine (3 mg/ml added to the drinking water). Following the substitution of caffeine solution for tap water, behavior was temporarily disrupted as evidenced by decreases in responding and QL values which reached a maximum after 72 h (rate 60% and QL 30% below baseline levels). Rats developed complete tolerance to these effects of caffeine over 5 days of caffeine exposure. After response rate and QL values stabilized, effects of drugs were evaluated. Nicotine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg; SC), amphetamine (0.1-5.6; IP), and cocaine (1.0-17; IP) each produced biphasic dose-dependent changes in response rate with maximum increases in response rate following intermediate doses and decreases in response rates following higher doses. The increase in rates of responding produced by amphetamine or cocaine (but not nicotine) were greater (P<0.05) in caffeine-drinking than in water-drinking rats. Both SKF-82958 (0.001-0.3 mg/kg; IP) and NPA (0.0001-0.1; IP) produced only dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. Caffeine-drinking rats were less sensitive to the rate-depressant effects of SKF-82958 (P<0.05) than water-drinking rats. However, similar changes (P>0.05) were produced by NPA in both groups. Except for amphetamine, the remaining drugs produced similar (P>0.05) dose-dependent decreases in QL values in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. Amphetamine produced smaller decreases in QL values in caffeine-drinking rats than in water-drinking rats (P<0.05). Chronic exposure to caffeine produced complete insurmountable tolerance to the response-rate increasing (stimulant) effects of acute caffeine (3.0-17 mg/kg; IP) in caffeine-drinking rats. In conclusion, our study revealed that chronic caffeine exposure potentiates the behavioral response to amphetamine and cocaine but not to that of nicotine in rats responding under a FI schedule of food reinforcement. Thus, it is likely that these effects are mediated through different pharmacological mechanisms. PMID:9877005

Jaszyna, M; Gasior, M; Shoaib, M; Yasar, S; Goldberg, S R

The fixed-intervalschedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

The present paper investigates practical algorithms to efficiently exploit random network coding for data delivery in multi-hop wireless networks. In the past few years, a great deal of work has been carried out to derive analytical results about network coding. However, only recently have researchers started to utilize the theoretical findings in practical settings. Network coding is a new paradigm

Elena Fasolo; Michele Rossi; Jörg Widmer; Michele Zorzi

An unreliable manufacturing system with random demand is examined. The demand rate may be sometimes smaller than the production rate or sometimes larger than the production rate. On the whole, the demand can be satisfied. Meanwhile, the system can produce several types of products. At any given time it can only produce one type of product. A setup (with setup

AIMS To model the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ifosfamide and its key metabolites. The pharmacodynamic parameters included were renal toxicity and myelosuppression measured using urinary ?2-microglobulin (BMG) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC), respectively. METHODS Seventeen patients were enrolled into an n = 1 randomized trial during two consecutive cycles of ifosfamide 9 g m?2 during each cycle given by a 3 h or 72 h infusion. Data were analyzed using NONMEM. RESULTS Ifosfamide and metabolite concentration–time profiles were described by a one-compartment open-model with auto-induction of clearance. BMG and ANC time-courses were related to ifosfamide concentration via indirect response models. CONCLUSIONS This modelling allowed the simulation of weekly schedules of flat doses with favourable myelotoxic profiles. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The optimal infusion duration for ifosfamide remains to be determined.No differences according to time of infusion have been identified in traditional pharmacokinetic endpoints, such as area under the curve.The impact on pharmacodynamics has never been modelled or correlated with pharmacokinetics. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ifosfamide and its main metabolites can both be modelled with no influence of infusion duration.Pharmacodynamic modelling (renal and haematological toxicity) allows further simulations of new schedules with favourable toxicity profiles.

Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and hypertensive management particularly in the nonpharmacological technique is ambiguous and unclear. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of interval training program on WBC count and cardiovascular parameters in male hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 mmHg and 179 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 mmHg and 109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental (n=140; 58.90±7.35 years) group involved in an 8-week interval training (60-79% HR max reserve) program of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, while the age-matched controls hypertensive (n=105; 58.27±6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. Cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, and VO2 max) and WBC count were assessed. Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed a significant effect of the interval training program on VO2max, SBP, and DBP and WBC count at P<0.05 and VO2max is negatively related to the WBC count (r=–0.339) at P<0.01. Conclusions: It was concluded that the interval training program is an effective adjunct nonpharmacological management of hypertension and the therapeutic effect of exercise programs may be mediated through suppression of inflammatory (WBC count) reaction.

Five pigeons were trained under concurrent-chain schedules in which a pair of independent, concurrent variable-interval 60-s schedules were presented in the initial link and either both variable-interval or both fixed-intervalschedules were presented in the terminal link. Except for the baseline, one of the terminal-link schedules was always a two-component chained schedule and the other was either a simple or a tandem schedule of equal mean interreinforcement interval. The values of the fixed-intervalschedules were either 15 s or 60 s; that of the variable-intervalschedules was always 60 s. A 1.5-s changeover delay operated during the initial link in some conditions. The pigeons preferred a simple or a tandem schedule to a chain. For the fixed-intervalschedules, this preference was greater when the fixed interval was 60 s than when it was 15 s. For the variable-intervalschedules, the preferences were less pronounced and occurred only when the changeover delay was in effect. For a given type of schedule and interreinforcement interval, similar preferences were obtained whether the nonchained schedule was a tandem or simple schedule. The changeover delay generally inflated preference and lowered the changeover rate, especially when the terminal-link schedules were either short (15 s) or aperiodic (variable-interval). The results were consistent with the notion that segmenting the interreinforcement interval of a schedule into a chain lowers the preference for it.

We investigate the statistics of the gap G_{n} between the two rightmost positions of a Markovian one-dimensional random walker (RW) after n time steps and of the duration L_{n} which separates the occurrence of these two extremal positions. The distribution of the jumps ?_{i}'s of the RW, f(?), is symmetric and its Fourier transform has the small k behavior 1-f[over ^](k)?|k|^{?}, with 0

A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight students were randomly assigned to three groups. In Phase 1, the duration of the less profitable schedule equaled the mean delay to reinforcement in all groups. In Phase 2, waiting time preceding the less profitable schedule was reduced in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. Thus, the schedule was correlated either with a relative delay increase (Group 1) or a delay reduction (Group 2). In Group 3, conditions remained unchanged. As predicted, acceptance of the less profitable schedule decreased in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. The increased acceptance in Group 2 was accompanied by a decreased acceptance of the more profitable (variable-interval 3 s) schedule, resembling a pattern of negative contrast. Response rates were higher under the component preceding (a) the more profitable schedule in Group 1 and (b) the less profitable schedule in Group 2. Implications for the modification of human choice behavior are discussed.

This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California at Berkeley, introduces the concept of confidence intervals. Select an alpha level, sample size, and the number of experiments, and click "Play." For each sample, the applet will show the data points as blue dots and the confidence interval as a red, vertical line. The true population mean is shown as a horizontal purple line, and green ovals indicate which intervals do not contain the true mean.

Summary This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m2 on day 1 and 3 mg/m2 on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n=29; B, n=27). The rate of DnP was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 23%–55%) in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45%–78%) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1+8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care.

Objective Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods. Material and methods SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10–15 years. Results Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres. Conclusions It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule.

We introduce the m-ary interval tree, a random structure that underlies interval division and simultaneous parking problems. Certain significant paths in the m-ary interval trees are considered. When appropriately normed, the length of these paths are shown to converge in distribution to a normal random variable. The work extends the study of incomplete binary interval trees in Itoh and Mahmoud

Mehri Javanian; Hosam M. Mahmoud; Mohammad Vahidi-asl

BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance

Jennifer L Graef; Abbie E Smith; Kristina L Kendall; David H Fukuda; Jordan R Moon; Travis W Beck; Joel T Cramer; Jeffrey R Stout

Objectives To determine the effectiveness of around-the-clock (ATC) analgesic administration, with or without nurse coaching, compared to standard care with PRN dosing in children undergoing outpatient tonsillectomy. Methods Children 6 to 15 years were randomized to receive acetaminophen and hydrocodone (167mg/2.5mg/5ml) for 3 days after surgery: Group A (N=39) – every 4 hours PRN, with standard postoperative instructions; Group B (N=34) – every 4 hours ATC, with standard postoperative instructions, without nurse coaching; and Group C (N=40) – every 4 hours ATC, with standard postoperative instructions, with coaching. Parents completed a medication log, and recorded the presence and severity of opioid-related adverse effects and children's reports of pain intensity using a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale. Results No differences were found in analgesic administration or pain intensity scores between the 2 ATC groups. Therefore, they were combined for comparison with the PRN group. Children in the ATC group received more analgesic than those in the PRN group (p<0.0001). Children in the PRN group had higher pain intensity scores compared to children in the ATC group, both at rest (p=0.017) and with swallowing (p=0.017). Pain intensity scores for both groups were higher in the morning compared to the evening (p<0.0001). With the exception of constipation, scheduled analgesic dosing did not increase the frequency or severity of opioid-related adverse effects. Discussion Scheduled dosing of acetaminophen and hydrocodone is more effective than PRN dosing in reducing pain intensity in children following tonsillectomy. Nurse coaching does not impact parent's adherence to ATC dosing.

Sutters, Kimberly A.; Miaskowski, Christine; Holdridge-Zeuner, Danielle; Waite, Steven; Paul, Steven M.; Savedra, Marilyn C.; Lanier, Brent; Mahoney, Karla

In two experiments conducted in an eight-arm radial maze, food pellets were delivered when a photocell beam was broken at the end of each arm via a nose poke, according to either fixed-interval or random-intervalschedules of reinforcement, with each arm providing a different frequency of reinforcement. The behavior of rats exposed to these procedures was well described by the generalized matching law; that is, the relationships between log behavior ratios and log pellet ratios were approximated by linear functions. The slopes of these log-log functions, an index of sensitivity to reinforcement frequency, were greatest for nose pokes, intermediate for time spent in an arm, and least for arm entries. Similar results were obtained with both fixed-interval and random-intervalschedules. Addition of a 10-s changeover delay in both experiments eliminated the slope differentials between nose pokes and time spent in an arm by reducing the slopes of the nose-poke functions. These results suggest that different aspects of foraging may be differentially sensitive to reinforcement frequency. With concurrent fixed-intervalschedules, the degree of temporal control exerted by individual fixed-intervalschedules was directly related to reinforcement frequency.

In two experiments conducted in an eight-arm radial maze, food pellets were delivered when a photocell beam was broken at the end of each arm via a nose poke, according to either fixed-interval or random-intervalschedules of reinforcement, with each arm providing a different frequency of reinforcement. The behavior of rats exposed to these procedures was well described by the generalized matching law; that is, the relationships between log behavior ratios and log pellet ratios were approximated by linear functions. The slopes of these log-log functions, an index of sensitivity to reinforcement frequency, were greatest for nose pokes, intermediate for time spent in an arm, and least for arm entries. Similar results were obtained with both fixed-interval and random-intervalschedules. Addition of a 10-s changeover delay in both experiments eliminated the slope differentials between nose pokes and time spent in an arm by reducing the slopes of the nose-poke functions. These results suggest that different aspects of foraging may be differentially sensitive to reinforcement frequency. With concurrent fixed-intervalschedules, the degree of temporal control exerted by individual fixed-intervalschedules was directly related to reinforcement frequency. PMID:8207350

BACKGROUND: The MITO-2 (Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer) study is a randomized phase III trial comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel to carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in first-line chemotherapy of patients with ovarian cancer. Due to the paucity of published phase I data on the 3-weekly experimental schedule used, an early safety analysis was planned. METHODS: Patients with ovarian cancer

Sandro Pignata; Giovanni Scambia; Antonella Savarese; Enrico Breda; Paolo Scollo; Rocco De Vivo; Emanuela Rossi; Vittorio Gebbia; Donato Natale; Filomena Del Gaizo; Emanuele Naglieri; Antonella Ferro; Pietro Musso; Alfonso Maria D'Arco; Roberto Sorio; Carmela Pisano; Massimo Di Maio; Giuseppe Signoriello; Annalisa Annunziata; Francesco Perrone

In experiment I, rats' lever presses were conditioned on multiple variable-interval variable-intervalschedules. Changing one of the mutliple schedule components to variable time reduced responding in that component. Further reductions in responding occur...

The human papillomavirus type 16/18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine is licensed for females aged 10 years and above and is therefore likely to be coadministered with other licensed vaccines, such as hepatitis B. In this randomized, open-label study, we compared the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine administered alone (HepB group) or with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HepB+HPV group) in healthy women aged 20 to 25 years (clinical trial NCT00637195). The hepatitis B vaccine was given at 0, 1, 2, and 12 months (an accelerated schedule which may be required by women at high risk), and the HPV-16/18 vaccine was given at 0, 1, and 6 months. One month after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine, in the according-to-protocol cohort (n = 72 HepB+HPV; n = 76 HepB), hepatitis B seroprotection rates (titer of ?10 mIU/ml) were 96.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.5 to 99.6) and 96.9% (CI, 89.2 to 99.6) in the HepB+HPV and HepB groups, respectively, in women initially seronegative for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). Corresponding geometric mean titers of anti-HBs antibodies were 60.2 mIU/ml (CI, 40.0 to 90.5) and 71.3 mIU/ml (CI, 53.9 to 94.3). Anti-HBs antibody titers rose substantially after the fourth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All women initially seronegative for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies seroconverted after the second HPV-16/18 vaccine dose and remained seropositive up to 1 month after the third dose. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated, with no difference in reactogenicity between groups. In conclusion, coadministration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine did not affect the immunogenicity or safety of the hepatitis B vaccine administered in an accelerated schedule in young women.

Procrastination scheduling has gained importance for energy efficiency due to the rapid increase in the leakage power consumption. Under procrastination scheduling, task executions are delayed to extend processor shutdown intervals, thereby reducing the idle energy consumption. We propose algorithms to compute the maximum procrastination intervals for tasks scheduled by either the fixed priority or the dual priority scheduling policy. We

A test of the relationship between intertrial interval (ITI) and the development of differential response to alternating partial-reinforcement schedules was performed using a sucrose solution as reinforcement. 3 groups of 10 rats received 9 trials a day in a runway for 30 days with ITIs of |14, 2, or 20 min. Nonreinforcement was accomplished by blocking S's access to the

Sanford Katz; George T. Woods; Judith H. Carrithers

The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer

Convergent scheduling is a general framework for cluster assignment and instruction scheduling on spatial architectures. A convergent scheduler is composed of independent passes, each implementing a heuristic that addresses a particular problem or constraint. The passes share a simple, common interface that provides spatial and temporal preference for each instruction. Preferences are not absolute; instead, the interface allows a pass

Walter Lee; Diego Puppin; Shane Swenson; Saman P. Amarasinghe

Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-intervalschedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice. PMID:9540230

Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-intervalschedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice.

Background: To determine the efficacy, impact on quality-of-life (QoL) and tolerability of two different irinotecan administration schedules in combination with capecitabine as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and methods: We carried out a randomized phase II trial to select one of the following treatment regimens for further investigation: weekly irinotecan at a dose of 70 mg\\/m2 days 1,

M. M. Borner; J. Bernhard; D. Dietrich; R. Popescu; M. Wernli; P. Saletti; D. Rauch; R. Herrmann; D. Koeberle; H. Honegger; P. Brauchli; D. Lanz; A. D. Roth

The requirements for daily, weekly, monthly and overtime maintenance scheduling of coal-fired power plants are discussed. It is concluded that maintenance scheduling is as essential as the physical performance of the work itself. By prescheduling maintenance, the optimum utilization of manpower and equipment reliability will be obtained. Spare parts, special tools and service engineer requirements can be anticipated with reasonable scheduling. Meetings are a distasteful word in anyone's vocabulary. However, close communication, between operation and maintenance, is a must to insure that both departments are aware of the job status and progress. Improved communication and scheduling of equipment maintenance can help break down the barrier that has developed between the two Departments.

The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables sc...

P. Mattson W. J. Dally S. Rixner U. J. Kapasi J. D. Owens

\\u000a Sports scheduling has been an extremely active area of research over the past twenty 20years. One important reason for this\\u000a is that the computational methods for creating playable sports schedules have improved enough to be useful to real sports\\u000a leagues. A key aspect to these computational improvements has been the development of hybrid methods that combine two or more\\u000a of

Irrigation schedules were developed based on correlations between yield and rainfall for the Oklahoma area. Historical records show that wheat yields are best when rain falls within a five day interval in late March. Past irrigation scheduling did not cal...

