Note: This page contains sample records for the topic random interval schedules from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Random interval schedules of reinforcement1  

PubMed Central

A method for generating a reinforcement schedule that closely approximates idealized VI schedules in which reinforcement assignments occur randomly in time (RI schedules) is described. Response rates of pigeons exposed for 20 sessions to this schedule appeared very similar to response rates characteristic of arithmetic series VIs. The distribution function describing these schedules was derived and its relations to other VI distributions, as well as to FI and random ratio (RR) were shown.

Millenson, J. R.

1963-01-01

2

Online interval scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the online interval scheduling problem,in which a set of intervals of the positive realline is presented to a scheduling algorithm in orderof start time. Upon seeing each interval, thealgorithm must decide whether or not to "schedule" it. Overlapping intervals may not be scheduledtogether. We give a strongly 2-competitivealgorithm for the case in which intervals mustbe one of two

Richard J. Lipton; Andrew Tomkinst

1994-01-01

3

HUMAN RESPONDING ON RANDOM-INTERVAL SCHEDULES OF RESPONSE-COST PUNISHMENT: THE ROLE OF REDUCED REINFORCEMENT DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response- cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money on a three-component multiple reinforcement schedule. During baseline, responding in all components produced money

CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS; Andrew E Brandt; GABRIEL D. SEARCY

2010-01-01

4

Perceptions of randomized security schedules.  

PubMed

Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. PMID:24131225

Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

2014-04-01

5

Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement  

SciTech Connect

In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

Saias, I.

1996-05-01

6

Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals  

SciTech Connect

Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

Diamond, P.

1988-04-01

7

Interval algorithm for random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of generating a random number with an arbitrary probability distribution by using a general biased M-coin is studied. An efficient and very simple algorithm based on the successive refinement of partitions of the unit interval (0, 1), which we call the interval algorithm, is proposed. A fairly tight evaluation on the efficiency is given. Generalizations of the interval

Te Sun Han; Mamoru Hoshi

1997-01-01

8

Interresponse Time Structures in Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interresponse-time structures of pigeon key pecking were examined under variable-ratio, variable-interval, and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules. Whereas the variable-ratio and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules generally resulted in a distinct group of short interresponse times and a broad distribution of longer…

Bowers, Matthew T.; Hill, Jade; Palya, William L.

2008-01-01

9

Scheduling approaches for random job shop flexible manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the influences that scheduling schemes and the degree of routeing flexibility have on random, job shop flexible manufacturing systems within a static environment. The first factor in the experiment includes three scheduling schemes. Two of these schemes are off-line schemes which schedule many operations prior to actual production. The first of the off-line schemes establishes an overall

JIM HUTCHISON; KEONG LEONG; DAVID SNYDER; PETER WARD

1991-01-01

10

Food deliveries during the pause on fixed-interval schedules1  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were trained on fixed-interval schedules of food delivery. In Experiments I and II, the fixed interval was initiated by the previous fixed-interval reinforcer; in Experiment III, the fixed interval was initiated by the first key peck following the preceding fixed-interval reinforcer (a chain fixed-ratio one, fixed-interval schedule). During the postreinforcement pause, variable-time schedules delivered food independent of any specific response. Rate of food delivery during the pause had only small effects on pause duration in Experiments I and II. In Experiment III, however, pause duration increased systematically with the rate of food delivery during the pause. These data suggest that the momentary proximity to reinforcement delivered via the fixed-interval schedule exerts potent control over pause termination. Additional analysis revealed that pause termination was unaffected by the intermittent delivery of food during the pause. Such data suggest that the temporal control by fixed-interval schedules is highly resistant to interference.

Shull, Richard L.; Guilkey, Marilyn

1976-01-01

11

Contracting, equal, and expanding learning schedules: The optimal distribution of learning sessions depends on retention interval.  

PubMed

In laboratory and applied learning experiments, researchers have extensively investigated the optimal distribution of two learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and one relearning session) for the learning of verbatim materials. However, research has not yet provided a satisfying and conclusive answer to the optimal scheduling of three learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and two relearning sessions) across educationally relevant time intervals. Should the to-be-learned material be repeated at decreasing intervals (contracting schedule), constant intervals (equal schedule), or increasing intervals (expanding schedule) between learning sessions? Different theories and memory models (e.g., study-phase retrieval theory, contextual variability theory, ACT-R, and the Multiscale Context Model) make distinct predictions about the optimal learning schedule. We discuss the extant theories and derive clear predictions from each of them. To test these predictions empirically, we conducted an experiment in which participants studied and restudied paired associates with a contracting, equal, or expanding learning schedule. Memory performance was assessed immediately, 1 day, 7 days, or 35 days later with free- and cued-recall tests. Our results revealed that the optimal learning schedule is conditional on the length of the retention interval: A contracting learning schedule was beneficial for retention intervals up to 7 days, but both equal and expanding learning schedules were better for a long retention interval of 35 days. Our findings can be accommodated best by the contextual variability theory and indicate that revisions are needed to existing memory models. Our results are practically relevant, and their implications for real-world learning are discussed. PMID:24500777

Küpper-Tetzel, Carolina E; Kapler, Irina V; Wiseheart, Melody

2014-07-01

12

Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval

Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

2008-01-01

13

Testing Concurrent Java Programs using Randomized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diculty of finding errors caused by unexpected interleavings of threads in con- current programs is well known. Model checkers can pinpoint such errors and verify correctness but are not easily scalable to large programs. The approach discussed here is more scalable but less systematic. We transform a given Java program by inserting calls to a scheduling function at selected

Scott D. Stoller

2002-01-01

14

Conditioning of the aggressive behavior of pigeons by a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.  

PubMed

Operant reinforcement of aggression was studied in food-deprived pigeons by delivering food for attacks against a target pigeon. The food was delivered according to a fixed-interval schedule and attack behavior was recorded automatically. Attack could be conditioned and extinguished, and the proportion of time spent in attack was a direct function of the frequency of reinforcement of the attack. The fixed-interval schedule produced an increasing rate of attack during the interval between food reinforcements. This positive curvature was an inverse function of the duration of the interval. The findings revealed that the duration and temporal patterning of the complex social behavior of attack can be influenced in a substantial and predictable manner by the schedule and frequency of operant reinforcement. PMID:6067961

Azrin, N H; Hutchinson, R R

1967-07-01

15

An Efficient Topology Control and Dynamic Interval Scheduling Scheme for 6LoWPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel interval scheduling and efficient topology control scheme in wireless sensor networks for long-term\\u000a periodical monitoring applications. Due to the unreliable nature of wireless communication, it is essential to design a new\\u000a management system and efficient scheduling algorithm for such networks, as to achieve network energy efficiency, reliability,\\u000a and timeliness. In this paper, we introduce the

Sun-min Hwang; Eui-nam Huh

2009-01-01

16

Diversity and substitutability of adjunctive activities under fixed-interval schedules of food reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Six rats received food contingent on pressing a lever on fixed-ratio 1, fixed-interval 30-second, and fixed-interval 60-second schedules, with concurrent access to a drinking spout, a running wheel, and a block of wood. Drinking, running, and chewing were monitored automatically, and these and other activities were observed directly during selected sessions. Because all sessions ended after delivery of 60 pellets, total time available for activities other than eating increased over the three schedules. Time spent contacting the lever and visiting the food tray increased in proportion to total available time, whereas the time spent in other activities changed in a complex manner such that drinking was the dominant adjunctive behavior in the 30-second condition, and running or chewing the dominant adjunctive behavior in five of six rats in the 60-second condition. General activity and grooming also occupied significant amounts of time. In a subsequent part of the experiment, running and chewing were prevented, and the majority of other activities, especially drinking and grooming, increased. The results show that (a) FI schedules of food reinforcement are accompanied by a wide variety of adjunctive activities; (b) the preferred activity differs according to the schedule duration; and (c) the extent to which activities substitute for one another is limited by the tendency for different activities to occupy different parts of the interreinforcement interval.

Roper, T. J.

1978-01-01

17

Performance Analysis of the Interval Algorithm for Random Number Generation Based on Number Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the interval algorithm for random number generation proposed by Han and Hoshi using the expression of real numbers on the interval . We first establish an explicit representation of the interval algorithm with the repre- sentation of real numbers on the interval based on number systems. Next, using the expression of the interval algorithm, we

Yasutada Oohama

2011-01-01

18

An application of the active time model to multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules.  

PubMed

The current experiment investigates whether an active time model can account for anomalous results that have emerged from multiple schedule, concurrent variable-interval (VI) VI experiments. The model assumes that (1) during concurrent VI VI training pigeons learn a function that relates time since the most immediate response, i.e., active time, to changeover probabilities and (2) that molar preference is the result of an interaction between inter-response time frequencies and the learned active time changeover functions. Pigeons were trained under a concurrent VI 30-s VI 30-s schedule and a concurrent VI 60-s VI 60-s schedule. Probes were conducted in which VI 30-s and VI 60-s stimuli were paired. During these probes, birds allocated choices equally to the stimuli. The active time model accurately fit individual subject data. In contrast data were not fit by a variant of scalar expectancy theory proposed by Gibbon [Gibbon, J., 1995. Dynamics of time matching: arousal makes better seem worse. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 2, 208-215]. PMID:19038316

Brown, Emily Kathryn; Cleaveland, J Mark

2009-06-01

19

Neurochemical changes correlated with behavior maintained under fixed-interval and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement.  

PubMed Central

Key pecking of 4 pigeons was maintained under a multiple 3-min fixed-interval, 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. Only one schedule was in effect during an experimental session, and each was correlated with a different keylight stimulus and location (left vs. right). The different schedule components alternated across days or weeks. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from chronically implanted intracerebroventricular cannulae following sessions with the different schedules, as well as following sessions in which reinforcement was withheld (extinction), when response-independent food was delivered, and when the experimental chamber was dark and there were no scheduled events. Metabolites of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared to the fixed-ratio condition, responding maintained under the fixed-interval schedule resulted in consistently higher levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid in all pigeons. Levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, a metabolite of norepinephrine, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, another dopamine metabolite, were also higher in 3 of the 4 pigeons following exposure to the fixed-interval schedules when compared to levels of these metabolites after exposure to the fixed-ratio schedule. Extinction of fixed-ratio responding resulted in large increases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid compared to levels of this metabolite under the fixed-ratio schedule, whereas this serotonin metabolite decreased during extinction of responding under the fixed-interval schedule. Control procedures suggested that the neurochemical changes were not related to the rate of responding but were a function of the specific experimental conditions. Distinctive neurochemical changes that accompany schedule-controlled responding show the sensitivity of the neurochemical environment to behavioral contingencies and demonstrate further the profound impact that such contingencies have on biobehavioral processes.

Barrett, J E; Hoffmann, S M

1991-01-01

20

Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…

Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

2012-01-01

21

Rats' performance on variable-interval schedules with a linear feedback loop between response rate and reinforcement rate.  

PubMed Central

Three experiments investigated whether rats are sensitive to the molar properties of a variable-interval (VI) schedule with a positive relation between response rate and reinforcement rate (i.e., a VI+ schedule). In Experiment 1, rats responded faster on a variable ratio (VR) schedule than on a VI+ schedule with an equivalent feedback function. Reinforced interresponse times (IRTs) were shorter on the VR as compared to the VI+ schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, there was no systematic difference in response rates maintained by a VI+ schedule and a VI schedule yoked in terms of reinforcement rate. This was found both when the yoking procedure was between-subject (Experiment 2) and within-subject (Experiment 3). Mean reinforced IRTs were similar on both the VI+ and yoked VI schedules, but these values were more variable on the VI+ schedule. These results provided no evidence that rats are sensitive to the feedback function relating response rate to reinforcement rate on a VI+ schedule.

Reed, Phil; Hildebrandt, Tom; DeJongh, Julie; Soh, Mariane

2003-01-01

22

An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

2013-07-01

23

Randomized Parallel Scheduling Algorithm for Input Queued Crossbar Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant research effort has been devoted in recent years to the design of simple and efficient scheduling algorithms for input-queued packet switches. Among these algorithms, scheduling policies based on maximum weight matching (MWM) were proved to achieve 100% throughput under any admissible traffic load. However, MWM is impractical for its high computational complexity O(N3). In this paper, we propose

Yanfeng Zheng; Wen Gao

2005-01-01

24

Notes on interval estimation of the generalized odds ratio under stratified random sampling.  

PubMed

It is not rare to encounter the patient response on the ordinal scale in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Under the assumption that the generalized odds ratio (GOR) is homogeneous across strata, we consider four asymptotic interval estimators for the GOR under stratified random sampling. These include the interval estimator using the weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach with the logarithmic transformation (WLSL), the interval estimator using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type of estimator with the logarithmic transformation (MHL), the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the MH weights (FTMH) and the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the WLS weights (FTWLS). We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators by calculating the coverage probability and the average length. To study the bias of these interval estimators, we also calculate and compare the noncoverage probabilities in the two tails of the resulting confidence intervals. We find that WLSL and MHL can generally perform well, while FTMH and FTWLS can lose either precision or accuracy. We further find that MHL is likely the least biased. Finally, we use the data taken from a study of smoking status and breathing test among workers in certain industrial plants in Houston, Texas, during 1974 to 1975 to illustrate the use of these interval estimators. PMID:23611192

Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

2013-05-01

25

Pigeons' wait-time responses to transitions in interfood-interval duration: Another look at cyclic schedule performance  

PubMed Central

Recent developments reveal that animals can rapidly learn about intervals of time. We studied the nature of this fast-acting process in two experiments. In Experiment 1 pigeons were exposed to a modified fixed-time schedule, in which the time between food rewards (interfood interval) changed at an unpredictable point in each session, either decreasing from 15 to 5 s (step-down) or increasing from 15 to 45 s (step-up). The birds were able to track under both conditions by producing postreinforcement wait times proportional to the preceding interfood-interval duration. However, the time course of responding differed: Tracking was apparently more gradual in the step-up condition. Experiment 2 studied the effect of having both kinds of transitions within the same session by exposing pigeons to a repeating (cyclic) sequence of the interfood-interval values used in Experiment 1. Pigeons detected changes in the input sequence of interfood intervals, but only for a few sessions—discrimination worsened with further training. The dynamic effects we observed do not support a linear waiting process of time discrimination, but instead point to a timing mechanism based on the frequency and recency of prior interfood intervals and not the preceding interfood interval alone.

Higa, Jennifer J.; Thaw, Jean M.; Staddon, John E. R.

1993-01-01

26

Randomized scheduling algorithms for high-aggregate bandwidth switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregate bandwidth of a switch is its port count multiplied by its operating line rate. We consider switches with high-aggregate bandwidths; for example, a 30-port switch operating at 40 Gb\\/s or a 1000-port switch operating at 1 Gb\\/s. Designing high-performance schedulers for such switches with input queues is a challenging problem for the following reasons: (1) high performance requires

Paolo Giaccone; Balaji Prabhakar; Devavrat Shah

2003-01-01

27

The Effects of Initial Interval Size on the Efficacy of DRO Schedules of Reinforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effect of initial differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) intervals on disruptive behavior of nine students with moderate disabilities. Results indicate initial DRO value equal to the mean number of intervals between responses in baseline was much more effective than a value twice that size. (Author/PB)

Repp, Alan C.; And Others

1991-01-01

28

True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.  

PubMed

We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008

Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie

2013-01-01

29

Multiple Imputation for Interval Estimation from Simple Random Samples with Ignorable Nonresponse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several multiple imputation techniques are described for simple random samples with ignorable nonresponse on a scalar outcome variable. The methods are compared using both analytic and Monte Carlo results concerning coverages of the resulting intervals for the population mean. Using m = 2 imputations per missing value gives accurate coverages in common cases and is clearly superior to single imputation

Donald B. Rubin; Nathaniel Schenker

1986-01-01

30

Randomized Dining Philosophers to TDMA Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó A randomized dining philosophers algorithm is presented for a realistic semi-synchronous model where message delays vary within an unknown bound, and clocks may run at a different speed without any synchronization. In order to predict the unknown bounds, the algorithm employs a simple network delay measurement technique. The algorithm has an expected running time and message complexity of with

Injong Rhee; Ajit C. Warrier; Lisong Xu

2004-01-01

31

Responding of pigeons under variable-interval schedules of unsignaled, briefly signaled, and completely signaled delays to reinforcement  

PubMed Central

In Experiment 1, three pigeons' key pecking was maintained under a variable-interval 60-s schedule of food reinforcement. A 1-s unsignaled nonresetting delay to reinforcement was then added. Rates decreased and stabilized at values below those observed under immediate-reinforcement conditions. A brief stimulus change (key lit red for 0.5 s) was then arranged to follow immediately the peck that began the delay. Response rates quickly returned to baseline levels. Subsequently, rates near baseline levels were maintained with briefly signaled delays of 3 and 9 s. When a 27-s briefly signaled delay was instituted, response rates decreased to low levels. In Experiment 2, four pigeons' responding was first maintained under a multiple variable-interval 60-s (green key) variable-interval 60-s (red key) schedule. Response rates in both components fell to low levels when a 3-s unsignaled delay was added. In the first component delays were then briefly signaled in the same manner as Experiment 1, and in the second component they were signaled with a change in key color that remained until food was delivered. Response rates increased to near baseline levels in both components, and remained near baseline when the delays in both components were lengthened to 9 s. When delays were lengthened to 27 s, response rates fell to low levels in the briefly signaled delay component for three of four pigeons while remaining at or near baseline in the completely signaled delay component. In Experiment 3, low response rates under a 9-s unsignaled delay to reinforcement (tandem variable-interval 60 s fixed-time 9 s) increased when the delay was briefly signaled. The role of the brief stimulus as conditioned reinforcement may be a function of its temporal relation to food, and thus may be related to the eliciting function of the stimulus.

Schaal, David W.; Branch, Marc N.

1988-01-01

32

Constructing intervals for the intracluster correlation coefficient using Bayesian modelling, and application in cluster randomized trials.  

PubMed

Studies in health research are commonly carried out in clustered settings, where the individual response data are correlated within clusters. Estimation and modelling of the extent of between-cluster variation contributes to understanding of the current study and to design of future studies. It is common to express between-cluster variation as an intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), since this measure is directly comparable across outcomes. ICCs are generally reported unaccompanied by confidence intervals. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian modelling approach to interval estimation of the ICC. The flexibility of this framework allows useful extensions which are not easily available in existing methods, for example assumptions other than Normality for continuous outcome data, adjustment for individual-level covariates and simultaneous interval estimation of several ICCs. There is also the opportunity to incorporate prior beliefs on likely values of the ICC. The methods are exemplified using data from a cluster randomized trial. PMID:16220510

Turner, Rebecca M; Omar, Rumana Z; Thompson, Simon G

2006-05-15

33

Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule among Drug Users - A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B vaccine provides a model for improving uptake and completion of multi-dose vaccinations in the drug-using community. Methods DASH project conducted randomized controlled trial among not-in-treatment current drug users in two urban neighborhoods. Neighborhoods were cluster-randomized to receive a standard (HIV information) or enhanced (HBV vaccine acceptance/adherence) behavioral intervention; participants within clusters were randomized to a standard (0, 1, 6 mo) or accelerated (0, 1, 2 mo) vaccination schedule. Outcomes were completion of three-dose vaccine and HBV seroprotection. Results Of those screening negative for HIV/HBV, 77% accepted HB vaccination and 75% of those received all 3 doses. Injecting drug users (IDUs) on the accelerated schedule were significantly more likely to receive 3 doses (76%) than those on the standard schedule (66%, p=.04), although for drug users as a whole the adherence was 77% and 73%. No difference in adherence was observed between behavioral intervention groups. Predictors of adherence were older age, African American race, stable housing, and alcohol use. Cumulative HBV seroprotection (?10 mIU/mL) was gained by 12 months by 65% of those completing. Seroprotection at 6 months was greater for the accelerated schedule group. Conclusions The accelerated vaccine schedule improves hepatitis B vaccination adherence among IDU.

Hwang, Lu-Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Tran, Thanh Quoc; Clark, April; Xia, Rui; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine; Williams, Mark

2010-01-01

34

A methodology for adaptive scheduling of radar intervals based on a cost-function methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we introduce the idea of adaptive scheduling based on a cost function methodology. As the warfare environment becomes more complex, individual sensor resources are stretched, and the usage of the sensors has grown. In a multi-ship multi-platform environment, one has the potential to share information across platforms. This would dramatically increase the strategic and tactical picture available to mission planners and commanders at all force levels. In order to accomplish this mission, the sensors must all be coordinated so adaptability and multi-force tasking can be accomplished with netted sensors. Adaptive sensor management expands group capabilities by freeing up resources such as dwells/energy management. Savings arise by effective usage of tracking resources by revisiting threats with radar resources only when needed. This can be done by introducing analytic cost functions of the revisit time that enable one to minimize revisit time while maintaining error within acceptable bounds.

Gray, John E.; Smith-Carroll, Amy S.; Zaffram, Christopher

2004-07-01

35

Randomized Lagrangian heuristic based on Nash equilibrium for large scale single machine scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagrangian relaxation method for jobshop scheduling problems has been studied in the framework of combinatorial auction. In this paper a noncooperative game model is built for the Lagrangian relaxation method, and we prove that the equivalent continuous relaxation computed from the Lagrangian dual problem provides a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium for this game model. Based on this interpretation a randomized

Hanyu Gu; Yugeng Xi; Jiping Tao

2007-01-01

36

An Exploration of Remote History Effects in Humans: II. The Effects under Fixed-Interval, Variable-Interval, and Fixed-Ratio Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five undergraduates responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 145 schedule, and 5 others responded under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 20-s schedule. Both groups were then exposed to a differential-reinforcement-of-rates- with-pacing 1 s less than interresponse time (IRT) less than or equal to 2 s schedule. Following this, probe sessions…

Okouchi, Hiroto

2010-01-01

37

Encounter distribution of two random walkers on a finite one-dimensional interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the first-passage properties of two random walkers confined to a finite one-dimensional domain. For the case of absorbing boundaries at the endpoints of the interval, we derive the probability that the two particles meet before either one of them becomes absorbed at one of the boundaries. For the case of reflecting boundaries, we obtain the mean first encounter time of the two particles. Our approach leads to closed-form expressions that are more easily tractable than a previously derived solution in terms of the Weierstrass’ elliptic function.

Tejedor, Vincent; Schad, Michaela; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Metzler, Ralf

2011-09-01

38

The Rejection Rate for Tasks with Random Arrivals, Deadlines, and Preemptive Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means of approximating light-traffic performance of RAD (random-arrivals-with-deadlines) systems for four basic preemptive scheduling policies is presented. The design goal is to keep congestion low enough to make the probability of rejection acceptably small. These designs must have low processor utilization. The study analyzes rejection probabilities at utilizations up to 20% and rejection probabilities up to about 10% for

David W. Craig; C. Murray Woodside

1990-01-01

39

Asymptotic Simultaneous Confidence Intervals for Many-to-One Comparisons of Binary Proportions in Randomized Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous comparison of proportions of success between many treatments and one control group is a common problem in randomized clinical trials or toxicity studies. In this article, three recently recommended asymptotic confidence interval approaches for the difference of proportions are adjusted for multiplicity, taking the correlation into account. The coverage probability of the resulting interval methods is compared in

Frank Schaarschmidt; Egbert Biesheuvel; Ludwig A. Hothorn

2009-01-01

40

Time-of-arrival-based retransmission scheduling for unslotted random access channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-arrival-based retransmission scheduling algorithms for unslotted ALOHA-type random access channels with high propagation delay are introduced and analyzed in this paper. The techniques described are motivated by the fact that collision bursts on asynchronous channels can be analyzed to create a partial time-of-arrival based ordering between the conflicting packets. Packets successfully ordered by collision burst analysis are then retransmitted in a locally synchronous, scheduled manner, thus eliminating potential further conflict between a large fraction of retransmitted messages. Collision resolution algorithms appropriate for channels with continuous signal detection, signal and collision detection, or signal and modified collision detection are described and evaluated in terms of throughput using a simple Poisson traffic model. The maximum throughput is shown to be 0.41, 0.47 and 0.509 for the three cases, thus demonstrating that the proposed time-of-arrival algorithms are competitive with the best slotted collision resolution algorithms.

Raychaudhuri, D.

1992-06-01

41

An Efficient Randomized Algorithm for Real-Time Process Scheduling in PicOS Operating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PicOS is an event-driven operating environment designed for use with embedded networked sensors. More specifically, it is designed to support the concurrency in intensive operations required by networked sensors with minimal hardware requirements. Existing process scheduling algorithms of PicOS; a commercial tiny, low-footprint, real-time operating system; have their associated drawbacks. An efficient, alternative algorithm, based on a randomized selection policy, has been proposed, demonstrated, confirmed for efficiency and fairness, on the average, and has been recommended for implementation in PicOS. Simulations were carried out and performance measures such as Average Waiting Time (AWT) and Average Turn-around Time (ATT) were used to assess the efficiency of the proposed randomized version over the existing ones. The results prove that Randomized algorithm is the best and most attractive for implementation in PicOS, since it is most fair and has the least AWT and ATT on average over the other non-preemptive scheduling algorithms implemented in this paper.

Helmy*, Tarek; Fatai, Anifowose; Sallam, El-Sayed

42

Interval estimation of random effects in proportional hazards models with frailties.  

PubMed

Semi-parametric frailty models are widely used to analyze clustered survival data. In this article, we propose the use of the hierarchical likelihood interval for individual frailties. We study the relationship between hierarchical likelihood, empirical Bayesian, and fully Bayesian intervals for frailties. We show that our proposed interval can be interpreted as a frequentist confidence interval and Bayesian credible interval under a uniform prior. We also propose an adjustment of the proposed interval to avoid null intervals. Simulation studies show that the proposed interval preserves the nominal confidence level. The procedure is illustrated using data from a multicenter lung cancer clinical trial. PMID:23361438

Ha, Il Do; Vaida, Florin; Lee, Youngjo

2013-01-29

43

Five interval estimators of the risk difference under stratified randomized clinical trials with noncompliance and repeated measurements.  

PubMed

We often employ stratified analysis to control the confounding effect due to centers in a multicenter trial or the confounding effect due to trials in a meta-analysis. On the basis of a general risk additive model, we focus discussion on interval estimation of the risk difference (RD) in repeated binary measurements under a stratified randomized clinical trial (RCT) in the presence of noncompliance. We develop five asymptotic interval estimators for the RD in closed form. These include the interval estimator using the weighted least-squares (WLS) estimator, the WLS interval estimator with tanh (-1)(x) transformation, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type interval estimator, the MH interval estimator with tanh (-1)(x) transformation, and the interval estimator using the idea of Fieller's theorem and a randomization-based variance. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to study and compare the finite-sample performance of these interval estimators in a variety of situations. We include an example studying the use of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia events in acute myeloid leukaemia patients published elsewhere to illustrate the use of these estimators. PMID:23786643

Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

2013-01-01

44

Randomized trial of a presurgical scheduled reduced smoking intervention for patients newly diagnosed with cancer.  