Background: Gemcitabine combined with carboplatin (CG) is one of the regimens used widely for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Improvement in its toxicity may result in good clinical outcomes. Methods: A new schedule of gemcitabine and carboplatin (CG8) was compared with the standard one (CG1). Both are 3-weekly regimens, but carboplatin is administered on day 1 in CG1 and on

Context: Many health care workers suffer severe hand irritation, with cracking and bleeding, as a consequence of frequent handwashing and glove use. Integumentary breakdown has major implications for nosocomial infection control and promotes the spread of bloodborne viruses. The potential benefits of scheduled use of hand-care agents—lotions or creams—in health care workers has not been established by controlled trial. Objective:

Rita D. McCormick; Tracy L. Buchman; Dennis G. Maki

In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role rela- tive to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element of the interval core of a big boss interval game is extendable to a

|In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-intervalschedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…

The pinwheel is a hard-real-time scheduling problem for scheduling satellite ground stations to service a number of satellites without data loss. Given a multiset of positive integers (instance)A={a1,..., an}, the problem is to find an infinite sequence (schedule) of symbols from {1,2,...,n} such that there is at least one symboli within any interval of ai symbols (slots). Not all instancesA

For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the

Christoph Dürr; Maurice Queyranne; Frederik Spieksma; Fabrice Talla Nobibon; Gerhard Woeginger

In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

The present study investigated whether rats' responding for liquid-sucrose reinforcement delivered by a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule would be altered by the addition of food-pellet reinforcement available subsequent to the PR schedule. In Experiment 1, six rats lever pressed for 1% sucrose reinforcers delivered by a PR 3 schedule. In Experiment 2, six rats lever pressed for 5% sucrose delivered by a PR 5 schedule. In both experiments, baseline sessions consisted of 40min of exposure to the PR schedule. In the first treatment condition, a 25-min period of food-pellet reinforcement, delivered by a random-interval 60-s schedule, immediately followed the initial 40min. In the second treatment condition, the 25-min period of food-pellet reinforcement became available when 10min elapsed without the subject completing a ratio on the PR schedule. Results from both experiments showed that upcoming food-pellet reinforcement increased the number of ratios subjects completed on the PR schedule. Portions of the present results represent a partial replication of results reported by Baron and Derenne [J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 73 (2000) 291], who used a similar procedure. They also augment a growing body of research on positive induction. PMID:12763270

Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; King, Brent M.; Uran, Erin L.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether around-the-clock (i.e. ATC) dosing of acetaminophen with codeine, with or without nurse coaching, compared to standard care with as needed (i.e. PRN) dosing: reduced children's reports of pain intensity with and without swallowing; increased pain relief, and increased analgesic consumption. Eighty children, 6–15 years, undergoing tonsillectomy were randomized to one of

Kimberly A Sutters; Christine Miaskowski; Danielle Holdridge-Zeuner; Steven Waite; Steven M Paul; Marilyn C Savedra; Brent Lanier

The vocal behavior of three Cebus monkeys was maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of response dependent reinforcement at values between fixed-ratio 1 and fixed-ratio 15. In one monkey that was exposed to variable-interval, fixed-interval, and conjunctive fixed-ratio fixed-intervalschedules of reinforcement, vocal responding occurred at a low rate, but schedule-appropriate patterns were maintained. The rates and patterns of responding engendered indicated that the vocal operant can be brought under schedule control in the monkey by the use of response-dependent reinforcement.

Leander, J. David; Milan, Michael A.; Jasper, Kathleen B.; Heaton, Kathleen L.

In order to gain a better understanding of the internal representation of temporal patterns, the authors studied the perception and reproduction of interval sequences: tone sequences in which only the intervals between the tone-onsets are varied. A tentat...

In this paper, we present an overview on the use of interval arithmetic to process numerical constraints in Constraint Logic Programming. The main principle is to approximate n-ary relations over IR with Cartesian products of intervals whose bounds are taken in a finite subset of IR. Variables represent real values whose domains are intervals defined in the same manner. Narrowing

How would one quantify and graphically represent the scientific performance of various scientific goals of a survey strategy? A simulated 10-year LSST observing schedule will produce 2.5x106 visits and in order to evaluate a simulated schedule, the project, collaborating scientists and team have defined tools called Merit Functions. Each Merit Function evaluates the success of a simulation in acquiring images with properties which characterize a specific parameter. Each Merit Function can be applied to a set of simulations, providing a single numerical value (a Metric) representative of the function and the simulation. The complete set of metric values can be used to quantitatively compare the performance of multiple simulated schedules. At present we are working with 6 groups of Merit functions: Airmass, Astrometry, Early Good Images, Randomization, Solar System, Variables & Transients and Uniformity. The Metrics derived from the Merit functions offer the possibility of comparing simulations quantitatively, within the context of defined functions. However, with dozens of metrics, it is still a challenge to present the results in a format that is both informative and objective. In this poster we show an early attempt to summarize the comparison of metric sets graphically.

Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Ridgway, S. T.; Cook, K. H.; Petry, C.; Jones, R. L.; Krughoff, K. S.; Ivezic, Z.; LSST Collaboration

Practical crossbar scheduling algorithms for CIOQ switches such as PIM and -SLIP, can perform poorly un- der extreme traffic conditions, frequently failing to be work- conserving. The common practice of evaluating crossbar scheduling algorithms according to the packet delay under random admissible traffic tends to obscure significant dif- ferences that affect the robustness of different algorithms when exposed to extreme

Responding in three food-deprived rats was reinforced on schedules in which reinforcement periods (fixed-ratio 1 or 2 for 1, 3, 6, 9, 14, or 21 reinforcers) alternated with extinction intervals. Schedule-induced drinking occurred and was mostly confined to the onset of extinction intervals. Drink durations were longer after 21-pellet meals but were not reliably different after 1, 3, 6, or 9-pellet meals. When termination of the extinction intervals was response dependent, schedule-induced drinking diminished until minimum extinction intervals of 15, 30, and 60 sec were introduced.

|A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-intervalschedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing…

Five pairs of cadaveric shoulders underwent posterior and anterior drawer and inferior sulcus tests in five progressive conditions: intact, vented, following opening of the rotator cuff interval, reconstruction of the interval, and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament. The surgical treatments--vented, open rotator cuff interval, reconstruction, and coracoacromial ligament transfer--had an effect compared to the intact shoulders on the inferior stiffness (P = .00002) and on the anteroposterior stiffness (P = .00031). The difference between the stiffness of the reconstructed rotator cuff interval compared to the coracoacromial ligament transfer was significant for loading in the AP direction (P = .006) and for loading in the inferior direction (P = .005). PMID:17134054

This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

|Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

Widely-used software packages for project management like Microsoft Project apply simple priority-based procedures for scheduling of resource-constrained projects. Various studies have shown that these procedures perform relatively poor when compared against state-of-the-art procedures. In this paper, we present a scheduling heuristic for Microsoft Project which generates a series of initial schedules by regret-based biased random sampling and improves these schedules

We define the reference interval as the range between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of a random variable. We use reference intervals to compare characteristics of a marker of disease progression between affected populations. We use a tolerance interval to assess uncertainty in the reference interval. Unlike the tolerance interval, the estimated reference interval does not contains the true reference interval with specified confidence (or credibility). The tolerance interval is easy to understand, communicate and visualize. We derive estimates of the reference interval and its tolerance interval for markers defined by features of a linear mixed model. Examples considered are reference intervals for time trends in HIV viral load, and CD4 per cent, in HIV-infected haemophiliac children and homosexual men. We estimate the intervals with likelihood methods and also develop a Bayesian model in which the parameters are estimated via Markov-chain Monte Carlo. The Bayesian formulation naturally overcomes some important limitations of the likelihood model. PMID:16189804

Katki, Hormuzd A; Engels, Eric A; Rosenberg, Philip S

Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engeridered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter a (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter ? (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

Background Flavopiridol is a protein-bound, cytotoxic, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. A phase II trial of flavopiridol followed by ara-C and mitoxantrone with flavopiridol given by 1-h bolus for adults with newly-diagnosed, poor-risk acute myelogenous leukemia yielded 67% complete remission with median disease-free survival of 13.6 months. Design and Methods We compared bolus flavopiridol (50 mg/m2/day, Arm A) versus 'hybrid' flavopiridol (30 mg/m2 over 30 min followed by 40 mg/m2 over 4 h, Arm B) followed by ara-C and mitoxantrone in 78 patients (39 per arm) with newly diagnosed, poor-risk acute myelogenous leukemia. To mitigate imbalance, patients were stratified by presence or absence of secondary leukemia and therapy for antecedent disorder. Results Death at or before Day 60 occurred in 8% of patients per arm. Complete remission plus complete remission with incomplete recovery was 68% (Arm A, 62%; Arm B, 74%) overall, and 65% or over in both arms for patients with secondary leukemia and leukemia with adverse genetics. In Arm A 91% and in Arm B 86% of patients received chemotherapy and/or allogeneic transplantation in complete remission. Median overall survival for all remission patients has not been reached for either arm, with median disease free survival of 13.6 months for Arm A and of 12.0 months for Arm B. Conclusions Both flavopiridol schedules produce comparably encouraging results in adults with poor-risk acute myelogenous leukemia. Given the greater ease of bolus administration, we are conducting a randomized phase II study of bolus flavopiridol followed by ara-c and mitoxantrone versus conventional induction therapy for patients aged 70 years and under with intermediate or poor-risk acute myelogenous leukemia. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT 00407966.

Karp, Judith E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Estey, Elihu H.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Smith, B. Douglas; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Drye, D. Michelle; Mackey, Karen; Dorcy, Kathleen Shannon; Gore, Steven D.; Levis, Mark J.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Pratz, Keith W.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Showel, Margaret M.; Othus, Megan; Doyle, L. Austin; Wright, John J.; Pagel, John M.

Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b), according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT) to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV) 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm), or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC) three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm). Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9%) (p = 0.0074), yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week) was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week) (p = 0.003). Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.

Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Del Bianco, Paola; Romanini, Antonella; Guida, Michele; Paccagnella, Adriano; Dalla Palma, Maurizio; Naglieri, Emanuele; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Silvestri, Barbara; Michiara, Maria; De Salvo, Gian Luca

...typical of portions of the speed curve which are increasing...2 second time interval. The curve on the right is typical of portions of the speed curve which include a maximum...Dynamometer Driving Schedule for Light-Duty...

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

Behavior of subjects exposed to concurrent and individual interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement may be described in terms of a set of expressions relating the value of responses to their durations, a feedback equation relating reinforcement to response duration, and the assumption that subjects allocate their time among various responses so as to maximize value.

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

This site, authored by David M. Lane of HyperStat Online, explains the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. Because of the immense similarities between the two procedures many find them to be one in the same. Lane attempts to dispel this common misconception with his brief presentation on the subject.

The design and implementation of constraint logic programming (CLP) languagesover intervals is revisited. Instead of decomposing complex constraints in termsof simple primitive constraints as in CLP(BNR), complex constraints are manipulatedas a whole, enabling more sophisticated narrowing procedures to be appliedin the solver. This idea is embodied in a new CLP language Newton whose operationalsemantics is based on the notion of

Frédéric Benhamou; David A. Mcallester; Pascal Van Hentenryck

|Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons sy...

Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic ...

Responding of three pigeons was maintained under conjunctive fixed-ratio, fixed-intervalschedules where a key peck produced food after both schedule requirements were completed. The individual schedule requirements were then successively removed and reinstated with responding maintained under the following conditions: conjunctive fixed-ratio, fixed-time; fixed-time; and fixed-intervalschedules. Patterns of responding changed in accord with the successive removal of the schedule requirements. Compared to the conjunctive fixed-ratio, fixed-intervalschedule, pause duration increased and response rate decreased under conjunctive fixed-ratio, fixed-time schedules and under fixed-time schedules alone. Overall mean rates of responding were highest and pause duration lowest under fixed-intervalschedules. When changes in the keylight colors were correlated with completion of the fixed-ratio, the end of the fixed-interval, or both of these conditions, the pattern of responding was modified and indicated a greater degree of control by the individual schedules. Although two birds showed large increases in interreinforcement time when they were initially exposed to the conjunctive schedule, when responding stabilized this measure was largely invariant for all birds across most schedule conditions.

This paper presents scheduling algorithms for procrastinators, where the speed that a procrastinator executes a job increases as the due date approaches. We give optimal off-line scheduling policies for linearly increasing speed functions. We then explain the computational\\/numerical issues involved in implementing this policy. We next explore the online setting, showing that there exist adversaries that force any online scheduling

Michael A. Bender; Raphael Clifford; Kostas Tsichlas

This paper presents scheduling algorithms for procrastinators, where the speed that a procrastinator executes a job increases as the due date approaches. We give optimal off-line scheduling policies for linearly increasing speed functions. We then explain the computational\\/numerical issues involved in implementing this policy. We next explore the online setting, showing that there exist adversaries that force any online scheduling

Michael A. Bender; Raphael Clifford; Kostas Tsichlas; Thomas de Quince

A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-intervalschedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing behavioral changes with respect to two categories of reinforcers: enhancing and reducing, or

In the IEEE 802.11e standard, a reference scheduler is presented. The reference scheduler uses the same service interval (SI) to poll all stations in a polling list, and uses separate scheduling and admission algorithms. This increases the polling overhead and decreases TXOP utilization. Many papers have attempted to enhance the reference scheduler, but its admission control is similar to reference scheduler. In this paper, we propose a scheduling and admission algorithm that assigns each station an SI close to its maximum SI (MSI). As a result, the proposed algorithm shows higher performance than that of the reference scheduler.

The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, commonly known as GMRT, is the world's largest low frequency radio telescope. Being a rare resource, efficient planning of GMRT is needed. Planning consists of scheduling a pre-selected large collection of scientific proposals up to half a year in advance. Scheduling becomes complex due to the variety of astronomical, equipment and logistical constraints. The goal is to schedule each observation to appropriate time slots so that constraints violation is minimized. We have developed a scheduler software named GSCHED to assist in scheduling and to increase the utilization of GMRT.

Gharote, M. S.; Deshpande, A. M.; Lodha, S. P.; Kantharia, N. G.; Wadadekar, Y. G.; Katore, S. N.; Rao, A. P.

Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE) alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT) responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18) with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1) or placebo (PLA) for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2), which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), 8-isoprostane (8-iso), CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013) and higher average mean power (P = 0.067) across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P < 0.001) and 48 h post test (P < 0.001). Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P < 0.002). AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009), significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001), and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078) than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145) between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a reduction in oxidative stress and DOMS responses to acute anaerobic intervals. An improved rate of recovery can benefit all individuals engaging in high intensity, anaerobic exercise as it facilitates increased frequency of exercise.

In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-intervalschedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule; or (c) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate schedule. Completion of a sample-lever schedule, which took approximately the same time regardless of schedule, presented two comparison levers, one associated with each sample-lever schedule. Pressing the comparison lever associated with the schedule just presented produced food, while pressing the other produced a blackout. Conditional-discrimination accuracy was related to the size of the difference in reinforced interresponse times and those that preceded it (predecessor interresponse times) between the variable-ratio and other comparison schedules. In Experiment 2, control by predecessor interresponse times was accentuated by requiring rats to discriminate between a variable-ratio schedule and a tandem schedule that required emission of a sequence of a long, then a short interresponse time in the tandem's terminal schedule. These discrimination data are compatible with the copyist model from Tanno and Silberberg (2012) in which response rates are determined by the succession of interresponse times between reinforcers weighted so that each interresponse time's role in rate determination diminishes exponentially as a function of its distance from reinforcement. PMID:23144509

Transient (5 min) global forebrain ischemia, induced by four-vessel occlusion, assessed using a multiple fixed-ration, fixed-intervalschedule of food presentation in five rats. Under control conditions, the schedule produced distinctive response rates in...

A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered. 13 references.

We study a single-machine scheduling problem with periodic maintenance activity under two maintenance stratagems. Although the scheduling problem with single or periodic maintenance and nonresumable jobs has been well studied, most of past studies considered only one maintenance stratagem. This research deals with a single-machine scheduling problem where the machine should be stopped for maintenance after a fixed periodic interval

This paper introduces SLAW, a Scalable Locality-aware Adaptive Work-stealing scheduler. The SLAW scheduler is designed to address two common limitations in current work-stealing schedulers: use of a fixed task scheduling policy and locality-obliviousness due to randomized stealing. Past work has demonstrated the pros and cons of using fixed scheduling policies, such as work-first and help-first, in different cases without a

|We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

An opportunistic transmission scheduling scheme is proposed to make better use of the multiuser diversity gain in a MIMO system. The performance of a MIMO link is quantified by its information-theoretic capacity. Even though the base station has no knowledge of the transmission channel, the proposed algorithm generates a transmission randomizing matrix according to the distribution of the channel, so

Six experiments, each with 5 human adults, were conducted to investigate the determinants of human performance on multiple concurrent variable-intervalschedules. A two-key procedure was employed in which subjects' key presses produced points exchangeable for money. Variables manipulated across experiments were (a) changeover delay (Experiments 2, 4, and 6), (b) ordinal cues related to scheduled reinforcement frequencies (Experiments 3 and 4), and (c) instructions describing the ordinal relations between schedule-correlated stimuli and scheduled reinforcement frequency (Experiments 5 and 6). The performances of only 13 of the 30 subjects could be described by the generalized matching equation and were within a range of values typical of those reported in the animal literature. Eight subjects showed indifference, 9 undermatched, 7 approximated matching, 3 overmatched, and a further 3 responded exclusively to the richer component of the concurrent schedules. These differing modes of responding were closely related to the different types of performance rules reported by subjects in postexperimental questionnaires. The results are in good agreement with those from studies of human performance on single schedules, suggesting that rule-governed behavior, in interaction with contingencies, may be an important determinant of human choice.

Several groups of human subjects were exposed to a variety of experimental conditions involving a fixed-interval 27-second schedule of reinforcement in compound with instructions to constrain in the number of responses within the interreinforcement interval and/or the duration of the experimental session. One group was further exposed to a contingency involving the placement of responses within the IRI. A diversity of patterns of performance was observed, including those typically associated with animal subjects exposed to FI schedules. Generally, the imposition of instructions to minimize session duration reduced post-reinforcement pausing and increased overall reinforcement density from those levels obtained with only instructions to expend a given number of responses per reinforcer. The results are seen to underscore the sensitivity of human fixed-interval performance and the contribution of extra-experimental contingencies.

Confidence intervals are usually constructed to assess the levels of precision in method validation studies. Frequently, these confidence intervals are constructed assuming that the random errors come from infinite populations. In practice, the random errors are selected from a finite population of known size. In these cases, the infinite population model provides confidence intervals that are too wide. A fixed

One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can effectively address this limitation. However, the extent to which each of these components contributes to the effectiveness of the overall approach remains uncertain. In the current investigation, we evaluated the first component by comparing rates of the FCR and problem behavior under mixed and multiple schedules and evaluated the second component by rapidly switching from dense mixed and multiple schedules to lean multiple schedules without gradually thinning the density of reinforcement. Results indicated that multiple schedules decreased the overall rate of reinforcement for the FCR and maintained the strength of the FCR and low rates of problem behavior without gradually thinning the reinforcement schedule. PMID:24114096

Betz, Alison M; Fisher, Wayne W; Roane, Henry S; Mintz, Joslyn C; Owen, Todd M

This paper proposes novel techniques for scheduling radar dwells in phased array radar systems. In order to handle complex physical characteristics such as dwell interleaving, transmitting duty cycle constraint, and energy constraint, we propose a notion of schedulability envelope. The schedulability envelope designed offline hides the details of complex radar dwell scheduling and provides a simple measure for the schedulability

Chang-Gung Lee; Phil-su Kang; Chi-sheng Shih; Lui Sha

Scheduling logistics operations in a multi-echelon production system requires planning and coordinating production and transportation decisions for all facilities in a system. In this paper we show how these decisions can be made in an actual multi-facili...

The problem considered in this paper is the deterministic scheduling of tasks on a set of identical processors. However, the model presented differs from the classical one by the requirement that certain tasks need more than one processor at a time for their processing. This assumption is especially justified in some microprocessor applications and its impact on the complexity of

Jacek Blazewicz; Mieczyslaw Drabowski; Jan Weglarz

|Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

The report review the background of the schedule innovations in regard to work in 2 companies, which went from the traditional nine to five, 5-day per week schedule. The report only presents 2 case studies based on the 70 interviews conducted.

A new fuel scheduling and accounting (FSA) function that allows the Houston Lighting and Power Company to schedule dispatch accurately and efficiently and monitor fuel usage throughout the entire system is described. In addition to minimizing the total cost of generation using the classical economic dispatch approach, FSA dispatches generation taking into account various fuel delivery and operational constraints. FSA

The objective of sensor scheduling is to select a sensor (or a group of sensors) from multiple sensors at each time step so as to perform optimally a task based on the sensed data. In this paper, we pose a model predictive type sensor scheduling problem with a general class of criterion functions including the trace, the maximal eigenvalue, and the determinant of the error covariance, for discrete-time linear Gaussian time-varying systems, and develop an approach to solve this problem based on the dynamic programming. We show first that, in a special case of the model predictive deterministic sensor scheduling problem where the Riccati recursion of the error covariance satisfies a specific structural condition, the online optimization using the dynamic programming is reduced to a static optimization, and hence the scheduling algorithm can be easily implemented online. Next, we pose a model predictive stochastic sensor scheduling problem to relax the condition of the deterministic sensor scheduling problem, and show an alternative condition where the optimization is reduced so that the scheduling algorithm can be easily implemented online. Finally, we discuss an example to illustrate the two sensor scheduling algorithms.

The report develops models for assessing credible satellite failure rates, population densities, coverage probabilities, and outage intervals. These models are interpreted in terms of the present random military communication satellite system. A sufficien...

Pinwheel scheduling algorithms can be used to produce distance-constrained real-time system schedules where the temporal distance between any two consecutive completions of a task must be less than a pre-defined time interval. A pinwheel schedule can be generated off-line and executed cyclically. Such an approach provides a good predictability and allows for off-line schedule optimization. However, the static approach is

Fault-tolerant real-time systems are typically based on active replication where replicated entities are required to deliver their outputs in an identical order within a given time interval. Distributed scheduling of replicated tasks, however, violates this requirement if on-line scheduling, preemptive scheduling, or scheduling of dissimilar replicated task sets is employed. This problem of inconsistent task outputs has been solved previously

Stefan Poledna; Alan Burns; Andy J. Wellings; Peter Barrett

A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-intervalschedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing behavioral changes with respect to two categories of reinforcers: enhancing and reducing, or excitatory and inhibitory. The model describes residence time in interdependent concurrent VI VI schedules constructed from arithmetic and exponential distributions. The model describes the data reported by Alsop and Elliffe (1988) and Elliffe and Alsop (1996) with a variance accounted for of 87% compared to 64% accounted for by the Davison and Hunter (1976) model and 42% by Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbola. The model can explain matching, undermatching, and overmatching in the same subject under different procedures and has the potential to be extended to performance on concurrent schedules with more than two alternatives, multiple schedules, and single schedules. Thus, it can be considered as an alternative to Herrnstein's quantitative law of effect.

|The recent American Psychological Association Task Force on Statistical Inference report suggested that confidence intervals should always be reported. Other researchers also agree that confidence intervals should be used as a supplement to statistical significance testing. The confidence interval is defined as a range of values constructed…

In this work we propose a generalized real interval arithmetic. Since the real interval arithmetic is constructed from the real arithmetic, it is reasonable to extend it to intervals on any domain which has some algebraic structure, such as field, ring or group structure. This extension is based on the local equality theory of Santiago (11, 12) and on an

R. CALLEJAS-BEDREGAL; B. R. C. BEDREGAL; R. H. N. SANTIAGO

Spaced feeding of individual food pellets to food-deprived rats induced excessive drinking after pellet delivery if water was continuously available. When access to water was restricted to a portion of the inter-pellet interval, and competition from food-reinforced bar pressing was removed, excessive drinking occurred whenever drinking was possible. This finding extends the generality of accounts of excessive behavior that implicate induction by apparently unrelated scheduling characteristics of the environment.

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible\\u000a time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible\\u000a subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of different practice schedules, particularly blocked and randomschedules, on the development of a tonal schema. Two experiments were conducted with Fordham University graduate students who were assigned to, either, blocked or random practice schedules of an ear training task. ^ The ear training task required subjects to identify a

Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Scheduling Project scheduling will depend on the type, scope and size of the project. Detailed information

Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

The present study investigated the effects of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP: 0.06-1.0 mg/kg IP) and its quartenary analogue, scopolamine methylbromide (SCOPMB), on performance in a radial arm maze foraging task, to dissociate general drug-induced alterations of motor performance from measurement of impairments on more complex behaviors involving timing and memory. In this paradigm. rats are trained to free run a radial maze under an eight-alternative concurrent fixed-interval (FI) schedule of food reinforcement. The eight FIs (55 to 759 s) were assigned randomly to the arms of the maze, with a different pattern for each animal. SCOP produced dose-dependent degradation in response patterning and response rates in the concurrent FI schedules without significantly affecting the rates of arm entries or arm traversal latencies. The peripheral cholinergic antagonist, SCOPMB, generally produced small to moderate depressions in all measures with the exception of patterning of arm entries and pellets earned, but there were no clear dose-response relationships evident in the data. These results are consistent with the notion that central cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the mediation of complex conditioned behaviors. PMID:9512066

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

This report summarizes research performed towards the development of architectures and tools for mixed-initiative scheduling. CMU's approach is rooted in incremental constraint-based search procedures and draws on interactive visual interfaces to integrat...

S. F. Smith M. A. Becker M. A. Derthick L. A. Kramer

Interval training is a well known exercise protocol which helps strengthen and improve one's cardiovascular fitness. It interleaves high intensity exercises with rest periods. Despite the known benefits, proper scheduling and completion of interval training routines are not easy to perform. For example, without expensive equipment such as a treadmill, there is almost no way to figure out one's speed

Myung-kyung Suh; Kyujoong Lee; Ani Nahapetian; Majid Sarrafzadeh

Based on a combination of fundamental results of modern optimal program control theory and operations research, an original\\u000a approach to supply chain scheduling is developed in order to answer the challenges of dynamics, uncertainty, and adaptivity.\\u000a Both supply chain schedule generation and execution control are represented as an optimal program control problem in combination\\u000a with mathematical programming and interpreted as

\\u000a This book lights out the different improvement of the recent history of fuzzy logic. The present chapter deals with the connections\\u000a that exist between fuzzy logic and production scheduling.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Production scheduling is a part of operational research which relies on combinatorial optimization solved by discrete methods.\\u000a This large area covers several well-known combinatorial problems: vehicle routing problem (in which several

The goal of this work is to enable distributed (multi-chip) implementations of iterative matching algorithms for crossbar-based packet switches, as opposed to the traditional monolithic (single-chip) ones. The practical motivation for this effort is the design and implementation in FPGAs of a scheduler for a 64-port optical crossbar switch. Sizing experiments show that the scheduler logic must be distributed over

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static schedulingintervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static schedulingintervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

Interval orders and interval graphs are particularly natural ex- amples of two widely studied classes of discrete structures: partially ordered sets and undirected graphs. So it is not surprising that researchers in such diverse fields as mathematics, computer science, engineering and the social sciences have investigated structural, algorithmic, enumerative, combinator- ial, extremal and even experimental problems associated with them. In

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of Explorations in Statistics investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter such as the mean. A confidence interval provides the same statistical information as the P value from a hypothesis test, but it circumvents the drawbacks of that hypothesis test. Even more important, a confidence interval focuses our attention on the scientific importance of some experimental result.

Douglas Curran- Everett (University of Colorado Denver)

We consider the problem of scheduling tasks on a single machine to minimize the flowtime. The machine is subject to breakdowns during the processing of the tasks. The breakdowns occur at a random times and the machine is unavailable until it is repaired. The times for repair are random and independent of each other and of the breakdown process. A

Igal Adiri; John L. Bruno; Esther Frostig; A. H. G. Rinnooy Kan

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various practice schedules on learning a novel speech task. Forty healthy Cantonese speakers were asked to learn to produce a Cantonese phrase with two target utterance durations (2500 and 3500 milliseconds). They were randomly assigned to one of four learning conditions, each completing a different practice schedule, namely Blocked only, Random only, Blocked-then-Random, and Random-then-Blocked. Two retention tests (one immediate and one delayed) and a transfer test were administered. The four groups of participants showed different patterns of learning, but achieved comparable levels of performance at the end of the acquisition phase. However, participants in the Blocked only condition were less able to differentiate the two target durations than those in the Random only condition during retention. Furthermore, participants who received both blocked and random practice were less adversely affected by the secondary task during the transfer test than those who received either blocked or random practice alone. These findings suggest that mixed practice schedules are more effective than either blocked or random practice, especially in transferring the acquired speech motor skills to a cognitively demanding situation. The results have clinical implications regarding optimal practice schedules for treatment intervention. PMID:23374024

Pigeons' key pecks were maintained by variable-ratio or variable-intervalschedules of food reinforcement. For pairs of pigeons in one group, variable-ratio reinforcement was arranged for one pigeon's pecks; for the second pigeon, reinforcement was arranged according to a variable-intervalschedule yoked to the interreinforcement times produced by the first pigeon. For pairs of pigeons in another group, variable-interval reinforcement was arranged for one pigeon's pecks; for the second pigeon, reinforcement was arranged according to a variable-ratio schedule yoked to the interreinforcement responses produced by the first pigeon. For each pair, the yoking procedure was maintained for four or five consecutive sessions of 50 reinforcements each. In more than three-quarters of the pairs, variable-ratio response rates were higher than variable-interval rates within two sessions; in all cases, the rate difference developed within four sessions.

Catania, A. Charles; Matthews, T. James; Silverman, Phillip J.; Yohalem, Rona

Scheduling parallel jobs has been an active investigation area. The scheduler has to deal with heterogeneous workloads and try to obtain throughputs and response times such that ensures good performance. We propose a Dynamic Space-Sharing Scheduling technique, the Self Co-Scheduling, based on the combination of the best benefits from Static Space Sharing and Co-Scheduling. A job is allocated a processors

. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set defines a simplebut effective heuristic dispatch scheduler for determining the order inwhich observations are made. This scheduler has been found to performwell under some circumstances, but there are circumstances under whichit performs rather poorly. This paper outlines a new schedule generationand execution framework that allows atis telescopes to operate usingany desired scheduling technique. This

Will Edgington; Mark Drummond; John Bresina Gregory Henry; Ellen Drascher

This paper presents a genetic algorithm using a matrix genome encoding to schedule distributed tasks, represented by a directed acyclic graph, on processors in order to minimize the maximum task finishing time. Our experimental results show that this algorithm provides better scheduling results than list scheduling with insertion; and dominant sequence clustering heuristics. Our algorithm generates good schedules even in

Timber drying schedules influence the dispersion in moisture content between boards at the end of drying. Both a single set-point schedule and a double set-point schedule are selected to illustrate the concept. A simple deterministic drying model that can predict moisture content as a function of time for a single and double set-point schedule is presented. Given random variability in

A new classification algorithm called VFI (for Voting Feature Intervals) is proposed. A concept is represented by a set of feature intervals on each feature dimension separately. Each feature participates in the classification by distributing real-valued votes among classes. The class receiving the highest vote is declared to be the predicted class. VFI is compared with the Naive Bayesian Classifier,

|A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

An interval-based temporal logic is introduced, together with a computationally effective reasoning algorithm based on constraint propagation. This system is notable in offering a delicate balance between expressive power and the efficiency of its deductive engine. A notion of reference intervals is introduced which captures the temporal hierarchy implicit in many domains, and which can be used to precisely control

The usual practice in using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling intervals. This article considers the properties of the chart when the sampling interval between each pair of samples is not fixed but rather depends on what is observed in the first sample. The idea is that the time

Marion R. Reynolds; Raid W. Amin; Jesse C. Arnold; Joel A. Nachlas

IXSQL, an extension to SQL, is proposed for the management of interval data. IXSQL is syntactically and semantically upwards consistent with SQL2. Its specification has been based both on theoretical results and actual user requirements for the management of temporal data, a special case of interval data. Design decisions and implementation issues are also discussed

Animals readily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed responding to rapidly changing intervals, sometimes as quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models-widely used to model response times in decision making-have been extended with new learning rules that allow them to accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their drift rate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing-when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favorably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals. PMID:23428705

Luzardo, Andre; Ludvig, Elliot A; Rivest, François

Rates and patterns of key-press responding maintained under schedules in which responding resulted in intravenous injections of cocaine were studied in squirrel monkeys and rhesus monkeys. Each injection was followed by a 60- or 100-sec timeout period. Schedule-controlled behavior was obtained at appropriate cocaine doses in each species. Under FR 10 or FR 30 schedules, performance was characterized by high rates of responding (usually more than one response per second) in each ratio. Under FI 5-min schedules, performance was characterized by an initial pause, followed by acceleration of responding to a final rate that was maintained until the end of the interval. Under multiple fixed-ratio fixed-intervalschedules, rates and patterns of responding appropriate to each schedule component were maintained. Responding seldom occurred during timeout periods under any schedule studied. At doses of cocaine above or below those that maintained characteristic schedule-controlled behavior, rates of responding were relatively low and patterns of responding were irregular. Characteristic fixed-interval responding was maintained over a wider range of cocaine doses than characteristic fixed-ratio responding. Complex patterns of responding controlled by discriminative stimuli under fixed-ratio or fixed-intervalschedules can be maintained by cocaine injections in squirrel monkeys and rhesus monkeys.

This PowerPoint slide show from an instructor with the Departmentof Computer Science at Florida State University offers an in-depth lecture notes for CPU scheduling mechanisms. Most notably, this presentation includes diagrams and logical flowcharts of CPU processes which would make the material easier to understand for instructors or students engaged in technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses. It provides an overview of scheduling criteria and explanation and comparison of first-come-first-served, shortest-job-next, priority and non-preemptive priority, deadline, real-time, compared with round robin CPU scheduling. Mathematical models and formulas are included along with efficiency graphs. The presentation also covers process thread context, context switching, and multilevel queues.

Concurrent schedules of punishment and fixed-ratio reinforcement were studied in six white Carneaux pigeons. Two stimuli were alternated on the translucent key which served as the response mechanism. The pigeons were exposed to continuous punishment in one stimulus and first response punishment in the other. It was found that continuous punishment suppressed the fixed-ratio performance more than did punishment of the first response. Typically, a ratio run of responses was completed in spite of the onset of continuous punishment. Responding was then reduced for the remainder of the continuous punishment stimulus, except for those times when responding was initiated near the end of the stimulus. The results indicate that a multiple schedule can be used to compare different schedules of punishment in the same organism.

By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable-intervalschedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of tile variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was varied between blocks of sessions from 16 min to 0.25 min. Total rate of key poking increased similarly as a function of the reinforcer rate for the two schedule types, but response rate was higher with than without the four-response requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times showed that key poking occurred in bouts. The rate of initiating bouts increased as a function of reinforcer rate but was either unaffected or was decreased by adding the four-response requirement. Within-bout response rate was insensitive to reinforcer rate and only inconsistently affected by the four-response requirement. For both kinds of schedule, the ratio of bout time to between-bout pause time was approximately a power function of reinforcer rate, with exponents above and below 1.0.

Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A; Bennett, J Adam

The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

The ALMA Scheduling Subsystem has undergone substantial changes in the last couple of years. As well as a significant re-factoring, we have now implemented the dynamic scheduling framework and algorithm which will be used when the telescope begins full operations. This same framework and algorithm will be used in both the day-to-day running of the online observing software and as part of a simulation tool used by the time allocation committee. As well as an overview of the subsystem, we outline the changes made, the current factors taken into account by the algorithm and future work to be undertaken.

Last year the authors embarked on a study to find out whether more student-centered instruction was occurring in block-scheduled biology classes than in those of traditional duration and whether the student-centered strategies recommended by the Stand

|This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

The class of transaction scheduling mechanisms in which the transaction serialization order can be determined by controlling their commitment order, is defined. This class of transaction management mechanisms is important, because it simplifies transaction management in a multidatabase system environment. The notion of analogous execution and serialization orders of transactions is defined and the concept of strongly recoverable and rigorous

Yuri Breitbart; Dimitrios Georgakopoulos; Marek Rusinkiewicz; Abraham Silberschatz

Advertising income is a vital source of revenue for television stations. The arrangements made when customers purchase television advertising time should consider customer requirements, relevant laws and regulations, and the need to fill all available advertising time. This study presents an ant colony optimization (ACO) heuristic for establishing an effective and simple mechanism for solving the problem of scheduling television

M. S. Wuang; C. L. Yang; R. H. Huang; S. P. Chuang

Timetabling problems are constraint optimization problems proven to be NP complete. Furthermore, evaluation of violations is costly, and there is no common data format for representing timetabling problem instances. In this paper, a framework for designing memetic algorithms (MAs) to solve timetabling problems is described and a tool, named Final Exam Scheduler (FES) is introduced. FES is the first tool

With the market-driven need to reduce product development times in the face of increasing complexity, the ability to forecast ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) development time has become of paramount importance. The authors present techniques to forecast schedules more accurately, to minimize risks, and to improve productivity on a continuing basis. They found that it is critical to have a specification

We study in this paper a problem concerning the scheduling of a set of jobs on a single processor computer system. In our model, a job consists of a periodic stream of identical requests. That is, a job J(i) demands periodically C(i) units of computation ...

The (re)distribution of collective gains and costs is a central question for individuals and organizations contemplating cooperation\\u000a under uncertainty. The theory of cooperative interval games provides a new game theoretical angle and suitable tools for answering\\u000a this question. This survey aims to briefly present the state-of-the-art in this young field of research, discusses how the\\u000a model of cooperative interval games

R. Branzei; O. Branzei; S. Zeynep Alparslan Gök; S. Tijs

Three different immunization schedules were compared in 144 young, healthy adults (81 men, 63 women; mean age 28.5 years). They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1, immunization shots on day 0 and day 14 (n = 47), group 2, on day 0 and day 28 (n = 50), and group 3, on day 0, 14 and 28 (n = 47). All participants had a booster shot after one year. The seroconversion rate was 40-46% after first shot, 95-100% after the second one; all were anti-HAV positive after the booster injection. All subjects had specific antibodies in a mean concentration of > 400 IU/l two weeks after the second shot. In almost all subjects antibodies were demonstrable up to the 12th month after the first immunization (> 20 IU/l). Mean antibody concentration during the interval between the second and third immunization after basal immunization on day 0 and 14 or 0 and 28, respectively, was comparable. Three initial immunizations 14 days apart did not achieve much higher anti-HAV levels. The vaccine was equally well tolerated in all three groups. Thus basal immunization shortened to two injections two weeks apart presents a good alternative to the standard scheme of two injections four weeks apart. Three injections two weeks apart bring no demonstrable advantage. PMID:8393760

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

Yeoh, Eric E., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fowler, Jack [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

The Mission Analysis Division of the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a robust automatic scheduler which can produce detailed schedules for the multi-step activities required for payload operati...

A series of experiments examined the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) at various doses administration for different length of time on a schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and possible associations with behavioral activation. Two stages of a two-week AMPH treatment were introduced with interposed interval of two months. In terms of behavioral activation, AMPH induced a robust depression across stages but with less

Abstract This paper shows that software pipelining is an effective and viable scheduling technique for VLIW processors In software pipelining, iterations of a loop in the source program are continuously initiated at constant intervals, before the preceding iterations complete The advantage of software pipelining is that optimal performance can be achieved with compact object code

As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints

|Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

|Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

The multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem with time windows (MDVSPTW) consists of scheduling a fleet of vehicles to cover a set of tasks at minimum cost. Each task is restricted to begin within a prescribed time interval and vehicles are supplied by different depots. The problem is formulated as an integer nonlinear multi-commodity network flow model with time variables and is

In the traditional approach to managing complex systems, planning and scheduling are two very distinct phases. However, in a wide variety of applications this strict separation is not possible or beneficial. During scheduling it is often necessary to make...

Intermediate fine mapping has received considerable attention recently, with the goal of providing statistically precise and valid chromosomal regions for fine mapping following initial identification of broad regions that are linked to a disease. The following classes of methods have been proposed and compared in the literature: (1) LOD-support intervals, (2) Generalized estimating equations, (3) Bootstrap, (4) Confidence set inference framework. These methods provide confidence intervals either with coverage levels deviating from the nominal confidence levels or that are not fully efficient. Here, we propose a novel Bayesian method for constructing such intervals using affected sibling pair data. The susceptibility gene location is treated as a parameter in this method, with a uniform prior. A Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is implemented to sample from the posterior distribution and Highest Posterior Density Intervals of the disease gene locations are constructed. Correct coverage levels are maintained by our method. Both simulation studies and an application to a Rheumatoid Arthritis dataset demonstrate the improved efficiency of the Bayesian intervals compared with existing methods.

Sinha, Ritwik; Igo, Robert P.; Saini, Shiv K.; Elston, Robert C.; Luo, Yuqun

Intermediate fine mapping has received considerable attention recently, with the goal of providing statistically precise and valid chromosomal regions for fine mapping following initial identification of broad regions that are linked to a disease. The following classes of methods have been proposed and compared in the literature: (1) LOD-support intervals, (2) generalized estimating equations, (3) bootstrap, and (4) confidence set inference framework. These methods provide confidence intervals either with coverage levels deviating from the nominal confidence levels or that are not fully efficient. Here, we propose a novel Bayesian method for constructing such intervals using affected sibling pair data. The susceptibility gene location is treated as a parameter in this method, with a uniform prior. A Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is implemented to sample from the posterior distribution and highest posterior density intervals of the disease gene locations are constructed. Correct coverage levels are maintained by our method. Both simulation studies and an application to a rheumatoid arthritis dataset demonstrate the improved efficiency of the Bayesian intervals compared with existing methods. PMID:19194982

Sinha, Ritwik; Igo, Robert P; Saini, Shiv K; Elston, Robert C; Luo, Yuqun

Scheduling is a knowledge-intensive task spanning over many activities in day-to-day life. It deals with the temporally- bound assignment of jobs to resources. Although scheduling has been extensively researched in the AI community for the past 30 years, efforts have primarily focused on specific applications, algo- rithms, or 'scheduling shells' and no comprehensive analysis exists on the nature of scheduling

Enrico Motta; Dnyanesh G. Rajpathak; Zdenek Zdráhal; Rajkumar Roy

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

This chapter focuses on the planning and scheduling of jobs that are subject to precedence constraints. The setting may be\\u000a regarded as a parallel machine environment with an unlimited number of machines. The fact that the jobs are subject to precedence\\u000a constraints implies that a job can start with its processing only when all its predecessors have been completed. The

This class schedule, submitted by Dr. Robert Stewart of Texas A & M University, lays out the topics of discussion by day of class. One of the first days is devoted to a problem-based learning module where the students download information about the 12/26/04 tsunami from the web and forming opinions about what happened and why. The next day is devoted to the relationships between earthquakes, geologic setting and tsunamis as well as early warning systems.

We present a specification of the optimization of KLM's flight schedule in this paper using object-oriented simula- tion services on top of the Java-based distributed simulation environment DSOL. The paper shows the added value of a service-based architecture for linking the simulation of KLM's operations, the operational modules for day-to-day flight optimization, the interfaces to input data, and the out-

Peter H. M. Jacobs; Alexander Verbraeck; Jeroen B. P. Mulder

To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

Automated telescope scheduling systems have traditionally focused on optimiz- ing the use of the observatory, minimizing overhead and maximizing shutter- open time. However, educational and amateur observatories do not enjoy con- sistently good skies. Conditions can change significantly during an observing session, leading to schedule breakage. This gives rise to the need for a scheduling system that is capable of

This work introduces local search based algorithms as a new technique for the Grid scheduling problem. Specific algorithms based on dispatching rules and lo- cal search were proposed and implemented to gener- ate schedule for dynamically arriving jobs. Algorithm performance was compared with typical queue-based algorithms on the basis of objective function optimi- sation and time required to generate scheduling

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey on multicrite- ria scheduling and introduces a denition of a multicriteria scheduling problem. It provides a framework that allows to tackle multicriteria scheduling problems, according to Decision Aid concepts. This prob- lem is decomposed into three dierent problems. The rst problem is about obtaining a model. The second one is how to take criteria

This paper describes the scheduling issues specific to the Tera MTA (Multi Threaded Architecture) and presents solutions to classic scheduling problems. The Tera MTA exploits parallelism at all levels, from fine-grained instruction-level parallelism within a single processor to parallel programming across processors, to multiprogramming among several applications simultaneously. Consequently, scheduling of resources occurs at many levels, and managing these resources

Gail A. Alverson; Simon Kahan; Richard Korry; Cathy Mccann; Burton J. Smith

Scheduling techniques are used in high-level synthesis of integrated circuits. Traditional scheduling techniques assume fixed execution delays for the operations. For the synthesis of ASIC designs that interface with external signals and events, operations with unbounded delays, i.e. delays unknown at compile time, must also be considered. We present a relative scheduling technique that supports operations with fixed and unbounded

Changes produced by drugs in response patterns under fixed-intervalschedules of reinforcement have been interpreted to result from changes in temporal discrimination. To examine this possibility, this experiment determined the effects of morphine on the response patterning of 4 pigeons during a fixed-interval 1-min schedule of food delivery with interpolated temporal discrimination trials. Twenty of the 50 total intervals were interrupted by choice trials. Pecks to one key color produced food if the interval was interrupted after a short time (after 2 or 4.64 s). Pecks to another key color produced food if the interval was interrupted after a long time (after 24.99 or 58 s). Morphine (1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg) decreased the index of curvature (a measure of response patterning) during fixed intervals and accuracy during temporal discrimination trials. Accuracy was equally disrupted following short and long sample durations. Although morphine disrupted temporal discrimination in the context of a fixed-intervalschedule, these effects are inconsistent with interpretations of the disruption of response patterning as a selective overestimation of elapsed time. The effects of morphine may be related to the effects of more conventional external stimuli on response patterning.

Recently Osorio et al. (Eur. J. Neurosci., 30 (2009) 1554) reported that the probability distribution of intervals between successive epileptic seizures follows a power law with exponent 1.5. We theoretically explain this finding by modeling the epileptic activity as a branching process, which we, in turn, approximate by a random walk. We confirm the theoretical conclusion by numerical simulation.

Traditional approaches to temporal reasoning assume that time periods and time spans of events can be accurately represented as intervals. Real-world time pe- riods and events, on the other hand, are often characterized by vague temporal boundaries, requiring appropriate generalizations of existing formalisms. This paper presents a framework for reasoning about qualitative and metric temporal relations between vague time periods.

Summary The growth of knowledge of the QT interval of the ECG is reviewed. 1980 was the centennial of the first careful measurements of Burdon-Sanderson and Page, and also the 60th anniversary of Bazett's contribution that established a predictable relation of the QT to heart rate in normal subjects.

Interval methods helped a robot designed by the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) team win a prestigious third place world-wide in the robot competition held during the American Association of Artificial Intelligence conference in Portland, Oregon, August 6-7, 1996.

The Shapley value is one of the most common solution concepts in Operations Research applications of cooperative game theory. It was defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. In this article, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are compact intervals of real numbers. Our main

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

It has been proposed that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that incorporate the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum regulate interval timing behaviour. The present experiment examined whether performance on the fixed-interval peak procedure (FIPP), an immediate timing schedule, would induce neuronal activity in cortical and striatal areas, as revealed by enhanced expression of the Fos protein, a marker for neuronal activation. Regional Fos expression was compared between rats trained on the FIPP and rats trained on a variable-interval (VI) schedule matched to the FIPP for overall response rate and reinforcer delivery. Response rate in the peak trials of the FIPP conformed to a temporally differentiated pattern, which was well described by a modified Gaussian function; in agreement with previous findings, the peak time occurred close to the time at which the reinforcer was delivered in the fixed-interval trials, and the Weber fraction was within the range of values reported previously. The density of Fos-positive neurones (counts mm?2) in the orbital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) was greater in rats exposed to the FIPP than in rats exposed to the VI schedule, suggesting a greater activation of this area during the performance of the former task. This is consistent with the results of previous studies that have implicated the OPFC in interval timing behaviour. However, there was no significant difference between the levels of Fos expression in the dorsal or ventral striatum of the rats trained under the two schedules.

Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS…

Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require the energy efficiency and scalability. Although IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee which is being considered as general technology for WSNs enables the low duty-cycling with time synchronization of all the nodes in network, it still suffer from its low scalability due to the beacon frame collision. Recently, various algorithms to resolve this problem are proposed. However, their manners to implement are somewhat ambiguous and the degradation of energy/communication efficiency is serious by the additional overhead. This paper describes an Energy-efficient BOP-based Beacon transmission Scheduling (EBBS) algorithm. EBBS is the centralized approach, in which a resource-sufficient node called as Topology Management Center (TMC) allocates the time slots to transmit a beacon frame to the nodes and manages the active/sleep schedules of them. We also propose EBBS with Adaptive BOPL (EBBS-AB), to adjust the duration to transmit beacon frames in every beacon interval, adaptively. Simulation results show that by using the proposed algorithm, the energy efficiency and the throughput of whole network can be significantly improved. EBBS-AB is also more effective for the network performance when the nodes are uniformly deployed on the sensor field rather than the case of random topologies.

This site offers an explanation of how and why the round-robin CPUscheduling mechanisms work from the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It includes a concise overview and mathematical analysis, and includes an online Java based interactive simulation of round-robin scheduling. It includes the Java source code as well as an explanation of how the simulation was created and how it works. This site is applicable for technical / community college or university level computer science or engineering courses for instructors lecture notes, in class demonstrations, or for possible student assignment to experiment with the simulation.

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace.1 A recent article in The Physics Teacher aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope2 in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis.3 A logical continuation of this project is to use MacScope not just to analyze the Fourier composition of musical tones but also musical intervals.

Solving the inverse problem of nanoparticle characterization has the potential to advance science and benefit society. While considerable progress has been made within a framework based on the scattering of surface plasmon-polaritons, an aspect not heretofore considered is the quantification of uncertainty in the estimation of a nanoparticle characteristic. Therefore, the present article offers a technique by which an investigator may augment an estimate of a nanoparticle characteristic with a companion “credible interval”. Analogous to the familiar confidence interval but arising from within the Bayesian statistical paradigm, a credible interval allows the investigator to make a statement such as “the nanoparticle diameter lies between 36 and 48 nm with 95% probability” instead of merely “the nanoparticle diameter is estimated to be 42 nm”. Our technique may even be applied outside of the surface plasmon-polariton scattering framework, as long as the investigator specifies his/her prior beliefs about the nanoparticle characteristic and indicates which potential outcomes are likely or unlikely in whatever experiment he/she designs to estimate the nanoparticle characteristic. Two numerical studies illustrate the implementation and performance of our technique in constructing ranges of likely values for nanoparticle diameters and agglomeration levels, respectively.

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

Background.?Accelerated immunization schedules may help gain early control of influenza pandemics. We investigated different schedules of an AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine. Methods.?This phase II, open-label, 6-month study randomized participants (aged 18–64 years) to 2 vaccine doses administered 21 (standard schedule), 14, or 7 days apart, or on the same day. Coprimary end points were that the lower limit of the 98.75% confidence interval 14 days after the last dose must be (1) >40% for seroconversion rate (SCR) (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research [CBER] criterion) and (2) >50% for seroprotection rate (SPR) (attainment rate for reciprocal hemagglutination inhibition titers ?40, protocol-defined criterion) for the vaccine homologous strain (A/Indonesia/5/2005). European Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) immunogenicity criteria were also evaluated. Results.?Coprimary end points were achieved (lower 98.75% confidence intervals exceeded defined values). Titers were highest with the standard schedule. Nevertheless, CBER SCR, protocol-defined SPR, and CHMP criteria were met with all schedules for the A/Indonesia/5/2005 strain. There were no significant differences between age groups (18–40 vs 41–64 years). Immune response was robust against drift variants A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 and A/Vietnam/1194/2004. Conclusions.?The AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine in accelerated schedules offers a robust immune response against vaccine homologous and drift variant strains, allowing consideration of compressed vaccination intervals. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00695669.

Lasko, Benjamin; Madan, Anuradha; Roman, Francois; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David

Groups of three rats were placed in a chamber containing one response lever and one water dispenser. A variety of schedule conditions were explored including fixed ratio, extinction, satiation, fixed interval, fixed time, differential reinforcement of low rates, and discrimination learning. Each group was treated as a single unit, with the collective lever responses emitted by the three rats being the main dependent variable. Group responding was found to be controlled by the reinforcement schedules in an orderly and consistent manner. However, the groups often paused less and responded faster than individual rats working under identical conditions.