PubMed

Objective: Cancer patients who smoke are advised to quit smoking to reduce treatment complications and future cancer risk. This study's main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, presurgical cessation intervention in newly diagnosed cancer patients scheduled for surgical hospitalization. Method: We conducted a parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of our hospital-based, tobacco cessation "best practices" treatment model (BP; cessation counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) with BP enhanced by a behavioral tapering regimen (scheduled reduced smoking; BP + SRS) administered by a handheld computer before hospitalization for surgery. Cessation outcomes were short (hospital admission and 3 months) and longer-term (6 months) biochemically verified smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that BP + SRS would be superior to BP alone. One hundred eighty-five smokers were enrolled. Results: Overall, 7-day-point prevalence, confirmed abstinence rates at 6 months for BP alone (32%) and BP + SRS (32%) were high; however, no main effect of treatment was observed. Patients who were older and diagnosed with lung cancer were more likely to quit smoking. Conclusion: Compared to best practices for treating tobacco dependence, a presurgical, scheduled reduced smoking intervention did not improve abstinence rates among newly diagnosed cancer patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895203

Ostroff, Jamie S; Burkhalter, Jack E; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yuelin; Shiyko, Mariya P; Lam, Cho Y; Hay, Jennifer L; Dhingra, Lara K; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Holland, Susan M; Manna, Ruth

2014-07-01

45

Application of storage consolidation intervals to approximate random storage transaction times with closest open location load dispatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new modelling approach is proposed for estimating storage\\/retrieval transaction times in warehouse systems using random storage and closest open location load dispatching. The method is based on estimating intervals between consolidations of the active storage envelope defined by the most remote occupied storage position in a warehouse. This enables the calculation of the expected number of interspersed storage vacancies

Charles J. Malmborg

2012-01-01

46

A new hierarchical method for inter-patient heartbeat classification using random projections and RR intervals  

PubMed Central

Background The inter-patient classification schema and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards are important to the construction and evaluation of automated heartbeat classification systems. The majority of previously proposed methods that take the above two aspects into consideration use the same features and classification method to classify different classes of heartbeats. The performance of the classification system is often unsatisfactory with respect to the ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) and supraventricular ectopic beat (SVEB). Methods Based on the different characteristics of VEB and SVEB, a novel hierarchical heartbeat classification system was constructed. This was done in order to improve the classification performance of these two classes of heartbeats by using different features and classification methods. First, random projection and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble were used to detect VEB. Then, the ratio of the RR interval was compared to a predetermined threshold to detect SVEB. The optimal parameters for the classification models were selected on the training set and used in the independent testing set to assess the final performance of the classification system. Meanwhile, the effect of different lead configurations on the classification results was evaluated. Results Results showed that the performance of this classification system was notably superior to that of other methods. The VEB detection sensitivity was 93.9% with a positive predictive value of 90.9%, and the SVEB detection sensitivity was 91.1% with a positive predictive value of 42.2%. In addition, this classification process was relatively fast. Conclusions A hierarchical heartbeat classification system was proposed based on the inter-patient data division to detect VEB and SVEB. It demonstrated better classification performance than existing methods. It can be regarded as a promising system for detecting VEB and SVEB of unknown patients in clinical practice.

2014-01-01

47

Effects of Triadimefon on a Multiple Schedule of Fixed-Interval Performance: Comparison with Methylphenidate, d-Amphetamine and Chlorpromazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment was designed to compare triadimefon to known psychomotor stimulants. Four rats were trained to perform under a mult FI 1-min FI 5-min schedule of milk reinforcement. They then received a series of dosages of triadimefon (10-170 mg/kg, i.p.)...

A. R. Allen R. C. MacPhail

1991-01-01

48

Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex fluctuation of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being (1) uncorrelated white noise, (2) short-range correlations, or (3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that sucessfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations.

Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Peng, C.-K.; Ladin, Zvi; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Goldberger, Ary L.

1995-01-01

49

Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.

Nagatani, Takashi

2010-06-01

50

Using a Nonparametric Bootstrap to Obtain a Confidence Interval for Pearson's r with Cluster Randomized Data: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson’s r, and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students’ positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of randomization was a public middle school. The bootstrap estimate indicated that expectancies explained 21% of the variability in students’ intentions (r = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.50]). This case study illustrates the use of a nonparametric bootstrap with cluster randomized data and the danger posed if outliers are not identified and addressed. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Prevention researchers will benefit from the authors’ detailed description of this nonparametric bootstrap approach for cluster randomized data and their thoughtful discussion of the potential impact of cluster sizes and outliers.

Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio

2009-01-01

51

Comparing Fixed- And Randomized-Interval Spaced Retrieval in Anomia Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spaced retrieval (SR) has recently been modified to target anomia in persons with aphasia (PWA). It relies on a strict management of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) where the time between stimulus presentations is doubled or halved based on response accuracy. Although SR is successful in treating anomia, it remains to be studied whether the…

Morrow, K. Leigh; Fridriksson, Julius

2006-01-01

52

Confidence Intervals for the Overall Effect Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the main objectives in meta-analysis is to estimate the overall effect size by calculating a confidence interval (CI). The usual procedure consists of assuming a standard normal distribution and a sampling variance defined as the inverse of the sum of the estimated weights of the effect sizes. But this procedure does not take into account…

Sanchez-Meca, Julio; Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio

2008-01-01

53

Ant colony optimisation with random selection for block transportation scheduling with heterogeneous transporters in a shipyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a scheduling problem of heterogeneous transporters for pickup and delivery blocks in a shipyard assuming a static environment where all transportation requirements for blocks are predetermined. In the block transportation scheduling problem, the important issue is to determine which transporter delivers the block from one plant to the other plant and when, in order to minimise total

Byung Soo Kim; Cheol Min Joo

2011-01-01

54

An Adaptive Randomized Trial of an Intermittent Dosing Schedule of Aerosolized Ribavirin in Patients With Cancer and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A continuous dosing schedule of aerosolized ribavirin has been used for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) upper respiratory tract infection and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) but is associated with high cost and inconvenient administration. We conducted an adaptive randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an intermittent dosing schedule of ribavirin versus that of a continuous dosing schedule of ribavirin in preventing RSV LRTIs in 50 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematologic malignancies. LRTI occurred in 3 patients (9%) receiving the intermittent schedule and in 4 (22%) receiving the continuous schedule, with a 0.889 posterior probability. Because the intermittent schedule is easy to administer and has a higher efficacy than the continuous schedule, we recommend the intermittent schedule for patients who are at risk for RSV LRTI. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00500578.

Chemaly, Roy F.; Torres, Harrys A.; Munsell, Mark F.; Shah, Dimpy P.; Rathod, Dhanesh B.; Bodey, Gerald P.; Hosing, Chitra; Saifan, Chadi; Raad, Issam I.; Champlin, Richard E.

2012-01-01

55

Transfer function analysis of the autonomic response to respiratory activity during random interval breathing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.

1987-01-01

56

Overcoming Poor Attendance to First Scheduled Colonoscopy: A Randomized Trial of Peer Coach or Brochure Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES  Among patients unlikely to attend a scheduled colonoscopy, we examined the impact of peer coach versus educational brochure\\u000a support and compared these with concurrent patients who did not receive support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  From health system data, we identified 275 consecutive patients aged >50 who kept <75% of visits to 4 primary care practices\\u000a and scheduled for a first colonoscopy from February 1,

Barbara J. Turner; Mark Weiner; Sheila D. Berry; Karen Lillie; Kevin Fosnocht; Christopher S. Hollenbeak

2008-01-01

57

Home-based versus hospital-based high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIT) as exercise therapy is gradually implemented in cardiac rehabilitation as the cardiovascular benefits from exercise is intensity dependent. However, in previous studies, HIT has been performed with strict supervision. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of different modes of HIT in cardiac rehabilitation. DESIGN: a randomized clinical study. METHODS: Ninety participants with coronary artery disease (80 men/10 women, mean age 57?±?8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three exercise modes: group exercise (GE), treadmill exercise (TE), or home-based exercise (HE). HIT was performed twice a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 85-95% of peak heart rate. The primary outcome measure was change in peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2). RESULTS: Eighty-three participants (92%) completed the intervention without any severe adverse events. Peak VO2 increased from 34.7?±?7.3 to 39.0?±?8.0?ml/kg/min, 32.7?±?6.5 to 36.0?±?6.2?ml/kg/min, and 34.4?±?4.8 to 37.2?±?5.2?ml/kg/min in TE, GE, and HE, respectively. Mean group difference for TE vs. HE was 1.6?ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.7 to 3.1, p?=?0.02), TE vs. GE 1.1?ml/kg/min (95% CI-0.5 to 2.5, p?=?0.27), and GE vs. HE 0.6?ml/kg/min (95% CI -1.0 to 2.1, p?=?1). However, on-treatment analysis showed no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: HIT was efficiently performed in three settings of cardiac rehabilitation, with respect to target exercise intensity, exercise attendance, and increase in peak VO2. Exercise mode was not essential for exercise capacity. PMID:23613224

Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Gustad, Kjersti; Løckra, Vibeke; Stensen, Andreas; Berg, Astrid Tarlebø; Dalen, Håvard; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

2013-04-23

58

Machine scheduling with sequence-dependent setup times using a randomized search heuristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on both a single machine and identical parallel machines with the objective of minimizing the makespan or maximum completion time of all jobs. Jobs are subject to release dates and there are sequence-dependent setup times. Since this problem is known to be strongly NP-hard even for the single machine

Jairo R. Montoya-Torres; Milton Soto-Ferrari; Fernando Gonzalez-Solano; Edgar H. Alfonso-Lizarazo

2009-01-01

59

Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1?1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p?=?0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ?30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p?=?0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p?=?0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807

Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2014-01-01

60

A Randomized Trial of a Mailed Intervention and Self-Scheduling to Improve Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. Methods Group randomized, controlled trial of women ?65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) vs. usual care (control). Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Results Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p<0.0001). When including only those medically appropriate, we found a difference of 19% between the two groups (p<0.0001). DXA receipt was greater in main clinic patients compared to satellite clinic patients (20.9% main clinic vs. 10.1% satellite clinic). The cost to print and mail the intervention was $0.79 per patient, per mailing. The number of women to whom intervention needed to be mailed to yield one extra DXA performed was 9, at a cost of $7.11. Conclusions DXA scan completion was significantly improved through use of a mailed osteoporosis brochure and the availability for patients to self-schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multi-faceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening.

Warriner, Amy H.; Outman, Ryan C.; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

61

A randomized trial of a mailed intervention and self-scheduling to improve osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. A group randomized, controlled trial of women ?65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) versus usual care (control) was undertaken. Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p?schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multifaceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening. PMID:22836812

Warriner, Amy H; Outman, Ryan C; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R

2012-12-01

62

Population pharmacokinetics and exploratory pharmacodynamics of ifosfamide according to continuous or short infusion schedules: an n = 1 randomized study  

PubMed Central

AIMS To model the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ifosfamide and its key metabolites. The pharmacodynamic parameters included were renal toxicity and myelosuppression measured using urinary ?2-microglobulin (BMG) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC), respectively. METHODS Seventeen patients were enrolled into an n = 1 randomized trial during two consecutive cycles of ifosfamide 9 g m?2 during each cycle given by a 3 h or 72 h infusion. Data were analyzed using NONMEM. RESULTS Ifosfamide and metabolite concentration–time profiles were described by a one-compartment open-model with auto-induction of clearance. BMG and ANC time-courses were related to ifosfamide concentration via indirect response models. CONCLUSIONS This modelling allowed the simulation of weekly schedules of flat doses with favourable myelotoxic profiles. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The optimal infusion duration for ifosfamide remains to be determined.No differences according to time of infusion have been identified in traditional pharmacokinetic endpoints, such as area under the curve.The impact on pharmacodynamics has never been modelled or correlated with pharmacokinetics. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ifosfamide and its main metabolites can both be modelled with no influence of infusion duration.Pharmacodynamic modelling (renal and haematological toxicity) allows further simulations of new schedules with favourable toxicity profiles.

Brain, Etienne G C; Rezai, Kevan; Lokiec, Francois; Gutierrez, Maya; Urien, Saik

2008-01-01

63

Too Much of a Good Thing: Random Practice Scheduling and Self-Control of Feedback Lead to Unique but Not Additive Learning Benefits  

PubMed Central

We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21?mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24?h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17?mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects.

Ali, Asif; Fawver, Bradley; Kim, Jingu; Fairbrother, Jeffrey; Janelle, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

64

Comparison of darbepoetin alfa dosed weekly (QW) vs. extended dosing schedule (EDS) in the treatment of anemia in patients receiving multicycle chemotherapy in a randomized, phase 2, open-label trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is responsive to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as darbepoetin alfa. Administration of ESAs on a synchronous schedule with chemotherapy administration could benefit patients by reducing clinic visits and potentially enhancing on-time chemotherapy delivery. Methods This phase 2, 25-week, open-label study evaluated the noninferiority of darbepoetin alfa administered weekly vs. as an extended dosing schedule (every 2 or 3 weeks) in patients with CIA. Patients were randomized 1:1 to an extended dosing schedule (EDS: darbepoetin alfa 300 ?g Q2W if chemotherapy was QW, Q2W, or Q4W or darbepoetin alfa 500 ?g Q3W if chemotherapy was Q3W) or weekly (150 ?g QW regardless of chemotherapy schedule). Stratification factors included chemotherapy cycle length, screening hemoglobin (<10 g/dL vs. ?10 g/dL), and tumor type (lung/gynecological vs. other nonmyeloid malignancies). The primary endpoint was change in hemoglobin from baseline to Week 13. Results Seven hundred fifty-two patients (374 QW patients; 378 EDS patients) received ?1 dose of darbepoetin alfa and were included in the analysis. Demographics and disease state were similar between groups. Seventy-one percent of patients in the EDS group and 76% in the QW group achieved the target hemoglobin of ?11.0 g/dL. There was a minimal difference in the primary endpoint of mean change in hemoglobin (baseline to Week 13) between the QW and the EDS groups (-0.04 g/dL; 95% confidence interval: -0.26, 0.17 g/dL). The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was less than the prespecified limit of <0.75 g/dL, supporting noninferiority of the EDS dosing schedule. Reported adverse events were similar between groups. A slight increase in transfusions was reported in the QW group. Conclusion Darbepoetin alfa, when administered synchronously with chemotherapy, on an EDS appears to be similarly efficacious to darbepoetin alfa weekly dosing with no unexpected adverse events. This study provides prospective data on how multiple dosing regimens available with darbepoetin alfa can be synchronized with chemotherapy administered across a range of dosing schedules. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00144131.

2010-01-01

65

The Schedule and Duration of Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Published Results of Randomized Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives Intravesical chemotherapy has been studied in randomized clinical trials for >30 yr; however, the optimal schedule and duration of treatment are unknown. The objective is to determine the effect of schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy on recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer. Methods A systematic review was conducted of the published results of randomized clinical trials that compared intravesical instillations with respect to their number, frequency, timing, duration, dose, or dose intensity. Results One immediate instillation after transurethral resection (TUR) is recommended in all patients. In low-risk patients, no further treatment is recommended before recurrence. In patients with multiple tumors, one immediate instillation is insufficient treatment. Additional instillations may further reduce the recurrence rate; however, no recommendations can be made concerning their optimal duration. A short intensive schedule of instillations within the first 3–4 mo after an immediate instillation may be as effective as longer-term treatment schedules (grade C). Instillations during ?1 yr in intermediate-risk patients seem advisable only when an immediate instillation has not been given (grade C). Higher drug concentrations and optimization of the drug's concentration in the bladder may provide better results (grade C). Conclusions The optimal schedule and duration of intravesical chemotherapy after an immediate instillation remain unknown. Future studies should focus on the eradication of residual disease after TUR and the prevention of late recurrences.

Sylvester, Richard J.; Oosterlinck, Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred

2008-01-01

66

A critical appraisal of the evidence for using cardiotocography plus ECG ST interval analysis for fetal surveillance in labor. Part I: the randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

We reappraised the five randomized controlled trials that compared cardiotocography plus ECG ST interval analysis (CTG+ST) vs. cardiotocography. The numbers enrolled ranged from 5681 (Dutch randomized controlled trial) to 799 (French randomized controlled trial). The Swedish randomized controlled trial (n = 5049) was the only trial adequately powered to show a difference in metabolic acidosis, and the Plymouth randomized controlled trial (n = 2434) was only powered to show a difference in operative delivery for fetal distress. There were considerable differences in study design: the French randomized controlled trial used different inclusion criteria, and the Finnish randomized controlled trial (n = 1483) used a different metabolic acidosis definition. In the CTG+ST study arms, the larger Plymouth, Swedish and Dutch trials showed lower operative delivery and metabolic acidosis rates, whereas the smaller Finnish and French trials showed minor differences in operative delivery and higher metabolic acidosis rates. We conclude that the differences in outcomes are likely due to the considerable differences in study design and size. This will enhance heterogeneity effects in any subsequent meta-analysis. PMID:24797452

Olofsson, Per; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Kessler, Jörg; Tendal, Britta; Yli, Branka M; Devoe, Lawrence

2014-06-01

67

Mature results of a randomized trial comparing two fractionation schedules of high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy for the treatment of endobronchial tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the efficacy of high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) for the treatment of centrally located lung tumors, two different fractionation schedules were compared regarding local tumor response, side effects and survival. Mature retrospective results with longer follow-up and more patients were analyzed. Initial results were published by Huber et al. in 1995. Methods and materials 142 patients with advanced, centrally located malignant tumors with preferential endoluminal growth were randomized to receive 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (time interval: 1 week, n?=?60, group I) or 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy (time interval: 3 weeks, n?=?82, group II) endobronchial HDR-BT. Age, gender, tumor stage, Karnofsky Performance Score and histology were equally distributed between both groups. Results Local tumor response with 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy was significantly higher as compared to 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (median 12 vs. 6 weeks; p???0.015). Median survival was similar in both groups (19 weeks in the 4 fractions group vs. 18 weeks in the 2 fractions group). Fatal hemoptysis was less frequent following irradiation with 2 × 7.2 Gy than with 4 × 3.8 Gy, although the difference did not achieve statistical significance (12.2% vs. 18.3%, respectively. p?=?0,345). Patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma were at higher risk of bleeding compared to other histology (21.9% vs. 9%, p?=?0,035). Multivariate analysis with regard to overall survival, revealed histology (p?=?0.02), Karnofsky Performance Score (p??60 (29 weeks). Moreover, the Karnofsky Performance Score of most patients improved during therapy (p?=?0,001), suggesting successful palliation of cancer associated symptoms. Multivariate analysis with regard to local tumor control found no significant factors. Conclusion Endobronchial HDR-BT is an effective local treatment for advanced centrally located malignant tumors with endoluminal tumor growth. Local tumor response was significantly higher after HDR-BT with 2 × 7.2 Gy.

2013-01-01

68

Variations in schedules of ifosfamide administration: a better understanding of its implications on pharmacokinetics through a randomized cross-over study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The metabolism of ifosfamide is a delicate balance between a minor activation pathway (4-hydroxylation) and a mainly toxification\\u000a pathway (N-dechloroethylation), and there remains uncertainty as to the optimal intravenous schedule.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study assesses ifosfamide pharmacokinetics (PK) according to two standard schedules. Using a 1:1 randomized trial design,\\u000a we prospectively evaluated ifosfamide PK on two consecutive cycles of 3 g\\/m\\/day for 3 days

E. G. C. Brain; K. Rezai; S. Weill; M. F. Gauzan; J. Santoni; B. Besse; A. Goupil; F. Turpin; S. Urien; F. Lokiec

2007-01-01

69

Using a Nonparametric Bootstrap to Obtain a Confidence Interval for Pearson's "r" with Cluster Randomized Data: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson's "r," and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students' positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of…

Wagstaff, David A.; Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio

2009-01-01

70

Time interval between FSH priming and aspiration of immature human oocytes for in-vitro maturation: a prospective randomized study.  

PubMed

This prospective randomized controlled study was performed to examine the influence of coasting for 2 days versus 3 days following a fixed daily dose of FSH for 3 days. The outcome was 2-fold. In the first experiment (n = 50 cycles), the incidence of apoptosis in granulosa cells was compared. In the second experiment (n = 28 cycles), the rates of maturation, fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy and implantation were compared. In addition, clinical pregnancy rate per aspiration was registered. Granulosa cells were collected from follicular aspirates and pooled for each patient. The APOPTAG Detection Kit was used for staining of the granulosa cells and detection of apoptosis. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 28-30 h before intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The incidence of apoptosis in granulosa cells did not differ between granulosa cells obtained after 2 days coasting (n = 25 cycles) compared with granulosa cells obtained after 3 days coasting (n = 25 cycles) (26.2 versus 26.2%). When oocytes obtained after coasting for 2 days (n = 12 cycles) were compared with oocytes obtained after coasting for 3 days (n = 16 cycles), no significant difference was found between rates of maturation (63 versus 65%), fertilization (60 versus 68%), cleavage (86 versus 92%) or implantation [5/12; 42 versus 1/12 (8%)]. A higher clinical pregnancy rate per aspiration [5/16 (31%) versus 1/12 (8%)] was obtained after coasting for 3 days compared with coasting for 2 days. The difference was not significant. This randomized study showed no difference in apoptosis of granulosa cells and no difference in developmental competence of oocytes obtained after coasting for 3 days compared with 2 days coasting. PMID:12831585

Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Høst, Erik; Blaabjerg, Jan; Lindenberg, Svend

2003-06-01

71

Synapses on axon collaterals of pyramidal cells are spaced at random intervals: a Golgi study in the mouse cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the arrangement of synapses on local axon collaterals of Golgi-stained pyramidal neurons in the mouse cerebral cortex. As synaptic markers we considered axonal swellings visible at high magnification under the light microscope. Such axonal swellings coincide with synaptic boutons, as has been demonstrated in a number of combined light and electron microscopic studies. These studies also indicated that, in most cases, one bouton corresponds precisely to one synapse. Golgi-impregnated axonal trees of 20 neocortical pyramidal neurons were drawn with a camera lucida. Axonal swellings were marked on the drawings. Most swellings were 'en passant'; occasionally, they were situated at the tip of short, spine-like processes. On axon collaterals, the average interval between swellings was 4.5 microns. On the axonal main stem, the swellings were always less densely packed than on the collaterals. Statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the swellings did not reveal any special patterns. Instead, the arrangement of swellings on individual collaterals follows a Poisson distribution. Moreover, the same holds to a large extent for the entire collection of pyramidal cell collaterals. This suggests that a single Poisson process, characterized by only one rate parameter (number of synapses per unit length), describes most of the spatial distribution of synapses along pyramidal cell collaterals. These findings do not speak in favour of a pronounced target specificity of pyramidal neurons at the synaptic level. Instead, our results support a probabilistic model of cortical connectivity. PMID:7519886

Hellwig, B; Schüz, A; Aertsen, A

1994-01-01

72

Exact Statistics of the Gap and Time Interval between the First Two Maxima of Random Walks and Lévy Flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the statistics of the gap Gn between the two rightmost positions of a Markovian one-dimensional random walker (RW) after n time steps and of the duration Ln which separates the occurrence of these two extremal positions. The distribution of the jumps ?i’s of the RW, f(?), is symmetric and its Fourier transform has the small k behavior 1-f^(k)˜|k|?, with 0

Majumdar, Satya N.; Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory

2013-08-01

73

Exact statistics of the gap and time interval between the first two maxima of random walks and Lévy flights.  

PubMed

We investigate the statistics of the gap G(n) between the two rightmost positions of a Markovian one-dimensional random walker (RW) after n time steps and of the duration L(n) which separates the occurrence of these two extremal positions. The distribution of the jumps ?(i)'s of the RW, f(?), is symmetric and its Fourier transform has the small k behavior 1-f[over ^](k)~|k|(?), with 01 and 01 with ?(11 with fixed lg(-?), p(g,l) takes the scaling form p(g,l)~g(-1-2?)p[over ˜](?)(lg(-?)), where p[over ˜](?)(y) is a (?-dependent) scaling function. We also present numerical simulations which verify our analytic results. PMID:23992054

Majumdar, Satya N; Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory

2013-08-16

74

The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

2009-01-01

75

Multimode Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Random Environment and Its Application to a Large Scale Hydropower Construction Project  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method.

Xu, Jiuping

2014-01-01

76

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource assists the user in reading, constructing, and understanding confidence intervals. Created and published by Gerard E. Dallal, this introductory text aims to get students to read, understand, and write statements which discuss confidence intervals.

Dallal, Gerard E.

2008-09-03

77

Sucralfate gel as a radioprotector against radiation induced dermatitis in a hypo-fractionated schedule: a non-randomized study.  

PubMed

External beam radiotherapy with high doses provokes many acute skin reactions, such as erythema and moist desquamation. Many topical preparations are used in radiation oncology departments in the skin care. Sucralfate humid gel, a colloidal physical form of the anti-ulcer drug sucralfate, promotes epithelial regeneration and activates cell proliferation. Based on this knowledge, we performed a non-randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical sucralfate gel in 30 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative accelerated hypofractionated photon beam therapy. The comparison was performed with 30 patients as historical controls. The acute reaction of the skin was significantly lower in the group receiving the sucralfate gel (p<0.05, Mann Whitney test), while 90% of the patients had no evidence of radiation induced skin toxicity. There was no sucralfate gel related toxicity reported by any patient in this study. More patients in a randomized way are needed for more definite results. PMID:24376316

Kouloulias, V; Asimakopoulos, C; Tolia, M; Filippou, G; Platoni, K; Dilvoi, M; Beli, I; Georgakopoulos, J; Patatoukas, G; Kelekis, N

2013-04-01

78

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California at Berkeley, introduces the concept of confidence intervals. Select an alpha level, sample size, and the number of experiments, and click "Play." For each sample, the applet will show the data points as blue dots and the confidence interval as a red, vertical line. The true population mean is shown as a horizontal purple line, and green ovals indicate which intervals do not contain the true mean.