The evaluation of reliability for structural system is important in engineering practices. In this paper, by combining the design point method, JC method, interval analysis theory, and increment load method, we propose a new interval design point method for the reliability of structural systems in which the distribution parameters of random variables are described as interval variables. The proposed method may provide exact probabilistic interval reliability of structures whose random variables can have either a normal or abnormal distribution form. At last, we show the feasibility of the proposed approach through a typical example.

The problem of scheduling two or more processors to minimize the execution time of a program which consists of a set of partially ordered tasks is studied. Cases where task execution times are deterministic and others in which execution times are random variables are analyzed. It is shown that different algorithms suggested in the literature vary significantly in execution time

The problem of scheduling jobs that arrive over time on a single machine is well-studied. We study the preemptive model and the model with restarts. We provide lower bounds for deterministic and randomized algorithms for several optimality criteria: weigh...

Handling uncertainty in natural inflow is an important part of a hydroelectric scheduling model. In a stochastic programming formulation, natural inflow may be modeled as a random vector with known distribution, but the size of the resulting mathematical program can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We develop an

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) has been widely recognized as a promising method for solving real production planning and scheduling problems. Based on the proposal of a real-time job shop scheduling mechanism under an APS environment, which adopts the Lagrangean relaxation method as the optimization logic, the present paper describes a feasibility study of this mechanism by evaluating its calculation speed and re-scheduling quality. Numerical experiments have been carried out for various models having different scales, as well as different densities and strengths of random events, such as the arrival of new jobs or changes to the due dates for existing jobs. The results of experiments show that the proposed scheduling mechanism has the potential to satisfy the real-time scheduling requirements, not only in terms of calculation speed and solution quality, but also with respect to predictability of the calculation load. Finally, an improvement to the Lagrangean relaxation method is proposed to improve re-scheduling quality.

The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary randomscheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

When studying real or virtual systems through complex networks theories, usually time restrictions are neglected, and a static structure is defined to characterize which node is connected to which other. However, this approach is oversimplified, as real networks are indeed dynamically modified by external mechanisms. In order to bridge the gap, in this work we present a scheduled network formalism, which takes into account such dynamical modifications by including generic time restrictions in the structure of an extended adjacency matrix. We present some of its properties and apply this formalism to the specific case of the air transportation network in order to analyze its efficiency. Real data are used at this point. We finally discuss on the applicability of this formalism to other complex systems.

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

In this paper, we study the identical parallel machines scheduling problem for minimizing the makespan. A novel harmony search (HS) algorithm with dynamic subpopulations is proposed to tackle this problem. First, an encoding scheme based on random key representation and list schedule rule is developed, which constructs a mapping scheme between the real-valued harmony vectors and job assignments. Second, the

Despite more than 15 years of research into the implementation of flexible access to school library media programs in the United States, few empirical studies exist that examine the relationship between access scheduling and school library media circulation. This quantitative study examines the relationship between types of school library schedules and circulation. Examination of end-of-year circulation statistics for fixed, flexible, and

We start with a mathematical definition of a real interval as a closed, connected set of reals. Interval arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) are likewise defined mathematically and we provide algorithms for computing these operations assuming exact real arithmetic. Next, we define interval arithmetic operations on intervals with IEEE 754 floating point endpoints to be sound and optimal

A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

The effect of a fractionated radiotherapy on tissue is not only determined by the total dose; but also by the dose per fraction and the overall time of treatment. Recent experimental data have demonstrated that with the overall treatment time of 6 or 7 weeks, as is usually the case in the clinical practice, the late tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) is only determined by the fraction size. Based on these premises a totally new fractionation schedule for the treatment of malignant gliomas was developed. The interval between irradiation is reduced to 4 hr, which makes it practical and possible to give 3 fractions a day. Thus, 15 fractions of 2 Gy can be given in 5 days; this scheme can be repeated after a rest period of 2 weeks. In this way, a dose of 60 Gy can be delivered in an overall treatment time of 4 weeks. As the total number of treatment days is reduced this schedule reduces the burden on the patient, and renders a more efficient combination with misonidazole possible. The shortening of the overall time could enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy on a rapidly proliferating tumor. A total of 122 patients have been treated according to this schedule. The acute tolerance has been found to be very good. Only 18% of the patients experienced transient severe side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, somnolence and headache. Thus, it has been proven that this treatment schedule reduces the burden on the patients. The preliminary survival data are encouraging. The median survival time of patients treated after tumor resection is over a year. These results warrant further study. A randomized trial exploring this treatment modality has been started.

Ang, K.K. (Univ. Hospital St. Rafael, Leuve, Belgium); van der Schueren, E.; Notter, G.

The gain scheduling approach to the control of nonlinear systems is explained, and its characteristics are examined. On the basis of this framework questions are raised, and implications are drawn for practical design situations. The relationship between the gain scheduling formulation and the extended-linearization approach for nonlinear control design is considered

This work reports results from two studies investigating intelligent notification scheduling. The first study tested the performance of composite statistical models for detecting and differentiating three granularities (types) of breakpoints within novel task sequences. Results showed that the models detect breakpoints reasonably well, but do not perform as expected for differentiating their type. Our second study investigated how scheduling notifications

In this paper, we address the problem of priority scheduling in a database management system. We start by inves- tigating the architectural consequences of adding priority to a DBMS. Specific priority-based schemes are then proposed for managing DBMS resources. including a priority-based diik scheduling algorithm and two approaches to adding priority to the buffer manager of a DBMS. We study

We describe a scheduler based on the microeconomic paradigm for scheduling on-line a set of parallel jobs in a multiprocessor system. In addition to increasing the system throughput and reducing the response time, we consider fairness in allocating system...

We describe a scheduler based on the microeconomic paradigm for scheduling on-line a set of parallel jobs in a multiprocessor system. In addition to the classical objectives of increasing the system throughput and reducing the response time, we consider f...

Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

Rats with chronically implanted, bipolar electrodes in the septal and medial forebrain bundle areas, in addition to the region of the mammillary bodies of the posterior hypothalamus, were trained to press a permanently mounted lever in order to produce a second, retractable lever. Rewarding brain stimulation was programmed on the retractable lever; following completion of the programmed number of CRF response-stimulations, that lever was retracted from the box. Responding on the permanent lever could reintroduce the retractable lever. Fixed interval, fixed ratio, DRL, and variable intervalschedules were programmed on the permanent lever in the range of schedule parameters often used with conventional reinforcers. Typical effects are described, and it is concluded that there are no striking differences between brain-stimulation reinforcement and the conventional reinforcers. ImagesFig. 1.

Pliskoff, Stanley S.; Wright, James E.; Hawkins, T. Daryl

In this paper, we establish a theoretical framework for a newconcept of scheduling called soft scheduling. In contraststo the traditional schedulers referred as hard schedulers, softschedulers make soft decisions at a time, or decisions thatcan be adjusted later. Soft scheduling has a potential to alleviatethe phase coupling problem that has plagued traditionalhigh level synthesis (HLS), HLS for deep submicrondesign and

We present our experience with Twinkle, the first implementation of network-layer power scheduling with real applications. Twinkle uses dynamically created schedules to schedule network flows in sensor networks. The scheduling allows nodes to turn off their radio when idle, thus saving power. Twinkle supports broadcast and partial flows for flexibility, and integrates time synchro- nization to enable scheduling to work

The scheduling of generalized pinwheel task systems is considered. It is shown that pinwheel scheduling is closely related to the fair scheduling of periodic task systems. This relationship is exploited to obtain new scheduling algorithms for generalized pinwheel task systems. When compared to traditional pinwheel scheduling algorithms, these new algorithms are both more efficient from a run-time complexity point of

We consider the resource-constrained scheduling of loops with interiteration dependencies. A loop is modeled as a data flow graph (DFG), where edges are labeled with the number of iterations between dependencies. We design a novel and flexible technique, called rotation scheduling, for scheduling cyclic DFGs using loop pipelining. The rotation technique repeatedly transforms a schedule to a more compact schedule.

Liang-fang Chao; Andrea S. Lapaugh; Edwin Hsing-mean Sha

This paper introduces the Stochastic Project Scheduling Simulation (SPSS) system and two additional useful statisti- cal analysis tools. SPSS integrates CPM, PERT, and Dis- crete Event Simulation (DES) scheduling methods into one system. It can generate a CPM-based deterministic schedule, a PERT-based probabilistic schedule, and a simulation- based stochastic schedule for the project under study. Two additional statistical analysis tools

The present experiments examined whether the rate and type of events maintaining responding help determine physostigmine's behavioral effects. The two experiments examined the acute and chronic effects of physostigmine, respectively, on lever pressing of ...

Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS), which adjusts the clock speed and supply voltage dynamically, is an effective technique in\\u000a reducing the energy consumption of embedded real-time systems. However, the longer a job executes, the more energy in the\\u000a leakage current the device\\/processor consumes for the job. Procrastination scheduling, where task execution can be delayed\\u000a to maximize the duration of idle intervals

Created by Annenberg Media, this site is a tutorial that takes students through a mayoral election process while discussing the concept of randomness. Topics include margin of error and confidence levels. This is a fairly basic lesson, but it does provide a good example of applied statistical theory. Aside from simply addressing the statistics behind the process, the resource also discusses the actual physical process of taking political polls.

We consider a statistical problem of estimating a bivariate age distribution of newly formed partnership. The study is motivated by a type of data that consist of uncensored, right-censored, left-censored, interval-censored and missing observations in the coordinates of a bivariate random vector. A model is proposed for formulating such type of data. A feasible algorithm to estimate the generalized MLE

|The fixed-effects (FE) meta-analytic confidence intervals for unstandardized and standardized mean differences are based on an unrealistic assumption of effect-size homogeneity and perform poorly when this assumption is violated. The random-effects (RE) meta-analytic confidence intervals are based on an unrealistic assumption that the selected…

Water-deprived rats were studied under a compound schedule that prescribed that responses terminating interresponse times (IRTs) greater than a fixed value t1 (IRT > t1 component schedule) initiated a delay of reinforcement interval t2, at the end of which water was presented if the subject did not respond (R? > t2 component schedule). If the subject responded before the t2 interval elapsed, the IRT > t1 component schedule was re-initiated and water was not presented. The IRT > t1 and R? > t2 component schedules were not differentially correlated with distinctive stimuli. Rate of responding during the IRT > t1 component decreased as a function of the value of t2. The magnitude of the decreases in response rate appeared to be proportional to the subject's rate under the IRT > t schedule with no delay of reinforcement (t2 = 0 sec). The effects were independent of the parameter value of the IRT > t1 component schedule and of the rate of reinforcement. The results suggested that “efficiency” of performance under IRT > t schedules can be increased by appropriately arranging brief delays of reinforcement.

This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time a...

The report describes a generic task model for dynamic project scheduling. The notion of dynamic project scheduling is introduced and the complexity of this task and some possible approaches are described. It defines the dynamic project scheduling problem ...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.371 Section 1952...STANDARDS Virginia Â§ 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.151 Section 1952...STANDARDS North Carolina Â§ 1952.151 Developmental schedule. The North Carolina Plan is developmental. The following is the schedule...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.51 Section 1956...EMPLOYEE PLANS New York Â§ 1956.51 Developmental schedule. The New York plan is developmental. The following is a schedule of...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.111 Section 1952...STATE STANDARDS Utah Â§ 1952.111 Developmental schedule. The Utah plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.91 Section 1952...STANDARDS South Carolina Â§ 1952.91 Developmental schedule. The South Carolina plan is developmental. The following is the schedule...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.81 Section 1956...EMPLOYEE PLANS Illinois Â§ 1956.81 Developmental schedule. The Illinois State Plan is developmental. The following is a schedule of...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.43 Section 1956...PLANS Connecticut Â§ 1956.43 Developmental schedule. The Connecticut plan is developmental. The following is a schedule of...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental Schedule. 1956.61 Section 1956...PLANS New Jersey Â§ 1956.61 Developmental Schedule. The New Jersey State plan is developmental. The following is a schedule of...

The goal of this thesis is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making a schedule based on current opportunities. A...

... 2013-01-01 false Scheduling conference. 1081.203 Section 1081.203...Prehearing Rules Â§ 1081.203 Scheduling conference. (a) Meeting of the parties before scheduling conference. As early as practicable before...

This paper presents an adaptive distributed TDMA slot assignment algorithm, called A-DRAND, which is an improved version of DRAM) in clustered wireless sensor networks where cluster heads need more slots and will be alternated afterwards by other cluster members for energy balance reason. It utilizes cluster info to allocate slots discriminately for different kind of sensor node and adapts its

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.

Obstetricians are often presented with questions regarding the optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). Short IPI has been associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, ranging from preterm birth and low birth weight to neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Long IPI has in turn been associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and labor dystocia. In this review, we discuss the data regarding these associations along with recent studies revealing associations of short IPI with birth defects, schizophrenia, and autism. The optimal IPI may vary for different subgroups. We discuss the consequences of short IPI in women with a prior cesarean section, in particular the increased risk for uterine rupture and the considerations regarding a trial of labor in this subgroup. We review studies examining the interaction between short IPI and advanced maternal age and discuss the risk-benefit assessment for these women. Finally, we turn our attention to women after a stillbirth or an abortion, who often desire to conceive again with minimal delay. We discuss studies speaking in favor of a shorter IPI in this group. The accumulated data allow for the reevaluation of current IPI recommendations and management guidelines for women in general and among subpopulations with special circumstances. In particular, we suggest lowering the current minimal IPI recommendation to only 18 months (vs 24 months according to the latest World Health Organization recommendations), with even shorter recommended minimal IPI for women of advanced age and those who conceive after a spontaneous or induced abortion. PMID:22990461

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of 'straight gauges', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical 'brane-bending' modes.

Carena, Marcela [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

In order to develop meaningful statistical control limits when applicable based upon the normal distribution, the mean and the standard deviation of a population must be known. In cases when an accurate approximation of the standard deviation is not known, the calculation of reasonable statistical control limits can be performed by using the Student's t-distribution. The Student's t-value for n-1 degrees of freedom (n is the sample size) and the confidence intervals that correspond to 20 and 30 (95.45% and 99.73% respectively) is used to determine control limits from a relatively small data set. The control limits with this method are obtained by multiplying the calculated standard deviation of the data set by the appropriate t-value for the specified confidence level and degrees of freedom While the t-distribution method is needed primarily for a small sample size (n <30), it approaches the normal distribution with increasing n, and hence can be used for any size sample.

This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems associated with different variable-intervalschedules of reinforcement. After responding proved insensitive to the schedules, sessions were preceded by either instructions or modeling, counterbalanced across students in a multiple baseline design across subjects. During the instruction condition, students were told how to distribute responding to earn the most reinforcers. During the modeling condition, students observed the experimenter performing the task while describing her distribution of responding to obtain the most reinforcers. Once responding approximated obtained reinforcement under either condition, the schedules of reinforcement were changed, and neither instruction nor modeling was provided. Both instruction and modeling interventions quickly produced patterns of response allocation that approximated obtained rates of reinforcement, but responding established with modeling was more sensitive to subsequent changes in the reinforcement schedules than responding established with instructions. Results were similar for students with and without ADHD.

The problem of the interval approximation of fuzzy numbers is discussed. A new interval approximation operator, which is the best one with respect to a certain measure of distance between fuzzy numbers, is suggested.

We show that a simple, general, and easily reproducible method for generating nonuniform sampling (NUS) schedules preserves the benefits of random sampling, including inherently reduced sampling artifacts, while removing the pitfalls associated with choosing an arbitrary seed. Sampling schedules are generated from a discrete cumulative distribution function (CDF) that closely fits the continuous CDF of the desired probability density function. We compare random and deterministic sampling using a Gaussian probability density function applied to 2D HSQC spectra. Data are processed using the previously published method of Spectroscopy by Integration of Frequency and Time domain data (SIFT). NUS spectra from deterministic sampling schedules were found to be at least as good as those from randomschedules at the SIFT critical sampling density, and significantly better at half that sampling density. The method can be applied to any probability density function and generalized to greater than two dimensions.

Eddy, Matthew T.; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement.

Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borga; Thrailkill, Eric A.

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in use since September, 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while preserving telescope flexibility and data quality without creating undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria; observer availability and qualifications for remote observing; three-dimensional weather forecasts; and telescope state, the DSS software optimally schedules observers 24 to 48 hours in advance for a telescope that has a wide-range of capabilities and a geographical location with variable weather patterns. The DSS project was closed October 28, 2011 and will now enter a continuing maintenance and enhancement phase. Recent improvements include a new resource calendar for incorporating telescope maintenance activities, a sensitivity calculator that leverages the scheduling algorithms to facilitate consistent tools for proposal preparation, improved support for monitoring observations, scheduling of high frequency continuum and spectral line observations for both sparse and fully sampled array receivers, and additional session parameters for observations having special requirements.