Dinov, Ivo

2009-01-14

79

Concurrent activity under fixed-interval reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a rat is free to run in a low-inertia running wheel or to press a lever for food on a fixed-interval schedule, the resolution of the competition between running and pressing can be expressed in the following way. When the schedule normally generates a substantial rate of responding, running in the wheel is suppressed. When the schedule does not

B. F. Skinner; W. H. Morse

1957-01-01

80

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many of the misunderstandings and misuses of confidence intervals can be avoided if the following properties are kept in mind: (1) the interval is a statement about a characteristic of a statistical population, (2) the interval is derived from a random sa...

1967-01-01

81

Interval Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

82

Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Two Schedules and Doses of Oral Topotecan: A Randomized Phase II Trial by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 19803)  

PubMed Central

Background The CALGB evaluated oral topotecan administered at two schedules and doses for MDS. Methods Patients with previously untreated primary or therapy-related MDS were eligible. Patients with refractory anemia (RA), RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), or refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) were eligible only if red cell transfusion dependent, platelet count < 50,000/ul, or absolute neutrophil count < 1,000/ul with a recent infection requiring antibiotics. Treatment Patients were randomized to receive oral topotecan either at a dose of 1.2 mg/m2 twice daily for 5 days (Arm A) or once daily for 10 days (Arm B), repeated every 21 days for at least 2 cycles. Responding patients continued until progression, or unacceptable toxicity, or two cycles beyond a complete response. Results Ninety patients received treatment: 46 on Arm A and 44 on Arm B. Partial responses with improvement in all three cell lines occurred in 6 patients (7%) and hematologic improvement (in 1–2 cell lines) was seen in 21 patients (23%), for an overall response rate of 30%. Response duration was longer on Arm A (23 vs 14 months, p = 0.02). Seven out of fourteen patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia responded. There were 8 treatment-related deaths from infection (6) and bleeding (2). Diarrhea was the most frequent non-hematologic toxicity (Grade 3: 11%; Grade 4: 2%). Conclusions Oral topotecan in the dose and schedules evaluated in this trial demonstrated only a modest response rate with a troublesome toxicity profile in the treatment of MDS.

Grinblatt, David L.; Yu, Daohai; Hars, Vera; Vardiman, James W.; Powell, Bayard L.; Nattam, Sreenivasa; Silverman, Lewis R.; de Castro, Carlos; Stone, Richard M.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Larson, Richard A.

2009-01-01

83

Prediction of survival by neutropenia according to delivery schedule of oxaliplatin-5-Fluorouracil-leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer in a randomized international trial (EORTC 05963).  

PubMed

Circadian clocks control cellular proliferation and drug metabolism over the 24?h. However, circadian chronomodulated chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (chronoFLO4) offered no survival benefit as compared with the non-time-stipulated FOLFOX2, in an international randomized trial involving patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (EORTC 05963). The authors hypothesized that treatment near maximum tolerated dose could disrupt circadian clocks thus impairing the efficacy of chronoFLO4 but not of FOLFOX2. Patients with available data (N?=?556) were categorized into three subgroups according to the worst grade (G) of neutropenia experienced during treatment. Distinct multivariate models with time-dependent covariates were constructed for each treatment schedule. Neutropenia incidence (all grades) was 33% on chronoFLO4 and 61% on FOLFOX2 (p?schedule (FOLFOX2, p = .003; chronoFLO4, p = .04). Median survival was 20.7 mo in patients with G3-4 neutropenia versus 12.5 mo in neutropenia-free patients on FOLFOX2 (p < .0001). Corresponding figures were 13.7 and 19.4 mo, respectively, on chronoFLO4 (p?=?.36). Multivariate analysis confirmed occurrence of severe neutropenia independently predicted for better overall survival on FOLFOX2 (HR?=?0.56; p = .015), and worse survival on chronoFLO4 (HR?=?1.77, p = .06), with a significant interaction test (p < .0001). Prediction of better survival in neutropenic patients on FOLFOX2 supports the administration of conventional chemotherapy near maximum tolerated dose. The opposite trend shown here for chronoFLO4 supports the novel concept of jointly optimized hematologic tolerability and efficacy through personalized circadian-timed therapy. PMID:21859417

Innominato, Pasquale F; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Moreau, Thierry; Smaaland, Rune; Focan, Christian; Bjarnason, Georg A; Garufi, Carlo; Iacobelli, Stefano; Tampellini, Marco; Tumolo, Salvatore; Carvalho, Carlos; Karaboué, Abdoulaye; Lévi, Francis

2011-08-01

84

Effect of length of sampling schedule and washout interval on magnitude of drug carryover from period 1 to period 2 in two-period, two-treatment bioequivalence studies and its attendant effects on determination of bioequivalence.  

PubMed

The relationships between post-dosing blood sampling schedules and length of washout interval on the percent of drug carryover into period 2, in a two-treatment, two-period, crossover bioequivalence study was investigated. Observed simulations were done using a two-compartment model with a beta half-life of 100 h, sampling to 200 and 300 h, followed by 1 to 4 washout half-lives. These data were compared with simulations with sampling for 200 and 300 h and no carryover between periods (i.e. true data) and used to establish the per cent carryover. Pseudo-observed concentration period 2 data were also generated for an experimental amiodarone bioequivalence study by adding either 5%, 10% or 50% of the period 2 C(max) value to the observed concentrations of selected subjects (i.e. those with longest half-lives) to give a pseudo-plasma concentration profile. Further investigation via simulation was done by including or excluding subjects with time 0 concentrations of 1%-10% of period 2 C(max). The simulated data indicated that up to a 3% carryover of AUC into the second period of a bioequivalence study had no effect on the power of the 90% CI for AUC and C(max). For amiodarone, second period pre-dose drug concentrations equal to as much as 50% of the observed period 2 C(max) value had less effect on the 90% CI (i.e. compared with the true data) for AUC and C(max) than did subject deletion. PMID:12784322

Dhariwal, Kuldeep; Jackson, Andre

2003-07-01

85

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applets in this section of Statistical Java allow you to see how levels of confidence are achieved through repeated sampling. The confidence intervals are related to the probability of successes in a Binomial experiment. The main page gives the equation for finding confidence intervals and describes the parameters (p, n, alpha). Each applet allows you to change a different parameter and simulate sampling to demonstrate the long run proportion of intervals that contain the true probability of success. The applets are available from a pull-down menu at the bottom of the page.

Anderson-Cook, C.; Dorai-Raj, S.; Robinson, T.

2008-12-17

86

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students create a confidence interval based on the historic snowfall records of a town in Ohio, the data for which is available online. The class will calculate the mean and standard deviation, applying formulas to the data. The standard deviation of the entire data set as well as a confidence interval will be created. A student handout is available for download here in Word Document format.

2010-12-16

87

Alternate-Week versus Continuous Dexamethasone Scheduling on the Risk of Osteonecrosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results from the CCG-1961 Randomized Cohort Trial  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable in over 80% of children and adolescents with high-risk features. However, current therapies are associated with symptomatic osteonecrosis that disproportionately affects adolescents, often requires surgery, and is one of the most common causes of short- and long-term morbidity. A strategy is needed to lessen this risk. Methods CCG-1961, a multi-cohort randomized cooperative group trial, evaluated components of therapeutic intensification in 2056 eligible, newly diagnosed high-risk patients (white blood cell count ?50×109/L and/or age ?10 years). To address osteonecrosis, a novel alternate-week dexamethasone schedule (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-6 and 14-20) was compared to standard continuous dexamethasone (10 mg/m2/day on days 0-20) in randomized regimens with either double or single delayed intensification phases, respectively. Randomization was done based on a randomization schedule generated using permuted blocks within strata. Patients were prospectively monitored clinically for osteonecrosis, with confirmatory imaging of suspected sites. Primary analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis and focused on the estimation and comparison of cumulative incidence rates of osteonecrosis both overall and in patient subgroups (age, gender, marrow early response status); final results are herein reported. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002812. Findings Symptomatic osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 143 patients at 377 confirmed skeletal sites, resulting in 139 surgeries. The overall cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was 7·7% (N=2056) at 5 years, correlating with age at ALL diagnosis (1-9 years 1·0% (N=769), 10-15 years 9·9% (N=1025), ?16 years 20·0% (N=262), p<0·0001) and gender (?10 years, female 15·7% (N=525) versus male 9·3% (N=762), p=0·0010). For patients ?10 years old with a rapid response to induction therapy, the use of alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases significantly reduced osteonecrosis incidence compared with continuous dexamethasone (8·7±2·1% (N=420) versus 17·0±2·9% (N=403), p=0·0005), especially those ?16 years (11·3±5·3% (N=84) versus 37·5±11·1% (N=79), p=0·0003; females 17·2±8·1% (N=32) versus 43·9±14·1% (N=23), p=0·050; males 7·7±5·9% (N=53) versus 34·6±11·6% (N=56), p=0·0014). Interpretation Alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases effectively reduces osteonecrosis risk in children and adolescents receiving intensified therapy for high-risk ALL.

Mattano, Leonard A; Devidas, Meenakshi; Nachman, James B; Sather, Harland N; Hunger, Stephen P; Steinherz, Peter G.; Gaynon, Paul S; Seibel, Nita L

2012-01-01

88

Interbirth intervals  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos.

Haig, David

2014-01-01

89

Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the

Sezgin Kaplan; Ghaith Rabadi

2012-01-01

90

Communication Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables scheduling to these emerging architectures, including those that use shared buses and register file ports. Scheduling to these shared interconnect architectures is difficult because it requires simultaneously allocating

Peter R. Mattson; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens

2000-01-01

91

How confidence intervals become confusion intervals  

PubMed Central

Background Controversies are common in medicine. Some arise when the conclusions of research publications directly contradict each other, creating uncertainty for frontline clinicians. Discussion In this paper, we review how researchers can look at very similar data yet have completely different conclusions based purely on an over-reliance of statistical significance and an unclear understanding of confidence intervals. The dogmatic adherence to statistical significant thresholds can lead authors to write dichotomized absolute conclusions while ignoring the broader interpretations of very consistent findings. We describe three examples of controversy around the potential benefit of a medication, a comparison between new medications, and a medication with a potential harm. The examples include the highest levels of evidence, both meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. We will show how in each case the confidence intervals and point estimates were very similar. The only identifiable differences to account for the contrasting conclusions arise from the serendipitous finding of confidence intervals that either marginally cross or just fail to cross the line of statistical significance. Summary These opposing conclusions are false disagreements that create unnecessary clinical uncertainty. We provide helpful recommendations in approaching conflicting conclusions when they are associated with remarkably similar results.

2013-01-01

92

Scheduling game  

SciTech Connect

Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

Kleck, W

1982-04-01

93

Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

Nonner, Tim

94

Theme: Block Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Block Scheduling" (Brannon); "Block Schedule and Agricultural Education" (Rising); "Block Scheduling: A Student Perspective" (Gilham); "What Goes around Comes around" (Baker); "Accelerated Block Schedule" (Whitson); "Block Scheduling: Students Sound Off"; "Block Scheduling: Maintaining a Complete Agriculture Program" (Agnew, Masters);…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

1998-01-01

95

Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p?=?0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p?=?0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p?=?0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p?=?0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

Hatle, Havard; St?bakk, Per Kristian; M?lmen, Harald Edvard; Br?nstad, Eivind; Tj?nna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Bjork; Rognmo, ?ivind

2014-01-01

96

Apple Picker: Computer software for studying human responding on concurrent and multiple schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple Picker, a software package for the Apple II microcomputer, is described. Subjects respond by searching for “apples”\\u000a in two “orchards.” “Attempted pickings” may be reinforced according to random ratio or interval schedules. “Search” responses\\u000a are recorded and may be examined either as rates of responding in the two orchards or visually as paths the subject has traced\\u000a during the

Wayne D. Norman; Jerry L. Jongerius

1985-01-01

97

A Randomized Controlled Field Trial of the Efficacy of a Simplified Maternal Immunization Schedule in Reducing Neonatal Tetanus Deaths in Rural Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this thesis is to describe a research strategy for evaluating the efficacy of a reduced dose maternal tetanus immunization schedule in reducing neonatal tetanus deaths in Sierra Leone.\\u000aNeonatal tetanus has been demonstrated to be a major cause in infant death in areas where sanitary midwifery is unavailable. A review of the literature reveals evidence for reduction

Harvey Lauris Nelson

1979-01-01

98

Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents lottery scheduling, a novel randomized resource allocation mechanism. Lottery scheduling provides efficient, responsive control over the relative execution rates of computations. Such control is beyond the capabilities of conventional schedulers, and is desirable in systems that service requests of varying importance, such as databases, media-based applications, and networks. Lottery scheduling also supports modular resource management by enabling

Carl A. Waldspurger; William E. Weihl

1994-01-01

99

Trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in relapsed ovarian cancer: outcomes in the partially platinum-sensitive (platinum-free interval 6-12 months) subpopulation of OVA-301 phase III randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background: OVA-301 is a large randomized trial that showed superiority of trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) over PLD alone in relapsed ovarian cancer. The optimal management of patients with partially platinum-sensitive relapse [6–12 months platinum-free interval (PFI)] is unclear. Patients and methods: Within OVA-301, we therefore now report on the outcomes for the 214 cases in this subgroup. Results: Trabectedin/PLD resulted in a 35% risk reduction of disease progression (DP) or death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45–0.92; P = 0.0152; median progression-free survival (PFS) 7.4 versus 5.5 months], and a significant 41% decrease in the risk of death (HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43–0.82; P = 0.0015; median survival 23.0 versus 17.1 months). The safety of trabectedin/PLD in this subset mimicked that of the overall population. Similar proportions of patients received subsequent therapy in each arm (76% versus 77%), although patients in the trabectedin/PLD arm had a slightly lower proportion of further platinum (49% versus 55%). Importantly, patients in the trabectedin/PLD arm survived significantly longer after subsequent platinum (HR = 0.63; P = 0.0357; median 13.3 versus 9.8 months). Conclusion: This hypothesis-generating analysis demonstrates that superior benefits with trabectedin/PLD in terms of PFS and survival in the overall population appear particularly enhanced in patients with partially sensitive disease (PFI 6–12 months).

Poveda, A.; Vergote, I.; Tjulandin, S.; Kong, B.; Roy, M.; Chan, S.; Filipczyk-Cisarz, E.; Hagberg, H.; Kaye, S. B.; Colombo, N.; Lebedinsky, C.; Parekh, T.; Gomez, J.; Park, Y. C.; Alfaro, V.; Monk, B. J.

2011-01-01

100

Prospective randomized trial to evaluate two delayed granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration schedules after high-dose cytarabine therapy in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) during remission induction shortens granulocytopenia and may decrease morbidity due to infections. However, the optimal timing of G-CSF administration after chemotherapy is not known. In a prospective randomized multi-center study, adult ALL patients were treated with high-dose ARA-C [HDAC, 3 g\\/m2 bid (1 g\\/m2 bid for T-ALL) days

W. K. Hofmann; G. Seipelt; S. Langenhan; R. Reutzel; D. Schott; O. Schoeffski; H. J. Illiger; F. Hartmann; L. Balleisen; A. Franke; F. Fiedler; C. Huber; H. Rasche; L. Bergmann; A. Ganser; C. Pott; R. Pasold; C. Rudolph; O. G. Ottmann; N. Gökbuget; D. Hoelzer

2002-01-01

101

A multicentric randomized controlled trial on the impact of lengthening the interval between neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery on complete pathological response in rectal cancer (GRECCAR-6 trial): rationale and design  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) is now part of the armamentarium of cancer of the lower and middle rectum. It is recommended in current clinical practice prior to surgical excision if the lesion is classified T3/T4 or N+. Histological complete response, defined by the absence of persistent tumor cell invasion and lymph node (ypT0N0) after pathological examination of surgical specimen has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival and disease-free survival. Surgical excision is usually performed between 6 and 8 weeks after completion of CRT and pathological complete response rate ranges around 12%. In retrospective studies, a lengthening of the interval after RCT beyond 10 weeks was found as an independent factor increasing the rate of pathological complete response (between 26% and 31%), with a longer disease-free survival and without increasing the operative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in 264 patients the rate of pathological complete response rate of rectal cancer after RCT by lengthening the time between RCT and surgery. Methods/design The current study is a multicenter randomized trial in two parallel groups comparing 7 and 11 weeks of delay between the end of RCT and cancer surgery of rectal tumors. At the end of the RCT, surgery is planified and randomization is performed after patient’s written consent for participation. The histological complete response (ypT0N0) will be determined with analysis of the complete residual tumor and double reading by two pathologists blinded of the group of inclusion. Patients will be followed in clinics for 5 years after surgery. Participation in this trial does not change patient’s management in terms of treatment, investigations or visits. Secondary endpoints will include overall and disease free survival, rate of sphincter conservation and quality of mesorectal excision. The number of patients needed is 264. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01648894

2013-01-01

102

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe the various techniques that were proposed for constructing non-parametric confidence intervals using the bootstrap. These include bootstrap pivotal intervals, percentile and bias-corrected percentile intervals, and non-parametric titling inter...

R. J. Tibshirani

1984-01-01

103

Safety of a 3-weekly schedule of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as first line chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the MITO-2 randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The MITO-2 (Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer) study is a randomized phase III trial comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel to carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in first-line chemotherapy of patients with ovarian cancer. Due to the paucity of published phase I data on the 3-weekly experimental schedule used, an early safety analysis was planned. Methods Patients with ovarian cancer (stage Ic-IV), aged < 75 years, ECOG performance status ? 2, were randomized to carboplatin AUC 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, every 3 weeks or to carboplatin AUC 5 plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 30 mg/m2, every 3 weeks. Treatment was planned for 6 cycles. Toxicity was coded according to the NCI-CTC version 2.0. Results The pre-planned safety analysis was performed in July 2004. Data from the first 50 patients treated with carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin were evaluated. Median age was 60 years (range 34–75). Forty-three patients (86%) completed 6 cycles. Two thirds of the patients had at least one cycle delayed due to toxicity, but 63% of the cycles were administered on time. In most cases the reason for chemotherapy delay was neutropenia or other hematological toxicity. No delay due to palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) was recorded. No toxic death was recorded. Reported hematological toxicities were: grade (G) 3 anemia 16%, G3/G4 neutropenia 36% and 10% respectively, G3/4 thrombocytopenia 22% and 4% respectively. Non-haematological toxicity was infrequent: pulmonary G1 6%, heart rhythm G1 4%, liver toxicity G1 6%, G2 4% and G3 2%. Complete hair loss was reported in 6% of patients, and G1 neuropathy in 2%. PPE was recorded in 14% of the cases (G1 10%, G2 2%, G3 2%). Conclusion This safety analysis shows that the adopted schedule of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin given every 3 weeks is feasible as first line treatment in ovarian cancer patients, although 37% of the cycles were delayed due to haematological toxicity. Toxicities that are common with standard combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (neurotoxicity and hair loss) are infrequent with this experimental schedule, and skin toxicity appears manageable.

Pignata, Sandro; Scambia, Giovanni; Savarese, Antonella; Breda, Enrico; Scollo, Paolo; De Vivo, Rocco; Rossi, Emanuela; Gebbia, Vittorio; Natale, Donato; Del Gaizo, Filomena; Naglieri, Emanuele; Ferro, Antonella; Musso, Pietro; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Sorio, Roberto; Pisano, Carmela; Di Maio, Massimo; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Annalisa; Perrone, Francesco

2006-01-01

104

Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

105

A Representation for Collections of Temporal Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal representation and reasoning are necessary components of systems that consider events that occur in the real world. This work explores ways of considering collections of intervals of time. This line of research is mo- tivated by related work being done by our research group on appointment scheduling and time management. Natu- ral language expressions that refer to collections of

Bruce Leban; David Mcdonald; David Forster

1986-01-01

106

Interval Kalman filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Kalman filtering technique is extended to interval linear systems with the same statistical assumptions on noise, for which the classical technique is no longer applicable. Necessary interval analysis, particularly the notion of interval expectation, is reviewed and introduced. The interval Kalman filter (IKF) is then derived, which has the same structure as the classical algorithm, using no additional

Guanrong Chen; Jianrong Wang; LEANG S. SHIEH

1997-01-01

107

Prospective randomized trial to evaluate two delayed granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration schedules after high-dose cytarabine therapy in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) during remission induction shortens granulocytopenia and may decrease morbidity due to infections. However, the optimal timing of G-CSF administration after chemotherapy is not known. In a prospective randomized multi-center study, adult ALL patients were treated with high-dose ARA-C [HDAC, 3 g/m(2) bid (1 g/m(2) bid for T-ALL) days 1-4] and mitoxantrone (MI 10 mg/m(2) days 3-5). They were randomized to receive recombinant human G-CSF (Lenograstim) 263 micro g/day SC starting either from day 12 (Group 1) or day 17 (Group 2). Fifty-five patients (41 male, 14 female) with a median age of 34 years (range: 18-55 years) were enrolled into the study; 50 patients were evaluable. The median duration of neutropenia <500/ micro l after HDAC/MI was 12 days (range: 7-22 days) in the early G-CSF Group 1 and also 12 days (range: 4-22 days) in the late G-CSF Group 2; this was shorter than in the historical control group (15 days, range: 4-43 days, n=46) where the patients received identical cytotoxic treatment without G-CSF. Seventeen infections were observed in 14 patients in Group 1 (47%) and 13 infections in 10 patients in Group 2 (50%) compared to 27 infections in 49 patients of the historical control (54%). In Group 1, the patients received a median of 11 injections with G-CSF (range: 7-22) compared to 7 injections (range: 4-19) in Group 2. The total administered dose of G-CSF in Group 2 was significantly reduced by 40% ( P<0.0001). The delayed start of G-CSF after HDAC/MI in ALL achieves the same clinical benefit compared to the earlier initiation of G-CSF. The reduction of treatment costs by reducing the total G-CSF dose may be important in future treatment with this hematopoietic growth factor. PMID:12424538

Hofmann, W K; Seipelt, G; Langenhan, S; Reutzel, R; Schott, D; Schoeffski, O; Illiger, H J; Hartmann, F; Balleisen, L; Franke, A; Fiedler, F; Huber, C; Rasche, H; Bergmann, L; Ganser, A; Pott, C; Pasold, R; Rudolph, C; Ottmann, O G; Gökbuget, N; Hoelzer, D

2002-10-01

108

Better Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider the problem of setting approximate confidence intervals for a single parameter theta in a multiparameter family. The standard approximate intervals based on maximum likelihood theory, can be quite misleading so, in practice, tricks based on tr...

B. Efron

1984-01-01

109

Better Bootstrap Confidence Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of setting approximate confidence intervals for a single parameter ? in a multiparameter family. The standard approximate intervals based on maximum likelihood theory, , can be quite misleading. In practice, tricks based on transformations, bias corrections, and so forth, are often used to improve their accuracy. The bootstrap confidence intervals discussed in this article automatically incorporate

Bradley Efron

1987-01-01

110

A Model for Residence Time in Concurrent Variable Interval Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-interval schedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing…

Navakatikyan, Michael A.

2007-01-01

111

Schedule Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Thi...

G. Smith

2003-01-01

112

Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

2009-01-01

113

Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization  

SciTech Connect

Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

Patil, R.B.

1995-05-01

114

Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI - Mel.A.) [ISRCTN75125874  

PubMed Central

Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b), according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT) to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV) 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm), or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC) three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm). Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9%) (p = 0.0074), yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week) was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week) (p = 0.003). Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.

Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Del Bianco, Paola; Romanini, Antonella; Guida, Michele; Paccagnella, Adriano; Dalla Palma, Maurizio; Naglieri, Emanuele; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Silvestri, Barbara; Michiara, Maria; De Salvo, Gian Luca

2006-01-01

115

Course Scheduling Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Course Scheduling Support System is designed to facilitate manual generation of the faculty course schedule. It aids in assigning faculty to courses a nd assigning each course section to a time block. It captures historic and current scheduling information in an organized manner making information needed to create new schedules more readily available. The interaction between user and database

Roy Levow; Jawad Khan; Sam Hsu

2006-01-01

116

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. This viewgraph presentation contains a flow chart for conducting a schedule risk assessment, and profiles applicable several methods of data analysis.

Smith, Greg

2003-01-01

117

Prediction-Interval Procedures and (Fixed-Effects) Confidence-Interval Procedures for Mixed Linear Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general approach is presented for devising an approximate 100(1-alpha)% prediction interval for an unobservable random variable w based on the value of an observable random vector y. It is assumed that E(w) and E(y) are linear combinations of unknown pa...

D. R. Jeske D. A. Harville

1988-01-01

118

Protocols for distributive scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

1993-01-01

119

Interval estimations in metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

2014-06-01

120

Aspects of job scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

Phillips, K.

1976-01-01

121

Interval polynomial positivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

1989-01-01

122

Real-Time Scheduling with a Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

Joseph Naor; Hadas Shachnai; Tami Tamir

2003-01-01

123

Contrast and autoshaping in multiple schedules varying reinforcer rate and duration  

PubMed Central

Thirteen master pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which reinforcement frequency (Experiment I) or duration (Experiment II) was varied. In Phases 1 and 3 of Experiment I, the values of the first and second components' random-interval schedules were 33 and 99 seconds, respectively. In Phase 2, these values were 99 seconds for both components. In Experiment II, a random-interval 33-second schedule was associated with each component. During Phases 1 and 3, the first and second components had hopper durations of 7.5 and 2.5 seconds respectively. During Phase 2, both components' hopper durations were 2.5 seconds. In each experiment, positive contrast obtained for about half the master subjects. The rest showed a rate increase in both components (positive induction). Each master subject's key colors and reinforcers were synchronously presented on a response-independent basis to a yoked control. Richer component key-pecking occurred during each experiment's Phases 1 and 3 among half these subjects. However, none responded during the contrast condition (unchanged component of each experiment's Phase 2). From this it is inferred that autoshaping did not contribute to the contrast and induction findings among master birds. Little evidence of local contrast (highest rate at beginning of richer component) was found in any subject. These data show that (a) contrast can occur independently from autoshaping, (b) contrast assays during equal-valued components may produce induction, (c) local contrast in multiple schedules often does not occur, and (d) differential hopper durations can produce autoshaping and contrast.

Hamilton, Bruce E.; Silberberg, Alan

1978-01-01

124

Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

Mace, F. Charles; And Others

1994-01-01

125

An RF interference mitigation methodology with potential applications in scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software tools for interference analysis and mitigation were developed in the Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) environment for: communications performance evaluation; and mission planning. Potential applications are seen in analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules. Tools producing required separation angles and potential interference intervals can be used as an aid to mutual interference mitigation within a scheduling system.

Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

1991-01-01

126

5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys...Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys...intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made in...used in the preceding full-scale survey. Data may be...

2010-01-01

127

5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys...Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys...intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made in...used in the preceding full-scale survey. Data may be...

2013-01-01

128

5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys...Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys...intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made in...used in the preceding full-scale survey. Data may be...

2011-01-01

129

5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys...Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys...intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made in...used in the preceding full-scale survey. Data may be...

2012-01-01

130

Bootstrap confidence intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys bootstrap methods for producing good approximate confidence intervals. The goal is to improve by an order of magnitude upon the accuracy of the standard intervals $\\\\hat{\\\\theta} \\\\pm z^{(\\\\alpha)} \\\\hat{\\\\sigma}$, in a way that allows routine application even to very complicated problems. Both theory and examples are used to show how this is done. The first seven sections

Thomas J. DiCiccio; Bradley Efron; Peter Hall; Michael A. Martin; A. J. Canty; A. C. Davison; D. V. Hinkley; Leon Jay Gleser; Stephen M. S. Lee; G. Alastair Young

1996-01-01

131

Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling  

DOEpatents

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-25

132

Confidence interval determination for spectral estimates using \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the confidence intervals for a spectral estimate requires knowledge of its probability density function. Except when the spectral estimate is the sum of the magnitude squared of independent and identically distributed Gaussian random variables for which the Chi-squared distribution is applicable, expressions for this probability density are not available. Tapering of the original time series, unequal weighing in the

A. Baggeroer

1983-01-01

133

Estimation of natural history parameters of breast cancer based on non-randomized organized screening data: subsidiary analysis of effects of inter-screening interval, sensitivity, and attendance rate on reduction of advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating the natural history parameters of breast cancer not only elucidates the disease progression but also make contributions\\u000a to assessing the impact of inter-screening interval, sensitivity, and attendance rate on reducing advanced breast cancer.\\u000a We applied three-state and five-state Markov models to data on a two-yearly routine mammography screening in Finland between\\u000a 1988 and 2000. The mean sojourn time (MST)

Jenny Chia-Yun Wu; Matti Hakama; Ahti Anttila; Amy Ming-Fang Yen; Nea Malila; Tytti Sarkeala; Anssi Auvinen; Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu; Hsiu-Hsi Chen

2010-01-01

134

Fundamentals of Shiftwork Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is designed for use by managers, supervisors, shiftwork schedulers and employees. It defines the principles and components of a method of shiftwork scheduling for regular, cyclic shifts that can minimize fatigue effects in the workplace, the r...

J. C. Miller

2006-01-01

135

Reinforcement learning in scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

1994-01-01

136

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

Smith, Greg

2003-01-01

137

Bulk Scheduling With the DIANA Scheduler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from the research and development of a Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) scheduling engine, to be used primarily for data intensive sciences such as physics analysis, are described. In Grid analyses, tasks can involve thousands of computing, data handling, and network resources. The central problem in the scheduling of these resources is the coordinated management of computation and data at multiple locations and not just data replication or movement. However, this can prove to be a rather costly operation and efficient sing can be a challenge if compute and data resources are mapped without considering network costs. We have implemented an adaptive algorithm within the so-called DIANA Scheduler which takes into account data location and size, network performance and computation capability in order to enable efficient global scheduling. DIANA is a performance-aware and economy-guided Meta Scheduler. It iteratively allocates each job to the site that is most likely to produce the best performance as well as optimizing the global queue for any remaining jobs. Therefore it is equally suitable whether a single job is being submitted or bulk scheduling is being performed. Results indicate that considerable performance improvements can be gained by adopting the DIANA scheduling approach.

Anjum, Ashiq; McClatchey, Richard; Ali, Arshad; Willers, Ian

2006-12-01

138

Petri Net Based Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Timed Petri nets can be used to model and analyze scheduling problems. To support the modeling of scheduling problems, we provide a method to map tasks, resources, and constraints onto a timed Petri net. By mapping scheduling problems onto Petri nets, we ...

W. M. P. van der Aalst

1995-01-01

139

The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE) alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT) responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18) with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1) or placebo (PLA) for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2), which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), 8-isoprostane (8-iso), CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013) and higher average mean power (P = 0.067) across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P < 0.001) and 48 h post test (P < 0.001). Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P < 0.002). AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009), significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001), and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078) than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145) between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a reduction in oxidative stress and DOMS responses to acute anaerobic intervals. An improved rate of recovery can benefit all individuals engaging in high intensity, anaerobic exercise as it facilitates increased frequency of exercise.

2010-01-01

140

Scheduling multiprocessor tasks to minimize schedule length  

SciTech Connect

The problem considered in this paper is the deterministic scheduling of tasks on a set of identical processors. However, the model presented differs from the classical one by the requirement that certain tasks need more than one processor at a time for their processing. This assumption is especially justified in some microprocessor applications and its impact on the complexity of minimizing schedule length is studied. First the authors concentrate on the problem of nonpreemptive scheduling. In this case, polynomial-time algorithms exist only for unit processing times. The authors present two such algorithms of complexity O(n) for scheduling tasks requiring an arbitrary number of processors between 1 and k at a time where k is a fixed integer. The case for which k is not fixed is shown to be NP-complete. Next, the problem of preemptive scheduling of tasks of arbitrary length is studied. First an algorithm for scheduling tasks requiring one or k processors is presented. Its complexity depends linearly on the number of tasks. Then, the possibility of a linear programming formulation for the general case is analyzed.

Blazewicz, J.; Drabowski, M.; Weglarz, J.

1986-05-01

141

Sampling SIM: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Beth Chance, Bob delmas and Joan Garfield, this web page provides instructions for teaching confidence intervals using Sampling SIM software. It includes information regarding prerequisite knowledge, common misconceptions, and objectives, as well as links to an activity and a pre/post-test. This resource will provide a nice assessment of the skills obtained during this lesson.

Chance, Beth; Delmas, Bob; Garfield, Joan

2009-03-16

142

Flood Recurrence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity has students use stream discharge data obtained from the USGS Water Resources Division web site in order to calculate recurrence intervals for a local stream. Using the recurrence data generated, the students then make recommendations to the residents of a local town as to what they might do to reduce their loss from the effects of frequent flooding in their community.

Emerson, Norlene

143

Update of randomized trials in first-line treatment.  

PubMed

Advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer remains a highly lethal malignancy, in spite of effective cytoreductive surgery and primary chemotherapy. Randomized phase III trials have provided the most consistent platform for the evaluation of new treatment interventions. Recently completed and ongoing international phase III studies in the primary disease setting, summarized and analyzed in the present review, have evaluated multidrug combinations, weekly scheduling, intraperitoneal delivery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, maintenance therapy and targeting of angiogenesis. The data from these studies have supported the consideration of intraperitoneal cisplatin, dose-dense weekly scheduling of paclitaxel or neoadjuvant chemotherapy with interval cytoreductive surgery in appropriate patient populations. Contrary to this, the use of three-drug combinations or maintenance chemotherapy is not supported by phase III data. Encouraging data have emerged using antiangiogenic agents, but with questions regarding optimal dose, timing and duration. Ongoing and planned trials will evaluate the inhibition of DNA repair and tailored treatment in accordance with tumor molecular profiles. PMID:22180402

Bookman, Michael A

2011-12-01

144

On Transactional Scheduling in Distributed Transactional Memory Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a distributed transactional memory (TM) scheduler called Bi-interval that optimizes the execution order of transactional operations to minimize conflicts. Bi-interval categorizes concurrent requests for a shared object into read and write intervals to maximize the parallelism of reading\\u000a transactions. This allows an object to be simultaneously sent to nodes of reading transactions (in a data flow TM model),

Junwhan Kim; Binoy Ravindran

2010-01-01

145

Random Walk Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates a random walk on a discrete time interval from 0 to n. The time n and the probability of a step to the right can be varied. The random variables of interest are the final position, the maximum position, and the time of the last zero.

Siegrist, Kyle

146

Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

2011-01-01

147

Schedule instability, service level and cost in a material requirements planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this work was to evaluate how four important system parameters (schedule frozen interval, schedule re-planning interval, safety stock and lot-sizing rules) affect material requirements planning (MRP) system performance in terms of schedule instability, total cost and service level, considering different levels of two operating factors: the lead-times of items in the product structure, and the accuracy

Xue Bai; J. Steve Davis; John J. Kanet; Steve Cantrell; J. Wayne Patterson

2002-01-01

148

Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

1988-01-01

149

Automated telescope scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

150

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

151

Enhancing Multimedia Caching Algorithm Performance Through New Interval Definition Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, multimedia systems are evolving towards integratedstorage platforms that meet the requirements ofdeterministic applications, multimedia systems, and traditionalbest-effort applications altogether. These systemsmust incorporate a disk scheduling mechanism and a cachearchitecture that can handle the requirements of each kindof request while showing a good overall performance. Inthis paper a new interval caching strategy is proposed thatincludes several optimizations to the state

Javier Fernández; Jesus Carretero; Felix Garcia; Jose M. Perez; A. Calderon

2003-01-01

152

Determinants of human performance on concurrent schedules.  

PubMed Central

Six experiments, each with 5 human adults, were conducted to investigate the determinants of human performance on multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules. A two-key procedure was employed in which subjects' key presses produced points exchangeable for money. Variables manipulated across experiments were (a) changeover delay (Experiments 2, 4, and 6), (b) ordinal cues related to scheduled reinforcement frequencies (Experiments 3 and 4), and (c) instructions describing the ordinal relations between schedule-correlated stimuli and scheduled reinforcement frequency (Experiments 5 and 6). The performances of only 13 of the 30 subjects could be described by the generalized matching equation and were within a range of values typical of those reported in the animal literature. Eight subjects showed indifference, 9 undermatched, 7 approximated matching, 3 overmatched, and a further 3 responded exclusively to the richer component of the concurrent schedules. These differing modes of responding were closely related to the different types of performance rules reported by subjects in postexperimental questionnaires. The results are in good agreement with those from studies of human performance on single schedules, suggesting that rule-governed behavior, in interaction with contingencies, may be an important determinant of human choice.

Horne, P J; Lowe, C F

1993-01-01

153

Integrated operating schedule  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe McGuire Nuclear Station's integrated operating schedule and to show how such a management tool can improve the efficiency of an operating nuclear station. An operating schedule requires the objectivity of a completely independent group to be fully effective. It requires full management support, especially during initial implementation, to ensure that all groups use the schedule. Station groups and management agree that the operating schedule has become an important catalyst for the much-needed intergroup communication required to make a plant run reliably and efficiently.

Broome, R.D.; Sechrist, K.D.; Shaw, E.G.

1987-01-01

154

Dual chamber pacemaker with adaptive atrial escape interval  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dual chamber pacemaker having an atrial escape interval which is varied on a beat-to-beat basis in response to the measured time from a ventricular event to the next atrial sensed event. Additionally, a portion of the atrial escape interval is bifurcated into a first sensing portion T1 and a second sensing portion T2 wherein atrial sense events occurring during T1 may be ignored by the pacemaker, while atrial sense events falling within T2 are used to compute a new atrial escape interval and are used to resynchronize the pacemaker and are used to inhibit the otherwise scheduled atrial pace event.

1990-05-01

155

Properties of Modal Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let X be a random variable with distribution function F. Define for x belongs to (E sup 1) and beta belongs to (0,1) the function S(x;beta, F) as the infimum of the points satisfying F(x + s(x,beta;F)) - F(x - s(x,beta;F)) > or = beta. In an earlier paper...

B. P. Lientz

1971-01-01

156

Ranking Intervals under Visibility Constraints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ranking system is developed for a set S of n closed intervals on the x-axis. The ranking assigns a distinct rank to each interval s. It is shown that a ranking can be found in time O(n log n) such that each interval sees at most three other intervals. A...

H. Edelsbrunner M. H. Overmars E. Welzl

1989-01-01

157

Requested meals versus scheduled meals  

PubMed Central

Background Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis). In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight). In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea. Methods We trained a “recognizing request” meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls. Results In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001), as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood glucose, significantly lower energy intake, and recovery from diarrhea, whereas scheduled meals are associated with high blood glucose, higher energy intake, and persistence of diarrhea. The disparities in blood glucose levels and energy intake disprove the null hypothesis, suggesting the need for a change from scheduled to requested meals early on in food administration, ie, during the neonatal period.

Ciampolini, Mario

2012-01-01

158

Fixed-interval performance and self-control in children.  

PubMed Central

Operant responses of 16 children (mean age 6 years and 1 month) were reinforced according to different fixed-interval schedules (with interreinforcer intervals of 20, 30, or 40 s) in which the reinforcers were either 20-s or 40-s presentations of a cartoon. In another procedure, they received training on a self-control paradigm in which both reinforcer delay (0.5 s or 40 s) and reinforcer duration (20 s or 40 s of cartoons) varied, and subjects were offered a choice between various combinations of delay and duration. Individual differences in behavior under the self-control procedure were precisely mirrored by individual differences under the fixed-interval schedule. Children who chose the smaller immediate reinforcer on the self-control procedure (impulsive) produced short postreinforcement pauses and high response rates in the fixed-interval conditions, and both measures changed little with changes in fixed-interval value. Conversely, children who chose the larger delayed reinforcer in the self-control condition (the self-controlled subjects) exhibited lower response rates and long postreinforcement pauses, which changed systematically with changes in the interval, in their fixed-interval performances.

Darcheville, J C; Riviere, V; Wearden, J H

1992-01-01

159

Effects of Chlorpromazine on Fixed-Ratio Responding: Modification by Fixed-Interval Discriminative Stimuli.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) were studied on responding maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedule. When stimuli controlling responding were made increasingly similar or when responding had less control over the prevailing st...

J. M. Witkin

1986-01-01

160

Preference for multiple versus mixed schedules of reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Five pigeons were trained in a concurrent-chain procedure. In the initial links, equal nonindependent variable-interval schedules were available concurrently on two keys. Completing the schedule on either key led to exclusive presentation of one of two further variable-interval schedules for a fixed period of time. During these terminal links, as many reinforcers as were scheduled could be obtained. If the response producing this terminal link occurred on one key, differential stimuli signaled which variable-interval schedule had been produced. If the response producing the terminal link occurred on the other key, no such differential stimuli were available. Once the fixed period of time elapsed, the initial links were reinstated. In Experiment 1, the period of time for which the terminal links were available was always 10 s and the absolute duration of the initial links was varied. Subjects preferred the alternative leading to the multiple schedule when the initial-link duration was short, but preferred the alternative leading to the mixed schedule when the initial-link durations were longer. In Experiment 2, both the initial-link duration and the duration of the terminal links were varied. The effect of initial-link duration was identical to that in Experiment 1 and there was no systematic effect of varying the terminal-link duration.

Alsop, Brent; Davison, Michael

1986-01-01

161

Coordination of Production Schedules with Shipping Schedules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scheduling logistics operations in a multi-echelon production system requires planning and coordinating production and transportation decisions for all facilities in a system. In this paper we show how these decisions can be made in an actual multi-facili...

W. L. Maxwell J. A. Muckstadt

1979-01-01

162

Ubiquity of schedule-induced polydipsia1  

PubMed Central

Spaced feeding of individual food pellets to food-deprived rats induced excessive drinking after pellet delivery if water was continuously available. When access to water was restricted to a portion of the inter-pellet interval, and competition from food-reinforced bar pressing was removed, excessive drinking occurred whenever drinking was possible. This finding extends the generality of accounts of excessive behavior that implicate induction by apparently unrelated scheduling characteristics of the environment.

Gilbert, R. M.

1974-01-01

163

Real-Time Scheduling with a Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that we are given a set of jobs, where each job has a processing time, a non-negative weight, and a set of possible\\u000a time intervals in which it can be processed. In addition, each job has a processing cost. Our goal is to schedule a feasible\\u000a subset of the jobs on a single machine, such that the total weight

Hadas Shachnai; Tami Tamir

2007-01-01

164

Trimester Schedule. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

2012-01-01

165

Reinforcement Learning in Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guide...

T. G. Dietterich D. Ok W. Zhang P. Tadepalli

1994-01-01

166

Polynomial complete scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the problem of finding an optimal schedule for a set of jobs is polynomial complete even in the following two restricted cases. (1) All jobs require one time unit. (2) All jobs require one or two time units, and there are only two processors. As a consequence, the general preemptive scheduling problem is also polynomial complete. These

Jeffrey D. Ullman

1973-01-01

167

Disk Scheduling Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the invention of the movable head disk, people have improved I\\/O performance by intelligent scheduling of disk accesses. We have applied these techniques to systems with large memories and potentially long disk queues. By viewing the entire buffer cache as a write buffer, we can improve disk bandwidth utilization by applying some traditional disk scheduling tech- niques. We have

Margo Seltzer; Peter Chen; John Ousterhout

1990-01-01

168

DSN Resource Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

2007-01-01

169

A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi

1991-01-01

170

Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.  

PubMed

Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

2007-01-01

171

Partial Orders of Dimension 2, Interval Orders and Interval Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper has two main purposes. The first is to illustrate the relationship among dimensionality and several other concepts of interest in the theory of binary relations, including weak orders, interval orders, semiorders, interval graphs, comparability ...

F. S. Roberts K. A. Baker P. C. Fishburn

1970-01-01

172

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

173

Bootstrapped MRMC confidence intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) paradigm of Swets and Pickett (1982) for ROC analysis was expressed as a components of variance model by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (1992) and validated by Roe and Metz (1997) for Type I error rates. Our group proposed an analysis of the MRMC components of variance model using bootstrap (Beiden, Wagner, and Campbell, 2000) experiments instead of jackknife pseudo-values. These approaches have been challenged by some contemporary authors (e.g. Zhou, Obuchowski, and McClish, 2002). The purpose of the present paper is to formally compare the models and to carry out validation tests of their performance. We investigate different approaches to statistical inference, including several types of nonparametric bootstrap confidence intervals and report on validation and simulation experiments of Type I errors.

Samuelson, Frank W.; Wagner, Robert F.

2005-04-01

174

Discrimination of a response-independent component in a multiple schedule1  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were trained to respond in non-differential reinforcement pre-discrimination training, with a multiple variable-interval 1-min variable-interval 1-min schedule. Each bird then received discrimination training with a multiple variable-interval 1-min variable-time 1-min schedule. Thus, discrimination training was between response-dependent (variable-interval) and response-independent (variable-time) schedules with the rate of reinforcement equated. In Experiment I, only three sessions of non-differential reinforcement preceded discrimination training and for half the birds, a 0° line was correlated with the response-dependent schedule; for the remaining birds the 0° line was correlated with the response-independent schedule. Post-discrimination gradients of excitatory stimulus control were obtained from the former group, while the latter group showed little evidence of post-discrimination stimulus control by the 0° line. Differential responding to the variable-time schedule was not accompanied by behavioral contrast to the variable-interval schedule. In Experiment II, 20 sessions of non-differential reinforcement preceded discrimination training and the 0° line was correlated with variable-time reinforcement for each bird. Differential responding to the 0° line was accompanied by negative induction to the variable-interval schedule and by inhibitory stimulus control about the 0° line during a post-discrimination generalization test.

Weisman, R. G.; Ramsden, Marna

1973-01-01

175

NASA Schedule Management Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

2011-01-01

176

Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

2009-08-10

177

NCI-Frederick PHL - Scheduling  

Cancer.gov

Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Scheduling Project scheduling will depend on the type, scope and size of the project. Detailed information

178

A systematic review of comparative schedule-related toxicities with maintenance rituximab in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Abstract We conducted a systematic review of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) reported in prospective trials enrolling patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) receiving maintenance rituximab (MR). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of AEs occurring during MR. Differences by induction program, histology, setting and MR schedule were examined by stratified analyses and univariate random-effects meta-regression. Eleven trials met the search criteria, with nine sufficiently reporting AEs during the MR phase. Of 1009 patients receiving MR, the proportion experiencing cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14-36%). Patients receiving MR every 6 months as four weekly infusions for 2 years had significantly less toxicity compared with those receiving MR every 2 months (10% vs. 28%; p = 0.035). Patients treated with rituximab alone during induction had fewer toxicities compared to those treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy induction (12% vs. 35%; p = 0.031). Myelosuppression and infections were the most common toxicities. Our literature analysis suggests that MR given every 6 months and rituximab alone as induction may be associated with fewer grade 3/4 AEs for patients with FL and MCL; however, assessing the true independent impact of induction regimens and schedule on toxicity will require prospective trials. PMID:23998254

Nabhan, Chadi; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Villines, Dana; Chiu, Brian C-H; Caces, Donne Bennett D; Valdez, Tina V; Ghielmini, Michele; Hsu Schmitz, Shu-Fang; Smith, Sonali M

2014-06-01

179

Positive conditioned suppression: an explanation in terms of multiple and concurrent schedules1  

PubMed Central

Rats performed under a baseline variable-interval schedule of food presentation. A response-independent food schedule was then superimposed on the baseline schedule for different periods of time across different conditions. The response-independent schedule operated for the whole session in some conditions, intermittently for sixty second periods in some, and intermittently for ten-second periods in others. Under these latter two sets of conditions, the response-independent food schedule was stimulus correlated and alternated with the baseline schedule according to a multiple schedule. Response-independent food presentations always suppressed responding. The degree of suppression tended to increase the longer the period of response-independent food. Control conditions, in which the superimposed schedule was response-dependent, rather than response-independent, did not produce response suppression. The results fit an analysis of positive conditioned suppression phenomena in the context of multiple and concurrent schedule effects.

Stubbs, D. A.; Hughes, J. E.; Cohen, S. L.

1978-01-01

180

INFLUENCE OF THE SCHEDULE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT ON PUNISHED BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 GROUP OF 24 RATS WAS REINFORCED FOR LEVER PRESSING ON A 5-MIN VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI) SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT; A 2ND GROUP OF 24 SS WAS REINFORCED ON A 1\\/5-MIN VI SCHEDULE. 1\\/2 THE SS IN EACH GROUP RECEIVED A PUNISHMENT TRAINING PROCEDURE WHILE THE REMAINING SS SERVED AS UNPUNISHED CONTROLS. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A PUNISHING SHOCK IN REDUCING THE

RUSSELL M. CHURCH; GEORGE A. RAYMOND

1967-01-01

181

High resolution RR interval measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

R-R interval measurement from digitized ECG signal has an inherent error due to the finite sampling frequency. This error causes distortion of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum. Results of implementation of an algorithm designed to increase the resolution of R-R interval measurement are reported. The algorithm first estimates the R-R intervals with a finite resolution accuracy. Then the interval

T. Harel; S. A. Ben-Haim; I. Gath

1993-01-01

182

Research on Harassment Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physiological and behavioral monitoring system was developed for the laboratory simulation and analysis of harassment effects. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated by experimentation in which the effects of four harassment schedules were exami...

D. I. Tepas M. A. B. Vianello

1964-01-01

183

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

184

Immunization Schedules for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunization Schedule. 2014 version expected February 28, 2014. Spanish Version (en español) Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 ... the CDC Also available in multiple languages including Spanish Technical content reviewed by the CDC Related Pages ...

185

Schedule Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schedule Risk Assessment (SRA) determines the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. This viewgraph presentation introduces the prerequisites, probability distribution curves, special conditions, calculations, and results analysis for SRA.

Smith, Grego

2004-01-01

186

Distributed network scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed Network Scheduling is the scheduling of future communications of a network by nodes in the network. This report details software for doing this onboard spacecraft in a remote network. While prior work on distributed scheduling has been applied to remote spacecraft networks, the software reported here focuses on modeling communication activities in greater detail and including quality of service constraints. Our main results are based on a Mars network of spacecraft and include identifying a maximum opportunity of improving traverse exploration rate a factor of three; a simulation showing reduction in one-way delivery times from a rover to Earth from as much as 5 to 1.5 hours; simulated response to unexpected events averaging under an hour onboard; and ground schedule generation ranging from seconds to 50 minutes for 15 to 100 communication goals.

Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2004-01-01

187

Distributed network scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate missions where communications resources are limited, requiring autonomous planning and execution. Unlike typical networks, spacecraft networks are also suited to automated planning and scheduling because many communications can be planned in advance.

Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2005-01-01

188

Fee schedule analysis.  

PubMed

Simply stated, the fee schedule is th single most important financial tool within the medical practice. And contrary to general consensus, what a practice charges has a dynamic impact on future allowable calculations. A medical practice is no different from any other business in this respect; and, as with other industries, the fee schedule should reflect the value of the practice's services. Neglecting the fee schedule or, even worse, allowing payors to dictate the value of those services is tantamount to failure. Through the use of analytics by applying sound econometric models, such as true costs, market dynamics, competitive factors, and value-based pricing, the healthcare organization will optimize its revenue potential. While these concepts may sound foreign to some, the fact is, they are well within reach. Through the application of basic business techniques, every practice has the ability to develop and maintain a fee schedule that will meet or exceed its financial needs. PMID:17974090

Cohen, Frank D

2007-01-01

189

NASA Television Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

190

A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy  

PubMed Central

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

191

Interval hypoxic training.  

PubMed

Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations. PMID:11950151

Bernardi, L

2001-01-01

192

Preemptive scheduling with release times, deadlines, and due times  

SciTech Connect

Given n jobs, each of which has a release time, a deadline, and a processing requirement, the problem of determining whether there exists a preemptive schedule on m uniform machines which completes each job in the time interval between its release time and its deadline is examined. An o(m/sup 2/n/sup 4/+n/sup 5/) algorithm is presented which uses a generalisation of network flow techniques to construct such a schedule whenever one exists. This algorithm is then used with search techniques to find a schedule which minimises maximum lateness. 10 references.

Martel, C.

1982-07-01

193

A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. More attention must be paid to this problem in terms of communications scheduling. A method based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters has been developed to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both the TDRSS network and user resources. This method calculates required separation angles at TDRS and produces potential interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method also can be used as the basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. This paper describes the method and its proposed application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to missions operating at Ku-band, including Space Shuttle, are discussed.

Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

1993-01-01

194

A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. More attention must be paid to this problem in terms of communications scheduling. A method based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters has been developed to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both the TDRSS network and user resources. This method calculates required separation angles at TDRS and produces potential interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method also can be used as the basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. This paper describes the method and its proposed application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to missions operating at Ku-band, including Space Shuttle, are discussed.

Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

1993-03-01

195

Human performance on negative slope schedules of points exchangeable for money: a failure of molar maximization.  