McCarty, M. T.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Clark, M. H.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

We consider the recurrence time to the r-neighbourhood for interval exchange maps. For almost every interval exchange map we show that the logarithm of the recurrence time normalized by -log r goes to 1. A similar result of the hitting time also holds for almost every interval exchange map

Modeling of multibody systems is an important though demanding field of application for interval arithmetic. Interval modeling of dynamics is particularly challenging, not least because of the differential equations which have to be solved in the process. Most modeling tools transform these equations into a (non-autonomous) initial value problem, interval algorithms for solving of which are known. The challenge then

Interval timing in operant conditioning is the learned covariation of a temporal dependent measure such as wait time with a temporal independent variable such as fixed-interval duration. The dominant theories of interval timing all incorporate an explicit internal clock, or \\

Valentin Dragoi; J. E. R. Staddon; Richard G. Palmer; Catalin V. Buhusi

In this paper we present a new paradigm for high-level scripting of computer characters and stories in interactive environments called interval scripts. In this paradigm, the actions of characters and users are associated with temporal intervals and scripting is accomplished by establishing temporal constraints between the intervals. Unlike previous constraint-based interaction languages, we employ a strong temporal algebra (based in

The rotator interval describes the anatomic space bounded by the subscapularis, supraspinatus, and coracoid. This space contains the coracohumeral and superior glenohumeral ligament, the biceps tendon, and anterior joint capsule. Although a definitive role of the rotator interval structures has not been established, it is apparent that they contribute to shoulder dysfunction. Contracture or scarring of rotator interval structures can

Human depression is partly a congenital disorder. Aspects of the behavior accompanying depression can be magnified by genetic manipulation of bred animal species. Learned Helplessness (LH) is a trait-mark behavior that successfully breeds in rodents. Here, ‘congenital’ LH (cLH) rats were trained to recognize and respond to 12s long interval cues (irt>12s schedule). Rats compliant to an irt>t schedule will

Lifetime maximization is one key element in the design of sensor-network-based surveillance applications. We propose a protocol for node sleep scheduling that guarantees a bounded-delay sensing coverage while maximizing network lifetime. Our sleep scheduling ensures that coverage rotates such that each point in the environment is sensed within some finite interval of time, called the detection delay. The framework is

Qing Cao; Tarek F. Abdelzaher; Tian He; John A. Stankovic

A control-plane architecture for supporting advance reservation of dedicated bandwidth channels on a switched network infrastructure is described including the front-end web interface, user and token management scheme, bandwidth scheduler, and signaling daemon. A path computation algorithm for bandwidth scheduling is proposed based on an extension of Bellman-Ford algorithm to an algebraic structure on sequences of disjoint non-negative real intervals.

Nageswara S. V. Rao; Qishi Wu; Song Ding; Steven M. Carter; William R. Wing; Amitabha Banerjee; Dipak Ghosal; Biswanath Mukherjee

Mobile agent technology has a lot of gains to offer network-centric applications. The technology promises to be very suitable for narrow-bandwidth networks by reducing network latency and allowing transparent per-to-per computing. Multi-agent technology had been proposed for many network-centric applications with little or no path scheduling algorithms. This paper describes the need for path scheduling algorithms for agents in multi-agent systems. Traveling salesman problem (TSP) scheme is used to model ordered agents and the unordered agents schedule their path based on random distribution. The two types of agents were modeled and simulated based on bandwidth usage and response time as performance metrics. Our simulation results shows that ordered agents have superior performance against unordered agents. The ordered agents exhibit lower bandwidth usage and higher response time.

We study the entanglement generation of operators whose statistical properties approach those of random matrices but are restricted in some way. These include interpolating ensemble matrices, where the interval of the independent random parameters are restricted, pseudorandom operators, where there are far fewer random parameters than required for random matrices, and quantum chaotic evolution. Restricting randomness in different ways allows us to probe connections between entanglement and randomness. We comment on which properties affect entanglement generation and discuss ways of efficiently producing random states on a quantum computer. PMID:16090726

This applet allows you to explore the validity of confidence intervals on a proportion with various values for sample size (N) and population proportion (Pi). After you specify N, Pi, the level of confidence, and the number of simulations you wish to perform, the applet samples data according to your specification and computes a confidence interval for each simulation. The proportion of simulations for which the confidence interval contains Pi is recorded. If the method for constructing confidence intervals is valid, then about 95% of the 95% confidence intervals should contain Pi.

In this paper, we propose a procedure for production flow control in reentrant manufacturing systems. The system under study consists ofN machines and producesM product types simultaneously. Each part goes through the system following a predefined process and may visit a machine many times. All machines are subject to random failures and need random repair times. The scheduling objectives are

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Scheduler and switching fabric are two major hardware components of a cell switch. For a switch using a nonblocking switching fabric, the performance of the switch depends on the performance of its cell scheduler. We introduce the concepts of relative and universal scheduler scalabilities. Informally, a scheduler is relatively scalable with respect to a switching fabric if its structure is

Four rats obtained food on fixed-time (FT) 1-, 4-, and 16-min schedules. During FT schedules, a lever press produced a timeout period during which food could not be delivered. When timeout was in effect, a lever press ended the timeout period and reinstated the FT schedule. In different conditions, the timing of the FT interval either stopped for the duration

In orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems there is an intimate relationship between the packet scheduler and\\u000a the inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) functionalities: they determine the set of frequency channels (sub-carriers)\\u000a that are used to carry the packets of in-progress sessions. In this paper we build on previous work - in which we compared\\u000a the so called random and coordinated

We present a simultaneous approach to solve the integrated vehicle and crew scheduling problem in an extra urban context. We consider the single depot\\u000a case with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles. We propose a constraint based model which is subsequently solved by a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search\\u000a Procedure. The construction phase of each initial solution relies on constraint programming techniques,

This paper presents two dierent models and algorithms for inte- grated vehicle and crew scheduling in the multiple-depot case. The algorithms are both based on a combination of column generation and Lagrangian relaxation. Furthermore, we compare those integrated approaches with each other and with the traditional sequential one on random generated as well as real-world data instances for a suburban\\/extra-urban

Dennis Huisman; Richard Freling; Albert P. M. Wagelmans

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M&O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be less than the spacing determined in this analysis. Therefore, in terms of repository performance the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. In summary, performance analysis will be conservative if the flowing interval spacing determined by this study is used in the simulation of mass transport in the saturated zone instead of the fracture spacing.

A partitioned multiprocessor (PM) has a shared global bus and nonshared local memories. This paper studies a process scheduler, called the two-tier scheduler (TTS), for a PM. In a PM local scheduling amortizes the cost of loading processes in local memory. Global scheduling migrates processes to balance load. A tunable time quantum is adjusted so the average process completes execution on the processor on which it is first scheduled, and only relatively long lived processes are rescheduled globally.

Gait, J. (Digital Equipment Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (US))

Background: A considerable number of people remain unprotected against hepatitis B. These people may require immunization at short notice before being exposed to situations or locations where a risk of infection is present. Currently, full active immunization against hepatitis B, when administered according to recommended schedules, takes 2-6 months. This open, randomized multicentric study evaluated the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in adults when it was administered according to three different rapid vaccination schedules. Methods: Five hundred and twenty four healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were randomly divided into three groups. Hepatitis B vaccine was given intramuscularly in the deltoid muscle at months 0, 1, and 2 (group A); weeks 0, 14, and 28 (group B); and weeks 0, 7, and 21 (group C). Symptoms were recorded by the subjects on individual diary cards. AntiHBs were measured using radioimmunoassay (Ausab-Abbott); a seroprotective titer was defined as 10 IU/L. Results: At day 28, no significant difference in seroprotection rates (SPRs) i.e., seroconversion >= 10 IU/L,was observed, between groups B (55.6%) and C (65.2%), but both these groups had significantly greater SPRs than group A (15.0%). Although not significant (p=.07), groups B and C also had higher SPRs than group A (78.5% and 76.4% versus 65%) at day 56. One month after completing the three dose schedules, the SPRs were as follows: 89.0% (group A); 78.5% (group B); and 76.4% (group C), increasing to > 94% at month 7 to 8 in all three groups. The SPRs at month 13 were 95.8%, 98.9%, and 98.6%, respectively. Among the three groups, no significant differences were observed from month 2 onwards in either SPRs or geometric mean titers. In groups A, B, and C, 3.7%, 5.0%, and 7.1% of the vaccine injections were associated with local symptoms. Also 8.3%, 6.2%, and 6.3% of subjects exhibited general symptoms following each vaccine dose; all symptoms were transient and resolved spontaneously. Conclusions: This recombinant hepatitis B vaccine administered at weeks 0, 7, 21, or at weeks 0, 14, 28, rapidly elicits high rates of seroprotection, which persist at least until month 12. PMID:9815393

Bock; Löscher; Scheiermann; Baumgarten; Wiese; Dutz; Sänger; Clemens

In this paper, the design and development of fuzzy scheduled robustness, tracking, disturbance rejection and overall aggressiveness (RTDA) controller design for non-linear processes are discussed. pH process is highly non-linear and the design of good controller for this process is always a challenging one due to large gain variation. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design based on normalized integral square error (N_ISE) performance criteria for pH neutralization process is developed. The applicability of the proposed controller is tested for other different non-linear processes like type I diabetic process and conical tank process. The servo and regulatory performance of fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design is compared with well-tuned internal model control (IMC) and dynamic matrix control (DMC)-based control schemes. PMID:23317662

Summary This investigation provides an insight into the physiological changes produced, and processes operating, during and after a typical interval exercise training regime. The role of interval exercise in the modulation of the plasma concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the hormones $$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2max 64.3 (SD 3.8) ml·kg–1·min–1, mean age 31.5 (SD 4.5) years] undertook an intense interval

Volatile anesthetics may prolong the QTc interval and this may result in grave cardiac arrhythmias. We as- sessed the effect of desflurane on the QTc interval in 40 ASA physical status I or II patients. Volatile anesthetic inductionwithdesfluranewasperformed,andafterob- tainingadequatelevelofanesthesia,QTcinterval,heart rate, and noninvasive arterial blood pressure were measured. Prolongation of the QTc interval was ob- servedwithinthefirstminuteofanesthesia.Therewere nodifferencesinQTcintervalchangesbetweensexesat any time. We conclude

Radoslaw Owczuk; Magdalena A. Wujtewicz; Wioletta Sawicka; Jerzy Lasek; Maria Wujtewicz

Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (?439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population.

Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

Suppose that the integers are assigned the random variables {?x ,µ x } (taking values in the unit interval times the space of probability measures on R+), which serve as an environment. This environment defines a random walk {Xt } (called a RWREH) which, when at x, waits a random time distributed according to µx and then, after one unit

The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be trea...

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing

K. O'Neil; D. Balser; C. Bignell; M. Clark; J. Condon; M. McCarty; P. Marganian; A. Shelton; J. Braatz; J. Harnett; R. Maddalena; M. Mello; E. Sessoms

In an observational study, three different treatment schedules with praziquantel were assessed in a Merino land sheep flock from southern Germany. The herd had a known history of severe recurrent Moniezia spp. infections. After turnout to pasture, three hundred lambs between 8 and 14 weeks old were weighed and randomly allocated to three different groups. They were treated with praziquantel (Cestocur®) at a dose of 3.75 mg/kg body weight using the following schedules: group 1 treated four times at monthly intervals (Days 1, 31, 59, 91); group 2 treated three times at six-week intervals (Days 16, 59, 105), group 3 treated twice at an eight-week interval (Days 31, 91). Based on faecal examinations, all lambs were negative for Moniezia spp. on Day 1. At study end (Day 126), higher body weights were seen in group 1 (49.9 ± 5.8 kg; 49.9 kg) than in group 2 (48.7 ± 5.5 kg; 49.0 kg) and in group 3 (47.5 ± 5.4 kg; 47.5 kg) (mean ± SD; median). Overall weight gains were significantly higher in group 1 (22.5 ± 1.8 kg; 22.3 kg) compared to group 2 (20.8 ± 1.4 kg, 21.0 kg; p < 0.0001) and group 3 (19.3 ± 2.2 kg, 19.6 kg; p < 0.0001). The results show that praziquantel treatments applied early in the grazing season and in monthly intervals were more beneficial for body weight developments in lambs than applied at six-weekly or eight-weekly intervals. PMID:23749086

Strobel, Heinz; de Ponte, Martina; Knoppe, Tanja N; Bhushan, Chandra

Background: Evidence is mounting that annual mammography for women in their 40s may be the optimal schedule to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Few studies have assessed predictors of repeat mammography on an annual interval among these women. Methods: We assessed mammography screening status among 596 insured Black and Non-Hispanic white women ages 43–49. Adherence was defined as

Jennifer M. Gierisch; Suzanne C. O’Neill; Barbara K. Rimer; Jessica T. DeFrank; J. Michael Bowling; Celette Sugg Skinner

Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ACT Pt. 286, Sched. A Schedule A to Part 286 This schedule...

We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments, participants produced isochronous intervals ranging from 524 to 2,000 ms with either the left or the right hand. The concurrent task consisted of the production of either a pseudorandom (high cognitive load) or a simple repeated (low cognitive load) spatial sequence of key presses, while also maintaining a regular temporal sequence. This task was performed with either a single hand (unimanual) or with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Interference in terms of increased timing variability caused by the concurrent task was observed only in the bimanual condition. We verified that motor coordination in bimanual tasks alone could not account for the interference. Timing interference only appeared when (a) more than 1 effector was involved and (b) there were simultaneous task demands that recruited executive functions. Task interference was not seen if only 1 of these 2 conditions was met. Thus, our results suggest that executive functions are not directly involved in motor timing, but can indirectly affect timing performance when they are required to schedule complex motor coordination. PMID:22731995

This model-eliciting activity has students create rules to allow them to judge whether or not the shuffle feature on a particular iPod appears to produce randomly generated playlists. Because people's intuitions about random events and randomly generated data are often incorrect or misleading, this activity initially focuses students' attention on describing characteristics of 25 playlists that were randomly generated. Students then use these characteristics to come up with rules for judging whether a playlist does NOT appear to be randomly generated. Students test and revise their rules (model) using five additional playlsits. Then, they apply their model to three particular playlists that have been submitted to Apple by an unhappy iPod owner who claims the shuffle feature on his iPod is not generating random playlists. In the final part of the activity, students write a letter to the ipod owner, on behalf of Apple, explaining the use of their model and their final conclusion about whether these three suspicious playlists appear to have been randomly generated. This lesson provides an introduction to the fundamental ideas of randomness, random sequences and random samples.

We had a problem to be solved: the thermal generator maintenance scheduling problem (Yam82). We wanted to look at stochastic methods and this paper will present three methods and discuss the pros and cons of each. We will also present evidence that strongly suggests that for this problem, tabu search was the most effective and efficient technique. The problem is

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

In this research a fluid based appointment book is designed to be used for managing appointment systems. We propose a deterministic fluid control approach for modeling a stochastic single server appointment system with several types of customers. Optimal control functions for the minimum average waiting time objective are presented and used to suggest a scheduling heuristic. The heuristic is then

An important issue in this study is controllable processing times. We can control the processing times of jobs by changing the cutting speed and feed rate of the CNC machines as stated above. Therefore, we can utilize the flexibility of CNC machines both to improve a given scheduling objective such as weighted tardiness or earliness, and to deal with different

This report considers the scheduling of periodic launches of communications satellites in order to maintain a required level of system availability. Since satellite lifetimes can be described only statistically, availability is described by the probability of having at least A satellites operating in orbit as a function of time. The behavior of this probability is calculated for variations in launch

Many high-speed routers today use Input-Queued (IQ) architectures with a crossbar switching fabric based on op- tical technology. Packets in the input queues are divided into cells of unit length and the goal is to find a schedule of minimum makespan that forwards all packets to the output ports. The prob- lem is complicated since in optical switches so called

Discusses the kind of library media program that elementary students should have, focusing on the library schedule and its impact on student achievement. Considers time for collaborative planning with teachers; availability for multitasking in the library; and information literacy skills instruction integrated with content instruction. (LRW)

We consider online scheduling algorithms in the dynamic speed scal- ing model, where a processor can scale its speed between 0 and some maximum speed T. The processor uses energy at rate sfi when run at speed s, where fi > 1 is a constant. Most modern processors use dynamic speed scaling to manage their energy usage. This leads to

Nikhil Bansal; Ho-leung Chan; Tak-Wah Lam; Lap-kei Lee

In order to facilitate building decision support system relative to project crashing, Minimum Duration Project Schedule Problem (MDPSP) is worthy of further research as a case of project crashing. In this paper, MDPSP is formulated using a bi-level programming model, and an algorithm named mfmc-A is presented to find maximum flow & minimum cut set in network with lower &

We give in this article a general frame for propagat- temporal constraints over events, these events be- ing exclusively considered as sets of possible occurrences (SOPOs). These SOPOs are the numerical expression of an uncertainty about the exact occurrence of an event, while this exact occurrence is constrained by the possible occurrence of other events.Thiz key-problem of schedul- ing is

Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

Interval forecasts are important to supplement point forecasts, especially for medium- and long-range forecasting, so as to define the predictive uncertainty. In this study, the empirical approach and bootstrap approach based on the residuals from AR models are applied to construct prediction interval (PI) for monthly streamflow forecasts. The results show that both empirical approach and bootstrap method work rea-

Wen Wang; Pieter H. A. J. M. Van Gelder; J. K. Vrijling

Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself ap- pears to be bruited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic

This applet simulates sampling from a population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For each sample, the 95% and 99% confidence intervals on the mean are computed based on the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Exercises accompany the applet to help students understand what confidence intervals mean.

High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved

Kate Gower-Thomas; Hilary M. P. Fielder; Lucy Branston; Sarah Greening; Helen Beer; Cerilan Rogers

A standard cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart for controlling the process mean takes samples from the process at fixed-length sampling intervals and uses a control statistic based on a cumulative sum of differences between the sample means and the target value. This article proposes a modification of the standard CUSUM scheme that varies the time intervals between samples depending on the

We present a modified approach to arithmetic coding in which the overall length within the range (0, 1) allocated to each symbol is preserved, but the traditional assumption that a single contiguous interval is used for each symbol is removed. A key known to both the encoder and decoder is used to describe where the intervals are \\

We address the problem of autocalibration of a moving camera with unknown constant intrinsic parameters. Existing autocalibration techniques use numerical optimization algorithms whose convergence to the correct result cannot be guaranteed, in general. To address this problem, we have developed a method where an interval branch- and-bound method is employed for numerical minimization. Thanks to the properties of Interval Analysis

Andrea Fusiello; Arrigo Benedetti; Michela Farenzena; Alessandro Busti

Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block. Also, at each variable-interval duration, a block of sessions was conducted with a schedule that imposed a variable-ratio 4 response requirement after each variable interval (i.e., a tandem variable-time variable-ratio 4 schedule). The total rate of lever pressing increased as a function of the rate of reinforcement and as a result of imposing the variable-ratio requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times indicated that lever pressing occurred in bouts that were separated by pauses. Increasing the rate of reinforcement increased total response rate by increasing the rate of initiating bouts and, less reliably, by lengthening bouts. Imposing the variable-ratio component increased response rate mainly by lengthening bouts. This pattern of results is similar to that reported previously with key poking as the response. Also, response rates within bouts were relatively insensitive to either variable.

In this survey paper we focus our attention on dynamical bio-systems involving uncertainties and the use of interval methods for the modelling study of such systems. The kind of envisioned uncertain systems are those described by a dynamical model with parameters bounded in intervals. We point out to a fruitful symbiosis between dynamical modelling in biology and computational methods of interval analysis. Both fields are presently in the stage of rapid development and can benefit from each other. We point out on recent studies in the field of interval arithmetic from a new perspective-the midpoint-radius arithmetic which explores the properties of error bounds and approximate numbers. The midpoint-radius approach provides a bridge between interval methods and the ``uncertain but bounded'' approach used for model estimation and identification. We briefly discuss certain recently obtained algebraic properties of errors and approximate numbers.

During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

With hectic schedules serving as the order of the day, many persons may find this application more than a bit handy. Schedule World is a free calendaring and scheduling client that utilizes open standards. The application allows users to schedule and receive meetings to and from Microsoft Exchange or Outlook, among other programs. Additionally, the application provides TV-listings for 13 countries and global weather schedules as well. Schedule World 1.3.8 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

How many people should you ask if you are not sure about your way? We provide an answer to this question for Random Forest classification. The presented method is based on the statistical formulation of confidence intervals and conjugate priors for binomial as well as multinomial distributions. We derive appealing decision rules to speed up the classification process by leveraging

Alexander G. Schwing; Christopher Zach; Yefeng Zheng; Marc Pollefeys

We evaluated the effect of tigecycline (50-mg and 200-mg doses) on corrected QT (QTc) intervals and assessed safety and tolerability in a randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover study of 48 (44 male) healthy volunteers aged 22 to 53 years. Fed subjects received tigecycline (50 mg or 200 mg) or placebo in a blinded fashion or an open-label oral dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg) after 1 liter of intravenous fluid. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded before, and for 96 h after, dosing. Blood samples for tigecycline pharmacokinetics were collected after each recording. QTc intervals were corrected using Fridericia's correction (QTcF). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods with potential relationships examined using linear mixed-effects modeling. Adverse events were recorded. The upper limits of the 90% confidence interval for the mean difference between both tigecycline doses and placebo for all time-matched QTcF interval changes from baseline were <5 ms. The tigecycline concentrations initially declined rapidly and then more slowly. In the group given 50 mg of tigecycline, the pharmacokinetic parameters and means were as follows: maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), 432 ng/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0–?), 2,366 ng · h/ml; clearance (CL), 21.1 liters/h; volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), 610 liters; and terminal half-life (t1/2), 22.1 h. Proportional or similar values were found for the group given 200 mg of tigecycline. Linear mixed-effects modeling failed to show an effect on QTcF values by tigecycline concentrations (P = 0.755). Tigecycline does not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01287793.

Rats were trained on concurrent schedules in which pressing one lever postponed shock and pressing the other lever produced periods of signaled timeout from avoidance on variable-ratio schedules. These procedures generated high rates of timeout-reinforced responding and provided a baseline for studying the effects of drugs on behavior maintained by different types of negative reinforcement (shock postponement vs. timeout). Morphine (2.5 to 10.0 mg/kg) reduced behavior maintained by timeout at doses that increased or had no effect on avoidance responding. In contrast, d-amphetamine (0.125 to 2.0 mg/kg) produced large increases in timeout responding at doses that had minimal effect on avoidance in rats trained on variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules. Thus, the event-dependent effects of morphine, observed in previous studies in which timeout responding was maintained at low rates by intervalschedules, were replicated with high timeout rates maintained by variable-ratio schedules. The effects of d-amphetamine could also be described as "event dependent" because timeout responding was stimulated more than avoidance regardless of the maintenance schedule or baseline rate.

The chronologic dimension of continuity of physician care (repeat visits to the same provider) is examined. This continuity is measured by the number of repeat visits to trainees under multiple time intervals of trainee exposure; part-time schedule is compared with full-time exposure. (MLW)

|The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

This study considers the identical parallel machines operational fixed job scheduling problem with machine-dependent job weights. A job is either processed in a fixed interval or is not processed at all. Our aim is to maximise the total weight of the processed jobs. We show that the problem with machine eligibility constraints resides as a special case of this problem.

|This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-intervalschedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

|Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

In the paper we investigate four single processor scheduling problems, which deal with the process of the negotiation between a producer and a customer about delivery time of final products. This process is modeled by a due window, which is a generalization of well known classical due date and describes a time interval, in which a job should be finished.

This paper considers the problem of scheduling n jobs on a single machine. A fixed processing time and an execution interval are associated with each job. Preemption is not allowed. The objective is to find a feasible job sequence that minimizes the number of tardy jobs. On the basis of an original mathematical integer programming formulation, this paper shows how

Timing constraints for radar tasks are usually specified in terms of the minimum and maximum temporal distance between successive radar dwells. We utilize the idea of feasible intervals for dealing with the temporal distance constraints. In order to increase the freedom that the scheduler can offer a high-level resource manager, we introduce a technique for nesting and interleaving dwells online

Sathish Gopalakrishnan; Marco Caccamo; Chi-sheng Shih; Chang-gun Lee; Lui Sha

In this paper, we first define interval-valued fuzzy numbers and interval-distribution numbers, and then their extended operations are given. Next, we discuss some applications of generalized pseudo-probability metric spaces and pseudo-metric spaces.

We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...

Modeling of multibody systems is an important though demanding field of application for interval arithmetic. Interval modeling of dynamics is particularly challenging, not least because of the differential equations which have to be solved in the process. Most modeling tools transform these equations into a (non-autonomous) initial value problem, interval algorithms for solving of which are known. The challenge then consists in finding interfaces between these algorithms and the modeling tools. This includes choosing between "symbolic" and "numerical" modeling environments, transforming the usually non-autonomous resulting system into an autonomous one, ensuring conformity of the new interval version to the old numerical, etc. In this paper, we focus on modeling multibody systems' dynamics with the interval extension of the "numerical" environment MOBILE, discuss the techniques which make the uniform treatment of interval and non-interval modeling easier, comment on the wrapping effect, and give reasons for our choice of MOBILE by comparing the results achieved with its help with those obtained by analogous symbolic tools.

Temporal perception is fundamental to environmental adaptation in humans and other animals. To deal with timing and time perception, organisms have developed multiple systems that are active over a broad range of order of magnitude, the most important being circadian timing, interval timing and millisecond timing. The circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and is driven by a self-sustaining oscillator with a period close to 24h. Time estimation in the second-to-minutes range--known as interval timing--involves the interaction of the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. In this work we tested the hypothesis that interval timing in mice is sensitive to circadian modulations. Animals were trained following the peak-interval (PI) procedure. Results show significant differences in the estimation of 24-second intervals at different times of day, with a higher accuracy in the group trained at night, which were maintained under constant dark (DD) conditions. Interval timing was also studied in animals under constant light (LL) conditions, which abolish circadian rhythmicity. Mice under LL conditions were unable to acquire temporal control in the peak interval procedure. Moreover, short time estimation in animals subjected to circadian desynchronizations (modeling jet lag-like situations) was also affected. Taken together, our results indicate that short-time estimation is modulated by the circadian clock. PMID:21078306

Agostino, Patricia V; do Nascimento, Micaela; Bussi, Ivana L; Eguía, Manuel C; Golombek, Diego A

Analysing a schedule is beneficial to help stakeholders understand the scheduled project. Project schedules, which create time plans based on the critical path method (CPM) or on resource?constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) optimization, are targets herein. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) treats a schedule as a system. Schedule elements are suspected constraints and a goal depends on the schedule creation

The problem of job shop scheduling in a dynamic environment where random perturbation exists in the system is studied. In this paper, an extended deterministic Dendritic Cell Algorithm (dDCA) is proposed to solve such a dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) where unexpected events occurred randomly. This algorithm is designed based on dDCA and makes improvements by considering all types of signals and the magnitude of the output values. To evaluate this algorithm, ten benchmark problems are chosen and different kinds of disturbances are injected randomly. The results show that the algorithm performs competitively as it is capable of triggering the rescheduling process optimally with much less run time for deciding the rescheduling action. As such, the proposed algorithm is able to minimize the rescheduling times under the defined objective and to keep the scheduling process stable and efficient.

A description is given of: (1) a finite-state model for asynchronous systems in which the time delays between the scheduling and occurrence of the events that cause state changes are constrained to fall between fixed numerical upper and lower time bounds; (2) a branching-time temporal logic suitable for describing the temporal and logical properties of asynchronous systems, for which the

Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements.

We conducted two studies to determine whether the minimum clinically significant difference in the visual analog scale (VAS) for nearly simultaneous and brief-interval serial assessments of pain is less than that for pain assessment at 20- to 30-minute intervals, using a 10-cm VAS. The first study was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled paired trial comparing the pain of intravenous cannulation in

Loren G Yamamoto; Jason T Nomura; Renee L Sato; Reina M Ahern; Joanne L Snow; Todd T Kuwaye

Parallel programming requires task scheduling to optimize performance; this primarily involves balancing the load over the processors. In many cases, it is critical to perform task scheduling at runtime. For example, (1) in many parallel applications the ...

I. C. Wu H. T. Kung P. Steenkiste D. O'Hallaron G. Thompson

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.273 Section 1952...STANDARDS Vermont Â§ 1952.273 Developmental schedule. (a) Introduction...Within three years of plan approval all developmental steps will be fully...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.361 Section 1952...STANDARDS New Mexico Â§ 1952.361 Developmental schedule. The New Mexico State Plan is developmental. The following is the...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.291 Section...STANDARDS Nevada Â§ 1952.291 Developmental schedule. The following is a summary of the major developmental steps provided by the plan:...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.123 Section 1952...STANDARDS Washington Â§ 1952.123 Developmental schedule. The Washington State plan is developmental. The following is the...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.321 Section 1952...STANDARDS Indiana Â§ 1952.321 Developmental schedule. (a) Proposed legislative...Within three years of plan approval all developmental steps will be fully...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.221 Section 1952...STANDARDS Tennessee Â§ 1952.221 Developmental schedule. The Tennessee state plan is developmental. The following is the...

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.71 Section...Virgin Islands Â§ 1956.71 Developmental schedule. The Virgin Islands...for public employees only is developmental. The following is a...

Satellite range scheduling is a complex problem that involves scheduling satellite supports in which a satellite and a specific remote tracking station are assigned a time window during which they communicate with each other. As the number and complexity ...

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii Â§ 52.626 Compliance schedules. (a) [Reserved] (b) The compliance schedules for the sources identified...

We review elementary properties of random matrices and discuss widely used\\u000amathematical methods for both hermitian and nonhermitian random matrix\\u000aensembles. Applications to a wide range of physics problems are summarized.\\u000aThis paper originally appeared as an article in the Wiley Encyclopedia of\\u000aElectrical and Electronics Engineering.

Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

THE problem of random fragmentation of a line into a finite number of N parts has received considerable attention, partly because of its application in assessing the randomness of radioactive disintegrations and cosmic ray events. For a line of length l the average number of fragments equal to or greater than x is1: This equation is readily applied to discuss2

The real life scheduling problems often have several conflicting objectives. The solutions of these problems can provide deeper\\u000a insights to the decision maker than those of single-objective problems. However, the literature of multi-objective scheduling\\u000a is notably sparser than that of single-objective scheduling. Since the survey paper on multi-objective and bi-objective scheduling\\u000a was conducted by Nagar et al. in 1995, there

Avionics mission computing systems have traditionally been scheduled statically. Static scheduling provides assurance of schedulability prior to run-time and can be implemented with low renting overhead. However static scheduling handles non-periodic processing inefficiently, and treats invocation-to-invocation variations in resource requirements inflexibly. As a consequence, processing resources am underutilized and the resulting systems are hard to adapt to meet worst-case processing

David L. Levine; Christopher D. Gill; Douglas C. Schmidt

A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death or discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

Thall, Peter F; Nguyen, Hoang Q; Braun, Thomas M; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H

The immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS 04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) administered according to its licensed vaccination schedule (3-dose, 3D) and formulation (20 µg of each HPV antigen; 20/20F) has previously been demonstrated. This partially-blind, controlled, randomized trial (NCT00541970) evaluated 2-dose (2D) schedules using the licensed 20/20F or an alternative formulation containing 40 µg of each antigen (40/40F), compared with the licensed 3D schedule. Healthy females stratified by age (9–14, 15–19, 20–25 y) were randomized to receive 2 doses of 20/20F at Months (M) 0,6 (n = 240), 40/40F at M0,6 (n = 241) or 40/40F at M0,2 (n = 240), or 3 doses of 20/20F at M0,1,6 (licensed schedule/formulation, n = 239). One month after the last dose, the 3D schedule was not immunologically superior to 2D schedules except in the 40/40F M0,2 group for HPV-16 (lower limit of 95% CI geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratio [2D/3D] <0.5). For both HPV-16 and HPV-18, the 2D schedules in girls 9–14 y were immunologically non-inferior to the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y (the age group in which efficacy has been demonstrated) (upper limit of 95% CI for GMT ratio [3D/2D] <2) one month after the last dose. At Month 24, non-inferiority was maintained for the 2D M0,6 schedules in girls 9–14 y vs. the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. These results indicate that the HPV-16/18 vaccine on a 2D M0,6 schedule is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in girls 9–14 y and that the 2D schedule is likely adequate for younger females.

In support of the NCRC, a joint computing center between NOAA and ORNL, a grid-based scheduling infrastructure was designed to allow geographically separate computing resources to be used as production resources in climate and weather research workflows. These workflows require job coordination between the two centers in order to provide a complete workflow of data staging, computation, post-analysis and archival. This paper details the design, implementation and initial production phase of the infrastructure and lessons learned from the process.

We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem

Fully automated production cells consisting of flexible machines and a material handling robot have become commonplace in\\u000a contemporary manufacturing systems. Much research on scheduling problems arising in such cells, in particular in flowshop-like\\u000a production cells, has been reported recently. Although there are many differences between the models, they all explicitly\\u000a incorporate the interaction between the materials handling and the classical

Distributed computing splits a large-scale job into multiple tasks and deals with them on clusters. Cluster resource allocation\\u000a is the key point to restrict the efficiency of distributed computing platform. Hadoop is the current most popular open-source\\u000a distributed platform. However, the existing scheduling strategies in Hadoop are kind of simple and cannot meet the needs such\\u000a as sharing the cluster

As embedded DSP applications become more complex, it is increasingly important to provide high-level stream abstractions that can be compiled without sacrificing efficiency. In this paper, we describe scheduler support for StreamIt, a high-level language for signal processing applications. A StreamIt program consists of a set of autonomous filters that communicate with each other via FIFO queues. As in Synchronous

Michal Karczmarek; William Thies; Saman P. Amarasinghe

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

The QT interval measures the time from the start of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave. Prolongation of the QT interval may lead to malignant ventricular tachydysrhythmias, including torsades de pointes. Causes of QT prolongation include congenital abnormalities of the sodium or potassium channel, electrolyte abnormalities, and medications; idiopathic causes have also been identified. Patients can be asymptomatic or present with syncope, palpitations, seizure-like activity, or sudden cardiac death. Management involves looking for and treating reversible causes. For patients with congenital or idiopathic QT interval prolongation, the use of beta-blockers can be considered. Certain subsets of patients benefit from implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. Clinicians must remain vigilant for QT interval prolongation when interpreting electrocardiograms, especially in patients presenting with syncope or ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:23602761

Moskovitz, Joshua B; Hayes, Bryan D; Martinez, Joseph P; Mattu, Amal; Brady, William J

... Extension to the Use of Tolerance Intervals for the Assessment of Individual Bioequivalence, Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 4, 39-52. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch

Approximate prediction intervals for a single future observation for the average for m future observations are developed for the two-parameter gamma distribution where both parameters are considered unknown. The methods are illustrated with three examples...

We use an abstract framework to obtain a multilevel decomposition of a variety of functional spaces, using biorthogonal wavelet bases satisfying homo- geneous boundary conditions on the unit interval.