PubMed Central

Panel pressing was generated and maintained in 5 adult humans by schedules of points exchangeable for money. Following exposure to a variable-interval 30-s schedule and to a linear variable-interval 30-s schedule (which permitted points to accumulate in an unseen "store" in the absence of responding), subjects were exposed to a series of conditions with a point-subtraction contingency arranged conjointly with the linear variable-interval schedule. Specifically, points were added to the store according to the linear-variable interval 30-s schedule and were subtracted from the store according to a ratio schedule. Ratio value varied across conditions and was determined individually for each subject such that the subtraction contingency would result in an approximately 50% reduction in the rate of point delivery. Conditions that included the subtraction contingency were termed negative slope schedules because the feedback functions were negatively sloped across all response rates greater than the inverse of the variable-interval schedule, in this case, two per minute. Overall response rates varied inversely with the subtraction ratio, indicating sensitivity to the negative slope conditions, but were in excess of that required by accounts based on strict maximization of overall reinforcement rate. Performance was also not well described by a matching-based account. Detailed analyses of response patterning revealed a consistent two-state pattern in which bursts of high-rate responding alternated with periods of prolonged pausing, perhaps reflecting the joint influence of local and overall reinforcement rates.

Jacobs, E A; Hackenberg, T D

2000-01-01

196

Interval Computing in Neural Networks: One Layer Interval Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several applications need a guaranty of the precision of their numerical data. Important tools which allow control of the\\u000a numerical errors are dealing these data as intervals. This work presents a new approach to use with Interval Computing in Neural Networks, studying the particular case of one layer interval neural networks, which extend Punctual One Layer Neural Networks, and\\u000a try

Raquel Patiño-Escarcina; Benjamín Callejas Bedregal; Aarão Lyra

197

Hypofractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Final Results of Phase III Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

Yeoh, Eric E., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fowler, Jack [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2011-12-01

198

Factors associated with nonattendance at clinical medicine scheduled outpatient appointments in a university general hospital  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nonattendance at scheduled outpatient appointments for primary care is a major health care problem worldwide. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of nonattendance at scheduled appointments for outpatients seeking primary care, to identify associated factors and build a model that predicts nonattendance at scheduled appointments. Methods A cohort study of adult patients, who had a scheduled outpatient appointment for primary care, was conducted between January 2010 and July 2011, at the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires. We evaluated the history and characteristics of these patients, and their scheduling and attendance at appointments. Patients were divided into two groups: those who attended their scheduled appointments, and those who did not. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and generated a predictive model for nonattendance, with logistic regression, using factors associated with lack of attendance, and those considered clinically relevant. Alternative models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion. A generation cohort and a validation cohort were assigned randomly. Results Of 113,716 appointments included in the study, 25,687 were missed (22.7%; 95% CI: 22.34%–22.83%). We found a statistically significant association between nonattendance and age (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99–0.99), number of issues in the personal health record (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.98–0.99), time between the request for and date of appointment (OR: 1; 95% CI: 1–1), history of nonattendance (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.07–1.07), appointment scheduled later than 4 pm (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.24–1.35), and specific days of the week (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 1.06–1.1). The predictive model for nonattendance included characteristics of the patient requesting the appointment, the appointment request, and the actual appointment date. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the predictive model in the generation cohort was 0.892 (95% CI: 0.890–0.894). Conclusion Evidence related to patient characteristics, and the identification of appointments with a higher likelihood of nonattendance, should promote guided strategies to reduce the rate of nonattendance, as well as to future research on this topic. The use of predictive models could further guide management strategies to reduce the rate of nonattendance.

Giunta, Diego; Briatore, Agustina; Baum, Analia; Luna, Daniel; Waisman, Gabriel; de Quiros, Fernan Gonzalez Bernaldo

2013-01-01

199

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

200

Concurrent schedules: Quantifying the aversiveness of noise  

PubMed Central

Four hens worked under independent multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules with an overlaid aversive stimulus (sound of hens in a poultry shed at 100dBA) activated by the first peck on a key. The sound remained on until a response was made on the other key. The key that activated the sound in each component was varied over a series of conditions. When the sound was activated by the left (or right) key in one component, it was activated by the right (or left) key in the other component. Bias was examined under a range of different variable-interval schedules, and the applicability of the generalized matching law was examined. It was found that the hens' behavior was biased away from the sound independently of the schedule in effect and that this bias could be quantified using a modified version of the generalized matching law. Behavior during the changeover delays was not affected by the presence of the noise or by changes in reinforcement rate, even though the total response measures were. Insensitivity shown during the delay suggests that behavior after the changeover delay may be more appropriate as a measure of preference (or aversiveness) of stimuli than are overall behavior measures.

McAdie, Tina M.; Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William

1996-01-01

201

Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

1991-01-01

202

Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

Stark, Philip B.

1992-01-01

203

Historic Pittsburgh Census Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to know more about the residents of 19th century Pittsburgh? Then you're in luck, the Historic Pittsburgh Census Schedule lets you do just that. Hosted by the University of Pittsburgh's Digital Research Library, the schedules found on this website include census data collected from 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. Visitors can search the census schedule by individual name, street, or even city of birth, occupation, or gender. It's a rather nifty way to learn about the cultural and geographical milieu of the Steel City during this period of dramatic growth. Historians and geographers will find it particularly useful and it's easy to see how spending time on the site could be a regular part of their research. The site also includes access to other components of the Historic Pittsburgh site, such as Maps, Finding Aids, and a Chronology of key events from the city's unique history.

204

Outline: CPU Scheduling Mechanisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint slide show from an instructor with the Departmentof Computer Science at Florida State University offers an in-depth lecture notes for CPU scheduling mechanisms. Most notably, this presentation includes diagrams and logical flowcharts of CPU processes which would make the material easier to understand for instructors or students engaged in technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses. It provides an overview of scheduling criteria and explanation and comparison of first-come-first-served, shortest-job-next, priority and non-preemptive priority, deadline, real-time, compared with round robin CPU scheduling. Mathematical models and formulas are included along with efficiency graphs. The presentation also covers process thread context, context switching, and multilevel queues.

Liu, Xiuwen

2009-08-05

205

Scheduling with genetic algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

206

Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

2006-01-01

207

NASA revises shuttle schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

Wainger, Lisa A.

208

Explorations in statistics: confidence intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of Explorations in Statistics investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter such as the mean. A confidence interval provides the same statistical information as the P value from a hypothesis test, but it circumvents the drawbacks of that hypothesis test. Even more important, a confidence interval focuses our attention on the scientific importance of some experimental result.

Douglas Curran- Everett (University of Colorado Denver)

2009-06-01

209

An adaptive drift-diffusion model of interval timing dynamics.  

PubMed

Animals readily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed responding to rapidly changing intervals, sometimes as quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models-widely used to model response times in decision making-have been extended with new learning rules that allow them to accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their drift rate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing-when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favorably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals. PMID:23428705

Luzardo, Andre; Ludvig, Elliot A; Rivest, François

2013-05-01

210

An adaptive drift-diffusion model of interval timing dynamics  

PubMed Central

Animals readily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed responding to rapidly changing intervals, sometimes as quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models—widely used to model response times in decision making—have been extended with new learning rules that allow them to accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their drift rate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing—when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favorably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals.

Luzardo, Andre; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Rivest, Francois

2013-01-01

211

Uniform random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In typical stochastic simulations, randomness is produced by generating a sequence of independent uniform variates (usually real-valued between 0 and 1, or integer-valued in some interval) and transforming them in an appropriate way. In this paper, we examine practical ways of generating (deterministic approximations to) such uniform variates on a computer. We compare them in terms of ease of implementation,

Pierre L'Ecuyer

1994-01-01

212

Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.

Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan

1992-01-01

213

Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this

Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

2006-01-01

214

On Rigorous Transaction Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of transaction scheduling mechanisms in which the transaction serialization order can be determined by controlling their commitment order, is defined. This class of transaction management mechanisms is important, because it simplifies transaction management in a multidatabase system environment. The notion of analogous execution and serialization orders of transactions is defined and the concept of strongly recoverable and rigorous

Yuri Breitbart; Dimitrios Georgakopoulos; Marek Rusinkiewicz; Abraham Silberschatz

1991-01-01

215

Guaranteeing the Course Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is an event administrators, faculty, staff, and students dread every semester--the course cancellation meeting, when it is decided which low enrollment classes will be canceled. No one wins. Students are left scrambling to make last-minute adjustments to their schedules, and administrators are forced to cancel low-enrollment classes even though…

Carroll, Jonathan; Campbell, Lea

2008-01-01

216

Generalized Elastic Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic task model proposed by Buttazzo, et. al. (9) is a powerful model for adapting real-time systems in the presence of uncertainty. This paper generalizes the existi ng elastic scheduling approach in several directions. It reve als that the original task compression algorithm in (9) in fact solves a quadratic programming problem that seeks to min- imize the sum

Thidapat Chantem; Xiaobo Sharon Hu; Michael D. Lemmon

2006-01-01

217

Scheduling Advisory. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more high schools are implementing Advisory programs for a variety of reasons: personalization, academics & study skills, life success skills, self-knowledge, addressing the concern about students feeling "lost" in the high school setting, first line of contact for the parents, and portfolios. But finding a way to schedule advisory can…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

218

Driver scheduling problem modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drivers Scheduling Problem (DSP) consists of selecting a set of duties for vehicle drivers, for example buses, trains, plane or boat drivers or pilots, for the transportation of passengers or goods. This is a complex problem because it involves several constraints related to labour and company rules and can also present different evaluation criteria and objectives. Being able to

Rita Portugal; Helena Ramalhinho-Lourenço; José P. Paixao

2006-01-01

219

Synchronization of Work Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do people work intermittently and why do they synchronize their work schedules? A group of interacting workers who differ in tastes is analyzed. A lifetime labor supply model is developed which combines tiring, rhythmic changes in the environment, and interactions among workers arising from communication and coordination. A multiplicity of synchronized equilibria arises. These equilibria can be ranked according

Yoram Weiss

1996-01-01

220

CMS multicore scheduling strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; the Cms Collaboration

2014-06-01

221

Variations in Sleep Schedules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This sleep research explored the effect of total sleep loss, sleep stage deprivation, gradual sleep reduction, and the effect of varying the sleep/wake schedule. While subjects are unable to function effectively without sleep, the type of sleep obtained i...

L. C. Johnson P. Naitoh J. M. Moses A. Lubin

1977-01-01

222

Software Pipelining: An Effective Scheduling Technique for VLIW Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper shows that software pipelining is an effective and viable scheduling technique for VLIW processors In software pipelining, iterations of a loop in the source program are continuously initiated at constant intervals, before the preceding iterations complete The advantage of software pipelining is that optimal performance can be achieved with compact object code

Monica S. Lam

1988-01-01

223

Model-Based Checkpoint Scheduling for Volatile Resource Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system for application check- point scheduling in volatile resource environments. Our ap- proach combines historical measurements of resource avail- ability with an estimate of checkpoint\\/recovery delay to gen- erate checkpoint intervals that minimize overhead. When executing in a desktop computing or resource har- vesting context, long-running applications must checkpoint, since resources can be reclaimed

Daniel Nurmi

224

Managing Supply Chain Demand Variability with Scheduled Ordering Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies supply chain demand variability in a model with one supplier and Nretailers that face stochastic demand. Retailers implement scheduled ordering policies: Orders occur at fixed intervals and are equal to some multiple of a fixed batch size. A method is presented that exactly evaluates costs. Previous research demonstrates that the supplier's demand variance declines as the retailers'

Gérard P. Cachon

1999-01-01

225

Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

2008-01-01

226

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

227

Randomized Dining Philosophers without Fairness Assumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider Lehmann-Rabin's randomized solution to the well-known problem of the dining philosophers. Up to now, such an analysis has always required a "fairness" assumption on the scheduler: if a philosopher is continuously hungry then he must eventually be scheduled. In contrast here, we modify the algorithm in order to get rid of the fairness assumption. We claim that the

Marie Duflot; Laurent Fribourg; Claudine Picaronny

2002-01-01

228

Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.  

PubMed

A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. PMID:24127380

Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

2014-01-01

229

Scheduling Techniques of ESP2 (Expert Scheduling Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mission Analysis Division of the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a robust automatic scheduler which can produce detailed schedules for the multi-step activities required for payload operati...

J. P. Jaap E. K. Davis

1988-01-01

230

Familial retinoblastoma: fundus screening schedule impact and guideline proposal. A retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo assess if systematic fundus screening according to an ‘intensive’ schedule alters ocular outcome and to propose fundus screening schedule guidelines for children related to a retinoblastoma patient.MethodsFor children with a positive family history of retinoblastoma, we perform fundus exams shortly after birth under general anaesthesia and then at regular intervals according to schedules based on the risk. Familial retinoblastoma

P-R Rothschild; D Lévy; A Savignoni; L Lumbroso-Le Rouic; I Aerts; M Gauthier-Villars; M Esteve; D Bours; L Desjardins; F Doz; C Lévy-Gabriel

2011-01-01

231

Choice between Single and Multiple Reinforcers in Concurrent-Chains Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pigeons responded on concurrent-chains schedules with equal variable-interval schedules as initial links. One terminal link delivered a single reinforcer after a fixed delay, and the other terminal link delivered either three or five reinforcers, each preceded by a fixed delay. Some conditions included a postreinforcer delay after the single…

Mazur, James E.

2006-01-01

232

Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules

Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

1998-01-01

233

Effect of contingent auditory stimuli on concurrent schedule performance: An alternative punisher to electric shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether load auditory stimuli could be used as functional punishing stimuli in place of electric shock. Three experiments examined the effect of a loud auditory stimulus on rats’ responding maintained by a concurrent reinforcement schedule. In Experiment 1, overall response rate decreased when a concurrent 1.5s tone presentation schedule was superimposed on the concurrent variable interval (VI)

Phil Reed; Toshihiko Yoshino

2008-01-01

234

The Isolation of Motivational, Motoric, and Schedule Effects on Operant Performance: A Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

2011-01-01

235

Multi-Step Adaptive Sensor Scheduling for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor scheduling is essential to collaborative target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present a multi-step adaptive sensor scheduling algorithm (MASS) by selecting the next tasking sensor and its associated sampling interval based on the prediction of tracking accuracy and energy cost over a finite horizon of steps. MASS adopts alternative tracking mode for each prediction

Wendong Xiao; Lihua Xie; Jianfeng Chen; Louis Shue

2006-01-01

236

Second-order schedules: discrimination of components1  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were exposed to a series of second-order schedules in which the completion of a fixed number of fixed-interval components produced food. In Experiment 1, brief (2 sec) stimulus presentations occurred as each fixed-interval component was completed. During the brief-stimulus presentation terminating the last fixed-interval component, a response was required on a second key, the brief-stimulus key, to produce food. Responses on the brief-stimulus key before the last brief-stimulus presentation had no scheduled consequences, but served as a measure of the extent to which the final component was discriminated from preceding components. Whether there were one, two, four, or eight fixed-interval components, responses on the brief-stimulus key occurred during virtually every brief-stimulus presentation. In Experiment 2, an attempt was made to punish unnecessary responses on the brief-stimulus key, i.e., responses on the brief-stimulus key that occurred before the last component. None of the pigeons learned to withhold these responses, even though they produced a 15-sec timeout and loss of primary reinforcement. In Experiment 3, different key colors were associated with each component of a second-order schedule (a chain schedule). In contrast to Experiment 1, brief-stimulus key responses were confined to the last component. It was concluded that pigeons do not discriminate well between components of second-order schedules unless a unique exteroceptive cue is provided for each component. The relative discriminability of the components may account for the observed differences in initial-component response rates between comparable brief-stimulus, tandem, and chain schedules.

Squires, Nancy; Norborg, James; Fantino, Edmund

1975-01-01

237

Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

1992-01-01

238

Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

Zoch, David R.

1991-01-01

239

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30

240

Community-Aware Scheduling Protocol for Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work has been done to exploit the effectiveness and efficiency of job scheduling upon distributed computational--resources. With regard to existing resource topology and administrative constraints, scheduling approaches are designed for different hierarchic layers, for example, scheduling for job queues of local resource management systems (local scheduling), and scheduling for job queues of high level schedulers (also known as meta-schedulers

Ye Huang; Amos Brocco; Nik Bessis; Pierre Kuonen; Béat Hirsbrunner

2010-01-01

241

Image magnification using interval information.  

PubMed

In this paper, a simple and effective image-magnification algorithm based on intervals is proposed. A low-resolution image is magnified to form a high-resolution image using a block-expanding method. Our proposed method associates each pixel with an interval obtained by a weighted aggregation of the pixels in its neighborhood. From the interval and with a linear K(?) operator, we obtain the magnified image. Experimental results show that our algorithm provides a magnified image with better quality (peak signal-to-noise ratio) than several existing methods. PMID:21632304

Jurio, Aranzazu; Pagola, Miguel; Mesiar, Radko; Beliakov, Gleb; Bustince, Humberto

2011-11-01

242

Single-Machine Bicriteria Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machine scheduling and multicriteria optimization: an introduction; Complexity of single-machine bicriteria scheduling: a survey; Minimizing maximum promptness and maximum lateness on a single machine; Polynomial-time algorithms for single-machi...

H. Hoogeveen

1992-01-01

243

HSTS: Integrating Planning and Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the traditional approach to managing complex systems, planning and scheduling are two very distinct phases. However, in a wide variety of applications this strict separation is not possible or beneficial. During scheduling it is often necessary to make...

N. Muscettola

1993-01-01

244

A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. A method to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both TDRSS network and user resources, based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters, was developed. The steps of this method calculate required separation angles at TDRSS and produce interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method also can be used as the basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. Described here are the proposed method and its potential application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to planned missions, including the Earth Observing System, the Space Station Manned Base, and the Space Shuttle are discussed.

Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

1991-01-01

245

A method for interference mitigation in space communications scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in the number of user spacecraft and data rates supported by NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in the S and Ku bands could result in communications conflicts due to mutual interference. A method to mitigate interference while minimizing unnecessary scheduling restrictions on both TDRSS network and user resources, based on consideration of all relevant communications parameters, was developed. The steps of this method calculate required separation angles at TDRS and produce interference intervals, which can be used in the production of schedules free of unacceptable interference. The method can also be used as a basis for analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules with respect to communications performance. Described here are the proposed method and its potential application to scheduling in space communications. Test cases relative to planned missions, including the Earth Observing System, the Space Station Manned Base, and the Space Shuttle are discussed.

Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

1991-01-01

246

Interval Graphs, Chronological Orderings, and Related Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with special interval representations of interval graphs. The basic notion is that of a chronological ordering of an interval graph, which is an equivalence class of interval representations of the graph in question. Consider a ref...

D. J. Skrien

1980-01-01

247

Prediction Intervals for First Order Markov Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prediction interval is an interval that contains a future observation with a pre-specified probability. The limits of the interval are functions of known observations from a family of known distributions with given parameters. Though prediction interval...

T. S. Murthy

1979-01-01

248

Transportation Baseline Schedule  

SciTech Connect

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

2000-01-01

249

Observation Scheduling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

2011-01-01

250

BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

251

Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for arrival traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by time-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.

Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

1990-01-01

252

Using schedule variance as the only measure of schedule performance  

SciTech Connect

Caution must be exercised when considering the use of schedule variance (SV) as the sole means of determining if a particular scope of work is ahead or behind the schedule. This article examines a pair of cases in which a baseline schedule is established for a scope of work with a corresponding budget spread over that schedule. Both cases display scenarios of actual performance in the field that led to erroneous conclusions when SV was the only measure used for schedule performance. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Short, J.W. (MK Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company, TN (United States))

1993-10-01

253

Auction Protocols for Decentralized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized scheduling is the problem of allocating resources to alternative possible uses over time, where competing uses are represented by autonomous agents. Market mechanisms use prices derived through distributing bidding protocols to determine schedules. We investigate the existence of equilibrium prices for some general classes of scheduling problems, the quality of equilibrium solutions, and the behavior of an ascending auction

Michael P. Wellman; William E. Walsh; Peter R. Wurman; Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason

2001-01-01

254

FlexMod Scheduling Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

Murray, Shannon

2008-01-01

255

Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

2006-01-01

256

Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

Surloff, Andrew

2008-01-01

257

High School Schedules. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings are mixed on the effectiveness of various scheduling models. These models include a traditional 7 or 8 period day, a block schedule with four classes meeting one day and another four meeting the next (A/B Block), a block schedule of four classes that meet every day for a term (4x4 Block), and several hybrid models. Some findings conclude…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

258

Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

Creighton, Peggy Milam

2008-01-01

259

Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among chinese school-aged children.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

2014-09-01

260

Advice Complexity and Barely Random Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a new measurement - the advice complexity - was introduced for measuring the information content of online problems. The aim is to measure the bitwise information that online algorithms lack, causing them to perform worse than offline algorithms. Among a large number of problems, a well-known scheduling problem, job shop scheduling with unit length tasks, and the paging problem were analyzed within this model. We observe some connections between advice complexity and randomization. Our special focus goes to barely random algorithms, i.e., randomized algorithms that use only a constant number of random bits, regardless of the input size. We adapt the results on advice complexity to obtain efficient barely random algorithms for both the job shop scheduling and the paging problem.

Komm, Dennis; Královi?, Richard

261

Energy-Efficient BOP-Based Beacon Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require the energy efficiency and scalability. Although IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee which is being considered as general technology for WSNs enables the low duty-cycling with time synchronization of all the nodes in network, it still suffer from its low scalability due to the beacon frame collision. Recently, various algorithms to resolve this problem are proposed. However, their manners to implement are somewhat ambiguous and the degradation of energy/communication efficiency is serious by the additional overhead. This paper describes an Energy-efficient BOP-based Beacon transmission Scheduling (EBBS) algorithm. EBBS is the centralized approach, in which a resource-sufficient node called as Topology Management Center (TMC) allocates the time slots to transmit a beacon frame to the nodes and manages the active/sleep schedules of them. We also propose EBBS with Adaptive BOPL (EBBS-AB), to adjust the duration to transmit beacon frames in every beacon interval, adaptively. Simulation results show that by using the proposed algorithm, the energy efficiency and the throughput of whole network can be significantly improved. EBBS-AB is also more effective for the network performance when the nodes are uniformly deployed on the sensor field rather than the case of random topologies.

Kim, Eui-Jik; Youm, Sungkwan; Choi, Hyo-Hyun

262

Confidence Interval for the Estimated Mean of a Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given a sample of N values of X randomly drawn from a normally distributed population, this program will calculate the .95 and .99 confidence intervals (CI) for the estimated mean of the population. Data entry is simple, author Richard Lowry has allowed users to import data directly from a spreadsheet. This is a great resource for easy statistical calculations.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-14

263

A MEMORY SCHEDULE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS…

PIMSLEUR, PAUL

264

An information model based weld schedule database  

SciTech Connect

As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicken, G.K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gershanok, G.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

265

Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules  

PubMed Central

Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

2012-01-01

266

The stochastic economic lot scheduling problem: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity and set-up times under random demands and random production times, i.e., the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP). The main task for the production manager in this setting is the construction of a production plan for the machine that minimizes the total costs, i.e.,

Erik M. M. Winands; Ivo J. B. F. Adan; Houtum van GJJAN

2011-01-01

267

Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

2013-01-01

268

High resolution time interval meter  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

Martin, A.D.

1986-05-09

269

Scheduling algorithms for multihop radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aew algorithms for transmission scheduling in multi- hop broadcast radio networks are presented. Both link scheduling and broadcast scheduling are considered. In each instance, sched- uling algorithms are given that improve upon existing algorithms both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it is shown that tree networks can be scheduled optimally, and that arbitrary networks can be scheduled so that the schedule

Subramanian Ramanathan; Errol L. Lloyd

1993-01-01

270

Frequentist confidence intervals for orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of efficiently computing the orbital elements of a visual binary while still deriving confidence intervals with frequentist properties is treated. When formulated in terms of the Thiele-Innes elements, the known distribution of probability in Thiele-Innes space allows efficient grid-search plus Monte-Carlo-sampling schemes to be constructed for both the minimum-?2 and the Bayesian approaches to parameter estimation. Numerical experiments with 104 independent realizations of an observed orbit confirm that the 1 - and 2? confidence and credibility intervals have coverage fractions close to their frequentist values. Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Lucy, L. B.

2014-05-01

271

A Model of Alcohol Drinking under an Intermittent Access Schedule Using Group-Housed Mice.  

PubMed

Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week) for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment) to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule), they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ?10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors. PMID:24804807

Smutek, Magdalena; Turbasa, Mateusz; Sikora, Magdalena; Piechota, Marcin; Zajdel, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

2014-01-01

272

A Model of Alcohol Drinking under an Intermittent Access Schedule Using Group-Housed Mice  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week) for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment) to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule), they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ?10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors.

Smutek, Magdalena; Turbasa, Mateusz; Sikora, Magdalena; Piechota, Marcin; Zajdel, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

2014-01-01

273

Metabolic changes caused by irregular-feeding schedule as compared with meal-feeding.  

PubMed

In this study rats eating 50% of the quantity of daily food intake observed for free-fed rats were restricted to regular (MF) and irregular intermeal (IF) intervals. Rats which had free access to food (FF) were also included. The experiments were carried out for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Body weight, daily food intake, stomach fresh weight, blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) levels, liver glycogen content and adrenal ascorbic acid were evaluated. The results showed that adaptative metabolic pattern depends on the discipline of the intermeal intervals. Meal-fed rats with a fixed meal time showed better blood glucose maintenance, slower gastric emptying, increased liver glycogen content and lower FFA mobilization during 22-hr fast than the free-fed group. The same amount of food eating by meal-fed rats given randomly in time (IF) promoted a different adaptative metabolic pattern. The results suggest that the regular intermeal period is an important factor for the establishment of the metabolic changes. Therefore, the meal-feeding schedule has to be considered as a particular modality of food restriction. PMID:2602448

Bazotte, R B; Curi, R; Hell, N S

1989-08-01

274

Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…

Allen, Dwight W.

275

A comparison of list schedules for parallel processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of scheduling two or more processors to minimize the execution time of a program which consists of a set of partially ordered tasks is studied. Cases where task execution times are deterministic and others in which execution times are random variables are analyzed. It is shown that different algorithms suggested in the literature vary significantly in execution time

Thomas L. Adam; K. Mani Chandy; J. R. Dickson

1974-01-01

276

SCC Programming Model for Crude Oil Scheduling and Storage Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic chance constrained mixed-integer nonlinear programming (SCC-MINLP) model is developed in this paper to solve the integrated problem of refinery short term crude oil scheduling, blending and storage management under demands uncertainty of crude oil distillation units (CDUs). It is the first time that the uncertain CDUs' demands in this problem are set as random variables which have discrete

B. Jiao; C. Cao; X. Gu

2007-01-01

277

Joint scheduling and hybrid ARQ for multi-cell MU-MIMO downlink  

Microsoft Academic Search

User scheduling and multiuser multi-antenna (MU-MIMO) transmission are at the core of high-rate data-oriented downlink schemes of the next-generation of cellular systems (e.g., LTE-Advanced). Scheduling selects groups of users according to their channels vector directions and channel quality indicator (CQI). However, when scheduling is applied independently in each cell, the inter-cell interference (ICI) power at each user receiver is random

H. Shirani-Mehr; G. Caire; H. Papadopoulos; S. A. Ramprashad

2010-01-01

278

An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance  

PubMed Central

Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules.

Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

2014-01-01

279

An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance.  

PubMed

Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Sokolowski, Michel B C; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

2014-01-01

280

The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Scheduling Applications of the Knapsack Problem and Sudoku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied algorithmic approaches to both theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). When using a theoretical approach to scheduling, assigning a numerical value, or score, to a telescope period is only half of the problem. The other half consists of using the score to determine the best global arrangement of the telescope periods in order to maximize the scientific throughput of the telescope. The naive brute-force approach of trying all possible schedules is too computationally expensive. Instead we applied a well-studied approach from operations research, known as dynamic programming. Specifically, we found the so-called ``knapsack'' algorithm to be a good fit to this problem. On the other hand, we cannot actually achieve maximum theoretical efficiency due to many practical constraints on telescope scheduling. The most severe practical constraints are fixed periods that must be scheduled at a specific date and time regardless of possible score and windowed periods that must be scheduled in regular, recurring intervals. The primary difficulty in scheduling fixed and windowed sessions is that they have the potential to conflict and even to generate irresolvable conflicts (double booking). In working on this problem, we realized it shared many characteristics with the game of Sudoku. In Sudoku, there are many possible arrangements of the recurring numbers 1 through 9 (telescope sessions). Some of these are fixed (the hints) and the others must live in windows (distinct groups having one instance each of each digit). Sudoku puzzles are solved algorithmically using a heuristic-guided brute-force search. We followed a similar approach. A full brute-force search is, again, too computationally expensive, but we found ways to restrict the search enough to make it feasible. We used a number of heuristics but found the largest gains came from partitioning the problem into distinct subsets than can each be scheduled independently and from ordering the search in such a way that earlier choices had the greatest impact on reducing the computational complexity of later choices.

Sessoms, E.; Clark, M.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Shelton, A.

2009-09-01

281

Precedence Probability and Prediction Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precedence tests are simple yet useful nonparametric tests based on two specified order statistics from two independent random samples or, equivalently, on the count of the number of observations from one of the samples preceding some order statistic of t...

S. Chakraborti P. van der Laan

1999-01-01

282

Computing confidence intervals for standardized regression coefficients.  

PubMed

With fixed predictors, the standard method (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003, p. 86; Harris, 2001, p. 80; Hays, 1994, p. 709) for computing confidence intervals (CIs) for standardized regression coefficients fails to account for the sampling variability of the criterion standard deviation. With random predictors, this method also fails to account for the sampling variability of the predictor standard deviations. Nevertheless, under some conditions the standard method will produce CIs with accurate coverage rates. To delineate these conditions, we used a Monte Carlo simulation to compute empirical CI coverage rates in samples drawn from 36 populations with a wide range of data characteristics. We also computed the empirical CI coverage rates for 4 alternative methods that have been discussed in the literature: noncentrality interval estimation, the delta method, the percentile bootstrap, and the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap. Our results showed that for many data-parameter configurations--for example, sample size, predictor correlations, coefficient of determination (R²), orientation of ? with respect to the eigenvectors of the predictor correlation matrix, RX--the standard method produced coverage rates that were close to their expected values. However, when population R² was large and when ? approached the last eigenvector of RX, then the standard method coverage rates were frequently below the nominal rate (sometimes by a considerable amount). In these conditions, the delta method and the 2 bootstrap procedures were consistently accurate. Results using noncentrality interval estimation were inconsistent. In light of these findings, we recommend that researchers use the delta method to evaluate the sampling variability of standardized regression coefficients. PMID:24079926

Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

2013-12-01

283

On Robust Sequential Confidence Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comparison in another paper of sequential confidence intervals of fixed length proposed by Chow and Robbins and Serfling and Wackerly are extended to include robust stopping rules based on M-estimators. It is found that a difference in the asymptotic ...

R. J. Carroll

1976-01-01

284

Normalization of interval symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new tool in data mining, symbolic data analysis (SDA) can not only decrease the computational complexity of huge data sets, but also master the property of the sample integrally. In many statistical analysis methods the sample data need to be normalized in advance. This paper focuses on the normalization of interval symbolic data. Firstly, on the assumption that

Junpeng Guol; Wenhua Lil; Sue Cheng

2009-01-01

285

Stimulating very long gross intervals  

SciTech Connect

Conventional acidizing and fracturing techniques are not applicable when very long gross intervals on the order of 1,000 to 3,000 feet are to be stimulated. Concepts such as fracture length and improved wellbore radius have little meaning in such cases since it is very difficult to predict or control the placement of stimulation fluids. Good diversion of fluids is the controlling factor for successful stimulation of very long gross intervals. The problem is compounded when long net intervals on the order of 500 to 1,000 feet are to be stimulated within these very long gross intervals. In such cases, the surface injection pressure required for conventional limited entry techniques can be prohibitive. These problems often can be solved by stimulating with high injection rates, buoyant ball sealers, and limited perforations. Amoco Sharjah Oil Company has encountered these problems in attempting to stimulate the Thamama in Sajaa Field. A brief history of Amoco's experience in Sajaa Field with mechanical isolation and various diverting agents is presented. To date, 6 wells have been stimulated by using high injection rates, buoyant ball sealers, and limited perforations. Some of these jobs have contained the largest fluid volumes ever injected in the Middle East and at the highest rates attempted. The results of this technique have been encouraging. The job design, equipment requirements, fluid formulations, and results of these stimulations will be presented.

Blinten, J.S.; Aziz, R.M.

1985-03-01

286

Reasoning in Interval Temporal Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicate logic is a powerful and general descriptive formalism with a long history of development. However, since the logic's underlying semantics have no notion of time, statements such as I increases by 2 cannot be directly expressed. We discuss interval temporal logic (ITL), a formalism that augments standard predicate logic with operators for time-dependent concepts. Our earlier work used ITL

Ben C. Moszkowski; Zohar Manna

1983-01-01

287

High Resolution Time Interval Counter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt- driven mode, with 3 start channel...

D. D. Davis M. A. Lombardi V. S. Zhang

1994-01-01

288

DETERMINING OPTIMAL CYCLIC HOIST SCHEDULES IN A SINGLE-HOIST ELECTROPLATING LINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of determining a maximum throughput cyclic schedule for the operations of a material handling hoist in an automated electroplating line. The proposed algorithm applies a set of simple algebraic inequalities to derive candidate schedules and uses a branch-and-bound-based search process to identify the optimal one. Computational results with both benchmark and random test problems are presented.

L. LEI; T. J. WANG

1994-01-01

289

Non-Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling Dependent Tasks in Distributed Heterogeneous Computing Environments  

SciTech Connect

The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary random scheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

Wayne F. Boyer; Gurdeep S. Hura

2005-09-01

290

Current trends in deterministic scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling is concerned with allocating limited resources to tasks to optimize certain objective functions. Due to the popularity\\u000a of the Total Quality Management concept, on-time delivery of jobs has become one of the crucial factors for customer satisfaction.\\u000a Scheduling plays an important role in achieving this goal. Recent developments in scheduling theory have focused on extending\\u000a the models to include

Chung-Yee Lee; Lei Lei; Michael Pinedo

1997-01-01

291

High resolution time interval counter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

1995-01-01

292

Interval timing behavior in Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).  

PubMed

Timing behavior in animals and its underlying mechanisms have been investigated extensively in the peak procedure, a variant of fixed interval procedures. In such experiments, individuals typically start responding with high frequency after an initial inactive time interval and continue their responses after peak time if rewards are omitted. This begs the so far unexplored question as to how timing behavior is influenced when such continuous responses are suppressed. Here, we present results from a nectar-feeding bat species, Glossophaga soricina, that was tested in a modified version of the peak procedure at three fixed time intervals (5 s, 11 s, 20 s). In contrast to standard peak procedures we imposed metabolic costs on individual responses which effectively suppressed trains of rapid responses during trials. Under this manipulation, bats' aggregated responses showed clear peaks around the peak time in the 5-s and 11-s schedules. Bats' responses in the 20-s schedule, however, did not peak around the fixed interval time. Crucially, an analysis of time intervals between successive revisits in all schedules revealed that bats revisited feeders at accurately timed intervals in all three conditions. The individual within trial behavioral responses showed clear oscillatory patterns throughout nonrewarded trials. These findings follow predictions from mechanistic timing models, like the striatal beat frequency model, and are discussed with regard to these models. PMID:23875922

Toelch, Ulf; Winter, York

2013-11-01

293

1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

US Bonneville Power Administration

1993-10-01

294

NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule  

SciTech Connect

Title 44 United States Code, Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules.

Not Available

1992-03-01

295

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

296

Confidence Intervals for Functions of Variance Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project confidence intervals were determined for the functions of variance components. These included one-sided and two-sided confidence intervals. Since no method is available for exact (exact confidence coefficients) for confidence intervals on ...

F. A. Graybill

1982-01-01

297

Scheduling with alternatives: a link between process planning and scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop and evaluate effective, computationally efficient procedures for scheduling jobs in a large-scale manufacturing system involving, for example, over 1000 jobs and over 100 machines. The main performance measure is maximum lateness; and a useful lower bound on maximum lateness is derived from a relaxed scheduling problem in which preemption of jobs is

Alexander Weintraub; Denis Cormier; Thom Hodgson; Russell King; James WIlson; Andrew Zozom

1999-01-01

298

Job scheduling on a hypercube  

SciTech Connect

The author studies the scheduling of independent jobs on hypercube multiprocessors. He assumes that the hypercube system supports space-sharing for multiprogramming, i.e., a hypercube is partitioned into subcubes and each job is assigned to a dedicated subcube and many jobs can be running simultaneously without interfering with each other. Then the problem of how to schedule a set of jobs so that they can be finished as early as possible becomes important. He investigates two kinds of scheduling algorithms for the problem. The first one is nonpreemptive scheduling, i.e., no job is allowed to be interrupted during its execution. In this case, the problem is NP-Complete. He proposes an approximation algorithm called LDF, which generates a schedule with a finish time less than twice that of an optimal schedule. Compared with the earlier proposed algorithm, his algorithm is simpler and has almost the same performance. More importantly, his LDF algorithm can achieve this performance without knowing the job processing times, which may be hard to obtain in practice. Also he proves a lower bound result which implies that it is unlikely to find simple heuristic algorithms that can perform much better than the existing algorithms including LDF. The second kind is preemptive scheduling, i.e., a job can be preempted during its execution and rescheduled later. He develops a feasibility algorithm that runs in O (n log n) time and generates a schedule with at most min{l brace}n-2, 2{sup m}-1{r brace} preemptions. It can generate a feasible schedule for the given job set if there exists one. This improvement is important because many scheduling algorithms depend on a feasibility algorithm as a building block. Furthermore, based on an advanced search technique, he presents an algorithm that can find the optimal schedule in O(n{sup 2} log {sup 2}n) time.

Zhu, Yahui.

1990-01-01

299

Polynomial Precise Interval Analysis Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a class of arithmetic equations over the complete lattice of integers (extended with -? and ?) and provide a polynomial time algorithm for computing least solutions. For systems of equations with addition and least upper bounds, this algorithm is a smooth generalization of the Bellman-Ford algorithm for computing the single source shortest path in presence of positive and negative edge weights. The method then is extended to deal with more general forms of operations as well as minima with constants. For the latter, a controlled widening is applied at loops where unbounded increase occurs. We apply this algorithm to construct a cubic time algorithm for the class of interval equations using least upper bounds, addition, intersection with constant intervals as well as multiplication.

Gawlitza, Thomas; Leroux, Jérôme; Reineke, Jan; Seidl, Helmut; Sutre, Grégoire; Wilhelm, Reinhard

300

Random I\\/O Scheduling in Online Tertiary Storage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

New database applications that require the storage and retrieval of many terabytes of data are reaching the limits for disk-based storage systems, in terms of both cost and scalability. These limits provide a strong incentive for the development of databases that augment disk storage with technologies better suited to large volumes of data. In particular, the seamless incorporation of tape

Bruce K. Hillyer; Abraham Silberschatz

1996-01-01

301

A pseudo random coordinated scheduling algorithm for Bluetooth scatternets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of Bluetooth as a default radio interface allows handheld devices to be rapidly interconnected into ad hoc networks. Bluetooth allows large numbers of piconets to form a scatternet using designated nodes that participate in multiple piconets. A unit that participates in multiple piconets can serve as a bridge and forwards traffic between neighbouring piconets. Since a Bluetooth unit

András Rácz; György Miklós; Ferenc Kubinszky; András Gergely Valkó

2001-01-01

302

Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace.1 A recent article in The Physics Teacher aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope2 in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis.3 A logical continuation of this project is to use MacScope not just to analyze the Fourier composition of musical tones but also musical intervals.

Lopresto, Michael C.

2008-11-01

303

Interval completion with few edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm with runtime O(k2kn3m) for the following NP-complete problem (8, problem GT35): Given an arbitrary graph G on n vertices and m edges, can we obtain an interval graph by adding at most k new edges to G? This resolves the long-standing open question (17, 6, 24, 13), first posed by Kaplan, Shamir and Tarjan, of whether

Pinar Heggernes; Christophe Paul; Jan Arne Telle; Yngve Villanger

2007-01-01

304

Interval completion with few edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm with runtime O(k2kn3m) for the following NP-complete problem (8, problem GT35): Given an arbitrary graph G on n vertices and m edges, can we obtain an interval graph by adding at most k new edges to G? This resolves the long-standing open question (16, 6, 23, 13), rst posed by Kaplan, Shamir and Tarjan, of whether

Pinar Heggernes; Christophe Paulz; Jan Arne; Telley Yngve

305

A calculator for confidence intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calculator program has been written to give confidence intervals on branching ratios for rare decay modes (or similar quantities) calculated from the number of events observed, the acceptance factor, the background estimate and the associated errors. Results from different experiments (or different channels from the same experiment) can be combined. The calculator is available in http://www.slac.stanford.edu/~barlow/limits.html.

Barlow, Roger

2002-12-01

306

Calibration interval technical basis document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately.

Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

1998-09-01

307

Scheduling video programs in near video-on-demand systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical (in contrast to commonlyused simulations) approach to program scheduling in near video-on-demand (NVoD) systems. NVoD servers batch customers’ requests by sourcing the same mr$erial at certain intervals called phase offsets. The proposed approach to analytical modeling integrates both customers’ and serviceprovider’s views to account for the tradeoff between system throughput and customers’ partial patience. We

Emmanuel L. Abram-Profeta; Kang G. Shin

1997-01-01

308

Nurse Scheduling Using Harmony Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research an adaption of Harmony Search Al- gorithm (HSA) for Nurse Scheduling Problem (NSP) is presented. Nurse scheduling problem is a task of assigning shifts to nurses for the duties that have to carry out. The difficulty of handling this problem is due to the high number of constraints to be satisfied. Thus, we are proposing an adaptation

Mohammed A. Awadallah; Ahamad Tajudin Khader; Mohammed Azmi Al-Betar; Asaju La'aro Bolaji

2011-01-01

309

Reduced Schedule Pediatric Residency Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The national experience with reduced-schedule residency training during the last 10 years is reviewed. Data on University of Rochester Hospital pediatric residents who chose a reduced-schedule training option between 1977 and 1984 are discussed. (Author/MLW)

Schaff, Eric A.; Hoekelman, Robert A.

1984-01-01

310

Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the advantages of the structured interview in psychiatric research and goes on to describe the details of development of a structured interview Schedule (IPIS) suitable for an Indian setting. The Schedule is described, as well as the results of interinvestigator reliability tests. Possible uses of the instrument and the necessary further developments are outlined.

R. L. Kapur; Malavika Kapur; G. M. Carstairs

1974-01-01

311

Scheduling Guide for Program Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide concerns key tools used by program managers and their teams to plan, schedule, and control the work to be accomplished. These include bar charts, milestone charts, line-of-balance charts, and network-based systems. Descriptions of scheduling te...

D. D. Acker J. S. Baumgartner M. B. Patterson

1986-01-01

312

Wasted resources in gang scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang scheduling (the scheduling of a number of interacting threads to run simultaneously on distinct processors) can leave processors idle if the sizes of the gangs do not match the number of available processors. Given an optimal offline algorithm it is shown that the wasted processing power can range from 0% to 50%, depending on the distribution of gang sizes.

D. G. Feitelson; L. Rudolph

1990-01-01

313

Processor Scheduling for Multiprocessor Joins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of practical algorithms is presented to schedule join execution in a shared-memory multiprocessor environment. The algorithms are based on page connectivity graphs and determine when to read each data page into memory and how to schedule page joins on the available processors. The goal is to overlap page reads with parallel join execution in such a way that

Marguerite C. Murphyt; Doron Rotem

1989-01-01

314

Daily Aircraft Routing and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the daily aircraft routing and scheduling problem (DARSP). It consists of determining daily schedules which maximize the anticipated profits derived from the aircraft of a heterogeneous fleet. This fleet must cover a set of operational flight legs with known departure time windows, durations and profits according to the aircraft type. We present two models for

Guy Desaulniers; Jacques Desrosiers; Yvan Dumas; Marius M. Solomon; François Soumis

1997-01-01

315

Fair Scheduling through Packet Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of designing scheduling algorithm for input queued switch that is both fair as well as throughput optimal. The significant body of literature developed over the past two decades for scheduling algorithm is primarily concerned with throughput and delay, but not fairness. One of the reason for such a state of affair is the

Srikanth Jagabathula; Vishal Doshi; Devavrat Shah

2008-01-01

316

Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

Brown, Estevancio

2010-01-01

317

Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

2006-01-01

318

Interval to surgery after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The current standard treatment of low-lying locally advanced rectal cancer consists of chemoradiation followed by radical surgery. The interval between chemoradiation and surgery varied for many years until the 1999 Lyon R90-01 trial which compared the effects of a short (2-wk) and long (6-wk) interval. Results showed a better clinical tumor response (71.7% vs 53.1%) and higher rate of positive and pathologic tumor regression (26% vs 10.3%) after the longer interval. Accordingly, a 6-wk interval between chemoradiation and surgery was set to balance the oncological results with the surgical complexity. However, several recent retrospective studies reported that prolonging the interval beyond 8 or even 12 wk may lead to significantly higher rates of tumor downstaging and pathologic complete response. This in turn, according to some reports, may improve overall and disease-free survival, without increasing the surgical difficulty or complications. This work reviews the data on the effect of different intervals, derived mostly from retrospective analyses using a wide variation of treatment protocols. Prospective randomized trials are currently ongoing.

Wasserberg, Nir

2014-01-01

319

The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: A New Scheduling Paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing a dynamic scheduling system which schedules observers, rather than running scripts. The DSS works by breaking each project into one or more sessions which have associated observing criteria such as RA, Dec, and frequency. Potential observers may also enter dates when members of their team will not be available for either on-site or remote observing. The scheduling algorithm uses those data, along with the predicted weather, to determine the most efficient schedule for the GBT. The DSS provides all observers at least 24 hours notice of their upcoming observing. In the uncommon (< 20%) case where the actual weather does not match the predictions, a backup project, chosen from the database, is run instead. Here we give an overview of the GBT DSS project, including the ranking and scheduling algorithms for the sessions, the scheduling probabilities generation, the web framework for the system, and an overview of the results from the beta testing which were held from June - September, 2008.

O'Neil, K.; Balser, D.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; Shelton, A.; Braatz, J.; Harnett, J.; Maddalena, R.; Mello, M.; Sessoms, E.

2009-09-01

320

Scheduling of taxanes: a review.  

PubMed

The taxanes are widely used in the cytotoxic treatment of many solid tumours. Their optimal scheduling, however, remains unconfirmed. Here we review the development of both paclitaxel and docetaxel to identify evidence influencing the choice of schedule. Early work with paclitaxel identified that it exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics which has important clinical implications. Paclitaxel has been administered with a wide range of infusion times, especially 3-weekly and recently weekly schedules. Clinical activity of a weekly schedule appears at least non-inferior, and, in certain circumstances superior, to the 3-weekly schedule, with improved tolerability. Similarly, docetaxel has been investigated for 3-weekly versus weekly schedule, reporting equivalent efficacy and improved side effect profile for weekly dosing with regards myelosuppression. Both paclitaxel and docetaxel are often used with the monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and bevacizumab. It would appear that in this setting, activity may be again improved by administering the taxane weekly, especially in combination with trastuzumab. A further recent development is the use of nab-paclitaxel, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel; this Cremaphor EC-free preparation allows shorter infusion times without premedication. Benefits of a weekly schedule with this newer drug are also emerging from the limited randomised data. Whether the possibly greater efficacy of weekly paclitaxel in particular reflects a biological effect of more frequent exposure of cancer cells to the cytotoxic is less clear as this schedule also allows a higher dose intensity to be delivered. Nevertheless, that after more than 20 years, weekly administration has emerged as the optimal schedule, especially for paclitaxel. In practice, the choice of schedule is a balance between the better tolerability (and possibly efficacy) of weekly treatment balanced against the inconvenience for both the patient and clinic of more frequent visits for chemotherapy. PMID:20406166

Woodward, Emma J; Twelves, Chris

2010-08-01

321

Confidence Intervals for a Mean and a Proportion in the Bounded Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a 100x(1-alpha) confidence interval for the mean of a bounded random variable which is shorter than the interval that Chebyshev's inequality induces for small alpha and which avoids the error of approximation that assuming normality i...

G. S. Fishman

1986-01-01

322

CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR DIRECTLY STANDARDIZED RATES: A METHOD BASED ON THE GAMMA DISTRIBUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We o?er an approximation to central confidence intervals for directly standardized rates, where we assume that the rates are distributed as a weighted sum of independent Poisson random variables. Like a recent method proposed by Dobson, Kuulasmaa, Eberle and Scherer, our method gives exact intervals whenever the standard population is proportional to the study population. In cases where the

MICHAEL P. FAY; ERIC J. FEUER

1997-01-01

323

Meta-Analytic Interval Estimation for Standardized and Unstandardized Mean Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fixed-effects (FE) meta-analytic confidence intervals for unstandardized and standardized mean differences are based on an unrealistic assumption of effect-size homogeneity and perform poorly when this assumption is violated. The random-effects (RE) meta-analytic confidence intervals are based on an unrealistic assumption that the selected…

Bonett, Douglas G.

2009-01-01

324

A Prediction Interval for a Score on a Parallel Test Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given any observed number-right score on a test, a method is described for obtaining a predicition interval for the corresponding number-right score on a randomly parallel form of the same test. The interval can be written down directly from published tables of the hypergeometric distribution. (Author)

Lord, Frederic M.

1981-01-01

325

Resource allocation and scheduling in cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing is a platform that hosts applications and services for businesses and users to accesses computing as a service. In this paper, we identify two scheduling and resource allocation problems in cloud computing. We describe Hadoop MapReduce and its schedulers, and present recent research efforts in this area including alternative schedulers and enhancements to existing schedulers. The second scheduling

Eman Elghoneimy; Othmane Bouhali; Hussein Alnuweiri

2012-01-01

326

Effects of a delay-reinforcement procedure on performance under IRT>t schedules1  

PubMed Central

Water-deprived rats were studied under a compound schedule that prescribed that responses terminating interresponse times (IRTs) greater than a fixed value t1 (IRT > t1 component schedule) initiated a delay of reinforcement interval t2, at the end of which water was presented if the subject did not respond (R? > t2 component schedule). If the subject responded before the t2 interval elapsed, the IRT > t1 component schedule was re-initiated and water was not presented. The IRT > t1 and R? > t2 component schedules were not differentially correlated with distinctive stimuli. Rate of responding during the IRT > t1 component decreased as a function of the value of t2. The magnitude of the decreases in response rate appeared to be proportional to the subject's rate under the IRT > t schedule with no delay of reinforcement (t2 = 0 sec). The effects were independent of the parameter value of the IRT > t1 component schedule and of the rate of reinforcement. The results suggested that “efficiency” of performance under IRT > t schedules can be increased by appropriately arranging brief delays of reinforcement.

Gonzalez, Fernando A.; Newlin, Robert J.

1976-01-01

327

Generalized Fokker-Planck equation with generalized interval probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fokker-Planck equation is widely used to describe the time evolution of stochastic systems in drift-diffusion processes. Yet, it does not differentiate two types of uncertainties: aleatory uncertainty that is inherent randomness and epistemic uncertainty due to lack of perfect knowledge. In this paper, a generalized differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation based on a new generalized interval probability theory is derived, where epistemic uncertainty is modeled by the generalized interval while the aleatory one is by the probability measure. A generalized Fokker-Planck equation is proposed to describe drift-diffusion processes under both uncertainties. A path integral approach is developed to numerically solve the generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The resulted interval-valued probability density functions rigorously bound the real-valued ones computed from the classical path integral method. The method is demonstrated by numerical examples.

Wang, Yan

2013-05-01

328

INTCENS: Stata module to perform interval-censored survival analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program fits various distributions by maximum likelihood to non-negative data which can be left-, right- or interval-censored or point data. The supported distributions are exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, log-logistic, log-normal, 2 and 3 parameter gamma, inverse Gaussian and an extension of the inverse Gaussian which is the time to reach a certain point for a Wiener process with random drift.

Jamie Griffin

2005-01-01

329

CREx: Inferring Genomic Rearrangements Based on Common Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present the web-based programCREx for heuristically determining pairwise rearrangement events in unichromosomal genomes. CREx considers transpositions, reverse transpositions, reversals, and tandem-duplication-random-loss (TDRL) events. It supports the user in finding parsimonious rearrangement scenarios given a phylogenetic hypothesis. CREx is based on common intervals, which reflect genes that appear consecutively in several of the input gene orders. Availability: CREx is

Matthias Bernt; Daniel Merkle; Guido Fritzsch; Peter Stadler; Martin Middendorf

330

CREx: inferring genomic rearrangements based on common intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present the web-based program CREx for heuristically determining pairwise rearrangement events in unichro- mosomal genomes. CREx considers transpositions, reverse trans- positions, reversals and tandem-duplication-random-loss (TDRL) events. It supports the user in finding parsimonious rearrangement scenarios given a phylogenetic hypothesis. CREx is based on common intervals, which reflect genes that appear consecutively in several of the input gene orders.

Matthias Bernt; Daniel Merkle; Kai Ramsch; Guido Fritzsch; Marleen Perseke; Detlef Bernhard; Martin Schlegel; Peter F. Stadler; Martin Middendorf

2007-01-01

331

Behavioral regulation of gravity: schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures1  

PubMed Central

Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock. ImagesFig. 1.

Clark, Fogle C.; Lange, Karl O.; Belleville, Richard E.

1973-01-01

332

Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.

Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.

1973-01-01

333

Deterministic Schedules for Robust and Reproducible Non-uniform Sampling in Multidimensional NMR  

PubMed Central

We show that a simple, general, and easily reproducible method for generating nonuniform sampling (NUS) schedules preserves the benefits of random sampling, including inherently reduced sampling artifacts, while removing the pitfalls associated with choosing an arbitrary seed. Sampling schedules are generated from a discrete cumulative distribution function (CDF) that closely fits the continuous CDF of the desired probability density function. We compare random and deterministic sampling using a Gaussian probability density function applied to 2D HSQC spectra. Data are processed using the previously published method of Spectroscopy by Integration of Frequency and Time domain data (SIFT). NUS spectra from deterministic sampling schedules were found to be at least as good as those from random schedules at the SIFT critical sampling density, and significantly better at half that sampling density. The method can be applied to any probability density function and generalized to greater than two dimensions.

Eddy, Matthew T.; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

2011-01-01

334

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

335

Research Ship Information and Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.

1999-01-01

336

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

337

High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation.  

PubMed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently used in sports training. The effects on cardiorespiratory and muscle systems have led scientists to consider its application in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to report the effects and interest of HIIT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), as well as in persons with high cardiovascular risk. A non-systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE database using keywords 'exercise', 'high-intensity interval training', 'interval training', 'coronary artery disease', 'coronary heart disease', 'chronic heart failure' and 'metabolic syndrome' was performed. We selected articles concerning basic science research, physiological research, and randomized or non-randomized interventional clinical trials published in English. To summarize, HIIT appears safe and better tolerated by patients than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). HIIT gives rise to many short- and long-term central and peripheral adaptations in these populations. In stable and selected patients, it induces substantial clinical improvements, superior to those achieved by MICE, including beneficial effects on several important prognostic factors (peak oxygen uptake, ventricular function, endothelial function), as well as improving quality of life. HIIT appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with CAD and HF. It may also assist in improving adherence to exercise training. Larger randomized interventional studies are now necessary to improve the indications for this therapy in different populations. PMID:22694349

Guiraud, Thibaut; Nigam, Anil; Gremeaux, Vincent; Meyer, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent

2012-07-01

338

Implementation of Opportunistic Scheduling for Robotic Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this thesis is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making a schedule based on current opportunities. A...

A. W. Butler

1990-01-01

339

21 CFR 1308.49 - Emergency scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Emergency scheduling. 1308.49 Section 1308.49 ...Hearings § 1308.49 Emergency scheduling. Pursuant to 21 U.S...from the effective date of the order scheduling the substance, except that...

2013-04-01

340

49 CFR 33.34 - Preferential scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preferential scheduling. 33.34 Section 33.34 Transportation Office of...SYSTEM Placement of Rated Orders § 33.34 Preferential scheduling. (a) A person must schedule operations,...

2013-10-01

341

15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preferential scheduling. 700.14 Section 700.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade...SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A person must schedule operations,...

2013-01-01

342

High resolution time interval counter  

DOEpatents

A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

343

High resolution time interval counter  

DOEpatents

A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

Condreva, K.J.

1994-07-26

344

Judging Randomness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity has students create rules to allow them to judge whether or not the shuffle feature on a particular iPod appears to produce randomly generated playlists. Because people's intuitions about random events and randomly generated data are often incorrect or misleading, this activity initially focuses students' attention on describing characteristics of 25 playlists that were randomly generated. Students then use these characteristics to come up with rules for judging whether a playlist does NOT appear to be randomly generated. Students test and revise their rules (model) using five additional playlsits. Then, they apply their model to three particular playlists that have been submitted to Apple by an unhappy iPod owner who claims the shuffle feature on his iPod is not generating random playlists. In the final part of the activity, students write a letter to the ipod owner, on behalf of Apple, explaining the use of their model and their final conclusion about whether these three suspicious playlists appear to have been randomly generated. This lesson provides an introduction to the fundamental ideas of randomness, random sequences and random samples.

Minnesota, This P.

345

Fixed Interval Reinforcement and Continuous Daily Feedback on Academic Performance. A Conjunctive Confounding of Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to: (1) produce self-control of academic behavior in a ninth-grade typing and an eleventh grade accounting class by providing continuous self-generated feedback through various devices; (2) to assess the relative merits of each device; and (3) to study those factors accounting for behavior change under…

Quigley, Patrick A.; Newell, John M.

346

Towards optimal sleep scheduling in sensor networks for rare-event detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime maximization is one key element in the design of sensor-network-based surveillance applications. We propose a protocol for node sleep scheduling that guarantees a bounded-delay sensing coverage while maximizing network lifetime. Our sleep scheduling ensures that coverage rotates such that each point in the environment is sensed within some finite interval of time, called the detection delay. The framework is

Qing Cao; Tarek F. Abdelzaher; Tian He; John A. Stankovic

2005-01-01

347

Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement.

Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borga; Thrailkill, Eric A.

2009-01-01

348

Future aircraft networks and schedules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

Shu, Yan

349

Solution and reasoning reuse in space planning and scheduling applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the space domain, as in other domains, the CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problems) techniques are increasingly used to represent and solve planning and scheduling problems. But these techniques have been developed to solve CSP's which are composed of fixed sets of variables and constraints, whereas many planning and scheduling problems are dynamic. It is therefore important to develop methods which allow a new solution to be rapidly found, as close as possible to the previous one, when some variables or constraints are added or removed. After presenting some existing approaches, this paper proposes a simple and efficient method, which has been developed on the basis of the dynamic backtracking algorithm. This method allows previous solution and reasoning to be reused in the framework of a CSP which is close to the previous one. Some experimental results on general random CSPs and on operation scheduling problems for remote sensing satellites are given.

Verfaillie, Gerard; Schiex, Thomas

1994-01-01

350

Interchange scheduling: Discipline or disorder?  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission access is being opened. The world of interchange scheduling is now a mixture of both old and new players, with changing rules, and uncertain risks to electric system reliability. Reliable electric system operation requires rigorous discipline in executing interchange schedules. Can disorder be avoided in this rapidly changing environment? How will the reliability of the interconnected electric systems in the US be impacted by these changes?

Day, L.R.

1996-10-01

351

Lifetime-Sensitive Modulo Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to software pipeline a loop for mini- mal register pressure without sacrificing the loop's minimum execution time. This novel bidirectional slack-scheduling method has been implemented in a FORTRAN compiler and tested on many scientific benchmarks. The empirical results—when measured against an absolute lower bound on execution time, and against a novel schedule-independent absolute lower bound on

Richard A. Huff

1993-01-01

352

Parental time and working schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of working schedules and of other characteristics (including family composition) on the\\u000a time devoted by mothers and fathers to different activities with children in Canadian households, by using 1992 and 1998 Canadian\\u000a Time Use Surveys. Switching regression models and models with selection allow us to simultaneously model labour market participation,\\u000a type of work schedules and

Benoît Rapoport; Céline Le Bourdais

2008-01-01

353

Preemptive multiprocessor scheduling with rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of online multiprocessor scheduling with rejection was introduced by Bartal et al. (SIAM J. Discrete Math. 13(1) (2000) 64–78). They show that for this problem the competitive ratio is 1+??2.61803, where ? is the golden ratio. A modified model of multiprocessor scheduling with rejection is presented where preemption is allowed. For this model, it is shown that better

Steven S. Seiden

2001-01-01

354

Scheduling manufacturing systems with work-in-process inventory control: Reentrant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a procedure for production flow control in reentrant manufacturing systems. The system under study consists ofN machines and producesM product types simultaneously. Each part goes through the system following a predefined process and may visit a machine many times. All machines are subject to random failures and need random repair times. The scheduling objectives are

S. X. Bai; S. B. Gershwin

1996-01-01

355

Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results  

SciTech Connect

To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

2013-08-01

356

Random Magnetism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements...

C. Tsallis

1980-01-01

357

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals and Bootstrap Approximations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document studies the BC sub a bootstrap procedure for constructing parametric and non-parametric confidence intervals. The BC sub a interval relies on the existence of a transformation that maps the problem into a normal scaled transformation family....

T. DiCicco R. Tibshirani

1986-01-01

358

Representations of Intervals and Optimal Error Bounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations with interval arithmetic and interval extensions of real functions are often used to obtain lower and upper bounds for what would be the theoretical results of precise computations on exact data. A more traditional way to represent approximat...

L. B. Rall

1980-01-01

359

Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration.  

PubMed

The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473

Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V; Paton, Joseph J

2014-01-01

360

Anisotropic branching random walks on homogeneous trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetric branching random walk on a homogeneous tree exhibits a weak sur- vival phase: For parameter values in a certain interval, the population survives forever with positive probability, but, with probability one, eventually vacates every finite subset of the tree. In this phase, particle trails must converge to the geometric boundaryof the tree. The random subset3 of the boundary consisting

I. Hueter; S. P. Lalley

1999-01-01

361

Anisotropic branching random walks on homogeneous trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Symmetric branching random walk on a homogeneous tree exhibits a weak survival phase: For parameter values in a certain interval, the population survives forever with positive probability, but, with probability\\u000a one, eventually vacates every finite subset of the tree. In this phase, particle trails must converge to the geometric boundary? of the tree. The random subset ? of the

Irene Hueter; Steven P. Lalley

2000-01-01

362

Permutations and topological entropy for interval maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Bandt, Keller and Pompe (2002 Entropy of interval maps via permutations Nonlinearity 15 1595-602) introduced a method of computing the entropy of piecewise monotone interval maps by counting permutations exhibited by initial pieces of orbits. We show that for topological entropy this method does not work for arbitrary continuous interval maps. We also show that for piecewise monotone interval maps topological entropy can be computed by counting permutations exhibited by periodic orbits.

Misiurewicz, Michal

2003-05-01

363

Security-Constrained Generation and Transmission Outage Scheduling With Uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a stochastic model for the independent system operator's (ISO's) optimal coordinated long-term maintenance scheduling of generation units and transmission lines with short-term security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Random disturbances of power systems including forced outages of generation units and transmission lines, load forecast errors, and fuel price fluctuations are modeled as scenario trees using the Monte Carlo simulation.

Lei Wu; Mohammad Shahidehpour; Yong Fu

2010-01-01

364

Interval modeling of dynamics for multibody systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of multibody systems is an important though demanding field of application for interval arithmetic. Interval modeling of dynamics is particularly challenging, not least because of the differential equations which have to be solved in the process. Most modeling tools transform these equations into a (non-autonomous) initial value problem, interval algorithms for solving of which are known. The challenge then

Ekaterina Auer

2007-01-01

365

The measurement of the QT interval.  

PubMed

The evaluation of every electrocardiogram should also include an effort to interpret the QT interval to assess the risk of malignant arrhythmias and sudden death associated with an aberrant QT interval. The QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T-wave, and should be corrected for heart rate to enable comparison with reference values. However, the correct determination of the QT interval, and its value, appears to be a daunting task. Although computerized analysis and interpretation of the QT interval are widely available, these might well over- or underestimate the QT interval and may thus either result in unnecessary treatment or preclude appropriate measures to be taken. This is particularly evident with difficult T-wave morphologies and technically suboptimal ECGs. Similarly, also accurate manual assessment of the QT interval appears to be difficult for many physicians worldwide. In this review we delineate the history of the measurement of the QT interval, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the current standards of the measurement of the QT interval, we provide a glimpse into the future and we discuss several issues troubling accurate measurement of the QT interval. These issues include the lead choice, U-waves, determination of the end of the T-wave, different heart rate correction formulas, arrhythmias and the definition of normal and aberrant QT intervals. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities and which support accurate assessment of the QT interval and its interpretation. PMID:24827793

Postema, Pieter G; Wilde, Arthur A M

2014-08-01

366

HyperStat Online: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource gives a thorough definition of confidence intervals. It shows the user how to compute a confidence interval and how to interpret them. It goes into detail on how to construct a confidence interval for the difference between means, correlations, and proportions. It also gives a detailed explanation of Pearson's correlation. It also includes exercises for the user.

Lane, David M.

2009-10-16

367

Optimal variable sampling interval control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard practice when using a control chart to detect changes in a process is to take samples from the process using fixed sampling intervals between samples. Recent work on the statistical properties of control charts which vary the sampling interval as a function of what is observed from the data has shown that this variable sampling interval feature can

Marion R. Reynolds Jr

1989-01-01

368

47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the Commission as provided in the 2009 LNP Porting Interval Order, all telecommunications...Small providers, as described in the 2009 LNP Porting Interval Order, must comply...to the Commission as provided in the 2009 LNP Porting Interval Order. For...

2009-10-01

369

Routh-Pade approximation for interval systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for the reduction of the order of interval system. The denominator of the reduced model is obtained by a direct truncation of the Routh table of the interval system. The numerator is obtained by matching the coefficients of power series expansions of the interval system and its reduced model. A numerical example illustrates the proposed procedure

B. Bandyopadhyay; O. Ismail; R. Gorez

1994-01-01

370

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

371

On Job Scheduling with Preemption Penalties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the problem of online job scheduling in a model with preemption penalty introduced by Zheng et al. [11].\\u000a In such a model with preemption penalty parameter ?, the scheduler has to pay a penalty of ? times the weight of each aborted job. We consider two cases according to the scheduler’s knowledge of ? (ratio of length

Feifeng Zheng; Yinfeng Xu; Chung Keung Poon

2009-01-01

372

Block Scheduling's Missteps, Successes and Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents Virginia's history of adoption and implementation of block scheduling, highlights common forms of block scheduling, and describes mistakes that caused schools to abandon block scheduling. Describes three key variables (time, teachers, and students) in the use of block scheduling to improve student achievement. (PKP)

Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn

2003-01-01

373

Interval estimation for statistical control  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop meaningful statistical control limits when applicable based upon the normal distribution, the mean and the standard deviation of a population must be known. In cases when an accurate approximation of the standard deviation is not known, the calculation of reasonable statistical control limits can be performed by using the Student's t-distribution. The Student's t-value for n-1 degrees of freedom (n is the sample size) and the confidence intervals that correspond to 20 and 30 (95.45% and 99.73% respectively) is used to determine control limits from a relatively small data set. The control limits with this method are obtained by multiplying the calculated standard deviation of the data set by the appropriate t-value for the specified confidence level and degrees of freedom While the t-distribution method is needed primarily for a small sample size (n <30), it approaches the normal distribution with increasing n, and hence can be used for any size sample.

ABDURRAHAM, N.M.

2002-08-22

374

Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to determine duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Lemo district, southern Ethiopia in March 2010. Methods A community based cross sectional study design with stratified multistage sampling technique was employed. A sample of 844 women of child bearing age were selected by using simple random sampling technique after complete census was conducted in selected kebeles prior to data collection. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Actual birth interval was measured with the respondents' memory since majority of the women or their children in the area had no birth certificate. Results Majority (57%) of women were practicing short birth interval length with the median birth interval length of 33 months. Actual birth interval length is significantly shorter than preferred birth interval length. Birth interval showed significant variation by contraceptive use, residence, wealth index, breast feeding and occupation of husbands. Conclusion low proportion of optimal birth spacing practices with short actual birth interval length and longer preferred birth interval lengths were evident among the study subjects. Hence interventions to enhance contraceptive utilization behaviors among women in Lemo district would be helpful to narrow the gap between optimal and actual birth spacing.

2011-01-01

375

Patient safety considerations concerning the scheduling of emergency-off system tests.  

PubMed

Emergency-off systems (EOS) are essential to the safe operation of medical accelerators and other high-risk equipment. To assure reliable functioning, some states require weekly tests; others permit monthly, tri-monthly or even six-monthly tests, while some do not specify test intervals. We investigate the relative safety of the various test schedules by computing the fraction of time during which a nonfunctional state of the EOS may remain undetected. Special attention is given to the effect of flexibility (i.e., to regulations that specify the number of tests that have to be done in any given time interval, but allow a range within the interval during which a test can be done). Compared to strict test intervals, a schedule that provides flexibility increases risk only marginally. Performing tests on any arbitrary day of the week when weekly tests are required increases the time span during which a nonfunctionality goes undetected by only 17%, compared to an exact one-week schedule. The same ratio applies for monthly tests. For a three-month schedule, the relative risk increases by only 2% if tests are done on an arbitrarily chosen day during each due-month, compared to tests done on an exact three-month schedule. The most irregular time intervals possible in a three-calendar month schedule increase the relative risk by 11%. For the six-month and the 12-month schedule the ratio of risks is even smaller. The relative risk is virtually independent of the mean time between failures of the EOS, but the absolute risk decreases in proportion the mean time between failures. Adherence to strict, resource-intensive test intervals provides little extra safety compared to flexible intervals that require the same number of tests per year. Regulations should be changed to provide the practicality offered by flexible test schedules. Any additional increase in patient safety could be achieved by strict regulations concerning reliability of emergency-stop (e-stop) systems. PMID:24710445

Brezovich, Ivan A; Popple, Richard A

2014-01-01

376

RVLS Confidence Interval on a Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows you to explore the validity of confidence intervals on a proportion with various values for sample size (N) and population proportion (Pi). After you specify N, Pi, the level of confidence, and the number of simulations you wish to perform, the applet samples data according to your specification and computes a confidence interval for each simulation. The proportion of simulations for which the confidence interval contains Pi is recorded. If the method for constructing confidence intervals is valid, then about 95% of the 95% confidence intervals should contain Pi.

Lane, David M.

2009-01-06

377

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

378

47 CFR 1.1182 - Schedule of fees for products and services provided by the Commission in connection with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for...Fee amount Payment procedure On-line remote access 900 Number Telephone Service) 2.30 per minute Charges...

2013-10-01

379

Safe self-scheduling: A parallel loop scheduling scheme for shared-memory multiprocessors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present Safe Self-Scheduling (SSS), a new scheduling scheme that schedules parallel loops with variable length iteration execution times not known at compile time. The scheme assumes a shared memory space. SSS combines static scheduling with dynamic scheduling and draws favorable advantages from each. First, it reduces the dynamic scheduling overhead by statistically scheduling a major portion of loop iterations. Second, the workload is balanced with simple and efficient self-scheduling scheme by applying a new measure, the smallest critical chore size. Experimental results comparing SSS with other scheduling schemes indicate that SSS surpasses other scheduling schemes. In the experiment on Gauss-Jordan, an application that is suitable for static scheduling schemes, SSS is the only self-scheduling scheme that outperforms the static scheduling scheme. This indicates that SSS achieves a balanced workload with a very small amount of overhead.

Liu, J. [Western Oregon State College, Monmouth, OR (United States); Saletore, V.A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lewis, T.G. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

1994-12-01

380

Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design.  

PubMed

In this paper, the design and development of fuzzy scheduled robustness, tracking, disturbance rejection and overall aggressiveness (RTDA) controller design for non-linear processes are discussed. pH process is highly non-linear and the design of good controller for this process is always a challenging one due to large gain variation. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design based on normalized integral square error (N_ISE) performance criteria for pH neutralization process is developed. The applicability of the proposed controller is tested for other different non-linear processes like type I diabetic process and conical tank process. The servo and regulatory performance of fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design is compared with well-tuned internal model control (IMC) and dynamic matrix control (DMC)-based control schemes. PMID:23317662

Srinivasan, K; Anbarasan, K

2013-03-01

381

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

Bisping, L.E.

1997-01-01

382

Random graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

Alan M. Frieze

2006-01-01

383

A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

1996-01-01

384

Scalable Grid Application Scheduling via Decoupled Resource Selection and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past years grid infrastructures have been deployed at larger and larger scales, with envisioned deployments incorporating tens of thou- sands of resources. Therefore, application scheduling algorithms can become unscalable (albeit polynomial) and thus unusable in large-scale environments. One reason for unscalability is that these algorithms per- form implicit resource selection. One can achieve better scalability by performing explicit

Yang Zhang; Anirban Mandal; Henri Casanova; Andrew A. Chien; Yang-suk Kee; Ken Kennedy; Charles Koelbel

2006-01-01

385

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

386

Backlog-Aware Crossbar Schedulers: A New Algorithm and its Efficient Hardware Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossbars switches with input queues are the common build- ing blocks of high-speed networks, while their speed and per- formance critically depend on their scheduler. In this paper we combine ideas from randomized backlog-aware sched- ulers, and their round-robin (RR) counterparts, to propose a practical, deterministic crossbar scheduler, that: (i) achieves almost full throughput under the many adverse traffic pat-

Nikos Chrysos; Giorgos Dimitrakopoulos

2008-01-01

387

A Framework for Scheduler Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper we present a framework to integrate speci cation and scheduler generation for real - time sys - tems In a rst step, the system, which can in - clude arbitrarily designed tasks (cyclic or sporadic, with or without precedence constraints, any number of re - sources and CPUs, ) is speci ed in terms of a

Karine Altisen; Gregor Gößler; Amir Pnueli; Joseph Sifakis; Stavros Tripakis; Sergio Yovine

1999-01-01

388

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SCHEDULES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay of various managerial dimensions of construction projects requires careful control. Some criticisms have been raised regarding the suitability of the critical path method to certain types of projects and the depth of analysis possible with its informational content. Its graphical representation suffers from one-dimensionality and from its semi-time scaled nature. The linear scheduling method (LSM) is ideally suited

Gunnar Lucko

389

Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

Beers, Thomas M.

2000-01-01

390

Scheduling Data-Intensive Workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Scientific computations are often modeled as dataflow process networks of tasks op- erating on a set of remote data. Scientists refer to this type of computation as a scientific workflow. One main challenge of executing a scientific workflow in a dis- tributed environment (the Grid) is the scheduling of task executions and data trans- fers. In this paper, we

TIM H. WONG

2006-01-01

391

Algorithms for Scheduling Imprecise Computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imprecise computation technique, which prevents timing faults and achieves graceful degradation by giving the user an approximate result of acceptable quality whenever the system cannot produce the exact result in time, is considered. Different approaches for scheduling imprecise computations in hard real-time environments are discussed. Workload models that quantify the tradeoff between result quality and computation time are reviewed.

Jane W.-S. Liu; Kwei-jay Lin; Wei Kuan Shih; Albert Chuang-shi Yu; Jen-yao Chung; Wei Zhao

1991-01-01

392

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

Dror G. Feitelson

1996-01-01

393

Flexible Scheduling: Why and How.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the kind of library media program that elementary students should have, focusing on the library schedule and its impact on student achievement. Considers time for collaborative planning with teachers; availability for multitasking in the library; and information literacy skills instruction integrated with content instruction. (LRW)

Makemson, Carroll; Early, Sharon

2003-01-01

394

NCI-Frederick TMM - Scheduling  

Cancer.gov

Transgenic and Knock-Out Services - Scheduling For administrative matters: Betty Clift Tel: 301-846-5226 Fax: 301-846-6181 E-mail: cliftb@mail.nih.gov For scientific matters: Dr. Lionel Feigenbaum, head, Transgenic Mouse Model Laboratory Tel:

395

Flexible shift scheduling of physicians.  

PubMed

This research addresses a shift scheduling problem in which physicians at a German university hospital are assigned to demand periods over a planning horizon that can extend up to several weeks. When performing the scheduling it is necessary to take into account a variety of legal and institutional constraints that are imposed by a national labor agreement, which governs all physicians in German university hospitals. Currently, most medical departments develop their staff schedules manually at great cost and time. To solve the problem, a new modeling approach is developed that requires shifts to be generated implicitly. Rather than beginning with a predetermined number of shift types and start times, shifts are allowed to start at every pre-defined period in the planning horizon and extend up to 13 h with an hour-long break included. The objective is to find an assignment such that the total hours that have to be paid out as overtime are minimal under the restrictions given by the labor agreement. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program and solved with CPLEX. During the solution process individual lines-of-work are constructed for each physician. Using data from an anesthesia department, computational results indicate that high quality schedules can be obtained much more quickly than by current practice. PMID:19739361

Brunner, Jens O; Bard, Jonathan F; Kolisch, Rainer

2009-09-01

396

Scheduling High-Grade Steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a scheduling system for a high-grade steel making plant. Because very specialized steel grades are produced the variety of the chemical analysis of the heats is very high and the lot sizes are small. One of the most constraining factors in the production is the infiltration of chemical elements between consecutive heats in the electric arc furnace.

Jürgen Dorn; Reza Shams

1996-01-01

397

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

Bisping, L.E.

1996-02-01

398

Stochastic scheduling of parallel processors  

SciTech Connect

Selected topics of interest from and area of parallel processing systems are investigated. Problems concern specifically an optimal scheduling of jobs subject to a dependency structure, an analysis of the performance of a heuristic assignment schedule in a multiserver system of many competing queues, and the optimal service rate control of a parallel processing system. In general, multi-tasking leads to a stochastic scheduling problem in which n jobs subject to precedence constraints are to be processed on m processors. Of particular interest are intree forms of the precedence constraints and i.i.d. job processing times. Using an optimal stochastic control formulation, it is shown, under some conditions on the distributions, that HLF (Highest Levels First) policies and HLF combined with LERPT (Longest Expected Remaining Processing Time) within each level minimize expected makespan for nonpreemptive and preemptive scheduling, respectively, when m = 2. The relative performance of HLF heuristics are investigated for a model in which the job execution times are i.i.d. with an exponential distribution. Many situations in resource sharing environments can be modeled as a multi-server system of many competing queues.

Ko, S.J.

1985-01-01

399

Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

2011-01-01

400

Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

2003-01-01

401

Fuzzy gain scheduling PI controller for a sensorless four switch three phase BLDC motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensorless method for six-space-vector four Switch three phase BLDC motor driver is described in this paper. Due to the nature of low resolution of position sensing, the speed feedback is variable sampling. A fuzzy gain scheduling PI controller is proposed in this paper. It is based on three selected PI controllers in fixed sampling time intervals, high-, median- and

Chung-Wen Hung; Jen-Ta Su; Chih-Wen Liu; Cheng-Tsung Lin; Jhih-Han Chen

2010-01-01

402

Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

2011-01-01

403

Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules for Problem Behavior and Appropriate Behavior: Experimental Applications of the Matching Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

2010-01-01

404

Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M&O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be less than the spacing determined in this analysis. Therefore, in terms of repository performance the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. In summary, performance analysis will be conservative if the flowing interval spacing determined by this study is used in the simulation of mass transport in the saturated zone instead of the fracture spacing.

S. Kuzio

2001-05-16

405

Cisapride-induced long QT interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-month-old infant with gastroesophageal reflux was treated with cisapride. Bradycardia developed and an electrocardiogram revealed 2:1 atrioventricular conduction and a prolonged QT interval. After cessation of cisapride therapy, both the rhythm and the QT interval returned to normal. Prolonged QT interval during treatment with cisapride may occur in children as in adults. (J PEDIATR 1996;128:279-81)

Mark B. Lewin; Randall M. Bryant; Arnold L. Fenrich; Ronald G. Grifka

1996-01-01

406

User requirements for a patient scheduling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

Zimmerman, W.

1979-01-01

407

ScheduleWorld 1.3.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With hectic schedules serving as the order of the day, many persons may find this application more than a bit handy. Schedule World is a free calendaring and scheduling client that utilizes open standards. The application allows users to schedule and receive meetings to and from Microsoft Exchange or Outlook, among other programs. Additionally, the application provides TV-listings for 13 countries and global weather schedules as well. Schedule World 1.3.8 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

408

Cues Produced by Reward and Nonreward and Temporal Cues Influence Responding in the Intertrial Interval and to the Conditioned Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…

Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.

2007-01-01

409

Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.  

PubMed

Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs. PMID:24773287

Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

2014-07-01

410

Tigecycline does not prolong corrected QT intervals in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of tigecycline (50-mg and 200-mg doses) on corrected QT (QTc) intervals and assessed safety and tolerability in a randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover study of 48 (44 male) healthy volunteers aged 22 to 53 years. Fed subjects received tigecycline (50 mg or 200 mg) or placebo in a blinded fashion or an open-label oral dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg) after 1 liter of intravenous fluid. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded before, and for 96 h after, dosing. Blood samples for tigecycline pharmacokinetics were collected after each recording. QTc intervals were corrected using Fridericia's correction (QTcF). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods with potential relationships examined using linear mixed-effects modeling. Adverse events were recorded. The upper limits of the 90% confidence interval for the mean difference between both tigecycline doses and placebo for all time-matched QTcF interval changes from baseline were <5 ms. The tigecycline concentrations initially declined rapidly and then more slowly. In the group given 50 mg of tigecycline, the pharmacokinetic parameters and means were as follows: maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)), 432 ng/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-?), 2,366 ng · h/ml; clearance (CL), 21.1 liters/h; volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)), 610 liters; and terminal half-life (t(1/2)), 22.1 h. Proportional or similar values were found for the group given 200 mg of tigecycline. Linear mixed-effects modeling failed to show an effect on QTcF values by tigecycline concentrations (P = 0.755). Tigecycline does not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01287793. PMID:23403419

Korth-Bradley, Joan M; McGovern, Paul C; Salageanu, Joanne; Matschke, Kyle; Plotka, Anna; Pawlak, Sylvester

2013-04-01

411

Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules  

PubMed Central

Background Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep/wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Methods Twenty-one participants were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week for each subject based upon estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour “blue” light (?max = 470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning “dim” light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as previous week at the end of the second week. Results We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep/wake schedule advancement and morning “blue” light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 young adults during a two week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the “blue” and “dim” light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian time. Conclusions This wholesale change in circadian clock gene expression may reflect significant advances in circadian time (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures.

Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Rea, Mark S.

2013-01-01

412

Motor and executive control in repetitive timing of brief intervals.  

PubMed

We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments, participants produced isochronous intervals ranging from 524 to 2,000 ms with either the left or the right hand. The concurrent task consisted of the production of either a pseudorandom (high cognitive load) or a simple repeated (low cognitive load) spatial sequence of key presses, while also maintaining a regular temporal sequence. This task was performed with either a single hand (unimanual) or with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Interference in terms of increased timing variability caused by the concurrent task was observed only in the bimanual condition. We verified that motor coordination in bimanual tasks alone could not account for the interference. Timing interference only appeared when (a) more than 1 effector was involved and (b) there were simultaneous task demands that recruited executive functions. Task interference was not seen if only 1 of these 2 conditions was met. Thus, our results suggest that executive functions are not directly involved in motor timing, but can indirectly affect timing performance when they are required to schedule complex motor coordination. PMID:22731995

Holm, Linus; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

2013-04-01

413

Using joint utilities of the times to response and toxicity to adaptively optimize schedule-dose regimes.  

PubMed

A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death or discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

Thall, Peter F; Nguyen, Hoang Q; Braun, Thomas M; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H

2013-09-01

414

Randomness in Competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top ?{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

2013-05-01

415

Methods of interval selection, presence of noise and their effects on detectability of repetitions and prolongations.  

PubMed

Accurate methods for locating specific types of stuttering events are necessary for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. A factor that could add variability to assessment of stuttering is noise on recordings. The effects of noise were assessed by adding noise to intervals of speech containing all fluent material, fluent material with a repetition, or fluent material with a prolongation. These intervals allow a unique dysfluency response to be made. A statistical analysis of the occurrence of such intervals in spontaneous speech showed that only a limited number of intervals met these criteria. This demonstrated that selecting intervals at random from spontaneous speech (as in time interval analysis procedure) will infrequently lead to a unique and unambiguous dysfluency specification for the interval. Intervals were selected for testing from the intervals that met the stipulated criteria. These were presented for dysfluency judgment when the position of the stuttering within an interval was varied and with different amounts of added noise (no added noise, 3 dB, and 6 dB of noise relative to mean speech amplitude). Accuracy in detecting stuttering type depended on noise level and the stuttering's position in the interval, both of which also depended on the type of stuttering: Noise level affected detection of repetitions more than prolongations: Repetitions were more difficult to detect when they occurred at the end of an interval whereas prolongations were more difficult to detect when they were at the beginning of an interval. The findings underline the importance of adopting rigorous recording standards when speech is to be employed to make stuttering assessments. PMID:9857514

Howell, P; Staveley, A; Sackin, S; Rustin, L

1998-12-01

416

The Status of High School Scheduling in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all 635 public high schools in Illinois examined types of scheduling models used (daily period schedules, block schedules, modular/flexible scheduling, or combination models); statewide trends in scheduling; and principals' reasons for adopting scheduling changes. Only 27% of schools were incorporating block-scheduling components.…

Hackmann, Donald G.

1999-01-01

417

Effects of rotation interval on sleepiness and circadian dynamics on forward rotating 3-shift systems.  

PubMed

A physiologically based mathematical model of sleep-wake cycles is used to examine the effects of shift rotation interval (RI) (i.e., the number of days spent on each shift) on sleepiness and circadian dynamics on forward rotating 3-shift schedules. The effects of the schedule start time on the mean shift sleepiness are also demonstrated but are weak compared to the effects of RI. The dynamics are studied for a parameter set adjusted to match a most common natural sleep pattern (i.e., sleep between 0000 and 0800) and for common light conditions (i.e., 350 lux of shift lighting, 200 lux of daylight, 100 lux of artificial lighting during nighttime, and 0 lux during sleep). Mean shift sleepiness on a rotating schedule is found to increase with RI, reach maximum at intermediate RI=6 d, and then decrease. Complete entrainment to shifts within the schedules is not achieved at RI?10 d. However, circadian oscillations synchronize to the rotation cycles, with RI=1,2 d and RI?6 d demonstrating regular periodic changes of the circadian rhythm. At rapid rotation, circadian phase stays within a small 4-h interval, whereas slow rotation leads to around-the-clock transitions of the circadian phase with constantly delayed sleep times. Schedules with RI=3-5 d are not able to entrain the circadian rhythms, even in the absence of external circadian disturbances like social commitments and days off. To understand the circadian dynamics on the rotating shift schedules, a shift response map is developed, showing the direction of circadian change (i.e., delay or advance) depending on the relation between the shift start time and actual circadian phase. The map predicts that the un-entrained dynamics come from multiple transitions between advance and delay behavior on the shifts in the schedules. These are primarily caused by the imbalance between the amount of delay and advance on the different shift types within the schedule. Finally, it is argued that shift response maps can aid in the development of shift schedules with desired circadian characteristics. PMID:24492883

Postnova, Svetlana; Postnov, Dmitry D; Seneviratne, Martin; Robinson, Peter A

2014-02-01

418

40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a) Federal compliance schedule. (1) Except as provided in...

2013-07-01

419

Analysis of Construction Cost and Schedule Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost and schedule performance are widely accepted in the literature and in industry as effective measures of the success of the project management effort expended. Earned Value Analysis (EVA) offers many metrics to objectively measure cost and schedule pe...

M. J. Beach

2008-01-01

420

75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission...Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold...

2010-02-19

421

Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

Coleman, Richard M.

1989-01-01

422

49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665...Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a manufacturer...contact the operator of FTA's bus testing program....

2013-10-01

423

Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunization Schedule. 2014 version expected February 28, 2014. Spanish Version (en español) Recommended Immunizations for Children from ... 2 pages] Also available in multiple languages including Spanish Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedules Learn more ...

424

FALCON: A distributed scheduler for MIMD architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes FALCON (Fully Automatic Load COordinator for Networks), the scheduler for the Mentat parallel processing system. FALCON has a modular structure and is designed for systems that use a task scheduling mechanism. FALCON is distributed, s...

A. S. Grimshaw V. E. Vivas

1991-01-01

425

VACATION: A Microcomputer Based Scheduling Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VACATION is a microcomputer based vacation scheduling tool where the scheduling concept is based on seniority of employee, while maintaining the minimum requirements of each craft category for each work location. Employee inputs to this decision process a...

S. Das R. A. Whitaker

1987-01-01

426

Multilist Scheduling. A New Parallel Programming Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parallel programming requires task scheduling to optimize performance; this primarily involves balancing the load over the processors. In many cases, it is critical to perform task scheduling at runtime. For example, (1) in many parallel applications the ...

I. C. Wu H. T. Kung P. Steenkiste D. O'Hallaron G. Thompson

1993-01-01

427

Random Vibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

2010-01-01

428

A simple nonparametric two-sample test for the distribution function of event time with interval censored data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the setting of interval censored data in which the event time is not exactly observed but known to be inside a random interval, a simple nonparametric two-sample test, based on empirical estimates of smooth functionals of the distribution function of event time, is developed to compare the distribution functions of event time for two populations. Monte Carlo simulation studies

Ying Zhang; Wei Liu; Hulin Wu

2003-01-01

429

Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates sampling from a population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For each sample, the 95% and 99% confidence intervals on the mean are computed based on the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Exercises accompany the applet to help students understand what confidence intervals mean.

Lane, David M.

2009-01-06

430

Multiple Regression: The Confidence Interval of rho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page will calculate the 0.95 and 0.99 confidence intervals for rho, based on the Fisher r-to-z transformation. To perform the calculations, enter the values of r and n in the designated places, then click the "calculate" button. Note that the confidence interval of rho is symmetrical around the observed r only with large values of n.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-12

431

Factor interval data analysis and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In symbolic data analysis, interval data is a very important type of data, which can extract the tendency of centralization\\u000a and dispersion of a dataset. When applying multivariate analysis on an interval dataset withn × pdimensions, the dataset can be described as a hyperrectangle withn × 2pvertices. In some circumstance of application, the calculation work will rocket up as the

Huiwen Wang; Henry M. K. Mok; Dapeng Li

432

Multiple Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM

Chen-Hung Kao; Zhao-Bang Zeng; Robert D. Teasdale

433

Confidence Intervals for Bisquare Regression Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results from a Monte Carlo study of robust regression confidence-interval estimation in the model y = a + bx + ?. Bisquare estimators were studied on samples of 11 and 21 with five design matrices. Four estimators of scale were used to form confidence intervals. Samples were generated from two distributions: normal and slash. For many

Alan M. Gross

1977-01-01

434

Confidence interval estimation using standardized time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of a stationary stochastic process can be transformed into a standardized time series. This paper presents a lemma giving the asymptotic properties of this standardized series under quite general conditions. In particular, the conditions are satisfied by stationary discrete-event simulations. Confidence intervals can be constructed using this lemma. For illustration, we develop two easily computed interval estimators for the

Lee W. Schruben

1983-01-01

435

Calculating Confidence Intervals for Rates and Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the probability of developing or dying from most neurologic disorders is relatively small, the Poisson distribution is often utilized to establish confidence intervals around rates or ratios for diseases of the nervous system. This report describes a simplified method and provides a table of factors based on the Poisson distribution for calculating confidence intervals around estimates of rates and

Bruce S. Schoenberg

1983-01-01

436

SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

437

Variable sampling intervals for multiparameter shewhart charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of using control charts to simultaneously monitor more than one parameter with emphasis on simultaneously monitoring the mean and variance. Fixed sampling interval control charts are modified to use variable sampling intervals depending on what is being observed from the data. Two basic strategies are investigated. One strategy uses separate control charts for each parameter,

Indushobha N. Chengalur; Jesse C. Arnold; Marion R. Reynolds Jr

1989-01-01

438

A brief note on overlapping confidence intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical researchers frequently assess the statistical significance of the difference between two means by examining whether the two 95% confidence intervals overlap. The purpose of this brief communication is to illustrate that the 95% confidence intervals for two means can overlap and yet the two means can be statistically significantly different from one another at the ? = 0.05 level.

Peter C. Austin; Janet E. Hux

2002-01-01

439

The ketogenic diet and the QT interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac complications have been rarely reported with the administration of the ketogenic diet. Prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiograms and torsades de pointes have been described in a few cases. The effect of the ketogenic diet on QT interval has not been systematically evaluated. We obtained serial electrocardiograms in our patients on the ketogenic diet to look for changes in

Suvasini Sharma; Sheffali Gulati

440

Confidence intervals in QTL mapping by bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well

Peter M. Visscher; Robin Thompson; Chris S. Haley

1996-01-01

441

Distributed Scheduling Extension on Hadoop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed computing splits a large-scale job into multiple tasks and deals with them on clusters. Cluster resource allocation is the key point to restrict the efficiency of distributed computing platform. Hadoop is the current most popular open-source distributed platform. However, the existing scheduling strategies in Hadoop are kind of simple and cannot meet the needs such as sharing the cluster for multi-user, ensuring a concept of guaranteed capacity for each job, as well as providing good performance for interactive jobs. This paper researches the existing scheduling strategies, analyses the inadequacy and adds three new features in Hadoop which can raise the weight of job temporarily, grab cluster resources by higher-priority jobs and support the computing resources share among multi-user. Experiments show they can help in providing better performance for interactive jobs, as well as more fairly share of computing time among users.

Dadan, Zeng; Xieqin, Wang; Ningkang, Jiang

442

Preference Based Scheduling for an HMS Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for preference-based multi-agent scheduling suitable for Holonic Manufacturing Systems in which\\u000a holons can cooperate in producing a satisfactory global schedule. The goodness of the scheduling model has been verified by\\u000a a theoretical behaviour model and confirmed by simulation, using a number of Assembler holons as the scheduler agents of manufacturing\\u000a tasks. The result of this

S. Misbah Deen; Rashid Jayousi

2004-01-01

443

Real-time scheduling using minimum search  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

1992-01-01

444

Co-Scheduling Hardware and Software Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose CO-Scheduling, a framework for simultaneous design of hardware pipelines struc- tures and software-pipelined schedules. Two important components of the Co-Scheduling framework are: (1) An extension to the analysis of hardware pipeline design that m eets t he needs of periodic (or software pipelined) schedules. Reservation tables, forbidden la- tencies, collision vectors, and state diagrams from

Ramaswamy Govindarajan; Erik R. Altman; Guang R. Gao

1996-01-01

445

Distributed Scheduling Extension on Hadoop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed computing splits a large-scale job into multiple tasks and deals with them on clusters. Cluster resource allocation\\u000a is the key point to restrict the efficiency of distributed computing platform. Hadoop is the current most popular open-source\\u000a distributed platform. However, the existing scheduling strategies in Hadoop are kind of simple and cannot meet the needs such\\u000a as sharing the cluster

Zeng Dadan; Wang Xieqin; Jiang Ningkang

2009-01-01

446

The NCRC Grid Scheduling Environment  

SciTech Connect

In support of the NCRC, a joint computing center between NOAA and ORNL, a grid-based scheduling infrastructure was designed to allow geographically separate computing resources to be used as production resources in climate and weather research workflows. These workflows require job coordination between the two centers in order to provide a complete workflow of data staging, computation, post-analysis and archival. This paper details the design, implementation and initial production phase of the infrastructure and lessons learned from the process.

Indiviglio, Frank M [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL

2011-01-01

447

Reservation-Based Interrupt Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some real-time kernels (such as a recent real-time version of Linux) permit to execute interrupt handlers in dedicated threads, to control their interference on real-time applications. However, from the stand-point of real-time analysis, such threads are challenging and cannot be dealt with in the traditional ways. Furthermore, the application of traditional scheduling solutions (such as fixed priorities) proves ineffective in

Nicola Manica; Luca Abeni; Luigi Palopoli

2010-01-01

448

A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced delays as compared to FCFS, and the magnitude of the savings depends on the queue and departure fix structure. The MILP assumes deterministic aircraft arrival times at the runway queues. However, due to taxi time uncertainty, aircraft might arrive either earlier or later than these deterministic times. Thus, to incorporate this uncertainty, we present a method for using the MILP with "overlap discounted rolling planning horizon". The approach is based on valuing near-term decision results more than future ones. We develop a model of taxitime uncertainty based on real-world data, and then compare the baseline FCFS delays with delays using the above MILP in a simple rolling-horizon method and in the overlap discounted scheme.

Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

2009-01-01

449

Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Prevention of Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age globally. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) documenting the effect of PCV dosing schedules on clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema among children of ages targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2- and 3-dose schedules were included. Percent change of pneumonia incidence rates from baseline to most recent year post-PCV introduction was calculated. Results: We identified 42 primary citations that evaluated PCV schedules and pneumonia. Thirty-seven (88%) were from North America, Europe or Australia; 37 (88%) evaluated PCV7 and 1 (2%) PCV10. Two studies (both observational) compared multiple schedules within the study. We found evidence of reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia incidence for all schedules, including 2+1 (1 nonrandomized trial, 5 observational studies), 3+0 (5 randomized trials, 2 observational studies) and 3+1 (5 clinical trials, 24 observational studies) schedules. The magnitude of disease impact did not differ among schedules. Evidence for impact on pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema varied. Conclusions: All schedules (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1) reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Quantifying differences in pneumonia disease impact between schedules was difficult due to heterogeneity among studies in design, case definition and population. These findings support World Health Organization recommendations for 3-dose schedules administered as either 3+0 or 2+1 regimens. Pneumonia impact data are still needed on expanded serotype PCV products, developing country settings and the role for a booster dose.

2014-01-01

450

NUDGE, A Knowledge-Based Scheduling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional scheduling algorithms (using the techniques of PERT charts, decision analysis or operations rrsrarrh) require well-defined, quantitative, complete sets of constrainls*. They are insufficient for scheduling situations where the problem description is ill-defined, involving incomplete, possibly inconsistent and generally qualitative constraints. The NUDGE program uses an extensive knowledge base to debug scheduling requests by supplying typical values for qualitative constraints,

Ira P. Goldstein; R. B. Roberts

1977-01-01

451

Dynamically Configured ? ? ? ?-opt Heuristics for Bus Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus scheduling is a complex combinatorial optimization problem (3), (10). The op- erations planning and scheduling process starts off with the designing of a timetable of trips that have to be served by buses. Each trip has a starting time\\/location and a destination time\\/location. Bus scheduling involves assigning a set of trips to a set of buses such that: 1.

Prapa Rattadilok; Raymond S K Kwan

452

Proportional Fair Multiuser Scheduling in LTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of scheduling user transmissions on the downlink of a long term evolution (LTE) cellular communication system is addressed. A maximum rate algorithm which does not consider fairness among users was proposed in . Here, a multiuser scheduler with proportional fairness (PF) is proposed. Numerical results show that the proposed PF scheduler provides a superior fairness performance with a

Raymond Kwan; Cyril Leung; Jie Zhang

2009-01-01

453

Gain scheduling: potential hazards and possible remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current gain scheduling control of nonlinear practice is limited to slow variations in the scheduling variable. These limitations are revealed to be consequences of fundamental control concepts. It is shown how a reformulation of the gain scheduling procedure can lead to the ultimate removal of these restrictions

Jeff S. Shamma; Michael Athans

1992-01-01

454

Distributed link scheduling with constant overhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new class of simple, distributed algo- rithms for scheduling in wireless networks. The algorithms generate new schedules in a distributed manner via simple local changes to existing schedules. The class is parame- terized by integers k ? 1. We show that algorithm k of our class achieves k\\/(k +2) of the capacity region, for every k

Sujay Sanghavi; Loc Bui; R. Srikant

2007-01-01

455

An Analysis of Research on Block Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this analysis of 58 empirical studies of high school block scheduling, the authors report findings in and across five groupings. Within groups, data were inconsistent regarding whether teachers' practices changed, but teachers believed that staff development was necessary to teach in a block schedule. Block scheduling appeared to increase…

Zepeda, Sally J.; Mayers, R. Stewart

2006-01-01

456

Maxmin fair scheduling in wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider scheduling policies for maxmin fair allocation ofbandwidth in wireless adhoc networks. We formalize the maxmin fair objectiveunder wireless scheduling constraints. We propose a fair schedulingwhich assigns dynamic weights to the flows such that the weights depend onthe congestion in the neighborhood and schedule the flows which constitutea maximum weighted matching. It is possible to analytically prove that thispolicy

Leandros Tassiulas; Saswati Sarkar

2002-01-01

457

Targeted estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes.  

PubMed

Abstract In most experimental and observational studies, participants are not followed in continuous time. Instead, data is collected about participants only at certain monitoring times. These monitoring times are random and often participant specific. As a result, outcomes are only known up to random time intervals, resulting in interval-censored data. In contrast, when estimating variable importance measures on interval-censored outcomes, practitioners often ignore the presence of interval censoring, and instead treat the data as continuous or right-censored, applying ad hoc approaches to mask the true interval censoring. In this article, we describe targeted minimum loss-based estimation (TMLE) methods tailored for estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes. We demonstrate the performance of the interval-censored TMLE procedure through simulation studies and apply the method to analyze the effects of a variety of variables on spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance among injection drug users, using data from the "International Collaboration of Incident HIV and HCV in Injecting Cohorts" project. PMID:24637001

Sapp, Stephanie; van der Laan, Mark J; Page, Kimberly

2014-05-01

458

Status and future plans for the VieVS scheduling package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the new VLBI2010 network, which uses smaller and fast-slewing antennas observing at broader bandwidths, is progressing rapidly with several new radio telescopes currently being constructed or planned. The new VLBI2010 operating modes will require a scheduling strategies different from today. The VieVS scheduling package (VIE_SCHED) is a new scheduling software in Matlab which has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of the Vienna University of Technology since 2010. Algorithms and models of source structure, slewing time calculation, SNR calculations, and cable wrap have been developed. We generate different schedules and test these through simulations in order to evaluate what is the best observing strategy for the next generation VLBI network. These schedules differ in terms of number of observations and scans, slew time intervals, sky coverage at the individual stations, as well as coverage of the celestial sphere with sources. We also compare the schedules generated by VIE_SCHED with schedules generated with the SKED software, and the differences are analyzed. The planned future developments of VIE_SCHED include an option to analyze the covariance information and allow to consider sites with multiple antennas. We also plan to develop the graphical interface to make it easy to use.

Sun, J.; Pany, A.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

2011-07-01

459

It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

2008-01-01

460

Unified assign and schedule: a new approach to scheduling for clustered register file microarchitectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a trend towards clustered microarchitectures to reduce the cycle time for wide- issue microprocessors. In such processors, the register le and functional units are partitioned and grouped into clusters. Instruction scheduling for a clustered ma- chine requires assignment and scheduling of operations to the clusters. In this paper, a new scheduling algo- rithm named unied-assign-and-schedule (UAS)

Emre Özer; Sanjeev Banerjia; Thomas M. Conte

1998-01-01

461

Phylogenetic dating with confidence intervals using mean path lengths.  

PubMed

The mean path length (MPL) method, a simple method for dating nodes in a phylogenetic tree, is presented. For small trees the age estimates and corresponding confidence intervals, calibrated with fossil data, can be calculated by hand, and for larger trees a computer program gives the results instantaneously (a Pascal program is available upon request). Necessary input data are a rooted phylogenetic tree with edge lengths (internode lengths) approximately corresponding to the number of substitutions between the nodes. Given this, the MPL method produces relative age estimates with confidence intervals for all nodes of the tree. With the age of one or several nodes of the tree being known from reference fossils, the relative age estimates induce absolute age estimates and confidence intervals of the nodes of the tree. The MPL method relies on the assumptions that substitutions occur randomly and independently in different sites in the DNA sequence and that the substitution rates are approximately constant in time, i.e., assuming a molecular clock. A method is presented for identification of the nodes in the tree at which significant deviations from the clock assumption occur, such that dating may be done using different rates in different parts of the tree. The MPL method is illustrated with the Liliales, a group of monocot flowering plants. PMID:12128028

Britton, Tom; Oxelman, Bengt; Vinnersten, Annika; Bremer, Kåre

2002-07-01

462

Physiology and its importance for reference intervals.  

PubMed

Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life's journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

Sikaris, Kenneth A

2014-02-01

463

Interval modeling of dynamics for multibody systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of multibody systems is an important though demanding field of application for interval arithmetic. Interval modeling of dynamics is particularly challenging, not least because of the differential equations which have to be solved in the process. Most modeling tools transform these equations into a (non-autonomous) initial value problem, interval algorithms for solving of which are known. The challenge then consists in finding interfaces between these algorithms and the modeling tools. This includes choosing between "symbolic" and "numerical" modeling environments, transforming the usually non-autonomous resulting system into an autonomous one, ensuring conformity of the new interval version to the old numerical, etc. In this paper, we focus on modeling multibody systems' dynamics with the interval extension of the "numerical" environment MOBILE, discuss the techniques which make the uniform treatment of interval and non-interval modeling easier, comment on the wrapping effect, and give reasons for our choice of MOBILE by comparing the results achieved with its help with those obtained by analogous symbolic tools.

Auer, Ekaterina

2007-02-01