In this article the author presents a method for obtaining simultaneous confidence intervals for the parameters of a multinomial distribution, and compares this method with the one suggested recently by Quesenberry and Hurst (1964). For the usual probabil...

This paper considers the problem of scheduling m independent, immediately available tasks on n parallel processors. Each task has a waiting cost rate, that is a function of time, and a service time. There are no feasibility restrictions on the order in which the tasks are to be processed. An optimal scheduling rule is presented for the single processor scheduling

The challenge of scheduling user transmissions on the downlink of a long term evolution (LTE) cellular communication system is addressed. A maximum rate algorithm which does not consider fairness among users was proposed in . Here, a multiuser scheduler with proportional fairness (PF) is proposed. Numerical results show that the proposed PF scheduler provides a superior fairness performance with a

This paper explores hierarchical instruction scheduling for a tiled processor. Our results show that at the top level of the hierarchy, a simple profile-driven algorithm effectively minimizes operand latency. After this schedule has been partitioned into large sections, the bottom-level algorithm must more carefully analyze program structure when producing the final schedule. Our analysis reveals that at this bottom level,

Martha Mercaldi; Steven Swanson; Andrew Petersen; Andrew Putnam; Andrew Schwerin; Mark Oskin; Susan J. Eggers

We consider the following scheduling problem. There are m parallel machines and n independent jobs. Each job is to be assigned to one of the machines. The processing of job j on machine i requires time pij. The objective is to find a schedule that minimizes the makespan. Our main result is a polynomial algorithm which constructs a schedule that

Scheduling algorithms for composite multimedia presentations need to ensure that the user-defined synchronization constraints for the various presen- tation components are met. This requirement gives rise to task models that are significantly more com- plex than the models employed in scheduling theory and practice. In this paper, we formulate the resource scheduling problems for composite multimedia ob- jects and develop

Minos N. Garofalakis; Yannis E. Ioannidis; Banu Özden

Market demands for different classes of rail transportation service are not served because of the inability to assess the cost to the network of disparate services, as well as the inability to determine optimal scheduling. A new scheduling model is presented, based on a multicommodity flow and discrete time, that both selects an optimal set of trains and schedules these

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling conference. 283.29 Section 283...Less Than $50,000 Â§ 283.29 Scheduling conference. (a) Time and place...parties or their counsel to attend a scheduling conference following the filing of...

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Scheduling conference. 283.29 Section 283...Less Than $50,000 Â§ 283.29 Scheduling conference. (a) Time and place...parties or their counsel to attend a scheduling conference following the filing of...

We consider several parallel machine scheduling settings with the objective to min- imize the schedule makespan. The most general of these settings is unrelated parallel machine scheduling. We assume that, in addition to its machine dependence, the processing time of any job is dependent on the usage of a scarce renewable resource. A given amount of that resource, e.g. workers,

In this paper, we consider the use of ontologies as a basis for structuring and simplifying the process of constructing domain-specific problem- solving tools. We focus specifically on the task of scheduling. Though there is commonality in scheduling system requirements and design at several levels across application domains, differ- ent scheduling environments invariably present different challenges (e.g., different dominating constraints,

A number of pitfalls of empirical scheduling research are illustrated using real experimental data. These pitfalls, in general, serve to slow the progress of scheduling research by obsfucating results, blurring comparisons among scheduling algorithms and algorithm components, and complicating valida- tion of work in the literature. In particular, we look at difficulties brought about by viewing algorithms in a monolithic

J. Christopher Beck; Andrew J. Davenport; Mark S. Fox

Within the fleld of software agents, there has been increas- ing interest in automating the process of calendar scheduling in recent years. Calendar (or meeting) scheduling is an example of a timetabling domain that is most naturally formulated and solved as a continuous, distributed problem. Fundamentally, it involves reconciliation of a given user's scheduling preferences with those of others that

|"BLOCK SCHEDULING," DEFINED AS PLACING A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN A COMMON BLOCK OF BASIC COURSES TO SHARE THE SAME DAILY CLASS SCHEDULE, PERMITS INSTRUCTORS TO MEET A MORE COHENSIVE GROUP. IT ALSO SIMPLIFIES REGISTRATION AND SCHEDULING, AS STUDENTS ACCEPT A PREPARED GROUP OF COURSES INSTEAD OF INDIVIDUALLY SELECTED ONES. FOR THE STUDENT, IT MEANS…

This paper proposes a new class of simple, distributed algo- rithms for scheduling in wireless networks. The algorithms generate new schedules in a distributed manner via simple local changes to existing schedules. The class is parame- terized by integers k ? 1. We show that algorithm k of our class achieves k\\/(k +2) of the capacity region, for every k

Current gain scheduling control of nonlinear practice is limited to slow variations in the scheduling variable. These limitations are revealed to be consequences of fundamental control concepts. It is shown how a reformulation of the gain scheduling procedure can lead to the ultimate removal of these restrictions

Scheduling is a fundamental issue in achieving high performance in multiclusters and computational grids. To efficiently schedule submitted jobs, WAN behavior should be considered as an important parameter, which highly influences the communication time of a job. However, due to the global state uncertainty, there is no suitable mathematical model to characterize network behavior, such that accurate job scheduling decision

One hundred thirty-eight subjects participated in a study on mobile appointment scheduling. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their primary method of managing appointments when away from their desks. Immediately afterwards, subjects completed a session of scheduling four appointments with the interviewer. The most common scheduling systems, in order of popularity, were paper-based day planners, memory, scrap paper, and PDA's. However,

Thad E. Starner; Cornelis M. Snoeck; Benjamin A. Wong; R. Martin McGuire

Scheduling group meetings requires access to participants' calendars, typically located in scattered pockets or desks. Placing participants' calendars on-line and using a rule-based scheduler to find a time slot would alleviate the problem to some extent, but it often is difficult to trust the results, because correct scheduling rules are elusive, varying with the participants and the agenda of a

David Beard; Murugappan Palaniappan; Alan Humm; David Banks; Anil Nair; Yen-Ping Shan

In this paper, we present an adaptive method for scheduling parallel applications on unspecified distributed memory platforms. The presented method can be used to schedule parallel applications when the total workload and the execution parameters (communication speed, available computing power...) are unspecified. When used to schedule divisible load applications according to a masterworker model, this method delivers the workload through

In this thesis, I present a series of new scheduling algorithms for an ATM-like crossbar input-queued switching fabric of an IP router. These new scheduling algorithms are developed based on three popular existing scheduling algorithms: Parallel Iterative Matching, Round Robin Matching, and Iterative Round Robin Matching with SLIP. The basic idea of our research is to divide all outputs of

The modeling of city bus scheduling problems is considered. The aim of this paper is to optimize the number of buses and their scheduling in the city. This leads to high-dimensional integer programming problems. The vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) can also be formulated through a graph-theoretical model, which is then transformed into an integer linear programming (ILP) model. There are

In this paper we discuss a processor architecture for interval arithmetic.Firstly it is shown that double precision FPUs can cheaply besplit to support single precision interval addition\\/subtraction or multiplication,secondly we propose hardware support for double precisioninterval arithmetic and compare the effort and performance with softwareimplementations on current architectures.1 IntroductionIn this paper we present an architecture extension of a double precision

We have completed the calculation of the one-photon-annihilation contribution to the positronium hyperfine interval at order m{alpha}{sup 6} . Our result for this contribution is {minus}0.1256481(12)m{alpha}{sup 6}={minus}2.344 MHz . The complete theoretical result for this interval is worked out, and comparison with experiment is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

OBJECTIVE--To quantify the errors associated with manual measurement of QT intervals and to determine the source of the errors. DESIGN--A randomised study of QT measurement by four cardiologists of electrocardiograms plotted on paper in presentations with different noise levels, paper speeds, amplifier gains, and with and without a second QRST complex to indicate the RR interval. SUBJECTS--Four electrocardiograph leads (I,

A. Murray; N. B. McLaughlin; J. P. Bourke; J. C. Doig; S. S. Furniss; R. W. Campbell

|Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

...Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The temporary scheduling of methylone...and methylone, into Schedule I of the CSA pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions...effect, section 201(h)(2) of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811(h)(2)...

Recently, there has been a trend towards clustered microarchitectures to reduce the cycle time for wide- issue microprocessors. In such processors, the register le and functional units are partitioned and grouped into clusters. Instruction scheduling for a clustered ma- chine requires assignment and scheduling of operations to the clusters. In this paper, a new scheduling algo- rithm named unied-assign-and-schedule (UAS)

...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. 162.45a Section 162.45a Customs...forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C....

Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. In terms of repository performance, the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. Underestimation of matrix diffusion in the transport modeling would result in more rapid simulated migration of radionuclide mass to the accessible environment and correspondingly higher simulated dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual in the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) analyses. The flowing interval spacing is appropriate for use in the SZ site-scale transport abstraction model because the 500 m grid block size in the numerical transport model is more than an order of magnitude larger than the expected flowing interval spacing (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042], Section 6.3.1). Therefore, the use of the developed flowing interval spacing parameter is limited to a numerical grid spacing that is at least an order of magnitude greater than the average flowing interval spacing to ensure a reasonable description of transport behavior in a grid. This analysis report supports several features, events, and processes (FEPs) and contributes to the characterization of the SZ as a natural barrier, which provides evidence related to the capability of the SZ to delay movement of radionuclides through the SZ to the accessible environment.

We study the pulse interval jitter of a diode-pumped solid-state laser due to random development of lasing from spontaneous emission after Q-switching of the resonator. Analytical expressions are obtained for the pulse interval jitter of lasers with passive and passive-active Q-switching.

We study the pulse interval jitter of a diode-pumped solid-state laser due to random development of lasing from spontaneous\\u000a emission after Q-switching of the resonator. Analytical expressions are obtained for the pulse interval jitter of lasers with\\u000a passive and passive-active Q-switching.

Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for environmental problems with lengthy execution times that make credible intervals inconvenient or prohibitive, confidence intervals can provide important insight. During model development when frequent calculation of uncertainty intervals is important to understanding the consequences of various model construction alternatives and data collection strategies, strategic use of both confidence and credible intervals can be critical.

The efficacy of a loading dose of 20 mg of chloroquine per kg of body weight per os given at intervals during the first day was evaluated in 27 patients in Madagascar with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The conventional regimen of 25 mg/kg over 3 days (schedule 1) was thus compared with a regimen of 30 mg/kg over 2 days (schedule 2; one dose of 10 mg/kg followed by two doses of 5 mg/kg at 6-h intervals on the first day and two doses of 5 mg/kg at 12-h intervals on the second day) in terms of their clinical and parasitological efficacies, tolerance, and drug concentration-time curves. At 24 h schedule 2 gave higher chloroquine levels in blood, which induced a more rapid decrease in parasitemia. The time required for a 50% decrease in the initial parasitemia was shorter in patients on schedule 2 (14.3 +/- 1.6 h) than it was in patients on schedule 1 (35.5 +/- 5.4 h; P less than 0.01). Moreover, negative blood smears were obtained more rapidly with schedule 2 (50.8 +/- 3.7 h) than with schedule 1 (72 +/- 8.7 h). As predicted by the drug concentration-time curve, no high, potentially toxic peak drug concentration appeared and no adverse effects were observed with the loading dose regimen (schedule 2). These findings support the idea that a loading dose of 20 mg/kg given at intervals during the first 12 h is well tolerated and can be used to obtain a more rapid decrease in parasitemia and to shorten the treatment time of uncomplicated chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria in the field.

Pussard, E; Lepers, J P; Clavier, F; Raharimalala, L; Le Bras, J; Frisk-Holmberg, M; Bergqvist, Y; Verdier, F

Let Xi,j (1 ? i ? k, 1 ? j ? ni) be independent random variables and for a fixed i, Xi,j's, (1 ? j ? ni) be identically distributed random variables with survival function , where ?i is a known positive constant. Also, suppose Mi and M?i, respectively, denote the maximum and minimum of the ith sample. This article investigates the nonparametric confidence intervals for an arbitrary quantile of the distribution

This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995.

Dietary reference intervals relate to the distribution of dietary requirement for a particular nutrient as defined by the distribution of physiological requirement for that nutrient. These have more commonly been called Dietary Reference Values (DRV) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), amongst other names. The North American DRI for vitamin D are the most current dietary reference intervals and arguably arising from the most comprehensive evaluation and report on vitamin D nutrition to date. These are a family of nutrient reference values, including the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level. In particular, the EAR is used for planning and assessing diets of populations; it also serves as the basis for calculating the RDA, a value intended to meet the needs of nearly all people. The DRVs for vitamin D in the UK and the European Community have been in existence for almost two decades, and both are currently under review. The present paper briefly overviews these three sets of dietary reference intervals as case studies to highlight both the similarities as well as possible differences that may exist between reference intervals for vitamin D in different countries/regions. In addition, it highlights the scientific basis upon which these are based, which may explain some of the differences. Finally, it also overviews how the dietary reference intervals for vitamin D may be applied, and especially in terms of assessing the adequacy of vitamin D intake in populations. PMID:22536775

Financial fluctuations play a key role for financial markets studies. A new approach focusing on properties of return intervals can help to get better understanding of the fluctuations. A return interval is defined as the time between two successive volatilities above a given threshold. We review recent studies and analyze the 1000 most traded stocks in the US stock markets. We find that the distribution of the return intervals has a well approximated scaling over a wide range of thresholds. The scaling is also valid for various time windows from one minute up to one trading day. Moreover, these results are universal for stocks of different countries, commodities, interest rates as well as currencies. Further analysis shows some systematic deviations from a scaling law, which are due to the nonlinear correlations in the volatility sequence. We also examine the memory in return intervals for different time scales, which are related to the long-term correlations in the volatility. Furthermore, we test two popular models, FIGARCH and fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Both models can catch the memory effect but only fBm shows a good scaling in the return interval distribution.

Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

Six possums (Trichosuruus vulpecula) responded under dependent concurrent variable-interval variable-intervalschedules of reinforcement. Over 15 conditions, barley-carob was one reinforcer with the other reinforcer consisting of Coco Pops, coconut, or a barley-carob mixture with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% salt added to the barley. The schedules were both variable-interval 40 s. As has been found with other species, behavior on the concurrent schedules was biased by the type of feed, with the 6% salt and the coconut giving the greatest biases towards the barley-carob mixture. The schedules were varied over 17 conditions using the barley-carob mixture alone or the barley-carob mixture versus the mixture with 4% or 6% salt. Both the contingency-discriminability model (Davison & Jenkins, 1985) and the generalized matching law described the data from the three sets of conditions equally well. Both gave similar measures of bias; however, some of the parameter values found with the contingency discriminability model were uninterpretable. Thus, any argument for this model based on the interpretability of the parameter values becomes weak. It is worth retaining the generalized matching law as a descriptor of such data. PMID:12908759

Bron, Angela; Sumpter, Catherine E; Foster, T Mary; Temple, William

Six possums (Trichosuruus vulpecula) responded under dependent concurrent variable-interval variable-intervalschedules of reinforcement. Over 15 conditions, barley-carob was one reinforcer with the other reinforcer consisting of Coco Pops, coconut, or a barley-carob mixture with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% salt added to the barley. The schedules were both variable-interval 40 s. As has been found with other species, behavior on the concurrent schedules was biased by the type of feed, with the 6% salt and the coconut giving the greatest biases towards the barley-carob mixture. The schedules were varied over 17 conditions using the barley-carob mixture alone or the barley-carob mixture versus the mixture with 4% or 6% salt. Both the contingency-discriminability model (Davison & Jenkins, 1985) and the generalized matching law described the data from the three sets of conditions equally well. Both gave similar measures of bias; however, some of the parameter values found with the contingency discriminability model were uninterpretable. Thus, any argument for this model based on the interpretability of the parameter values becomes weak. It is worth retaining the generalized matching law as a descriptor of such data.

Bron, Angela; Sumpter, Catherine E; Foster, T Mary; Temple, William

Interval timing in operant conditioning is the learned covariation of a temporal dependent measure such as wait time with a temporal independent variable such as fixed-interval duration. The dominant theories of interval timing all incorporate an explicit internal clock, or "pacemaker," despite its lack of independent evidence. The authors propose an alternative, pacemaker-free view that demonstrates that temporal discrimination can be explained by using only 2 assumptions: (a) variation and selection of responses through competition between reinforced behavior and all other, elicited, behaviors and (b) modulation of the strength of response competition by the memory for recent reinforcement. The model departs radically from existing timing models: It shows that temporal learning can emerge from a simple dynamic process that lacks a periodic time reference such as a pacemaker. PMID:12529059

Dragoi, Valentin; Staddon, J E R; Palmer, Richard G; Buhusi, Catalin V

It is well known that the regular likelihood ratio test of a bounded parameter is not valid if the boundary value is being tested. This is the case for testing the null value of a scalar variance component. Although an adjusted test of variance component has been suggested to account for the effect of its lower bound of zero, no adjustment of its interval estimate has ever been proposed. If left unadjusted, the confidence interval of the variance may still contain zero when the adjusted test rejects the null hypothesis of a zero variance, leading to conflicting conclusions. In this research, we propose two ways to adjust the confidence interval of a parameter subject to a lower bound, one based on the Wald test and the other on the likelihood ratio test. Both are compatible to the adjusted test and parametrization-invariant. A simulation study and two examples are given in the framework of ACDE models in twin studies. PMID:22971875

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor ...