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Sample records for random interval schedules

  1. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the

  2. The Probability of Small Schedule Values and Preference for Random-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreth, Michelle Ennis; Hineline, Philip N.

    2009-01-01

    Preference for working on variable schedules and temporal discrimination were simultaneously examined in two experiments using a discrete-trial, concurrent-chains arrangement with fixed interval (FI) and random interval (RI) terminal links. The random schedule was generated by first sampling a probability distribution after the programmed delay to…

  3. Relationship between Contingency Awareness and Human Performance on Random Ratio and Random Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…

  4. Relationship between Contingency Awareness and Human Performance on Random Ratio and Random Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three

  5. Human performance on random ratio and random interval schedules, performance awareness and verbal instructions.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Ceri A; Freegard, Gary; Reed, Phil

    2015-09-01

    Humans responded on multiple random-ratio (RR) random-interval (RI) schedules, and their verbalized performance awareness (PA; i.e., their ability to accurately describe what they did) was measured in three experiments. In Experiment 1, instructions informed participants that to earn points, either sometimes rapid responding and sometimes slow responding would work best (accurate instructions); rapid responding would work best (go fast instructions); spaced responding would work best (go slow instructions); or no advice was provided (minimal instructions). In Experiments 2 and 3, participants received either accurate or minimal instructions and were subject to extinction after a multiple RR-RI schedule. In all experiments, both performance awareness, and receiving accurate instructions, were related to schedule-sensitive responding, but were unrelated to one another - participants receiving accurate-rate instructions were not more likely to show performance awareness than those exposed to minimal instructions. Both higher performance awareness and exposure to accurate instructions predicted faster extinction in Experiment 2 but not in Experiment 3. The current results suggest that performance awareness rather than contingency awareness is more strongly related to humans displaying schedule-typical behavior and that this is not strongly related to any explicit verbal instructions that are given. PMID:25851918

  6. Procedure for preventing response strain on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2016-03-01

    An experiment examined the impact of a procedure designed to prevent response or extinction strain occurring on random interval schedules with a linear feedback loop (i.e., an RI+ schedule). Rats lever-pressed for food reinforcement on either a RI+ or a random interval (RI) schedule that was matched to the RI+ schedule in terms of reinforcement rate. Two groups of rats responded on an RI+ and two on an RI schedule matched for rate of reinforcement. One group on each schedule also received response-independent food if there had been no response for 60s, and response-independent food continued to be delivered on an RT-60 schedule until a response was made. Rats on the RI and RI+ obtained similar rates of reinforcement and had similar reinforced inter-response times to one another. On the schedules without response-independent food, rats had similar rates of response to one another. However, while the delivery of response-independent food reduced rates of response on an RI schedule, they enhanced response rates on an RI+ schedule. These results suggest that rats can display sensitivity to the molar aspects of the free-operant contingency, when procedures are implemented to reduce the impact of factors such as extinction-strain. PMID:26198776

  7. Performance in concurrent interval schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Trevett, A. J.; Davison, M. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained under concurrent variable-interval variable-interval and fixed-interval variable-interval schedules in a two-key situation. Both response allocation and time allocation to the two schedules were measured when various reinforcement rates were arranged on each key. All animals showed an approximately constant proportional preference for the variable-interval schedule over the fixed-interval schedule. These results support Schneider's (1969) analysis of fixed-interval schedule performance. PMID:16811593

  8. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-03-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  9. Sensory superstition on multiple interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, B C; Staddon, J E

    1982-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which an irregular repeating sequence of five stimulus components was correlated with the same reinforcement schedule throughout. Stable, idiosyncratic, response-rate differences developed across components. Components were rank-ordered by response rate; an approximately linear relation was found between rank order and the deviation of mean response rate from the overall mean rate. Nonzero slopes of this line were found for multiple fixed-interval and variable-time schedules and for multiple variable-interval schedules both when number of reinforcements was the same in all components and when it varied. The steepest function slopes were found in the variable schedules with relatively long interfood intervals and relatively short component durations. When just one stimulus was correlated with all components of a multiple variable-interval schedule, the slope of the line was close to zero. The results suggest that food-rate differences may be induced initially by different reactions to the stimuli and subsequently maintained by food. PMID:7069361

  10. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  11. Synthetic variable-interval schedules of reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1973-01-01

    Three pigeons pecked for food on a synthetic variable-interval schedule of reinforcement that had two independent parts: a variable-interval schedule that arranged a distribution of interreinforcement intervals, and a device that randomly assigned each reinforcement to one of 10 classes of interresponse times. The frequencies of reinforcement for the 10 classes of interresponse times were systematically varied, while the overall frequency of reinforcement was held within a comparatively narrow range. The 10 classes extended either from 0.1 to 0.6 sec in 0.05-sec intervals, or from 1.0 to 6.0 sec in 0.5-sec intervals. In the former case, some control by reinforcement was obtained, but it was weak and no simple relationships were discernible. In the latter case, the relative frequency of an interresponse time was a generally increasing function of its relative frequency of reinforcement, and two simple controlling relationships were found. First, the function relating interresponse times per opportunity to reinforcements per opportunity was, over a restricted range, approximately linear with a slope of unity. Second, when all 10 classes of interresponse times were reinforced equally often, the relative frequency of an interresponse time approximately equalled the relative reciprocal of its length. PMID:16811667

  12. Temporal control on interval schedules: what determines the postreinforcement pause?

    PubMed Central

    Innis, N K; Mitchell, S K; Staddon, J E

    1993-01-01

    On fixed-interval or response-initiated delay schedules of reinforcement, the average pause following food presentation is proportional to the interfood interval. Moreover, when a number of intervals of different durations occur in a programmed cyclic series, postreinforcement pauses track the changes in interval value. What controls the duration of postreinforcement pauses under these conditions? Staddon, Wynne, and Higa (1991), in their linear waiting model, propose control by the preceding interfood interval. Another possibility is that delay to reinforcement, signaled by a key peck and/or stimulus change, determines the subsequent pause. The experiments reported here examined the role of these two possible time markers by studying the performance of pigeons under a chained cyclic fixed-interval procedure. The data support the linear waiting model, but suggest that more than the immediately preceding interfood interval plays a role in temporal control. PMID:8409823

  13. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    PubMed

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S; McLean, A P

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the difference was correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher in the ratio component. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in one half of each session and on concurrent chains in the other half in which the terminal links corresponded to the multiple-schedule components. The schedules were varied over six conditions, including two with equated reinforcer rates. In concurrent chains, preference strongly overmatched the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates. In multiple schedules, relative resistance to response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, extinction, and intercomponent food plus extinction depended on the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates but was less sensitive than was preference. When reinforcer rates were similar, both preference and relative resistance were greater for the variable-interval schedule, and the differences were correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher on the variable-ratio schedule, confirming the results of Experiment 1. These results demonstrate that resistance to change and preference depend in part on response rate as well as obtained reinforcer rate, and challenge the independence of resistance to change and preference with respect to response rate proposed by behavioral momentum theory. PMID:11516115

  14. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  15. Interresponse Time Structures in Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Matthew T.; Hill, Jade; Palya, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The interresponse-time structures of pigeon key pecking were examined under variable-ratio, variable-interval, and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules. Whereas the variable-ratio and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules generally resulted in a distinct group of short interresponse times and a broad distribution of longer…

  16. The effects of smoked marijuana on progressive-interval schedule performance in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, D M; Cherek, D R; Roache, J D

    1994-01-01

    In three experiments, 8 human subjects participated in a study of the effects of smoked marijuana on progressive-interval schedule performance. A two-component chained progressive-interval fixed-interval schedule of point delivery was used. In the progressive-interval component, the interval length began at 20 s and increased either geometrically or arithmetically (by either 20 s, 40 s, 80 s, 100 s, or 160 s) on each subsequent interval. After this interval elapsed, a single button press produced the fixed-interval component, with a total of five reinforcers of varying magnitude ($0.05, $0.20, or $0.40) available on a fixed-interval 20-s schedule. After the five reinforcer deliveries, the schedule returned to the initial progressive-interval component. Several relationships were found among rates of responding, postreinforcement pauses and drug administration in the progressive-interval component: (a) Postreinforcement pauses increased as the temporal requirements of the progressive-interval schedule increased; (b) rates of responding during successive progressive-interval components rapidly decreased to low rates of responding after the first few progressions; (c) postreinforcement pauses decreased systematically as dose of smoked marijuana increased; and (d) rates of responding increased after smoking active marijuana but not after smoking placebo cigarettes. Results are discussed in the context of behavioral control and relevance to other studies that have investigated the effects of smoked marijuana on schedule performance. PMID:8064214

  17. Determinants of Human Fixed-Interval Performance Following Varied Exposure to Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…

  18. Determinants of Human Fixed-Interval Performance Following Varied Exposure to Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding

  19. Concurrent fixed-interval variable-ratio schedules and the matching relation

    PubMed Central

    Rider, David P.

    1981-01-01

    Five rats responded under concurrent fixed-interval variable-ratio schedules of food reinforcement. Fixed-interval values ranged from 50-seconds to 300-seconds and variable-ratio values ranged from 30 to 360; a five-second changeover delay was in effect throughout the experiment. The relations between reinforcement ratios obtained from the two schedules and the ratios of responses and time spent on the schedules were described by Baum's (1974) generalized matching equation. All subjects undermatched both response and time ratios to reinforcement ratios, and all subjects displayed systematic bias in favor of the variable-ratio schedules. Response ratios undermatched reinforcement ratios less than did time ratios, but response ratios produced greater bias than did time ratios for every subject and for the group as a whole. Local rates of responding were generally higher on the variable-ratio than on the fixed-interval schedules. When responding was maintained by both schedules, a period of no responding on either schedule immediately after fixed-interval reinforcement typically was followed by high-rate responding on the variable-ratio schedule. At short fixed-interval values, when a changeover to the fixed-interval schedule was made, responding usually continued until fixed-interval reinforcement was obtained; at longer values, a changeover back to the variable-ratio schedule usually occurred when fixed-interval reinforcement was not forthcoming within a few seconds, and responding then alternated between the two schedules every few seconds until fixed-interval reinforcement finally was obtained. PMID:16812250

  20. Effects of reinforcer duration on responding in two-link chained interval schedules

    PubMed Central

    Lendenmann, Karl W.; Myers, David L.; Fantino, Edmund

    1982-01-01

    Each of five pigeons was exposed to two or more durations of access to mixed grains on two-link, chained, interval schedules in which both links were identical fixed-interval or variable-interval schedules. Response rates were an increasing function of reinforcer duration for both initial and terminal links. For both types of interval schedules, initial-link response rates were more sensitive to reinforcer duration than were terminal-link response rates. The present results, together with prior ones, suggest that chaining and choice procedures are each sufficient for demonstrating substantial sensitivity of responding to changes in reinforcer duration. PMID:16812265

  1. Performances on ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement: Data and theory

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Two differences between ratio and interval performance are well known: (a) Higher rates occur on ratio schedules, and (b) ratio schedules are unable to maintain responding at low rates of reinforcement (ratio “strain”). A third phenomenon, a downturn in response rate at the highest rates of reinforcement, is well documented for ratio schedules and is predicted for interval schedules. Pigeons were exposed to multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in which the intervals generated in the variable-ratio component were programmed in the variable-interval component, thereby “yoking” or approximately matching reinforcement in the two components. The full range of ratio performances was studied, from strained to continuous reinforcement. In addition to the expected phenomena, a new phenomenon was observed: an upturn in variable-interval response rate in the midrange of rates of reinforcement that brought response rates on the two schedules to equality before the downturn at the highest rates of reinforcement. When the average response rate was corrected by eliminating pausing after reinforcement, the downturn in response rate vanished, leaving a strictly monotonic performance curve. This apparent functional independence of the postreinforcement pause and the qualitative shift in response implied by the upturn in variable-interval response rate suggest that theoretical accounts will require thinking of behavior as partitioned among at least three categories, and probably four: postreinforcement activity, other unprogrammed activity, ratio-typical operant behavior, and interval-typical operant behavior. PMID:16812686

  2. Bouts of Responding on Variable-Interval Schedules: Effects of Deprivation Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the…

  3. PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR INTEGRALS OF GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Victor; Kone, Bazoumana

    2015-03-01

    Methodology is proposed for the construction of prediction intervals for integrals of Gaussian random fields over bounded regions (called block averages in the geostatistical literature) based on observations at a finite set of sampling locations. Two bootstrap calibration algorithms are proposed, termed indirect and direct, aimed at improving upon plug-in prediction intervals in terms of coverage probability. A simulation study is carried out that illustrates the effectiveness of both procedures, and these procedures are applied to estimate block averages of chromium traces in a potentially contaminated region in Switzerland. PMID:25431507

  4. An Efficient Uplink Scheduling Algorithm with Variable Grant-Interval for VoIP Service in BWA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Min; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwun, Jonghyung

    This letter proposes an efficient uplink scheduling algorithm for the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with variable frame-duration according to the voice activity in IEEE 802.16e/m systems. The proposed algorithm dynamically changes the grant-interval to save the uplink bandwidth, and it uses the random access scheme when the voice activity changes from silent-period to talk-spurt. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the VoIP capacity by 26 percent compared to the conventional extended real-time polling service (ertPS).

  5. Fixed-interval and fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules with human subjects.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, L T; Sidman, M; Brady, J V

    1988-01-01

    Operant laboratory studies were conducted as part of the regular activities of a psychiatric research ward. This report includes only some early data obtained from the ward staff, not the patients. A multiple schedule having alternating fixed-ratio and fixed-interval components permitted observations of acquisition and maintenance of behavior at low schedule values, transition to and final performance at greater schedule values, and behavioral changes after a limited-hold contingency was added to the fixed-interval. Prior to the added limited-hold, subjects used watches to time the interval, and usually responded only once before obtaining each fixed-interval reinforcement. Short limited-hold values eliminated clock watching and increased fixed-interval responding. Subjects communicated freely with each other, and it was clear that their performances were controlled both by the contingencies and by instructions. Just as clearly, the instructions themselves were controlled by the contingencies. It was concluded that the kinds of verbal control that were responsible for "nonstandard" fixed-interval performances did not require the postulation of any new behavioral principles. PMID:22477562

  6. Fixed-interval and fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules with human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Lawrence T.; Sidman, Murray; Brady, Joseph V.

    1988-01-01

    Operant laboratory studies were conducted as part of the regular activities of a psychiatric research ward. This report includes only some early data obtained from the ward staff, not the patients. A multiple schedule having alternating fixed-ratio and fixed-interval components permitted observations of acquisition and maintenance of behavior at low schedule values, transition to and final performance at greater schedule values, and behavioral changes after a limited-hold contingency was added to the fixed-interval. Prior to the added limited-hold, subjects used watches to time the interval, and usually responded only once before obtaining each fixed-interval reinforcement. Short limited-hold values eliminated clock watching and increased fixed-interval responding. Subjects communicated freely with each other, and it was clear that their performances were controlled both by the contingencies and by instructions. Just as clearly, the instructions themselves were controlled by the contingencies. It was concluded that the kinds of verbal control that were responsible for “nonstandard” fixed-interval performances did not require the postulation of any new behavioral principles. PMID:22477562

  7. On the Primacy of Molecular Processes in Determining Response Rates under Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same…

  8. On the Primacy of Molecular Processes in Determining Response Rates under Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same

  9. Calculation of Flight Deck Interval Management Assigned Spacing Goals Subject to Multiple Scheduling Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Next Generation Air Transportation System will combine advanced air traffic management technologies, performance-based procedures, and state-of-the-art avionics to maintain efficient operations throughout the entire arrival phase of flight. Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) operations are expected to use sophisticated airborne spacing capabilities to meet precise in-trail spacing from top-of-descent to touchdown. Recent human-in-the-loop simulations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have found that selection of the assigned spacing goal using the runway schedule can lead to premature interruptions of the FIM operation during periods of high traffic demand. This study compares three methods for calculating the assigned spacing goal for a FIM operation that is also subject to time-based metering constraints. The particular paradigms investigated include: one based upon the desired runway spacing interval, one based upon the desired meter fix spacing interval, and a composite method that combines both intervals. These three paradigms are evaluated for the primary arrival procedures to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport using the entire set of Rapid Update Cycle wind forecasts from 2011. For typical meter fix and runway spacing intervals, the runway- and meter fix-based paradigms exhibit moderate FIM interruption rates due to their inability to consider multiple metering constraints. The addition of larger separation buffers decreases the FIM interruption rate but also significantly reduces the achievable runway throughput. The composite paradigm causes no FIM interruptions, and maintains higher runway throughput more often than the other paradigms. A key implication of the results with respect to time-based metering is that FIM operations using a single assigned spacing goal will not allow reduction of the arrival schedule's excess spacing buffer. Alternative solutions for conducting the FIM operation in a manner more compatible with the arrival schedule are discussed in detail.

  10. More reliable protein NMR peak assignment via improved 2-interval scheduling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Zhong; Lin, Guohui; Rizzi, Romeo; Wen, Jianjun; Xu, Dong; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Tao

    2005-03-01

    Protein NMR peak assignment refers to the process of assigning a group of "spin systems" obtained experimentally to a protein sequence of amino acids. The automation of this process is still an unsolved and challenging problem in NMR protein structure determination. Recently, protein NMR peak assignment has been formulated as an interval scheduling problem (ISP), where a protein sequence P of amino acids is viewed as a discrete time interval I (the amino acids on P one-to-one correspond to the time units of I), each subset S of spin systems that are known to originate from consecutive amino acids from P is viewed as a "job" j(s), the preference of assigning S to a subsequence P of consecutive amino acids on P is viewed as the profit of executing job j(s) in the subinterval of I corresponding to P, and the goal is to maximize the total profit of executing the jobs (on a single machine) during I. The interval scheduling problem is max SNP-hard in general; but in the real practice of protein NMR peak assignment, each job j(s) usually requires at most 10 consecutive time units, and typically the jobs that require one or two consecutive time units are the most difficult to assign/schedule. In order to solve these most difficult assignments, we present an efficient 13/7-approximation algorithm for the special case of the interval scheduling problem where each job takes one or two consecutive time units. Combining this algorithm with a greedy filtering strategy for handling long jobs (i.e., jobs that need more than two consecutive time units), we obtain a new efficient heuristic for protein NMR peak assignment. Our experimental study shows that the new heuristic produces the best peak assignment in most of the cases, compared with the NMR peak assignment algorithms in the recent literature. The above algorithm is also the first approximation algorithm for a nontrivial case of the well-known interval scheduling problem that breaks the ratio 2 barrier. PMID:15767773

  11. Clock control of human performance on avoidance and fixed-interval schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Alan; Galizio, Mark

    1976-01-01

    The avoidance and fixed-interval performances of human subjects were studied in two experiments. Addition of time-correlated stimuli (added clock) improved behavioral efficiency, since response rates decreased without decreases in reinforcement rates. Response-dependent display of the clock maintained a second, observing response and reductions in clock duration weakened such observing behavior. Generally, the reinforcing properties of the clock were more apparent with the avoidance than with the fixed-interval schedule, a finding attributed to temporal cues already provided by delivery of the fixed-interval reinforcers. Reduced rates of the main response when the clock was dependent on an observing response were more than offset by rates of the observing response in the majority of subjects. Thus, the results do not support an interpretation of the reinforcing properties of added clocks simply in terms of work reduction. PMID:16811938

  12. Pigeons’ Choices with Token Stimuli in Concurrent Variable-Interval Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, James E.; Biondi, Dawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Twelve pigeons responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights for some pigeons, and white circles on the response keys for others). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for food on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Across conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response keys. The main findings were that the pigeons’ response percentages varied as a function of the number of tokens earned at any given moment, and they were determined by both the delays to food and by the number of food deliveries in the exchange periods. In some conditions, tokens had to be earned but were not visible during the variable-interval schedules for one or both keys. When one key had visible tokens and the other did not, the pigeons showed a preference for the key without visible tokens. A model based on the matching law and a hyperbolic delay-discounting equation could account for the main patterns of choice responding, and for how response percentages changed as successive tokens were earned. The results are consistent with the view that the token stimuli served as discriminative stimuli that signaled the current delays to food. PMID:23460072

  13. Pigeons' choices with token stimuli in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Mazur, James E; Biondi, Dawn R

    2013-03-01

    Twelve pigeons responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights for some pigeons, and white circles on the response keys for others). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for food on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Across conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response keys. The main findings were that the pigeons' response percentages varied as a function of the number of tokens earned at any given moment, and they were determined by both the delays to food and by the number of food deliveries in the exchange periods. In some conditions, tokens had to be earned but were not visible during the variable-interval schedules for one or both keys. When one key had visible tokens and the other did not, the pigeons showed a preference for the key without visible tokens. A model based on the matching law and a hyperbolic delay-discounting equation could account for the main patterns of choice responding, and for how response percentages changed as successive tokens were earned. The results are consistent with the view that the token stimuli served as discriminative stimuli that signaled the current delays to food. PMID:23460072

  14. Stock optimizing: maximizing reinforcers per session on a variable-interval schedule.

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, A; Bauman, R; Hursh, S

    1993-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 2 monkeys earned their daily food ration by pressing a key that delivered food according to a variable-interval 3-min schedule. In Phases 1 and 4, sessions ended after 3 hr. In Phases 2 and 3, sessions ended after a fixed number of responses that reduced food intake and body weights from levels during Phases 1 and 4. Monkeys responded at higher rates and emitted more responses per food delivery when the food earned in a session was reduced. In Experiment 2, monkeys earned their daily food ration by depositing tokens into the response panel. Deposits delivered food according to a variable-interval 3-min schedule. When the token supply was unlimited (Phases 1, 3, and 5), sessions ended after 3 hr. In Phases 2 and 4, sessions ended after 150 tokens were deposited, resulting in a decrease in food intake and body weight. Both monkeys responded at lower rates and emitted fewer responses per food delivery when the food earned in a session was reduced. Experiment 1's results are consistent with a strength account, according to which the phases that reduced body weights increased food's value and therefore increased subjects' response rates. The results of Experiment 2 are consistent with an optimizing strategy, because lowering response rates when food is restricted defends body weight on variable-interval schedules. These contrasting results may be attributed to the discriminability of the contingency between response number and the end of a session being greater in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. In consequence, subjects lowered their response rates in order to increase the number of reinforcers per session (stock optimizing). PMID:8454960

  15. Retention of sequential drug discriminations under fixed-interval schedules for long time periods without training.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; McMillan, Donald E

    2003-08-22

    The experiments showed that sequential drug discriminations can be learned and retained under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule for more than 18 months without additional training under a complex three-choice procedure. Pigeons were trained to discriminate among 5 mg/kg pentobarbital, 2 mg/kg D-amphetamine, and saline. After responding stabilized, dose-response curves were determined for other drugs. Subsequently, pentobarbital was replaced with 5 mg/kg morphine as a training drug, and D-amphetamine was replaced with 30 mg/kg caffeine. After the pigeons learned these new discriminations, dose-response curves were redetermined. Initially, chlordiazepoxide substituted for pentobarbital, cocaine substituted for D-amphetamine, and nicotine partially substituted for D-amphetamine. Morphine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and caffeine did not substitute for either drug. After retraining with morphine and caffeine, responding occurred on the pentobarbital/morphine key after pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide and morphine and on the D-amphetamine/caffeine key after D-amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. After nicotine and Delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol, responding occurred on the saline key. These data show that drug discriminations learned under fixed-interval schedules are retained for long time periods, even when discrimination training with other drugs occurs during the retention period. PMID:12969752

  16. Comparison of Accelerated and Standard Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedules in High-Risk Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yueyuan; Liu, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the most efficient vaccination schedule is an important issue. Objective To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedules in high-risk healthy adults. Methods We searched controlled trial registers of The Cochrane Library as well as MEDLINE, EMBASE, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for randomized controlled trials published up to December 2013 that compared accelerated hepatitis B vaccine schedules to the standard schedule in adults. The results were presented as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Fixed or random effect models were used for analysis. Results We identified 10 randomized trials, all with one or more methodological weaknesses. Compared to the standard schedule, most accelerated schedules resulted in higher proportions of healthy vaccines more rapidly reaching anti-hepatitis B antibody levels >10 IU/L (P<0.05) initially and maintaining similar seroprotection rates after 6 months (P>0.05). Although accelerated schedules produced anti-hepatitis B levels higher than the standard schedule for the first month after the initial vaccine dose, they were significantly lower than the standard schedule after 6 months, except for an accelerated schedule that called for a fourth booster injection 12 months after the initial dose. Subjects administered accelerated vaccine schedules had similar compliance rate as those administered the standard schedule over the first 6 months of vaccination (relative risk = 1.00, 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.21). Conclusion For rapid seroconversion and almost immediate short-term protection, accelerated vaccination schedules could be useful for at-risk groups. However, additional studies on the long-term protection and effectiveness of the primary doses of accelerated schedules are necessary. PMID:26196903

  17. Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…

  18. Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance

  19. Response rate and changeover performance on concurrent variable-interval schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, I. W.; Davison, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Six pigeons were exposed to variable-interval schedules arranged on one, two, three, and four response keys. The reinforcement rate was also varied across conditions. Numbers of responses, the time spent responding, the number of reinforcements, and the number of changeovers between keys were recorded. Response rates on each key were an increasing function of reinforcement rate on that key and a decreasing function of the reinforcement rate on other keys. Response and time-allocation ratios under-matched ratios of obtained reinforcements. Three sets of equations were developed to express changeover rate as a function of response rate, time allocation, and reinforcement rate respectively. These functions were then applied to a broad range of experiments in the literature in order to test their generality. Further expressions were developed to account for changeover rates reported in experiments where changeover delays were varied. PMID:16812076

  20. FDA-sunlamp recommended Maximum Timer Interval And Exposure Schedule: consensus ISO/CIE dose equivalence.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Czako, Eugene A; Stepp, Michael E; Schlitt, Steven C; Bender, Gregory R; Khan, Lateef U; Shinneman, Kenneth D; Karos, Manuel G; Shepherd, James G; Sayre, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    The authors compared calculations of sunlamp maximum exposure times following current USFDA Guidance Policy on the Maximum Timer Interval and Exposure Schedule, with USFDA/CDRH proposals revising these to equivalent erythemal exposures of ISO/CIE Standard Erythema Dose (SED). In 2003, [USFDA/CDRH proposed replacing their unique CDRH/Lytle] erythema action spectrum with the ISO/CIE erythema action spectrum and revising the sunlamp maximum exposure timer to 600 J m(-2) ISO/CIE effective dose, presented as being biologically equivalent. Preliminary analysis failed to confirm said equivalence, indicating instead ∼38% increased exposure when applying these proposed revisions. To confirm and refine this finding, a collaboration of tanning bed and UV lamp manufacturers compiled 89 UV spectra representing a broad sampling of U.S. indoor tanning equipment. USFDA maximum recommended exposure time (Te) per current sunlamp guidance and CIE erythemal effectiveness per ISO/CIE standard were calculated. The CIE effective dose delivered per Te averaged 456 J(CIE) m(-2) (SD = 0.17) or ∼4.5 SED. The authors found that CDRH's proposed 600 J(CIE) m(-2) recommended maximum sunlamp exposure exceeds current Te erythemal dose by ∼33%. The current USFDA 0.75 MED initial exposure was ∼0.9 SED, consistent with 1.0 SED initial dose in existing international sunlamp standards. As no sunlamps analyzed exceeded 5 SED, a revised maximum exposure of 500 J(CIE) m(-2) (∼80% of CDRH's proposal) should be compatible with existing tanning equipment. A tanning acclimatization schedule is proposed beginning at 1 SED thrice-weekly, increasing uniformly stepwise over 4 wk to a 5 SED maximum exposure in conjunction with a tan maintenance schedule of twice-weekly 5 SED sessions, as biologically equivalent to current USFDA sunlamp policy. PMID:21799338

  1. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R E; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list. PMID:23602956

  2. Rats' choices with token stimuli in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Mazur, James E

    2014-09-01

    Four rats responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights arranged vertically above each of two side levers). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for one food pellet by responding on a center lever, with one response required for each pellet delivery. In different conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response levers. The experiments were closely patterned after research with pigeons by Mazur and Biondi (2013), and the results from the rats in the present experiment were similar. Response percentages on the two levers changed as each additional token was earned, and these patterns indicated that choice was controlled by both the time to the exchange periods and the number of food pellets that were delivered in the exchange period. In some conditions, the exchange requirement was three tokens for each lever, but the token lights were not turned on as they were earned for one of the two keys. The rats showed a slight preference for the lever without the token lights, which may indicate that the token lights were not serving as conditioned reinforcers (a result also found by Mazur and Biondi with pigeons). Overall, these results suggest that, in this choice procedure, the token stimuli served primarily as discriminative stimuli that signaled the temporal proximity and quantity of the primary reinforcer, food. PMID:25130299

  3. Comparing Pleasure and Pain: The Fundamental Mathematical Equivalence of Reward Gain and Shock Reduction under Variable Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

  4. Comparing Pleasure and Pain: The Fundamental Mathematical Equivalence of Reward Gain and Shock Reduction under Variable Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative

  5. Auditory Model: Effects on Learning under Blocked and Random Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dong-Wook; Shea, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of an auditory model on blocked, random, and mixed practice schedules of three five-segment timing sequences (relative time constant). We were interested in whether or not the auditory model differentially affected the learning of relative and absolute timing under blocked and random practice.…

  6. Effects of Cocaine on Performance under Fixed-Interval Schedules with a Small Tandem Ratio Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however,…

  7. Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval…

  8. On the measurement of time allocation on multiple variable-interval schedules

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Charman, Lesle

    1986-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on a modified multiple-schedule procedure. In a three-key chamber, the center key was lighted red or green, depending upon which component schedule was in effect. A response on this key transferred this color to each of two side keys, and responses on one of those keys produced reinforcers according to the component schedule. After 2 s, the side-key lights were extinguished, the center key was reilluminated, and a further center-key response was required to give access, as before, to the component schedules. Components alternated every 3 min. This limited-access procedure allowed both times spent switched into the side keys and time spent not switched in to be measured in the two components. Component reinforcer rates were varied over eight experimental conditions. Both component response rate and component time allocation were increasing functions of relative component reinforcer rate, and these functions were not significantly different. This finding implies that local response rates (responses divided by time switched in) were unaffected by changing component reinforcer rates on multiple schedules. Because a similar result was recently obtained for concurrent schedules, models of multiple and concurrent-schedule performance may need to consider only the time allocation of behavior emitted at equal tempo in the component schedules. PMID:16812466

  9. Flexibility of Oral Cholera Vaccine Dosing—A Randomized Controlled Trial Measuring Immune Responses Following Alternative Vaccination Schedules in a Cholera Hyper-Endemic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Kanungo, Suman; Desai, Sachin N.; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Sinha, Anuradha; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yang, Jae Seung; Lopez, Anna Lena; Manna, Byomkesh; Bannerjee, Barnali; Ali, Mohammad; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Clemens, John D.; Sur, Dipika; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the immune response was not significantly increased following the second dose compared to that after the first dose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an extended four week dosing schedule on vibriocidal response. Methodology/Principal Findings In this double blind randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 356 Indian, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year or older were randomized to receive two doses of oral cholera vaccine at 14 and 28 day intervals. We compared vibriocidal immune responses between these schedules. Among adults, no significant differences were noted when comparing the rates of seroconversion for V. cholerae O1 Inaba following two dose regimens administered at a 14 day interval (55%) vs the 28 day interval (58%). Similarly, no differences in seroconversion were demonstrated in children comparing the 14 (80%) and 28 day intervals (77%). Following 14 and 28 day dosing intervals, vibriocidal response rates against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were 45% and 49% in adults and 73% and 72% in children respectively. Responses were lower for V. cholerae O139, but similar between dosing schedules for adults (20%, 20%) and children (28%, 20%). Conclusions/Significance Comparable immune responses and safety profiles between the two dosing schedules support the option for increased flexibility of current OCV dosing. Further operational research using a longer dosing regimen will provide answers to improve implementation and delivery of cholera vaccination in endemic and epidemic outbreak scenarios. PMID:25764513

  10. Pigeons' wait-time responses to transitions in interfood-interval duration: Another look at cyclic schedule performance

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jennifer J.; Thaw, Jean M.; Staddon, John E. R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments reveal that animals can rapidly learn about intervals of time. We studied the nature of this fast-acting process in two experiments. In Experiment 1 pigeons were exposed to a modified fixed-time schedule, in which the time between food rewards (interfood interval) changed at an unpredictable point in each session, either decreasing from 15 to 5 s (step-down) or increasing from 15 to 45 s (step-up). The birds were able to track under both conditions by producing postreinforcement wait times proportional to the preceding interfood-interval duration. However, the time course of responding differed: Tracking was apparently more gradual in the step-up condition. Experiment 2 studied the effect of having both kinds of transitions within the same session by exposing pigeons to a repeating (cyclic) sequence of the interfood-interval values used in Experiment 1. Pigeons detected changes in the input sequence of interfood intervals, but only for a few sessions—discrimination worsened with further training. The dynamic effects we observed do not support a linear waiting process of time discrimination, but instead point to a timing mechanism based on the frequency and recency of prior interfood intervals and not the preceding interfood interval alone. PMID:16812693

  11. Inner Random Restart Genetic Algorithm for Practical Delivery Schedule Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Onoyama, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Natsuki; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    A delivery route optimization that improves the efficiency of real time delivery or a distribution network requires solving several tens to hundreds but less than 2 thousands cities Traveling Salesman Problems (TSP) within interactive response time (less than about 3 second), with expert-level accuracy (less than about 3% of error rate). Further, to make things more difficult, the optimization is subjects to special requirements or preferences of each various delivery sites, persons, or societies. To meet these requirements, an Inner Random Restart Genetic Algorithm (Irr-GA) is proposed and developed. This method combines meta-heuristics such as random restart and GA having different types of simple heuristics. Such simple heuristics are 2-opt and NI (Nearest Insertion) methods, each applied for gene operations. The proposed method is hierarchical structured, integrating meta-heuristics and heuristics both of which are multiple but simple. This method is elaborated so that field experts as well as field engineers can easily understand to make the solution or method easily customized and extended according to customers' needs or taste. Comparison based on the experimental results and consideration proved that the method meets the above requirements more than other methods judging from not only optimality but also simplicity, flexibility, and expandability in order for this method to be practically used.

  12. True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2013-01-01

    We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008

  13. DIFFERENT BREEDING SCHEDULES AT 6 MONTH INTERVALS IN FOUR BREEDS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dorset, Finnsheep, Composite I (50% Finnsheep, 25% Dorset, and 25% Rambouillet), and Composite II (50% Finnsheep, 25% Suffolk, and 25% Targhee) sheep were evaluated under three twice-a-year breeding schedules. Lactation status had a significant effect on conception rate but number of lambs suckling...

  14. When Repetition Isn't the Best Practice Strategy: Effects of Blocked and Random Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blocked and random practice schedules on the performance accuracy, speed, temporal evenness, and attitude of beginning band students in a group instructional setting. The research assumptions were based on the contextual interference hypothesis, which predicts that a blocked practice…

  15. Responding of pigeons under variable-interval schedules of unsignaled, briefly signaled, and completely signaled delays to reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, David W.; Branch, Marc N.

    1988-01-01

    In Experiment 1, three pigeons' key pecking was maintained under a variable-interval 60-s schedule of food reinforcement. A 1-s unsignaled nonresetting delay to reinforcement was then added. Rates decreased and stabilized at values below those observed under immediate-reinforcement conditions. A brief stimulus change (key lit red for 0.5 s) was then arranged to follow immediately the peck that began the delay. Response rates quickly returned to baseline levels. Subsequently, rates near baseline levels were maintained with briefly signaled delays of 3 and 9 s. When a 27-s briefly signaled delay was instituted, response rates decreased to low levels. In Experiment 2, four pigeons' responding was first maintained under a multiple variable-interval 60-s (green key) variable-interval 60-s (red key) schedule. Response rates in both components fell to low levels when a 3-s unsignaled delay was added. In the first component delays were then briefly signaled in the same manner as Experiment 1, and in the second component they were signaled with a change in key color that remained until food was delivered. Response rates increased to near baseline levels in both components, and remained near baseline when the delays in both components were lengthened to 9 s. When delays were lengthened to 27 s, response rates fell to low levels in the briefly signaled delay component for three of four pigeons while remaining at or near baseline in the completely signaled delay component. In Experiment 3, low response rates under a 9-s unsignaled delay to reinforcement (tandem variable-interval 60 s fixed-time 9 s) increased when the delay was briefly signaled. The role of the brief stimulus as conditioned reinforcement may be a function of its temporal relation to food, and thus may be related to the eliciting function of the stimulus. PMID:16812548

  16. The effects of initial interval size on the efficacy of DRO schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Repp, A C; Felce, D; Barton, L E

    1991-01-01

    The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a behavior-reduction procedure that has been popular for several years. In classroom settings, it provides reinforcement when a student does not display inappropriate responding for a particular interval of time. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about how to use DRO effectively in applied settings. Most research has been conducted in laboratory settings; the purpose of the present study was to provide a replication of one of those studies. This study examined the effect of the size of the initial DRO interval on the disruptive behavior of students with moderate disabilities. In the first experiment, a group of six students was observed during baseline in two classes. Two different DRO values were then used. In one classroom, it was equal to the mean number of 10-second intervals between disruptions during baseline. In the other classroom, it was twice the mean number during baseline. In the final phase, behavior in both classrooms was put under the same DRO program. In the second experiment, the disruptive behavior of three students was studied in a different design in which both methods of determining the initial DRO value were compared. The results of both experiments showed that an initial DRO value equal to the mean number of intervals between responses in baseline was much more effective than a value twice that size in reducing disruptions. PMID:2022233

  17. Fuzzy Filtering With Randomly Occurring Parameter Uncertainties, Interval Delays, and Channel Fadings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sunjie; Wang, Zidong; Ding, Derui; Shu, Huisheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the H∞ fuzzy filtering problem is investigated for a class of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems with randomly occurring uncertainties and randomly occurring interval time-varying delays, as well as channel fadings. A sequence of random variables obeying the Bernoulli distribution is utilized to govern the randomly occurring uncertainties and probabilistic interval time-varying delays. Simultaneously, the Rice fading model is employed to describe the phenomena of channel fadings by setting different values of the channel coefficients. Our attention is focused on the design of an H∞ fuzzy filter such that the filtering error dynamics is exponentially mean-square stable and the disturbance rejection attenuation is constrained to a given level by means of the H∞-performance index. In the presence of the randomly occurring phenomena, sufficient conditions are derived, via stochastic analysis and Lyapunov functional approach, for the existence of desired filter ensuring both the exponential mean-square stability and the prescribed H∞ performance. The filter parameters can be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem via the semidefinite program method. Finally, a numerical example is utilized to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design technique. PMID:23934674

  18. Service-Oriented Node Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Markov Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

    2014-01-01

    Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

  19. An Exploration of Remote History Effects in Humans: II. The Effects under Fixed-Interval, Variable-Interval, and Fixed-Ratio Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2010-01-01

    Five undergraduates responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 145 schedule, and 5 others responded under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 20-s schedule. Both groups were then exposed to a differential-reinforcement-of-rates- with-pacing 1 s less than interresponse time (IRT) less than or equal to 2 s schedule. Following this, probe sessions…

  20. Comparing pleasure and pain: the fundamental mathematical equivalence of reward gain and shock reduction under variable interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative reinforcement VI), there is a fundamental mathematical equivalence between reward gain and shock reduction. We also provide the first normative account of how animals should respond on a negative VI schedule, showing that it is better to space responses evenly than to respond with a variable interresponse time (IRT). Published data from rats, however, indicate that these animals respond irregularly, often with a burst of activity immediately following a shock. While this is irrational in the experimental setting, it may represent an appropriate response to the heterogeneity of stimuli commonly encountered in natural environments. We discuss the broader implications of our analysis for understanding how animals evaluate appetitive and aversive stimuli. PMID:23144510

  1. Responding of pigeons under variable-interval schedules of signaled-delayed reinforcement: effects of delay-signal duration.

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, D W; Branch, M N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments with pigeons examined the relation of the duration of a signal for delay ("delay signal") to rates of key pecking. The first employed a multiple schedule comprised of two components with equal variable-interval 60-s schedules of 27-s delayed food reinforcement. In one component, a short (0.5-s) delay signal, presented immediately following the key peck that began the delay, was increased in duration across phases; in the second component the delay signal initially was equal to the length of the programmed delay (27 s) and was decreased across phases. Response rates prior to delays were an increasing function of delay-signal duration. As the delay signal was decreased in duration, response rates were generally higher than those obtained under identical delay-signal durations as the signal was increased in duration. In Experiment 2 a single variable-interval 60-s schedule of 27-s delayed reinforcement was used. Delay-signal durations were again increased gradually across phases. As in Experiment 1, response rates increased as the delay-signal duration was increased. Following the phase during which the signal lasted the entire delay, shorter delay-signal-duration conditions were introduced abruptly, rather than gradually as in Experiment 1, to determine whether the gradual shortening of the delay signal accounted for the differences observed in response rates under identical delay-signal conditions in Experiment 1. Response rates obtained during the second exposures to the conditions with shorter signals were higher than those observed under identical conditions as the signal duration was increased, as in Experiment 1. In both experiments, rates and patterns of responding during delays varied greatly across subjects and were not systematically related to delay-signal durations. The effects of the delay signal may be related to the signal's role as a discriminative stimulus for adventitiously reinforced intradelay behavior, or the delay signal may have served as a conditioned reinforcer by virtue of the temporal relation between it and presentation of food. PMID:2299283

  2. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

  3. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess

  4. Single-Sample Discrimination of Different Schedules' Reinforced Interresponse Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…

  5. Nucleus accumbens dopaminergic medication of fixed interval schedule-controlled behavior and its modulation by low-level lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Cory-Slechta, D A; O'Mara, D J; Brockel, B J

    1998-08-01

    To examine the assertion that changes in nucleus accumbens (NAC) dopamine (DA) activity serve as a mechanism of lead (Pb)-induced disruption of fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled behavior, the effects of intra-NAC administration of the irreversible DA antagonist EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihyroquinoline) and of dopamine itself on FI performance were compared in rats that had been chronically exposed to 0, 50 or 500 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water from weaning. Pb exposure per se (500 ppm), as in past studies, increased FI response rates, primarily by shortening interresponse times. Although DA, which produced rate-dependent effects, increased FI rates at low doses in the 0 and 50 ppm groups, it did so by decreasing postreinforcement pause times. All DA doses decreased rates in the 500 ppm group. In contrast, the DA antagonist EEDQ suppressed FI response rates, effects that were not strongly rate dependent, by increasing both postreinforcement pause values and mean interresponse times. Pb exposure (500 ppm) delayed the recovery of response rates to control levels at the highest EEDQ dose, raising the possibility of a delay in receptor production rate. Collectively, these data suggest that NAC DA activity may be an important modulator of FI response rates. Enhanced NAC DA activity may contribute to Pb-associated increases in FI rates and may underlie the differential response of control and 500 ppm Pb-treated groups to intra-NAC DA administration. The different processes by which DA and Pb increase FI rates, however, suggests that additional mechanisms are operative in the case of Pb. PMID:9694936

  6. Interval estimation of random effects in proportional hazards models with frailties.

    PubMed

    Ha, Il Do; Vaida, Florin; Lee, Youngjo

    2016-04-01

    Semi-parametric frailty models are widely used to analyze clustered survival data. In this article, we propose the use of the hierarchical likelihood interval for individual frailties. We study the relationship between hierarchical likelihood, empirical Bayesian, and fully Bayesian intervals for frailties. We show that our proposed interval can be interpreted as a frequentist confidence interval and Bayesian credible interval under a uniform prior. We also propose an adjustment of the proposed interval to avoid null intervals. Simulation studies show that the proposed interval preserves the nominal confidence level. The procedure is illustrated using data from a multicenter lung cancer clinical trial. PMID:23361438

  7. Effect of jumping interval training on neuromuscular and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Moro, Antônio R P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of 4 weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental groups, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake, for 3 times per week. Additionally, the experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4 to 6 bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30 s) with 5-min intervals. Three days before and after the training period, the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise, and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by (i) increased jump height (4.7%; effect size (ES) = 0.99) and power output (≈ 3.7%; ES ≈ 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); (ii) anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of jump height (7.4%; ES = 0.8), and peak power output (PPO) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of jump height (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPO (9.5%, ES = 1.1), considering all jumps of CJ30; and (iii) aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake (9.1%, ES = 1.28), velocity at peak oxygen uptake (2.7%, ES = 1.11), and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate to large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. PMID:26624965

  8. Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…

  9. Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was

  10. Interval Estimation of Random Effects in Proportional Hazards Models with Frailties

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Il Do; Vaida, Florin; Lee, Youngjo

    2014-01-01

    Semi-parametric frailty models are widely used to analyze clustered survival data. In this paper, we propose the use of the hierarchical likelihood interval for individual frailties of the clusters, not the parameters of the frailty distribution. We study the relationship between hierarchical likelihood, empirical Bayesian, and fully Bayesian intervals for frailties. We show that our proposed interval can be interpreted as a frequentist confidence interval and Bayesian credible interval under a uniform prior. We also propose an adjustment of the proposed interval to avoid null intervals. Simulation studies show that the proposed interval preserves the nominal confidence level. The procedure is illustrated using data from a multicenter lung cancer clinical trial. PMID:23361438

  11. Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Stanzi M; Cotton, Mark F; Golub, Jonathan E; le Roux, David M; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children. Methods We investigated adherence to study medication in a two centre, randomized trial comparing daily to three times a week dosing of isoniazid. The study was conducted at two tertiary paediatric care centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Over a 5 year period, we followed 324 HIV-infected children aged ≥ 8 weeks. Adherence information based on pill counts was available for 276 children. Percentage adherence was calculated by counting the number of pills returned. Adherence ≥ 90% was considered to be optimal. Analysis was done using summary and repeated measures, comparing adherence to the two dosing schedules. Mean percentage adherence (per child during follow-up time) was used to compare the mean of each group as well as the proportion of children achieving an adherence of ≥ 90% in each group. For repeated measures, percentage adherence (per child per visit) was dichotomized at 90%. A logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations, to account for within-individual correlation, was used to evaluate the impact of the dosing schedule. Adjustments were made for potential confounders and we assessed potential baseline and time-varying adherence determinants. Results The overall adherence to isoniazid was excellent, with a mean adherence of 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.5-95.9); similar mean adherence was achieved by the group taking daily medication (93.8%; 95% CI 92.1-95.6) and by the three times a week group (95.5%; 95% CI 93.8-97.2). Two-hundred and seventeen (78.6%) children achieved a mean adherence of ≥ 90%. Adherence was similar for daily and three times a week dosing schedules in univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% CI 0.66-1.17; P = 0.38) and multivariate (adjusted OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.11; P = 0.23) models. Children from overcrowded homes were less adherent (adjusted OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P = 0.02). Age at study visit was predictive of adherence, with better adherence achieved in children older than 4 years (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.32; P = 0.01). Conclusion Adherence to isoniazid was excellent regardless of the dosing schedule used. Intermittent dosing of isoniazid prophylaxis can be considered as an alternative to daily dosing, without compromising adherence or efficacy. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00330304 PMID:19886982

  12. A new hierarchical method for inter-patient heartbeat classification using random projections and RR intervals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-patient classification schema and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standards are important to the construction and evaluation of automated heartbeat classification systems. The majority of previously proposed methods that take the above two aspects into consideration use the same features and classification method to classify different classes of heartbeats. The performance of the classification system is often unsatisfactory with respect to the ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) and supraventricular ectopic beat (SVEB). Methods Based on the different characteristics of VEB and SVEB, a novel hierarchical heartbeat classification system was constructed. This was done in order to improve the classification performance of these two classes of heartbeats by using different features and classification methods. First, random projection and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble were used to detect VEB. Then, the ratio of the RR interval was compared to a predetermined threshold to detect SVEB. The optimal parameters for the classification models were selected on the training set and used in the independent testing set to assess the final performance of the classification system. Meanwhile, the effect of different lead configurations on the classification results was evaluated. Results Results showed that the performance of this classification system was notably superior to that of other methods. The VEB detection sensitivity was 93.9% with a positive predictive value of 90.9%, and the SVEB detection sensitivity was 91.1% with a positive predictive value of 42.2%. In addition, this classification process was relatively fast. Conclusions A hierarchical heartbeat classification system was proposed based on the inter-patient data division to detect VEB and SVEB. It demonstrated better classification performance than existing methods. It can be regarded as a promising system for detecting VEB and SVEB of unknown patients in clinical practice. PMID:24981916

  13. Shortening the induction delivery interval with prostaglandins: a randomized controlled trial of solo or in combination

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Rajiv; Yadav, Shweta

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol alone with dinoprostone followed by misoprostol, all inserted intravaginally in induction of labor at term and the obstetrical outcome. Material and Methods A pilot study comprising 111 primigravidae, >37 gestational weeks with singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation having an unfavorable Bishop score admitted for labor induction, were considered and randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n=55) with intravaginal 25mcg misoprostol 4 hourly (six doses at the most) and and group II (n=56), with dinoprostone 0.5mg followed eight hours later by 25mcg misoprostol induction to vaginal delivery time was found to be significantly different, being 14.8 h in group-I and shorter in group-II with a mean of 11.6 h. Vaginal delivery rates within 12 h (groups-I and −II: 47.2%, as compared to 60.7%, respectively) were found to be higher with dinoprostone-misoprostol induction, as well as vaginal delivery rates in 24 h, 80.0% and 91.1%. The need for oxytocin augmentation was more frequent in the misoprostol than in the dinoprostone-misoprostol group, (61.8%, and 39.3%), and all these observations were statistically significant. Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern occurred more frequently (18.2%) in group-I in contrast to 5.3% in group-II, as was the incidence rate of (18.2%) who had passage of meconium in group-I, this rate being significantly different from group-II having meconium passage in 3 cases, a rate of 5.3%. Conclusion Using dinoprostone followed by vaginal misoprostol is safe and effective for induction of labor with less need for oxytocin augmentation and shorter induction delivery interval. PMID:24591967

  14. Approximate confidence intervals for moment-based estimators of the between-study variance in random effects meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dan; Bowden, Jack; Baker, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Moment-based estimators of the between-study variance are very popular when performing random effects meta-analyses. This type of estimation has many advantages including computational and conceptual simplicity. Furthermore, by using these estimators in large samples, valid meta-analyses can be performed without the assumption that the treatment effects follow a normal distribution. Recently proposed moment-based confidence intervals for the between-study variance are exact under the random effects model but are quite elaborate. Here, we present a much simpler method for calculating approximate confidence intervals of this type. This method uses variance-stabilising transformations as its basis and can be used for a very wide variety of moment-based estimators in both the random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models. PMID:26287958

  15. Initial Investigations of Controller Tools and Procedures for Schedule-Based Arrival Operations with Mixed Flight-Deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Omar, Faisal G.; Prevot, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    NASA?s Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) is a multi-year effort to demonstrate high-throughput, fuel-efficient arrivals at a major U.S. airport using NASA-developed scheduling automation, controller decision-support tools, and ADS-B-enabled Flight-Deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics. First-year accomplishments include the development of a concept of operations for managing scheduled arrivals flying Optimized Profile Descents with equipped aircraft conducting FIM operations, and the integration of laboratory prototypes of the core ATD-1 technologies. Following each integration phase, a human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate and refine controller tools, procedures, and clearance phraseology. From a ground-side perspective, the results indicate the concept is viable and the operations are safe and acceptable. Additional training is required for smooth operations that yield notable benefits, particularly in the areas of FIM operations and clearance phraseology.

  16. Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, J M; Peng, C K; Ladin, Z; Wei, J Y; Goldberger, A L

    1995-01-01

    Complex fluctuations of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being 1) uncorrelated white noise, 2) short-range correlations, or 3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series, we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that successfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations. PMID:7713836

  17. An Adaptive Randomized Trial of an Intermittent Dosing Schedule of Aerosolized Ribavirin in Patients With Cancer and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chemaly, Roy F.; Torres, Harrys A.; Munsell, Mark F.; Shah, Dimpy P.; Rathod, Dhanesh B.; Bodey, Gerald P.; Hosing, Chitra; Saifan, Chadi; Raad, Issam I.; Champlin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    A continuous dosing schedule of aerosolized ribavirin has been used for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) upper respiratory tract infection and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) but is associated with high cost and inconvenient administration. We conducted an adaptive randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an intermittent dosing schedule of ribavirin versus that of a continuous dosing schedule of ribavirin in preventing RSV LRTIs in 50 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematologic malignancies. LRTI occurred in 3 patients (9%) receiving the intermittent schedule and in 4 (22%) receiving the continuous schedule, with a 0.889 posterior probability. Because the intermittent schedule is easy to administer and has a higher efficacy than the continuous schedule, we recommend the intermittent schedule for patients who are at risk for RSV LRTI. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00500578. PMID:22927454

  18. Transfer function analysis of the autonomic response to respiratory activity during random interval breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

  19. On the comparison of the interval estimation of the Pareto parameter under simple random sampling and ranked set sampling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Aissa Omar; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Dayyeh, Walid Abu; Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan

    2015-02-01

    Ranked set sampling (RSS) is recognized as a useful sampling scheme for improving the precision of the parameter estimates and increasing the efficiency of estimation. This type of scheme is appropriate when the variable of interest is expensive or time consuming to be quantified, but easy and cheap to be ranked. In this study, the estimation of the shape parameter of the Pareto distribution of the first type when the scale is known is studied for the data that are gathered under simple random sampling (SRS), RSS, and selective order statistics based on the maximum (SORSS(max)). The confidence intervals for the shape parameter of Pareto distribution under the sampling techniques considered are determined. A simulation study is carried out to compare the confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities (CPs) and expected lengths (ELs). When the coverage probabilities and expected lengths for the confidence intervals of the shape parameter of Pareto distribution determined based on the different sampling methods are compared, the coverage probabilities and expected lengths are found to be more precise under RSS as opposed to SRS. In particular, it is found that the coverage probabilities under SORSS(max) is closest to the nominal value of 0.95.

  20. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Heart Rate-Corrected QT and Tpeak-Tend Intervals During Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy With Steep Trendelenburg Position: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Han, Dong Woo; Koh, Jae Chul; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Jung Hwa; Park, Jong Min; Kim, So Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Intraperitoneal insufflation of carbon dioxide may affect the sympathetic activity that leads to changes in ventricular repolarization. This in turn can result in changes of heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-receptor agonist and has potential antiarrhythmic properties. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine administration on QTc and Tp-e intervals during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with steep Trendelenburg position.Fifty patients scheduled for robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy randomly received either a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.3 μg/kg/hour, from anesthetic induction until the end of the Trendelenburg position (dexmedetomidine group; n = 25), or the same volume of normal saline (control group; n = 25). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. The primary and secondary goals were to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the QTc and Tp-e interval changes. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were assessed as well.Forty-seven patients (94%) completed the study. Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated QTc interval prolongation and reduced the Tp-e interval, even though the baseline values of the QTc and Tp-e intervals were similar between the 2 groups (PGroup × Time = 0.001 and 0.014, respectively). Twenty-two patients (96%) in the control group and 13 (54%) in the dexmedetomidine group had QTc interval prolongation of >20 ms from the baseline value during surgery (P = 0.001). The maximum QTc interval prolongation from the baseline value during surgery was 46 ± 21 ms in the control group and 24 ± 21 ms in the dexmedetomidine group (mean ± SD, P = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were comparable between the groups.Continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.3 μg/kg/hour significantly attenuated the QTc interval prolongation induced by CO2 pneumoperitoneum with steep Trendelenburg position. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine reduced the Tp-e interval. Thus, dexmedetomidine administration may be effective for patients who are susceptible to the development of ventricular arrhythmia during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. PMID:27175685

  1. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P < 0.06). LMIE increased muscle and total fat-free body mass. Total energy expenditure (P = 0.45) did not change between the groups, whereas both improved quality of life to a similar high extent and lessened cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors. PMID:26869680

  2. On the gap and time interval between the first two maxima of long continuous time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional continuous time random walk (CTRW) on a fixed time interval T where at each time step the walker waits a random time τ, before performing a jump drawn from a symmetric continuous probability distribution function (PDF) f(η ) , of Lévy index 0<μ ≤slant 2 . Our study includes the case where the waiting time PDF \\Psi(τ ) has a power law tail, \\Psi(τ )\\propto {τ-1-γ} , with 0<γ <1 , such that the average time between two consecutive jumps is infinite. The random motion is sub-diffusive if γ <μ /2 (and super-diffusive if γ >μ /2 ). We investigate the joint PDF of the gap g between the first two highest positions of the CTRW and the time t separating these two maxima. We show that this PDF reaches a stationary limiting joint distribution p(g, t) in the limit of long CTRW, T\\to ∞ . Our exact analytical results show a very rich behavior of this joint PDF in the (γ,μ ) plane, which we study in great detail. Our main results are verified by numerical simulations. This work provides a non trivial extension to CTRWs of the recent study in the discrete time setting by Majumdar et al (2014 J. Stat. Mech. P09013).

  3. Human Responding on Random-Interval Schedules of Response-Cost Punishment: The Role of Reduced Reinforcement Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

  4. Scheduling Randomly-Deployed Heterogeneous Video Sensor Nodes for Reduced Intrusion Detection Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Congduc

    This paper proposes to use video sensor nodes to provide an efficient intrusion detection system. We use a scheduling mechanism that takes into account the criticality of the surveillance application and present a performance study of various cover set construction strategies that take into account cameras with heterogeneous angle of view and those with very small angle of view. We show by simulation how a dynamic criticality management scheme can provide fast event detection for mission-critical surveillance applications by increasing the network lifetime and providing low stealth time of intrusions.

  5. Prime-Boost Interval Matters: A Randomized Phase 1 Study to Identify the Minimum Interval Necessary to Observe the H5 DNA Influenza Vaccine Priming Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Zephir, Kathryn; Hu, Zonghui; Wei, Chih-Jen; Chang, LeeJah; Enama, Mary E.; Hendel, Cynthia S.; Sitar, Sandra; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Graham, Barney S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. H5 DNA priming was previously shown to improve the antibody response to influenza A(H5N1) monovalent inactivated vaccine (MIV) among individuals for whom there was a 24-week interval between prime and boost receipt. This study defines the shortest prime-boost interval associated with an improved response to MIV. Methods. We administered H5 DNA followed by MIV at intervals of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 24 weeks and compared responses to that of 2 doses of MIV (prime-boost interval, 24 weeks). Results. H5 DNA priming with an MIV boost ≥12 weeks later showed an improved response, with a positive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer in 91% of recipients (geometric mean titer [GMT], 141–206), compared with 55%–70% of recipients with an H5 DNA and MIV prime-boost interval of ≤8 weeks (GMT, 51–70) and 44% with an MIV-MIV prime-boost interval of 24 weeks (GMT, 27). Conclusion. H5 DNA priming enhances antibody responses after an MIV boost when the prime-boost interval is 12–24 weeks. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01086657. PMID:23633407

  6. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    PubMed

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational theories about UP states during slow wave sleep and present possible extensions of the model in the context of spike-frequency adaptation. PMID:26203657

  7. Cycle scheduling for in vitro fertilization with oral contraceptive pills versus oral estradiol valerate: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and estradiol (E2) valerate have been used to schedule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and, consequently, laboratory activities. However, there are no studies comparing treatment outcomes directly between these two pretreatment methods. This randomized controlled trial was aimed at finding differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between GnRH antagonist IVF cycles scheduled with OCPs or E2 valerate. Methods Between January and May 2012, one hundred consecutive patients (nonobese, regularly cycling women 18–38 years with normal day 3 hormone levels and <3 previous IVF/ICSI attempts) undergoing IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol were randomized to either the OCP or E2 pretreatment arms, with no restrictions such as blocking or stratification. Authors involved in data collection and analysis were blinded to group assignment. Fifty patients received OCP (30 μg ethinyl E2/150 μg levonorgestrel) for 12–16 days from day 1 or 2, and stimulation was started 5 days after stopping OCP. Similarly, 50 patients received 4 mg/day oral E2 valerate from day 20 for 5–12 days, until the day before starting stimulation. Results Pretreatment with OCP (mean±SD, 14.5±1.7 days) was significantly longer than with E2 (7.8±1.9 days). Stimulation and embryological characteristics were similar. Ongoing pregnancy rates (46.0% vs. 44.0%; risk difference, –2.0% [95% CI –21.2% to 17.3%]), as well as implantation (43.5% vs. 47.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.0% vs. 48.0%), clinical miscarriage (7.1% vs. 7.7%), and live birth (42.0% vs. 40.0%) rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions This is the first study to directly compare these two methods of cycle scheduling in GnRH antagonist cycles. Our results fail to show statistically significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between pretreatment with OCP and E2 for IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol. Although the study is limited by its sample size, our results may contribute to a future meta-analysis. An interesting future direction would be to extend our study to women with decreased ovarian reserve, as these are the patients in whom an increase in oocyte yield—due to the hypothetical beneficial effect of steroid pretreatment on follicular synchronization—could more easily be demonstrated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov http://NCT01501448. PMID:24074027

  8. Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1∶1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

  9. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D.R.; Pollock, E.; Kennedy, S.G.; Lubans, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group. PMID:26844177

  10. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States

    PubMed Central

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon’s implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike’s preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF’s exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron’s ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational theories about UP states during slow wave sleep and present possible extensions of the model in the context of spike-frequency adaptation. PMID:26203657

  11. Methods for calculating confidence and credible intervals for the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating credible intervals using informative prior distributions for the residual between-study variance is presented. Methods Two recently proposed and, under the assumptions of the random effects model, exact methods for constructing confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random effects meta-analyses are extended to the meta-regression setting. The use of Generalised Cochran heterogeneity statistics is extended to the meta-regression setting and a Newton-Raphson procedure is developed to implement the Q profile method for meta-analysis and meta-regression. WinBUGS is used to implement informative priors for the residual between-study variance in the context of Bayesian meta-regressions. Results Results are obtained for two contrasting examples, where the first example involves a binary covariate and the second involves a continuous covariate. Intervals for the residual between-study variance are wide for both examples. Conclusions Statistical methods, and R computer software, are available to compute exact confidence intervals for the residual between-study variance under the random effects model for meta-regression. These frequentist methods are almost as easily implemented as their established counterparts for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-regressions are also easily performed by analysts who are comfortable using WinBUGS. Estimates of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regressions should be routinely reported and accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty. Confidence and/or credible intervals are well-suited to this purpose. PMID:25196829

  12. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Too Much of a Good Thing: Random Practice Scheduling and Self-Control of Feedback Lead to Unique but Not Additive Learning Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asif; Fawver, Bradley; Kim, Jingu; Fairbrother, Jeffrey; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects. PMID:23233843

  14. Evaluation of Moderate Alcohol Use With QT Interval and Heart Rate Using Mendelian Randomization Analysis Among Older Southern Chinese Men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Long, Meijing; Cheng, Kar Keung; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-08-15

    Western observational studies show that moderate alcohol use is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations may be confounded by the healthier attributes of moderate users in these settings. Mendelian randomization analysis may help to ascertain the causal effect of moderate alcohol use on specific factors related to CVD and thereby clarify the role of alcohol. We used Mendelian randomization analysis with the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) as an instrumental variable to examine the association of alcohol units (10 g of ethanol) per day with heart rate-corrected QT interval and heart rate assessed from electrocardiogram among 4,588 older southern Chinese men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-2008). The F statistic was 77 for ALDH2 on alcohol use, suggesting little weak-instrument bias. Instrumental variable analysis showed that alcohol units were not associated with the corrected QT interval, with ? = 1.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.61, 2.70) milliseconds, but they were associated with increased heart rate, with ? = 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 1.92) beat per minute. This study suggests that moderate alcohol use in men is not beneficial for heart function via QT interval or heart rate but could be detrimental. Future studies using specific cardiovascular outcomes may elucidate how alcohol affects different aspects of the cardiovascular system and, hence, the overall effects of alcohol on CVD can be estimated. PMID:26153479

  15. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05). Conclusion Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these two specific regimes (Clinical Trial Registry number NCT01935323). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01935323 PMID:26489022

  16. Sustained immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered as a two-dose schedule in adolescent girls: Five-year clinical data and modeling predictions from a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Behre, Ulrich; Schulze, Karin; Hillemanns, Peter; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this randomized, partially-blind study ( clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT00541970), the licensed formulation of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (20 μg each of HPV-16/18 antigens) was found highly immunogenic up to 4 y after first vaccination, whether administered as a 2-dose (2D) schedule in girls 9-14 y or 3-dose (3D) schedule in women 15-25 y. This end-of-study analysis extends immunogenicity and safety data until Month (M) 60, and presents antibody persistence predictions estimated by piecewise and modified power law models. Healthy females (age stratified: 9-14, 15-19, 20-25 y) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (N = 240 ) or 3D at M0,1,6 (N = 239). Here, results are reported for girls 9-14 y (2D) and women 15-25 y (3D). Seropositivity rates, geometric mean titers (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and geometric mean titer ratios (GMRs; 3D/2D; post-hoc exploratory analysis) were calculated. All subjects seronegative pre-vaccination in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort were seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and -18 at M60. Antibody responses elicited by the 2D and 3D schedules were comparable at M60, with GMRs close to 1 (anti-HPV-16: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.54]; anti-HPV-18: 1.06 [0.74-1.51]). Statistical modeling predicted that in 95% of subjects, antibodies induced by 2D and 3D schedules could persist above natural infection levels for ≥ 21 y post-vaccination. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In conclusion, a 2D M0,6 schedule of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was immunogenic for up to 5 y in 9-14 y-old girls. Statistical modeling predicted that 2D-induced antibodies could persist for longer than 20 y. PMID:26176261

  17. Influence of Inter-Training Intervals on Intermanual Transfer Effects in Upper-Limb Prosthesis Training: A Randomized Pre-Posttest Study

    PubMed Central

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, “unaffected” hand to the untrained, “affected” hand) has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effects. This was done using a mechanistic, randomized, single-blinded pretest-posttest design. Sixty-four able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to the Short and Long Interval Training Groups and the Short and Long Interval Control Groups. The Short and Long Interval Training Groups used a prosthesis simulator in their training program. The Short and Long Interval Control Groups executed a sham training program, that is, a dummy training program in which the same muscles were trained as with the prosthesis simulator. The Short Interval Training Group and the Short Interval Control Groups trained on consecutive days, while the Long Interval Training Group and Long Interval Control Group trained twice a week. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and at two points in time after the training. Training was performed with the “unaffected” arm; tests were performed with the “affected” arm. The outcome measurements were: the movement time (the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task); the duration of maximum hand opening, (the opening of the prosthetic hand while grasping an object); and the grip-force control (the error from the required grip-force during a tracking task). Intermanual transfer was found in movement times, but not in hand opening or grip-force control. The length of the inter-training interval did not affect the magnitude of intermanual transfer effects. No difference in the intermanual transfer effect in upper-limb prosthesis training was found for training on a daily basis as compared to training twice a week. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3888 PMID:26075396

  18. High Intensity Interval Training in a Real World Setting: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study in Overweight Inactive Adults, Measuring Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Helen; Draper, Nick; Marshall, Helen C.; Logan, Florence J.; Hamlin, Michael J.; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Cotter, James D.; Kimber, Nicholas E.; Blackwell, Gavin; Frampton, Christopher M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. Methods Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions. Results On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N?=?49) and exit (N?=?39) O2 was 25.34.5 and 25.33.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N?=? 16, 24.24.8/25.64.8; maximal volitional interval training N?=?16, 25.02.8/25.23.4; walking N?=?17, 26.55.3/25.23.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, ?0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and ?1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p?=?0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p?=? 0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. Conclusions In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight/obese participants undertaking aerobic interval training in a real world setting was modest. The most likely reason for this finding relates to reduced adherence to the exercise program, when moving beyond the research clinic setting. Trial Registration ACTR.org.au ACTRN12610000295044 PMID:24454698

  19. A Randomized Phase II Trial Evaluating Different Schedules of Zoledronic Acid on Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Prostate Cancer Beginning Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Joshua M.; Wallace, Marianne; Becker, Jordan T.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Buehring, Bjoern; Binkley, Neil; Staab, Mary Jane; Wilding, George; Liu, Glenn; Malkovsky, Miroslav; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Although androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, the optimal timing and schedule of zoledronic acid has not been identified. This phase II trial randomized 44 men beginning androgen deprivation therapy to 3 schedules of zoledronic acid administration. Earlier or more frequent administration of zoledronic acid was found to stabilize and improve bone mineral density in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Objective To assess the effects of timing and schedule of zoledronic acid (ZA) administration on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients beginning androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of recurrent prostate cancer. Patients and Methods In this randomized, 3-arm trial, we evaluated changes in BMD after 3 different ZA administration schedules in men with recurrent prostate cancer who were beginning ADT. Forty-four patients were enrolled and randomized to receive a single dose of ZA given 1 week before beginning ADT (arm 1), a single dose of ZA given 6 months after beginning ADT (arm 2), or monthly administration of ZA starting 6 months after beginning ADT, for a total of 6 doses (arm 3). Results Patients who received ZA before ADT had a significant improvement in BMD at the total proximal femur and trochanter after 6 months compared with the other groups. In addition, only patients in the arm that received multiple doses improved lumbar spine BMD while on ADT, with these findings persisting to 24 months. However, this group also experienced more grade 1 adverse events. Conclusions Analysis of these data suggests that ZA administration before initiation of ADT was superior to treatment 6 months after starting ADT in maintaining BMD. In addition, monthly ZA administration can increase BMD above baseline but is associated with more adverse events. Further study is needed to examine whether the timing and frequency of ZA therapy in patients on ADT can reduce fracture risk. PMID:23835291

  20. Ultrasound-guided intra-articular and rotator interval corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized study.

    PubMed

    Prestgaard, Tore; Wormgoor, Marjon E A; Haugen, Simen; Harstad, Herlof; Mowinckel, Petter; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2015-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Previous studies have reported that intra-articular corticosteroid injections are of benefit compared with placebo up to 6 weeks. It has been suggested that the structures primarily involved in adhesive capsulitis are the capsule and the rotator interval. Systematic reviews have concluded that there is limited evidence of the treatment effectiveness of intra-articular corticosteroid injections and that high-quality primary research is required. The aim of this study was to compare ultrasound-guided intra-articular corticosteroid injection and combined intra-articular and rotator interval injection in a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial. The main outcome measure was the group difference in change in shoulder pain (0-10) at 6 weeks. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomized (42 to intra-articular injection, 40 to combined intra-articular/interval injection, and 40 to sham injection). For both corticosteroid injection groups, there was a significant difference compared with sham injection at week 6. The mean group difference (adjusted for gender, age, dominant arm, and duration) in change in shoulder pain for the intra-articular vs sham injection was -1.7 (95% confidence interval, -2.7 to -0.6, P = 0.002) and -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -3.2 to -1.1, P = 0.0001) for the combined injection vs sham injection. The significant group differences were maintained at week 12 but not at week 26. Similar results were found for the secondary outcome measures (night pain, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index). Differences between the corticosteroid groups were not significant at any time. PMID:25919473

  1. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon; Blas, Magaly; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Gravitt, Patti; Halsey, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred female sex workers (FSWs) in Lima, Peru were randomized to receive HPV4 vaccine in the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or a modified schedule (0, 3, 6 months). One hundred and eighty four (92%) participants completed 3 doses of vaccine. Baseline seropositive rates were 58% for HPV6, 22.5% for HPV11, 41.5% for HPV16, and 13% for HPV18. The final geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) following vaccination was significantly greater for women who were seropositive at baseline compared to seronegative women: HPV6 (GMT ratio=2.3, p<0.01), HPV11 (GMT ratio=2.7, p<0.01), HPV16 (GMT ratio=1.3, p=0.04), and HPV18 (GMT ratio=2.4, p<0.01)). Antibody titers in the modified schedule were not inferior to those in the standard schedule, suggesting the modified schedule may be paired with required STD visits. Although all women benefit from vaccination, administration at a younger age and before sexual debut is needed to achieve maximum protection from vaccine. PMID:22306855

  2. Patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care with different resident duty schedules in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Parshuram, Christopher S.; Amaral, Andre C.K.B.; Ferguson, Niall D.; Baker, G. Ross; Etchells, Edward E.; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C.; Stewart, Thomas E.; Willan, Andrew R.; Friedrich, Jan O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Methods: Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents’ physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. Results: We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents’ sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents’ somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents’ knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Interpretation: Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents’ symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. PMID:25667258

  3. Randomized Multicenter Phase II Trial Comparing Two Schedules of Etirinotecan Pegol (NKTR-102) in Women With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant/Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vergote, Ignace B.; Garcia, Agustin; Micha, John; Pippitt, Charles; Bendell, Johanna; Spitz, Daniel; Reed, Nicholas; Dark, Graham; Fracasso, Paula M.; Ibrahim, Emad N.; Armenio, Vincent A.; Duska, Linda; Poole, Chris; Gennigens, Christine; Dirix, Luc Y.; Leung, Abraham C.F.; Zhao, Carol; Soufi-Mahjoubi, Raoudha; Rustin, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is a unique, long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor with prolonged systemic exposure to SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of irinotecan. This randomized phase II trial investigated two dosing schedules of etirinotecan pegol in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian carcinoma. Patients and Methods A total of 71 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 every 14 or 21 days until progression or unacceptable adverse events (AEs). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST (version 1.0). Secondary end points included response by Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria, duration of ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results The overall confirmed ORR was 20% (95% CI, 10% to 30%): 20% for once every 14 days, and 19% for once every 21 days. Median response duration was 4.1 months for once every 14 days and 4.0 months for once every 21 days. Median PFS for every 14 and every 21 days was 4.1 and 5.3 months, respectively, and median OS was 10.0 and 11.7 months, respectively. Etirinotecan pegol was well tolerated, with the most common grade 3 to 4 AEs being dehydration (24%) and diarrhea (23%). Diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, and neutropenia were less frequent with the schedule of once every 21 days than with that of once every 14 days. Conclusion Both schedules of etirinotecan pegol showed activity in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, with encouraging ORR and PFS rates. The schedule of once every 21 days was better tolerated and had slightly longer PFS and OS rates. The treatment schedule of etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 once every 21 days was selected for the expanded phase II study and is preferred for future phase III studies. These findings provide support to directly compare etirinotecan pegol versus one of the approved drugs (eg, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24081946

  4. Multimode Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Random Environment and Its Application to a Large Scale Hydropower Construction Project

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method. PMID:24550708

  5. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance. PMID:19909536

  6. Predicting scheduling success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messing, Fredric

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical formulation to predict scheduling success for a class of problems frequently referred to as activity scheduling. Space Network communications scheduling is an example of activity scheduling. The principal assumption is that the activity start times are randomly distributed over the available time in the time line. The formulation makes it possible to estimate how much of the demand can be scheduled as a function of the demand, number of resources, activity duration, and activity flexibility. The paper includes computed results for a variety of resource and demand conditions. The results demonstrate that even with highly flexible activities, it is difficult to schedule demand greater than 60 percent of resources without the use of optimization and conflict resolution capabilities in the scheduling system.

  7. Schedule-induced licking during multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Yasuko Filby

    1972-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia was studied in rats bar pressing under two-component multiple schedules of food reinforcement. The first component of the multiple schedule was a variable-interval 1-min schedule throughout the experiment. The schedule comprising the second component was varied over blocks of sessions in terms of rate and magnitude of reinforcement, and was either variable-interval 3-min (one pellet), variable-interval 3-min (three pellets), variable-interval 1-min (one pellet), or extinction. Water intake per session varied with the rate of reinforcement in the schedule comprising the second component and was highest when the schedule was variable-interval 1-min. Both bar-pressing behavior and licking behavior showed behavioral interactions between the two components of the multiple schedules. With magnitude of reinforcement held constant, a matching relationship was observed between lick rate and reinforcement rate; the relative frequency of licks in the constant component matched the relative frequency of reinforcement in that component. Bar pressing, however, showed only a moderate degree of relativity matching. During the schedule-induced licking, a burst of licking followed each delivery of a pellet (post-prandial drinking). The duration of these bursts of licking was observed to be a function of the inter-reinforcement interval. PMID:16811598

  8. Sucralfate gel as a radioprotector against radiation induced dermatitis in a hypo-fractionated schedule: a non-randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kouloulias, V; Asimakopoulos, C; Tolia, M; Filippou, G; Platoni, K; Dilvoi, M; Beli, I; Georgakopoulos, J; Patatoukas, G; Kelekis, N

    2013-04-01

    External beam radiotherapy with high doses provokes many acute skin reactions, such as erythema and moist desquamation. Many topical preparations are used in radiation oncology departments in the skin care. Sucralfate humid gel, a colloidal physical form of the anti-ulcer drug sucralfate, promotes epithelial regeneration and activates cell proliferation. Based on this knowledge, we performed a non-randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical sucralfate gel in 30 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative accelerated hypofractionated photon beam therapy. The comparison was performed with 30 patients as historical controls. The acute reaction of the skin was significantly lower in the group receiving the sucralfate gel (p<0.05, Mann Whitney test), while 90% of the patients had no evidence of radiation induced skin toxicity. There was no sucralfate gel related toxicity reported by any patient in this study. More patients in a randomized way are needed for more definite results. PMID:24376316

  9. Nonclock behavior of inferior olive neurons: interspike interval of Purkinje cell complex spike discharge in the awake behaving monkey is random.

    PubMed

    Keating, J G; Thach, W T

    1995-04-01

    1. Complex spikes of cerebellar Purkinje cells recorded from awake, behaving monkeys were studied to determine the extent to which their discharge could be quantified as periodic. Three Rhesus monkeys were trained to perform up to five different tasks involving rotation of the wrist in relation to a visual cue. Complex spike activity was recorded during task performance and intertrial time. Interspike intervals were determined from the discharge of each of 89 Purkinje cells located throughout lobules IV, V, and VI. Autocorrelation and Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function were performed on the data. In addition, the activity from one cell was transformed so that the discharge occurred on the beat of a 10-Hz clock, and in a further transformation, on the beat of a noisy 10-Hz clock. These transformed data were then analyzed as described above. 2. Fourier transform of the autocorrelogram function of the data that had been transformed to a 10-Hz clock, and that of the noisy 10-Hz clock, both showed a prominent peak at 10 Hz. However, the autocorrelograms and the Fourier transforms of the autocorrelogram functions failed to reveal a prominent periodicity for the actual discharge of any of cells, at any frequency up to 100 Hz: the discharge appeared random with respect to the interspike interval. The discharge was not random with respect to behavior. Complex spike activity was commonly time locked to the start of wrist movement. We examined this discharge to see whether oscillatory discharge could be seen after alignment of the data on the start of wrist movement, or after alignment of the data on the complex spike occurring peri-start of wrist movement. No oscillation was seen for either alignment. 3. The inferior olive, which sends its climbing fibers to the cerebellum, has been implicated in such different activities as 1) pathological tremor of the soft palate, 2) physiological tremor, 3) the normal initiation of all bodily movement, and 4) motor learning. Previous work in pharmacologically or surgically treated animals has shown that, under some conditions, the discharge of these neurons is periodic and synchronous. This firing pattern has been interpreted to support a role in the first two activities. But measurements reported here in the awake monkey show just the opposite: the discharge is aperiodic to the extent of being random. As such, the inferior olive cannot be a "motor clock" in the general role that has been proposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7643151

  10. Bouts of Responding: The Relation between Bout Rate and the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.; Bennett, J. Adam

    2004-01-01

    By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable- interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of the variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was…

  11. Copenhagen study of overweight patients with coronary artery disease undergoing low energy diet or interval training: the randomized CUT-IT trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical activity and weight loss. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial 70 participants with stable CAD, age 45–75, body mass index 28–40 kg/m2 and no diabetes are randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of intensive exercise or weight loss both succeeded by a 40-week follow-up. The exercise protocol consist of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of VO2peak 3 times weekly for 12 weeks followed by supervised AIT twice weekly for 40 weeks. In the weight loss arm dieticians instruct the participants in a low energy diet (800–1000 kcal/day) for 12 weeks, followed by 40 weeks of weight maintenance combined with supervised AIT twice weekly. The primary endpoint of the study is change in coronary flow reserve after the first 12 weeks’ intervention. Secondary endpoints include cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and anthropometric measures. Discussion The study will compare the short and long-term effects of a protocol consisting of AIT alone or a rapid weight loss followed by AIT. Additionally, it will provide new insight in mechanisms behind the benefits of exercise and weight loss. We wish to contribute to the creation of effective secondary prevention and sustainable rehabilitation strategies in the large population of overweight and obese patients diagnosed with CAD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01724567 PMID:24252596

  12. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Armah, George; Lewis, Kristen D. C.; Cortese, Margaret M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Ansah, Akosua; Gazley, Lauren; Victor, John C.; McNeal, Monica M.; Binka, Fred; Steele, A. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The recommended schedule for receipt of 2-dose human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) coincides with receipt of the first and second doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine (ie, 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively). Alternative schedules and additional doses of HRV have been proposed and may improve vaccine performance in low-income countries. Methods. In this randomized trial in rural Ghana, HRV was administered at ages 6 and 10 weeks (group 1), 10 and 14 weeks (group 2), or 6, 10, and 14 weeks (group 3). We compared serum antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (≥20 U/mL) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) between group 1 and groups 2 and 3. Results. Ninety-three percent of participants (424 of 456) completed the study per protocol. In groups 1, 2, and 3, the IgA seroconversion frequencies among participants with IgA levels of <20 U/mL at baseline were 28.9%, 37.4%, and 43.4%, respectively (group 1 vs group 3, P = .014; group 1 vs group 2, P = .163). Postvaccination IgA GMCs were 22.1 U/mL, 26.5 U/mL, and 32.6 U/mL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (group 1 vs group 3, P = .038; group 1 vs group 2, P = .304). Conclusions. A third dose of HRV resulted in increased seroconversion frequencies and GMCs, compared with 2 doses administered at 6 and 10 weeks of age. Since there is no correlate of protection, a postmarketing effectiveness study is required to determine whether the improvement in immune response translates into a public health benefit in low-income countries. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT015751. PMID:26823335

  13. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Dong Yeub; Choi, Woo Suk; Song, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC) presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP). Materials and Methods A multimedia IC (M-IC) presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20) or the M-IC group (n=20). The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15) to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0~10) and satisfaction (range, 0~10) using a visual analogue scale. Results Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332) or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122); however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033). After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself. PMID:27169129

  14. Design and rationale of the HITTS randomized controlled trial: Effect of High-intensity Interval Training in de novo Heart Transplant Recipients in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Nytrøen, Kari; Yardley, Marianne; Rolid, Katrine; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Karason, Kristjan; Wigh, Julia Philip; Dall, Christian Have; Arora, Satish; Aakhus, Svend; Lunde, Ketil; Solberg, Ole Geir; Gustafsson, Finn; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is no consensus on how, when, and at what intensity exercise should be performed and organized after heart transplantation (HTx). Most rehabilitation programs are conducted in HTx centers, which might be impractical and costly. We have recently shown that high-intensity interval training (HIT) is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in maintenance HTx recipients, but there are no studies among de novo patients, and whether HIT is feasible and superior to moderate training in HTx recipients is unclear. A total of 120 clinically stable HTx recipients older than 18 years will be recruited from 3 Scandinavian HTx centers. Participants are randomized to HIT or moderate training, shortly after surgery. All exercises are supervised in the patients' local communities. Testing at baseline and follow-up includes the following: VO2peak (primary end point), muscle strength, body composition, quality of life, myocardial performance, endothelial function, biomarkers, and progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. A subgroup (n = 90) will also be tested at 3-year follow-up to assess long-term effects of exercise. So far, the HIT intervention is well tolerated, without any serious adverse events. We aim to test whether decentralized HIT is feasible, safe, and superior to moderate training, and whether it will lead to significant improvement in exercise capacity and less long-term complications. PMID:26856221

  15. Distribution of transition times in a stochastic model of excitable cell: Insights into the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of randomness in neuronal interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena-Carrión, Jesús; Requena-Carrión, Víctor J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytical approach to studying random patterns of activity in excitable cells. Our analytical approach uses a two-state stochastic model of excitable system based on the electrophysiological properties of refractoriness and restitution, which characterize cell recovery after excitation. By applying the notion of probability density flux, we derive the distributions of transition times between states and the distribution of interspike interval (ISI) durations for a constant applied stimulus. The derived ISI distribution is unimodal and, provided that the time spent in the excited state is constant, can be approximated by a Rayleigh peak followed by an exponential tail. We then explore the role of the model parameters in determining the shape of the derived distributions and the ISI coefficient of variation. Finally, we use our analytical results to study simulation results from the stochastic Morris-Lecar neuron and from a three-state extension of the proposed stochastic model, which is capable of reproducing multimodal ISI histograms.

  16. Interval Graph Limits

    PubMed Central

    Diaconis, Persi; Holmes, Susan; Janson, Svante

    2015-01-01

    We work out a graph limit theory for dense interval graphs. The theory developed departs from the usual description of a graph limit as a symmetric function W (x, y) on the unit square, with x and y uniform on the interval (0, 1). Instead, we fix a W and change the underlying distribution of the coordinates x and y. We find choices such that our limits are continuous. Connections to random interval graphs are given, including some examples. We also show a continuity result for the chromatic number and clique number of interval graphs. Some results on uniqueness of the limit description are given for general graph limits. PMID:26405368

  17. Randomized Trial of the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Hepatitis B Vaccine Given in an Accelerated Schedule Coadministered with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Cervical Cancer Vaccine▿†

    PubMed Central

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Haelterman, Edwige; Maes, Cathy; Levy, Jack; De Boever, Fien; Licini, Laurent; David, Marie-Pierre; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16/18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine is licensed for females aged 10 years and above and is therefore likely to be coadministered with other licensed vaccines, such as hepatitis B. In this randomized, open-label study, we compared the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine administered alone (HepB group) or with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HepB+HPV group) in healthy women aged 20 to 25 years (clinical trial NCT00637195). The hepatitis B vaccine was given at 0, 1, 2, and 12 months (an accelerated schedule which may be required by women at high risk), and the HPV-16/18 vaccine was given at 0, 1, and 6 months. One month after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine, in the according-to-protocol cohort (n = 72 HepB+HPV; n = 76 HepB), hepatitis B seroprotection rates (titer of ≥10 mIU/ml) were 96.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.5 to 99.6) and 96.9% (CI, 89.2 to 99.6) in the HepB+HPV and HepB groups, respectively, in women initially seronegative for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). Corresponding geometric mean titers of anti-HBs antibodies were 60.2 mIU/ml (CI, 40.0 to 90.5) and 71.3 mIU/ml (CI, 53.9 to 94.3). Anti-HBs antibody titers rose substantially after the fourth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All women initially seronegative for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies seroconverted after the second HPV-16/18 vaccine dose and remained seropositive up to 1 month after the third dose. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated, with no difference in reactogenicity between groups. In conclusion, coadministration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine did not affect the immunogenicity or safety of the hepatitis B vaccine administered in an accelerated schedule in young women. PMID:21734063

  18. Interchangeability of Quinvaxem during primary vaccination schedules: results from a phase IV, single-blind, randomized, controlled, single-center, non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    Capeding, Maria Rosario Z; Jica, Corina; Macura-Biegun, Anna; Rauscher, Martina; Alberto, Edison

    2014-02-01

    Combination vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) represent the core of childhood vaccination programs. Quinvaxem, a fully-liquid, pentavalent combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis B (HepB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and whole-cell pertussis (wP) antigens, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, has been shown to be suitable for boosting children primed in infancy with another DTwP-HepB-Hib vaccine. This single-blind, randomized, controlled study was designed to demonstrate non-inferiority of a primary vaccination course (6-10-14 week schedule) of Tritanrix HB+Hib (first dose) and Quinvaxem (second/third doses) versus three doses of Quinvaxem with respect to the seroprotection/seroconversion rates for all antigens one month after vaccination course completion. Four hundred healthy subjects eligible for the local Expanded Program on Immunization were enrolled and equally randomized to the two treatment regimens. All subjects achieved seroprotection for tetanus and Hib, all except one for diphtheria, and all except two achieved seroconversion against Bordetella pertussis. Seroprotection against hepatitis B was achieved by 97.4% of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem and 94.9% of Quinvaxem subjects. Therefore, one month after vaccination course completion, seroprotection rates (seroconversion rate for B. pertussis) of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem were non-inferior to those elicited by Quinvaxem only, thus meeting the primary objective. Adverse events were comparable between the groups and were in line with the safety profile of the vaccines. The switch of vaccine had no apparent effect on safety endpoints. Our results support the use of Quinvaxem interchangeably with Tritanrix HB+Hib in a primary vaccination course and provides further evidence for the interchangeability of pentavalent vaccines (Clinical Trials.gov registry: NCT01357720). PMID:24176498

  19. Online Selection of Intervals and t-Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Unnar Th.; Halldórsson, Magnús M.; Shachnai, Hadas

    A t-interval is a union of at most t half-open intervals on the real line. An interval is the special case where t = 1. Requests for contiguous allocation of a linear resource can be modeled as a sequence of t-intervals. We consider the problems of online selection of intervals and t-intervals, which show up in Video-on-Demand services, high speed networks and molecular biology, among others. We derive lower bounds and (almost) matching upper bounds on the competitive ratios of randomized algorithms for selecting intervals, 2-intervals and t-intervals, for any t > 2. While offline t-interval selection has been studied before, the online version is considered here for the first time.

  20. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  1. Choice between concurrent schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Menlove, Ronald L.; Moffitt, Marilynne; Shimp, Charles P.

    1973-01-01

    Six pigeons pecked for food in a three-key experiment. A subject at any time could choose the left or right key and receive reinforcement according to one two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule of reinforcement, or it could peck the center key. A peck on the center key arranged the complementary two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule on the left and right keys. The two different two-key concurrent schedules arranged reinforcements concurrently and were signalled by two different colors of key lights. Choice behavior in the presence of a given color conformed to the usual relationship in two-key concurrent schedules: the relative frequency of responding on a key approximately equalled the relative frequency of reinforcement on that key. Preference for a two-key concurrent schedule, which was equivalent to preference for a color, was measured by the percentage of all responses on the left and right keys in the presence of that color: this percentage approximately equalled the percentage of all reinforcements that were delivered in the presence of that color. Thus, choice between concurrent schedules conforms approximately to the same relationship as does choice between alternatives in a single concurrent schedule. PMID:16811668

  2. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  3. Response strength in extreme multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Nevin, John A

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess resistance to change. Contrary to the generalized matching law, logarithms of response ratios in the two components were not a linear function of log reinforcer ratios, implying a failure of parameter invariance. Over a 2 log unit range, the function appeared linear and indicated undermatching, but in conditions with more extreme reinforcer ratios, approximate matching was observed. A model suggested by McLean (1991), originally for local contrast, predicts these changes in sensitivity to reinforcer ratios somewhat better than models by Herrnstein (1970) and by Williams and Wixted (1986). Prefeeding tests of resistance to change were conducted at each reinforcer ratio, and relative resistance to change was also a nonlinear function of log reinforcer ratios, again contrary to conclusions from previous work. Instead, the function suggests that resistance to change in a component may be determined partly by the rate of reinforcement and partly by the ratio of reinforcers to responses. PMID:22287804

  4. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  5. Maintenance scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Peffley, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements for daily, weekly, monthly and overtime maintenance scheduling of coal-fired power plants are discussed. It is concluded that maintenance scheduling is as essential as the physical performance of the work itself. By prescheduling maintenance, the optimum utilization of manpower and equipment reliability will be obtained. Spare parts, special tools and service engineer requirements can be anticipated with reasonable scheduling. Meetings are a distasteful word in anyone's vocabulary. However, close communication, between operation and maintenance, is a must to insure that both departments are aware of the job status and progress. Improved communication and scheduling of equipment maintenance can help break down the barrier that has developed between the two Departments.

  6. Interval training based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold increases cardiac vagal modulation and decreases high-sensitivity c-reative protein: randomized clinical trial in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamburus, Nayara Y.; Paula, Roberta F. L.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; César, Marcelo C.; Moreno, Marlene A.; da Silva, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity are involved in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and exercise training has been shown to confer a cardiovascular benefit. Objective: To evaluate the effects that interval training (IT) based on ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) has on heart rate variability (HRV) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as the relationship between both levels, in patients with CAD and/or cardiovascular risk factors (RF). Method: Forty-two men (aged 57.88±6.20 years) were divided into two training groups, CAD-T (n= 12) and RF-T (n= 10), and two control groups, CAD-C (n= 10) and RF-C (n=10). Heart rate and RR intervals in the supine position, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and hs-CRP levels were measured before and after IT. HRV was analyzed by spectral and symbolic analysis. The CAD-T and RF-T underwent a 16-week IT program of three weekly sessions at training intensities based on the VAT. Results: In the RF-T, cardiac sympathetic modulation index and hs-CRP decreased (p<0.02), while cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased (p<0.02). In the CAD-T, cardiac parasympathetic modulation index increased, while hs-CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressures decreased (p<0.02). Both control groups showed increase in hs-CRP parameters (p<0.02). There was a strong and significant association between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulations with hs-CRP. Conclusion: The IT program based on the VAT promoted a decrease in hs-CRP associated with improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:26647745

  7. Discrimination of Variable Schedules Is Controlled by Interresponse Times Proximal to Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…

  8. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  9. Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645

  10. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Pires, Flávio O.; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.; Deslandes, Andrea C.; Santos, Tony M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Methods Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7–10 x [4–6 min—highest sustainable intensity / 4–6 min—CR100 10–15]) and SIT (8–12 x [30 s—all-out intensity / 4 min—CR100 10–15]) protocols were included in the participants’ regular training programs three times per week. Results Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen’s d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865 PMID:26789124

  11. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. PMID:26265792

  12. Effectiveness of motor sequential learning according to practice schedules in healthy adults; distributed practice versus massed practice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Myoung Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of motor sequential learning according to two different types of practice schedules, distributed practice schedule (two 12-hour inter-trial intervals) and massed practice schedule (two 10-minute inter-trial intervals) using a serial reaction time (SRT) task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy subjects were recruited and then randomly and evenly assigned to either the distributed practice group or the massed practice group. All subjects performed three consecutive sessions of the SRT task following one of the two different types of practice schedules. Distributed practice was scheduled for two 12-hour inter-session intervals including sleeping time, whereas massed practice was administered for two 10-minute inter-session intervals. Response time (RT) and response accuracy (RA) were measured in at pre-test, mid-test, and post-test. [Results] For RT, univariate analysis demonstrated significant main effects in the within-group comparison of the three tests as well as the interaction effect of two groups × three tests, whereas the between-group comparison showed no significant effect. The results for RA showed no significant differences in neither the between-group comparison nor the interaction effect of two groups × three tests, whereas the within-group comparison of the three tests showed a significant main effect. [Conclusion] Distributed practice led to enhancement of motor skill acquisition at the first inter-session interval as well as at the second inter-interval the following day, compared to massed practice. Consequentially, the results of this study suggest that a distributed practice schedule can enhance the effectiveness of motor sequential learning in 1-day learning as well as for two days learning formats compared to massed practice. PMID:25931727

  13. Effects of conventional vs high-dose rocuronium on the QTc interval during anesthesia induction and intubation in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery: a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, T; Ağdanli, D; Bayturan, Ö; Çikrikci, C; Keleş, G T

    2015-04-01

    Myocardial ischemia, as well as the induction agents used in anesthesia, may cause corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. The objective of this randomized, double-blind trial was to determine the effects of high- vs conventional-dose bolus rocuronium on QTc duration and the incidence of dysrhythmias following anesthesia induction and intubation. Fifty patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery were randomly allocated to receive conventional-dose (0.6 mg/kg, group C, n=25) or high-dose (1.2 mg/kg, group H, n=25) rocuronium after induction with etomidate and fentanyl. QTc, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were recorded before induction (T0), after induction (T1), after rocuronium (just before laryngoscopy; T2), 2 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T4). The occurrence of dysrhythmias was recorded. In both groups, QTc was significantly longer at T3 than at baseline [475 vs 429 ms in group C (P=0.001), and 459 vs 434 ms in group H (P=0.005)]. The incidence of dysrhythmias in group C (28%) and in group H (24%) was similar. The QTc after high-dose rocuronium was not significantly longer than after conventional-dose rocuronium in patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery who were induced with etomidate and fentanyl. In both groups, compared with baseline, QTc was most prolonged at 2 min after intubation, suggesting that QTc prolongation may be due to the nociceptive stimulus of intubation. PMID:25714880

  14. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  15. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  16. Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session…

  17. Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session

  18. Everolimus Initiation With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in De Novo Heart Transplant Recipients: Three-Year Results From the Randomized SCHEDULE Study.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F; Eiskjaer, H; Rådegran, G; Gude, E; Jansson, K; Solbu, D; Karason, K; Arora, S; Dellgren, G; Gullestad, L

    2016-04-01

    In a randomized, open-label trial, de novo heart transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus (3-6 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI; cyclosporine) to weeks 7-11 after transplant, followed by increased everolimus exposure (target 6-10 ng/mL) with cyclosporine withdrawal or standard-exposure cyclosporine. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. A total of 110 of 115 patients completed the 12-month study, and 102 attended a follow-up visit at month 36. Mean measured GFR (mGFR) at month 36 was 77.4 mL/min (standard deviation [SD] 20.2 mL/min) versus 59.2 mL/min (SD 17.4 mL/min) in the everolimus and CNI groups, respectively, a difference of 18.3 mL/min (95% CI 11.1-25.6 mL/min; p < 0.001) in the intention to treat population. Multivariate analysis showed treatment to be an independent determinant of mGFR at month 36. Coronary intravascular ultrasound at 36 months revealed significantly reduced progression of allograft vasculopathy in the everolimus group compared with the CNI group. Biopsy-proven acute rejection grade ≥2R occurred in 10.2% and 5.9% of everolimus- and CNI-treated patients, respectively, during months 12-36. Serious adverse events occurred in 37.3% and 19.6% of everolimus- and CNI-treated patients, respectively (p = 0.078). These results suggest that early CNI withdrawal after heart transplantation supported by everolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids with lymphocyte-depleting induction is safe at intermediate follow-up. This regimen, used selectively, may offer adequate immunosuppressive potency with a sustained renal advantage. PMID:26820618

  19. Evaluating LSST Schedule Realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Ridgway, S. T.; Cook, K. H.; Petry, C.; Jones, R. L.; Krughoff, K. S.; Ivezic, Z.; LSST Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    How would one quantify and graphically represent the scientific performance of various scientific goals of a survey strategy? A simulated 10-year LSST observing schedule will produce 2.5x106 visits and in order to evaluate a simulated schedule, the project, collaborating scientists and team have defined tools called Merit Functions. Each Merit Function evaluates the success of a simulation in acquiring images with properties which characterize a specific parameter. Each Merit Function can be applied to a set of simulations, providing a single numerical value (a Metric) representative of the function and the simulation. The complete set of metric values can be used to quantitatively compare the performance of multiple simulated schedules. At present we are working with 6 groups of Merit functions: Airmass, Astrometry, Early Good Images, Randomization, Solar System, Variables & Transients and Uniformity. The Metrics derived from the Merit functions offer the possibility of comparing simulations quantitatively, within the context of defined functions. However, with dozens of metrics, it is still a challenge to present the results in a format that is both informative and objective. In this poster we show an early attempt to summarize the comparison of metric sets graphically.

  20. Reducing barriers to timely MR imaging scheduling.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Brooke V; Moriarity, Andrew K; Ametlli, Vanda; Kastan, David J

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study at the authors' large health system in 2011 required considerable preparation before an appointment time was given to a patient. Difficulties in promptly scheduling appointments resulted from the varying time required for examinations, depending on the requested protocol, availability of appropriate MR imaging equipment, examination timing, prior insurance authorization verification, and proper patient screening. These factors contributed to a backlog of patients to schedule that regularly exceeded 300. A multidisciplinary process-improvement team was assembled to improve the turnaround time for scheduling an outpatient MR imaging examination (the interval between the time when the order was received and the time when the patient was informed about the MR imaging appointment). Process improvements targeted by the team included protocol turnaround time, schedule standardization, schedule intervals, examination timing, service standards, and scheduling redesign. Using lean methods and multiple plan-do-check-act cycles, the time to schedule an outpatient MR imaging examination improved from 117 hours to 33 hours, a 72% reduction, during the 9-month study period in 2011-2012. The number of patients in the scheduling queue was reduced by 90%. Overall MR imaging examinations within the specific patient population studied increased from 773 patient studies during the first month of intervention to 1444 studies the following month and averaged over 1279 patient studies per month throughout the study. PMID:25384302

  1. The Effects of Interval Duration on Temporal Tracking and Alternation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Staddon, John E. R.

    2005-01-01

    On cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules, animals typically show a postreinforcement pause that is a function of the immediately preceding time interval ("temporal tracking"). Animals, however, do not track single-alternation schedules--when two different intervals are presented in strict alternation on successive trials. In this experiment,…

  2. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. PMID:26979136

  3. Enhancing the Selection of Backoff Interval Using Fuzzy Logic over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff—BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066

  4. Enhancing the selection of backoff interval using fuzzy logic over wireless Ad Hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff-BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066

  5. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  6. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  7. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  8. The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…

  9. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. This viewgraph presentation contains a flow chart for conducting a schedule risk assessment, and profiles applicable several methods of data analysis.

  10. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  11. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  12. Responding maintained under intermittent schedules of electric-shock presentation: “Safety” or schedule effects?

    PubMed Central

    Malagodi, E. F.; Gardner, Michael L.; Ward, Susan E.; Magyar, Regis L.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted in which lever pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under multiple, mixed, or chained schedules of electric-shock presentation. In the first two experiments, a multiple schedule was employed in which a fixed-interval schedule of shock presentation alternated with a signaled two-minute component. Initially, no events were scheduled during the two-minute component (a safety period). In the first experiment, the safety period was “degraded” by introducing and systematically increasing the frequency of periodic shocks presented during that component. In the second experiment, the proportion of overall safe time to unsafe time was decreased by decreasing the value of the fixed-interval schedule while holding constant shock frequency during the two-minute component. In the third experiment, the overall arrangement was changed from a multiple to a mixed schedule in an attempt to determine whether fixed-interval responding would be maintained when a single exteroceptive stimulus was associated with both components. In the fourth experiment, the overall arrangement was changed from a multiple to a chained schedule in an effort to determine whether fixed-interval responding would be maintained when its consequence was presentation of a signaled “unsafe” period. Fixed-interval responding was well maintained under all experimental conditions; the varied relationships obtained lend more support to conceptualizations of shock-maintained behavior as exemplifying schedule-controlled behavior than to suggestions that such behavior may be readily accounted for by “safety theory.” PMID:16812238

  13. Optimizing Operating Room Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Levine, Wilton C; Dunn, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the management of an operating room (OR) schedule and use of the schedule to add value to an organization. We review the methodology of an OR block schedule, daily OR schedule management, and post anesthesia care unit patient flow. We discuss the importance of a well-managed OR schedule to ensure smooth patient care, not only in the OR, but throughout the entire hospital. PMID:26610624

  14. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  15. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, Schedule L, Schedule M-1, Schedule M-2, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service..., Schedule D, Schedule K-1, Schedule L, Schedule M-1, Schedule M-2, and Schedule M-3. Abstract:...

  16. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  17. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Two-Day Regimen of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Prevention Halted for Concern over Prolonged Corrected QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Jessica; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Somethy, Sok; Phann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Mitprasat, Mashamon; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Soh, Eugene; Timmermans, Ans; Lanteri, Charlotte; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Auayporn, Montida; Tang, Douglas; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min to 3 h of a meal once per month for a planned 4-month period with periodic electrocardiographic and pharmacokinetic assessment. The study was halted after only 6 weeks (69 of 231 projected volunteers enrolled) when four volunteers met a prespecified cardiac safety endpoint of QTcF (Fridericia's formula for correct QT interval) prolongation of >500 ms. The pharmacodynamic effect on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) peaked approximately 4 h after piperaquine dosing and lasted 4 to 8 h. Unblinded review by the data safety monitoring board revealed mean QTcF prolongation of 46 ms over placebo at the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) on day 2. Given that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the few remaining effective antimalarial agents in Cambodia, compressed 2-day treatment courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are best avoided until the clinical significance of these findings are more thoroughly evaluated. Because ECG monitoring is often unavailable in areas where malaria is endemic, repolarization risk could be mitigated by using conventional 3-day regimens, fasting, and avoidance of repeated dosing or coadministration with other QT-prolonging medications. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01624337.) PMID:25092702

  18. Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todorov, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal duration. This duration of exposure was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to the rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component was studied. Results are plotted and discussed.

  19. Altering Schedules of Reinforcement for Improved Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Ronnie N.; Apfel, Cathy H.

    1976-01-01

    A variable interval schedule of reinforcement was used with five behavior disordered boys (7-13 years old) to improve attending and study behavior of the children during the communicative skills period. (SBH)

  20. New packet scheduling algorithm in wireless CDMA data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Zhuo; Li, Shaoqian; Li, Lemin

    2002-08-01

    The future 3G/4G wireless communication systems will provide internet access for mobile users. Packet scheduling algorithms are essential for QoS of diversified data traffics and efficient utilization of radio spectrum.This paper firstly presents a new packet scheduling algorithm DSTTF under the assumption of continuous transmission rates and scheduling intervals for CDMA data networks . Then considering the constraints of discrete transmission rates and fixed scheduling intervals imposed by the practical system, P-DSTTF, a modified version of DSTTF, is brought forward. Both scheduling algorithms take into consideration of channel condition, packet size and traffic delay bounds. The extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithms are superior to some typical ones in current research. In addition, both static and dynamic wireless channel model of multi-level link capacity are established. These channel models sketch better the characterizations of wireless channel than two state Markov model widely adopted by the current literature.

  1. The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random…

  2. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  3. Operant schedule transformations and human behavioral momentum.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Lawrence, J B

    1997-09-01

    Behavioral momentum, which can be defined as the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology, and has relevance to behavior therapy in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies. The present study investigated whether changing operant schedule contingencies affects how humans respond to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen subjects participated in a computer study, in which each of two keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement, multiple variable interval schedules, the only difference being that one reinforcer was ten times larger than the other. After six sessions, the contingency schedule changed to either an extinction condition, a variable time schedule, or a changed variable interval schedule to assess how 'subjects' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. Results of this study were found to be consistent with the general predictions of behavioral momentum. Subjects not only biased responding in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, subjects showed continued biased responding. Implications for behavioral momentum for behavior modification and behavior therapy are discussed, and it is concluded that behavioral momentum has significant implications for designing new and comprehensive behavior change programs. PMID:9327296

  4. An RF interference mitigation methodology with potential applications in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Software tools for interference analysis and mitigation were developed in the Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) environment for: communications performance evaluation; and mission planning. Potential applications are seen in analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules. Tools producing required separation angles and potential interference intervals can be used as an aid to mutual interference mitigation within a scheduling system.

  5. Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

  6. Distributed scheduling with COMPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rufat-Latre, Jorge; Culbert, Chris

    1991-01-01

    COMPASS (COMPuter Aided Scheduling System) is a sophisticated, interactive scheduling tool used within NASA. Like most existing tools, however, COMPASS is a single-user application. There is a large class of scheduling problems which may be better solved by allowing several people at various locations to build separate schedules with shared resources. DISCORS (DIStributed COmputer Resource Scheduling) is a set of services which support a distributed version of COMPASS. This architecture naturally accommodates the integration of user-defined resource models without modifying COMPASS. DISCORS services include the ability to establish and manage communications, to code messages in efficient formats, to provide fault detection and recovery, and to configure schedulers across a network. In its present form, DISCORS effectively supports distributed COMPASS, but fails to run fast and to guarantee efficient schedules. Further enhancements may allow several users to simultaneously and interactively work together to create complex schedules while COMPASS detects and coordinates the resolution of conflicting requests.

  7. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  8. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  9. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  10. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

  11. Musical intervals in speech

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes. PMID:17525146

  12. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  13. Iterative modulo scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, B.R.

    1996-02-01

    Modulo scheduling is a framework within which algorithms for software pipelining innermost loops may be defined. The framework specifies a set of constraints that must be met in order to achieve a legal modulo schedule. A wide variety of algorithms and heuristics can be defined within this framework. Little work has been done to evaluate and compare alternative algorithms and heuristics for modulo scheduling from the viewpoints of schedule quality as well as computational complexity. This, along with a vague and unfounded perception that modulo scheduling is computationally expensive as well as difficult to implement, have inhibited its corporation into product compilers. This paper presents iterative modulo scheduling, a practical algorithm that is capable of dealing with realistic machine models. The paper also characterizes the algorithm in terms of the quality of the generated schedules as well as the computational incurred.

  14. The Scheduling of Knowledge of Results.

    PubMed

    Kohl, R. M.; Guadagnoli, M. A.

    1996-09-01

    The experiments outlined in this article were performed so that the acquisition effects of KR scheduling on no-KR retention could be determined. In Experiment 1, the group that alternated between 12 KR and 12 no-KR responses produced better retention than both the group that alternated between 6 KR and 6 no-KR responses and an all-KR group. The partial KR group that performed the best on retention also received the least number of reversals from KR to no-KR responses, however. In Experiment 2, when acquisition KR reversals ere held constant for partial KR groups, groups that received either random KR scheduling or all KR produced similar and better retention that groups who received blocked KR scheduling. These results were reconciled with KR frequency experiments by proposing that memory processes invoked by KR protocols decrease from KR frequency, to reversal, to scheduling conditions. PMID:12529206

  15. A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. PMID:25254244

  16. PLAN-IT - Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, W. C.; Henricks, J. A.; Wong, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered. 13 references.

  17. PLAN-IT - Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

    1987-01-01

    A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

  18. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  19. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  20. Using Filtered Forecasting Techniques to Determine Personalized Monitoring Schedules for Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Greggory J.; Lavieri, Mariel S.; Helm, Jonathan E.; Liu, Xiang; Musch, David C.; Van Oyen, Mark P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether dynamic and personalized schedules of visual field (VF) testing and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements result in an improvement in disease progression detection compared with fixed interval schedules for performing these tests when evaluating patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design Secondary analyses using longitudinal data from two randomized controlled trials. Participants 571 participants from Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) and Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Methods Perimetric and tonometric data were obtained for AGIS and CIGTS trial participants and used to parameterize and validate a Kalman filter model. The Kalman filter updates knowledge about each participant’s disease dynamics as additional VF tests and IOP measurements are obtained. After incorporating the most recent VF and IOP measurements, the model forecasts each participant’s disease dynamics into the future and characterizes the forecasting error. To determine personalized schedules for future VF tests and IOP measurements, we developed an algorithm by combining the Kalman filter for state estimation with the predictive power of logistic regression to identify OAG progression. The algorithm was compared against 1, 1.5, and 2 year fixed interval schedules of obtaining VF and IOP measurements. Main Outcome Measures Length of diagnostic delay in detecting OAG progression, efficiency of detecting progression, number of VF and IOP measurements needed to assess for progression. Results Participants were followed in the AGIS and CIGTS trials for a mean (standard deviation) of 6.5 (2.8) years. Our forecasting model achieved a 29% increased efficiency in identifying OAG progression (p<0.0001) and detected OAG progression 57% sooner (reduced diagnostic delay) (p= 0.02) than following a fixed yearly monitoring schedule, without increasing the number of VF tests and IOP measurements required. The model performed well on patients with mild and advanced disease. The model performed significantly more testing on patients who exhibited OAG progression than non-progressing patients (1.3 vs. 1.0 tests per year; p<0.0001). Conclusion Use of dynamic and personalized testing schedules can enhance the efficiency of OAG progression detection and reduce diagnostic delay as compared with yearly fixed monitoring intervals. If further validation studies confirm these findings, such algorithms may be able to greatly enhance OAG management. PMID:24704136

  1. Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

  2. Student and Faculty Preferences for Class Scheduling Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    A random sample of 55 faculty and 593 students in 28 classes was surveyed to determine class scheduling preferences for three-semester-hour courses and to relate them to existing scheduling patterns at Moraine Valley Community College. Fifty-five percent of the students preferred two 90-minute class sessions per week, 27% preferred one three-hour…

  3. Schedule quality assessment metrics.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Richard J; Nelson, Millicent F

    2009-01-01

    Hospital unit staff scheduling continues to be a critical challenge directly impacting unit and facility performance. The creation of a quality future work schedule that balances unit needs (providing adequate staff across multiple skills) versus employee needs (honoring as many employee requests as feasible) is the first step toward ensuring the most efficient and effective use of staff resources. As an alternative to the use of expensive computer scheduling systems, this article sets forth a set of easy-to-understand and easy-to-measure schedule quality metrics that can be used via any basic spreadsheet application. The use of these metrics allows unit leaders to assess the "goodness" of a schedule and focus on identified opportunities toward improving the schedule resulting in a better match to the unit plan of expected volume/census. Higher quality schedules lead to more efficient use of staff resources by ensuring that resources are fully scheduled before reaching out to more expensive premium labor such as overtime or agency and to more effective use of resources by ensuring that schedules are as complete as possible to cover expected volumes. Resulting decreases in last-minute staff adjustments via better planning contribute to higher staff satisfaction and better patient care. PMID:19433933

  4. Dynamic Scheduling in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Allen; Roberts, Sohaila

    2004-07-01

    The scheduling subsystem of the ALMA software system is described. Since weather will play such an important role in science observations with ALMA, the telescope will operate primarily in a dynamic scheduling mode. Current environmental conditions together with the current state of the telescope itself will be used to algorithmically determine the best scheduling block to execute at any time. This technique implements a micro-scheduler; at each moment in time it answers the question: ``What is the best thing to do now?'' The fundamental concepts used to solve this problem are presented as well as the software architecture of this subsystem.

  5. Determinants of human performance on concurrent schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, P J; Lowe, C F

    1993-01-01

    Six experiments, each with 5 human adults, were conducted to investigate the determinants of human performance on multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules. A two-key procedure was employed in which subjects' key presses produced points exchangeable for money. Variables manipulated across experiments were (a) changeover delay (Experiments 2, 4, and 6), (b) ordinal cues related to scheduled reinforcement frequencies (Experiments 3 and 4), and (c) instructions describing the ordinal relations between schedule-correlated stimuli and scheduled reinforcement frequency (Experiments 5 and 6). The performances of only 13 of the 30 subjects could be described by the generalized matching equation and were within a range of values typical of those reported in the animal literature. Eight subjects showed indifference, 9 undermatched, 7 approximated matching, 3 overmatched, and a further 3 responded exclusively to the richer component of the concurrent schedules. These differing modes of responding were closely related to the different types of performance rules reported by subjects in postexperimental questionnaires. The results are in good agreement with those from studies of human performance on single schedules, suggesting that rule-governed behavior, in interaction with contingencies, may be an important determinant of human choice. PMID:8433066

  6. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  7. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters. PMID:26679572

  8. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  9. Requested meals versus scheduled meals

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolini, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis). In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight). In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea. Methods We trained a “recognizing request” meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls. Results In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001), as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood glucose, significantly lower energy intake, and recovery from diarrhea, whereas scheduled meals are associated with high blood glucose, higher energy intake, and persistence of diarrhea. The disparities in blood glucose levels and energy intake disprove the null hypothesis, suggesting the need for a change from scheduled to requested meals early on in food administration, ie, during the neonatal period. PMID:22536091

  10. Wave scheduling - Decentralized scheduling of task forces in multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tilborg, A. M.; Wittie, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Decentralized operating systems that control large multicomputers need techniques to schedule competing parallel programs called task forces. Wave scheduling is a probabilistic technique that uses a hierarchical distributed virtual machine to schedule task forces by recursively subdividing and issuing wavefront-like commands to processing elements capable of executing individual tasks. Wave scheduling is highly resistant to processing element failures because it uses many distributed schedulers that dynamically assign scheduling responsibilities among themselves. The scheduling technique is trivially extensible as more processing elements join the host multicomputer. A simple model of scheduling cost is used by every scheduler node to distribute scheduling activity and minimize wasted processing capacity by using perceived workload to vary decentralized scheduling rules. At low to moderate levels of network activity, wave scheduling is only slightly less efficient than a central scheduler in its ability to direct processing elements to accomplish useful work.

  11. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  12. Trimester Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

  13. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  14. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  15. A study of the impact of scheduling parameters in heterogeneous computing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Sarah S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for exploring system scheduler parameter settings in a heterogeneous computing environment. Through the coupling of simulation and optimization techniques, this work investigates optimal scheduling intervals, the impact of job arrival prediction on scheduling, as well as how to best apply fair use policies. The developed simulation framework is quick and modular, enabling decision makers to further explore decisions in real-time regarding scheduling policies or parameter changes.

  16. A MIP Model for Rolling Horizon Surgery Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Luo, Yong; You, Yang; Cheng, Yuanjun; Shi, Yingkang; Gong, Renrong

    2016-05-01

    Most surgery scheduling is done 1 day in advance. Caused by lack of overall planning, this scheduling scheme often results in unbalanced occupancy time of the operating rooms. So we put forward a rolling horizon mixed integer programming model for the scheduling. Rolling horizon scheduling refers to a scheduling scheme in which cyclic surgical requests are taken into account. Surgical requests are updated daily. The completed surgeries are eliminated, and new surgeries are added to the scheduling list. Considering day-to-day demand for surgery, we develop a non-rolling scheduling model (NRSM) and a rolling horizon scheduling model (RSM). By comparing the two, we find that the quality of surgery scheduling is significantly influenced by the variation in demand from day to day. A rolling horizon scheduling will enable a more flexible planning of the pool of surgeries that have not been scheduled into this main blocks, and hence minimize the idle time of operating rooms. The strategy of the RSM helps balance the occupancy time among operating rooms. Using surgical data from five departments of the West China Hospital (WCH), we generate surgical demands randomly to compare the NRSM and the RSM. The results show the operating rooms' average utilization rate using RSM is significantly higher than when applying NRSM. PMID:27071394

  17. Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, G P; Iwata, B A; Thompson, R H

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior. Three participants whose problem behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement were treated successfully with FCT in which reinforcement for alternative behavior was initially delivered on fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. One participant was then exposed to increasing delays to reinforcement under FR 1, a graduated fixed-interval (FI) schedule, and a graduated multiple-schedule arrangement in which signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction were alternated. Results showed that (a) increasing delays resulted in extinction of the alternative behavior, (b) the FI schedule produced undesirably high rates of the alternative behavior, and (c) the multiple schedule resulted in moderate and stable levels of the alternative behavior as the duration of the extinction component was increased. The other 2 participants were exposed to graduated mixed-schedule (unsignaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) and multiple-schedule (signaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) arrangements in which the durations of the reinforcement and extinction components were modified. Results obtained for these 2 participants indicated that the use of discriminative stimuli in the multiple schedule facilitated reinforcement schedule thinning. Upon completion of treatment, problem behavior remained low (or at zero), whereas alternative behavior was maintained as well as differentiated during a multiple-schedule arrangement consisting of a 4-min extinction period followed by a 1-min reinforcement period. PMID:11317985

  18. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  19. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  20. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

  1. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  2. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  3. Resistance to extinction after schedules of partial delay or partial reinforcement in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J; Ursin, H; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to establish the reason why hippocampal lesions apparently block the development of tolerance for aversive events in partial reinforcement experiments, but do not do so in partial punishment experiments. Rats were trained to run in a straight alley following hippocampal lesions (HC), cortical control lesions (CC) or sham operations (SO), and resistance to extinction was assessed following differing acquisition conditions. In Experiment 1 a 4-8 min inter-trial interval (ITI) was used. Either every acquisition trial was rewarded immediately (Continuous Reinforcement, CR), or only a randomly selected half of the trials were immediately rewarded, the reward being delayed for thirty seconds on the other trials (Partial Delay, PD). This delay procedure produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. In Experiment 2 the ITI was reduced to a few seconds, and rats were trained either on a CR schedule, or on a schedule in which only half the trials were rewarded (Partial Reinforcement, PR). This form of partial reinforcement procedure also produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. It thus appears that hippocampal lesions only prevent the development of resistance to aversive events when the interval between aversive and subsequent appetitive events exceeds some minimum value. PMID:4029302

  4. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate missions where communications resources are limited, requiring autonomous planning and execution. Unlike typical networks, spacecraft networks are also suited to automated planning and scheduling because many communications can be planned in advance.

  5. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Network Scheduling is the scheduling of future communications of a network by nodes in the network. This report details software for doing this onboard spacecraft in a remote network. While prior work on distributed scheduling has been applied to remote spacecraft networks, the software reported here focuses on modeling communication activities in greater detail and including quality of service constraints. Our main results are based on a Mars network of spacecraft and include identifying a maximum opportunity of improving traverse exploration rate a factor of three; a simulation showing reduction in one-way delivery times from a rover to Earth from as much as 5 to 1.5 hours; simulated response to unexpected events averaging under an hour onboard; and ground schedule generation ranging from seconds to 50 minutes for 15 to 100 communication goals.

  6. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  7. Scheduling simulation in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Allen R.

    2004-09-01

    The scheduling subsystem within the ALMA software system is designed to manage the execution of approved observing projects. Since weather will play such an important role in science observations with ALMA, the telescope will operate primarily in a dynamic scheduling mode. Current environmental conditions together with the current state of the telescope itself will be used to algorithmically determine the best scheduling block to execute at any time. In addition to the on-line system, a simulation tool is a significant part of this system that will be used for short and long-term planning. It implements the fundamental concepts used to solve this problem of dynamic scheduling and is capable of using historical weather data. The architecture and function of this simulation tool are presented.

  8. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  9. Continuous, fixed-ratio, and fixed-interval reinforcement in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Klaus E.

    1973-01-01

    Bees learned to enter a Plexiglas tube and to suck small portions of sugar solution; every entry or every fifth entry was reinforced. During an extinction phase, the bees on the fixed-ratio schedule emitted twice as many responses as did those given continuous reinforcement. Bees on a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement emitted lower response rates than did those given fixed-ratio reinforcement. By extending the conditioning procedure for several days, it was possible to maintain responding with fixed-ratio schedules requiring 30 responses per reinforcement and with fixed-interval values up to 90 sec. Under fixed-interval schedules, response rates did not increase toward the end of the reinforcement intervals. PMID:16811686

  10. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  11. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Cohen, William; Rosenthal, Don; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the utility of expert systems techniques for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling and describes a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  12. Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Surender

    1991-01-01

    Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

  13. Postexercise Hypotension After Continuous, Aerobic Interval, and Sprint Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Siddhartha S; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of 3 exercise bouts, differing markedly in intensity, on postexercise hypotension (PEH). Eleven young adults (age: 24.6 ± 3.7 years) completed 4 randomly assigned experimental conditions: (a) control, (b) 30-minute steady-state exercise (SSE) at 75-80% maximum heart rate (HRmax), (4) aerobic interval exercise (AIE): four 4-minute bouts at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 3 minutes of active recovery, and (d) sprint interval exercise (SIE): six 30-second Wingate sprints, separated by 4 minutes of active recovery. Exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before exercise and every 15-minute postexercise for 3 hours. Linear mixed models were used to compare BP between trials. During the 3-hour postexercise, systolic BP (SBP) was lower (p < 0.001) after AIE (118 ± 10 mm Hg), SSE (121 ± 10 mm Hg), and SIE (121 ± 11 mm Hg) compared with control (124 ± 8 mm Hg). Diastolic BP (DBP) was also lower (p < 0.001) after AIE (66 ± 7 mm Hg), SSE (69 ± 6 mm Hg), and SIE (68 ± 8 mm Hg) compared with control (71 ± 7 mm Hg). Only AIE resulted in sustained (>2 hours) PEH, with SBP (120 ± 9 mm Hg) and DBP (68 ± 7 mm Hg) during the third-hour postexercise being lower (p ≤ 0.05) than control (124 ± 8 and 70 ± 7 mm Hg). Although all exercise bouts produced similar reductions in BP at 1-hour postexercise, the duration of PEH was greatest after AIE. PMID:25785706

  14. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  15. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  16. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  17. Concurrent schedules: Quantifying the aversiveness of noise

    PubMed Central

    McAdie, Tina M.; Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William

    1996-01-01

    Four hens worked under independent multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules with an overlaid aversive stimulus (sound of hens in a poultry shed at 100dBA) activated by the first peck on a key. The sound remained on until a response was made on the other key. The key that activated the sound in each component was varied over a series of conditions. When the sound was activated by the left (or right) key in one component, it was activated by the right (or left) key in the other component. Bias was examined under a range of different variable-interval schedules, and the applicability of the generalized matching law was examined. It was found that the hens' behavior was biased away from the sound independently of the schedule in effect and that this bias could be quantified using a modified version of the generalized matching law. Behavior during the changeover delays was not affected by the presence of the noise or by changes in reinforcement rate, even though the total response measures were. Insensitivity shown during the delay suggests that behavior after the changeover delay may be more appropriate as a measure of preference (or aversiveness) of stimuli than are overall behavior measures. PMID:16812802

  18. Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.

  19. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  20. Hypofractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Final Results of Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric E.; Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fowler, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

  1. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  2. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  3. NASA revises shuttle schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

  4. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-01

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

  5. Fixed-time schedules attenuate extinction-induced phenomena in the treatment of severe aberrant behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, T R; Progar, P R; Lalli, J S; Van Camp, C M; Sierp, B J; Wright, C S; Nastasi, J; Eisenschink, K J

    1998-01-01

    We compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for severe problem behavior displayed by 3 individuals with developmental disabilities. First, functional analyses identified the reinforcers maintaining aberrant behavior for all 3 individuals. Next, EXT and FT schedules were compared using a multielement design. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. Results showed that FT schedules were generally more effective than EXT schedules in reducing aberrant behavior. FT schedules may be used in situations when extinction-induced phenomena are problematic. PMID:9891392

  6. Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

  7. Extended dosing intervals with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease: a review of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Fernando; Disney, Alex; Molina, Manuel

    2007-06-01

    The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetins alfa and beta have relatively short half-lives ( approximately 24 h by subcutaneous route) and have traditionally been administered 2 or 3 times a week for the treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, multiple weekly injections are inconvenient for both the patient and the healthcare provider. With the introduction of the longer-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent darbepoetin alfa, there has been growing interest in longer dosing intervals for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Data from several randomized studies have shown that darbepoetin alfa is effective in maintaining haemoglobin levels when administered (subcutaneously, intravenously or both) every 2 weeks in dialysis patients, and every 2 weeks or monthly in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet receiving dialysis. Moreover, intravenous administration with darbepoetin alfa does not require a higher dosage compared with the subcutaneous route. Epoetins alfa and beta have also been studied in similar schedules, although few data from well-designed studies are available. Current data suggest that once-weekly administration of these forms of epoetin is feasible in dialysis patients, but dose increases are often required when switching patients from traditional twice- or thrice-weekly schedules. Also, administration of epoetins every other week is feasible in selected patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Further study is required to clarify the optimum schedule for epoetins in these settings. PMID:17526546

  8. A model for residence time in concurrent variable interval performance.

    PubMed

    Navakatikyan, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-interval schedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing behavioral changes with respect to two categories of reinforcers: enhancing and reducing, or excitatory and inhibitory. The model describes residence time in interdependent concurrent VI VI schedules constructed from arithmetic and exponential distributions. The model describes the data reported by Alsop and Elliffe (1988) and Elliffe and Alsop (1996) with a variance accounted for of 87% compared to 64% accounted for by the Davison and Hunter (1976) model and 42% by Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbola. The model can explain matching, undermatching, and overmatching in the same subject under different procedures and has the potential to be extended to performance on concurrent schedules with more than two alternatives, multiple schedules, and single schedules. Thus, it can be considered as an alternative to Herrnstein's quantitative law of effect. PMID:17345955

  9. Approximation Schemes for Scheduling with Availability Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Huo, Yumei; Zhao, Hairong

    We investigate the problems of scheduling n weighted jobs to m identical machines with availability constraints. We consider two different models of availability constraints: the preventive model where the unavailability is due to preventive machine maintenance, and the fixed job model where the unavailability is due to a priori assignment of some of the n jobs to certain machines at certain times. Both models have applications such as turnaround scheduling or overlay computing. In both models, the objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time. We assume that m is a constant, and the jobs are non-resumable. For the preventive model, it has been shown that there is no approximation algorithm if all machines have unavailable intervals even when w i = p i for all jobs. In this paper, we assume there is one machine permanently available and the processing time of each job is equal to its weight for all jobs. We develop the first PTAS when there are constant number of unavailable intervals. One main feature of our algorithm is that the classification of large and small jobs is with respect to each individual interval, thus not fixed. This classification allows us (1) to enumerate the assignments of large jobs efficiently; (2) and to move small jobs around without increasing the objective value too much, and thus derive our PTAS. Then we show that there is no FPTAS in this case unless P = NP.

  10. Impact of referral letters on scheduling of hospital appointments: a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong; O’Shea, Carolyn; Magin, Parker; Dadich, Ann; Pillai, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication is essential for triage, but intervention trials to improve it are scarce. Referral Writer (RW), a referral letter software program, enables documentation of clinical data and extracts relevant patient details from clinical software. Aim To evaluate whether specialists are more confident about scheduling appointments when they receive more information in referral letters. Design and setting Single-blind, parallel-groups, controlled design with a 1:1 randomisation. Australian GPs watched video vignettes virtually. Method GPs wrote referral letters after watching vignettes of patients with cancer symptoms. Letter content was scored against a benchmark. The proportions of referral letters triagable by a specialist with confidence, and in which the specialist was confident the patient had potentially life-limiting pathology were determined. Categorical outcomes were tested with χ2 and continuous outcomes with t-tests. A random-effects logistic model assessed the influence of group randomisation (RW versus control), GP demographics, clinical specialty, and specialist referral assessor on specialist confidence in the information provided. Results The intervention (RW) group referred more patients and scored significantly higher on information relayed (mean difference 21.6 [95% confidence intervals {CI} = 20.1 to 23.2]). There was no difference in the proportion of letters for which specialists were confident they had sufficient information for appointment scheduling (RW 77.7% versus control 80.6%, P = 0.16). In the logistic model, limited agreement among specialists contributed substantially to the observed differences in appointment scheduling (P = 35% [95% CI 16% to 59%]). Conclusion In isolation, referral letter templates are unlikely to improve the scheduling of specialist appointments, even when more information is relayed. PMID:24982494

  11. Schedule-Induced Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Howard, Denise

    1992-01-01

    The phenomena of the induction and entrainment of adjunctive behaviors was investigated in 8 people (ages 5-51) with severe or profound mental retardation who exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Seven of the eight demonstrated evidence of schedule-induced stereotypic behavior, whereas five also showed evidence of the entrainment of these behaviors by…

  12. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  13. Preresponse Intervals Versus Postinformative Feedback Intervals in Concept Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Raymond M., Jr.; Schmidt, Stephen W.

    1972-01-01

    Results of two experiments show that only postinformative feedback intervals to be significant sources of variation; mean trends appeared to indicate that extended preresponse intervals interfere with performance, if anything. (Authors/MB)

  14. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Schedule M- 3. Abstract: Form 1120S, Schedule D (Form 1120S), Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), and Schedule M-3... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  15. Bootstrapped MRMC confidence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelson, Frank W.; Wagner, Robert F.

    2005-04-01

    The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) paradigm of Swets and Pickett (1982) for ROC analysis was expressed as a components of variance model by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (1992) and validated by Roe and Metz (1997) for Type I error rates. Our group proposed an analysis of the MRMC components of variance model using bootstrap (Beiden, Wagner, and Campbell, 2000) experiments instead of jackknife pseudo-values. These approaches have been challenged by some contemporary authors (e.g. Zhou, Obuchowski, and McClish, 2002). The purpose of the present paper is to formally compare the models and to carry out validation tests of their performance. We investigate different approaches to statistical inference, including several types of nonparametric bootstrap confidence intervals and report on validation and simulation experiments of Type I errors.

  16. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can

  17. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

  18. Concurrent-schedule performance in dairy cows: persistent undermatching.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Robertson, B; Nair, V; Poling, A

    1996-01-01

    Performance of dairy cows responding under concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules of food delivery was examined, with results analyzed in terms of the generalized matching equation. In Experiment 1, bias measures indicated that crushed barley was preferred over meatmeal when these foods were available under the alternative schedules. For whole-session data, substantial undermatching of response and time-allocation ratios to obtained reinforcement ratios was evident. Postreinforcement pause time ratios approximately matched obtained reinforcement rates. Subtracting these times from total time-allocation values yielded net time-allocation ratios that undermatched obtained reinforcement ratios to a greater degree than did whole-session time-allocation ratios. In Experiment 2, substantial undermatching was evident when the same foods (hay for 2 cows, crushed barley for 2 others) were available under the alternative schedules. Food-related activities and other defined behavior not related to food were quantified by direct observation, and were found to occupy a substantial proportion (roughly 40% to 80%) of experimental sessions. Subtracting the time spent in these activities from the time allocated to each component schedule did not reduce the degree of undermatching obtained. Across all conditions in both experiments, slopes of regression lines relating behavioral outputs to environmental inputs characteristically were below 0.6, which agrees with prior findings and suggests that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, undermatching in dairy cows is not the result of using different foods under alternative schedules or differential pausing under those schedules. PMID:8583205

  19. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  20. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  1. SOLTI NeoPARP: a phase II randomized study of two schedules of iniparib plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel alone as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Bermejo, Begoña; Villanueva, Cristian; Delaloge, Suzette; Morales, Serafín; Balmaña, Judith; Amillano, Kepa; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Casas, Ana; Manso, Luis; Roché, Henri; Gonzalez-Santiago, Santiago; Gavilá, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Di Cosimo, Serena; Harbeck, Nadia; Charpentier, Eric; Garcia-Ribas, Ignacio; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Aura, Claudia; Baselga, Jose

    2015-11-01

    Iniparib is an investigational agent with antitumor activity of controversial mechanism of action. Two previous trials in advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in combination with gemcitabine and carboplatin showed some evidence of efficacy that was not confirmed. This phase II randomized neoadjuvant study was designed to explore its activity and tolerability with weekly paclitaxel (PTX) as neoadjuvant treatment in TNBC patients. 141 patients with Stage II-IIIA TNBC were randomly assigned to receive PTX (80 mg/m(2), d1; n = 47) alone or in combination with iniparib, either once-weekly (PWI) (11.2 mg/kg, d1; n = 46) or twice-weekly (PTI) (5.6 mg/kg, d1, 4; n = 48) for 12 weeks. Primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) in the breast. pCR rate was similar among the three arms (21, 22, and 19 % for PTX, PWI, and PTI, respectively). Secondary efficacy endpoints were comparable: pCR in breast and axilla (21, 17, and 19 %); best overall response in the breast (60, 61, and 63 %); and breast conservation rate (53, 54, and 50 %). Slightly more patients in the PTI arm presented grade 3/4 neutropenia (4, 0, and 10 %). Grade 1/2 (28, 22, and 29 %), but no grade 3/4 neuropathy, was observed. There were no differences in serious adverse events and treatment-emergent adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation among the three arms. Addition of iniparib to weekly PTX did not add relevant antitumor activity or toxicity. These results do not support further evaluation of the combination of iniparib at these doses plus paclitaxel in early TNBC. PMID:26536871

  2. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory resources and to reduce the costs of communication. Planning and scheduling is generally a heavy consumer of time, memory and energy resources. This means careful thought must be given to how much planning and scheduling should be done on the sensors themselves, and how much to do elsewhere. The difficulty of planning and scheduling is exacerbated when reasoning about uncertainty. More time, memory and energy is needed to solve such problems, leading either to more expensive sensors, or suboptimal plans. For example, scientifically interesting events may happen at random times, making it difficult to ensure that sufficient resources are availanble. Since uncertainty is usually lowest in proximity to the sensors themselves, this argues for planning and scheduling onboard the sensors. However, cost minimization dictates sensors be kept as simple as possible, reducing the amount of planning and scheduling they can do themselves. Furthermore, coordinating each sensor's independent plans can be difficult. In the full presentation, we will critically review the planning and scheduling systems used by previously fielded sensor networks. We do so primarily from the perspective of the computational sciences, with a focus on taming computational complexity when operating sensor networks. The case studies are derived from sensor networks based on UAVs, satellites, and planetary rovers. Planning and scheduling considerations include multi-sensor coordination, optimizing science value, onboard power management, onboard memory, planning movement actions to acquire data, and managing communications.These case studies offer lessons for future designs of environmental sensor networks.

  3. Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.

  4. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  5. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of

  6. Choice between Single and Multiple Reinforcers in Concurrent-Chains Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Pigeons responded on concurrent-chains schedules with equal variable-interval schedules as initial links. One terminal link delivered a single reinforcer after a fixed delay, and the other terminal link delivered either three or five reinforcers, each preceded by a fixed delay. Some conditions included a postreinforcer delay after the single…

  7. The Isolation of Motivational, Motoric, and Schedule Effects on Operant Performance: A Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

  8. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  9. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  10. Observation Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  11. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion 1999 Transportation Barriers Analysis analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The 1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the Geologic Repository Disposal site (GRD).

  12. NASA launch schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D‧, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

  13. Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by time-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.

  14. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  15. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  16. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  17. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  18. QT interval and drug therapy.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The QT interval is an important component of the electrocardiogram, which when prolonged can predict the risk of developing the potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia, torsades de pointes. There is growing understanding of the genetics associated with cardiac arrhythmias and an increasing number of drugs that can prolong the QT interval. Consequently, assessment of the effect of drugs on the QT interval has become a significant aspect of drug development, regulatory assessment and clinical care. Here, we review the QT interval and the risks associated with drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. PMID:26966121

  19. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  20. Scheduler software for tracking and data relay satellite system loading analysis: User manual and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, R.; Dunn, C.; Mccord, J.; Simeone, L.

    1980-01-01

    A user guide and programmer documentation is provided for a system of PRIME 400 minicomputer programs. The system was designed to support loading analyses on the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The system is a scheduler for various types of data relays (including tape recorder dumps and real time relays) from orbiting payloads to the TDRSS. Several model options are available to statistically generate data relay requirements. TDRSS time lines (representing resources available for scheduling) and payload/TDRSS acquisition and loss of sight time lines are input to the scheduler from disk. Tabulated output from the interactive system includes a summary of the scheduler activities over time intervals specified by the user and overall summary of scheduler input and output information. A history file, which records every event generated by the scheduler, is written to disk to allow further scheduling on remaining resources and to provide data for graphic displays or additional statistical analysis.

  1. Scheduling Jobs with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrolho, António; Crisóstomo, Manuel

    Most scheduling problems are NP-hard, the time required to solve the problem optimally increases exponentially with the size of the problem. Scheduling problems have important applications, and a number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to determine relatively good solutions in polynomial time. Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) are successfully used to solve scheduling problems, as shown by the growing numbers of papers. GA are known as one of the most efficient algorithms for solving scheduling problems. But, when a GA is applied to scheduling problems various crossovers and mutations operators can be applicable. This paper presents and examines a new concept of genetic operators for scheduling problems. A software tool called hybrid and flexible genetic algorithm (HybFlexGA) was developed to examine the performance of various crossover and mutation operators by computing simulations of job scheduling problems.

  2. Two or three primary dose regime for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Thumburu, Kiran K.; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms ‘Haemophilus Vaccines’ or ‘Haemophilus influenzae type b’ and ‘conjugate vaccine’, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54–90) and 65% (95% CI 23–84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72–85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342

  3. Two or three primary dose regime for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Thumburu, Kiran K; Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms 'Haemophilus Vaccines' or 'Haemophilus influenzae type b' and 'conjugate vaccine', and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54-90) and 65% (95% CI 23-84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72-85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342

  4. Energy-Efficient BOP-Based Beacon Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eui-Jik; Youm, Sungkwan; Choi, Hyo-Hyun

    Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require the energy efficiency and scalability. Although IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee which is being considered as general technology for WSNs enables the low duty-cycling with time synchronization of all the nodes in network, it still suffer from its low scalability due to the beacon frame collision. Recently, various algorithms to resolve this problem are proposed. However, their manners to implement are somewhat ambiguous and the degradation of energy/communication efficiency is serious by the additional overhead. This paper describes an Energy-efficient BOP-based Beacon transmission Scheduling (EBBS) algorithm. EBBS is the centralized approach, in which a resource-sufficient node called as Topology Management Center (TMC) allocates the time slots to transmit a beacon frame to the nodes and manages the active/sleep schedules of them. We also propose EBBS with Adaptive BOPL (EBBS-AB), to adjust the duration to transmit beacon frames in every beacon interval, adaptively. Simulation results show that by using the proposed algorithm, the energy efficiency and the throughput of whole network can be significantly improved. EBBS-AB is also more effective for the network performance when the nodes are uniformly deployed on the sensor field rather than the case of random topologies.

  5. An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.

  6. An information model based weld schedule database

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Hicken, G.K.; Gershanok, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

  7. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our work and results may be outdated when this paper is published.

  8. Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan

    1992-01-01

    A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.

  9. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  10. Primary Analysis of a Phase II Randomized Trial Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0212: Impact of Different Total Doses and Schedules of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation on Chronic Neurotoxicity and Quality of Life for Patients With Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, Aaron H.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina; Movsas, Benjamin; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Choy, Hak

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dose and fractionation schedule of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on the incidence of chronic neurotoxicity (CNt) and changes in quality of life for selected patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LD SCLC who achieved a complete response after chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation were eligible for randomization to undergo PCI to a total dose of 25 Gy in 10 daily fractions (Arm 1) vs. the experimental cohort of 36 Gy. Those receiving 36 Gy underwent a secondary randomization between daily 18 fractions (Arm 2) and twice-daily 24 fractions (Arm 3). Enrolled patients participated in baseline and follow-up neuropsychological test batteries along with quality-of-life assessments. Results: A total of 265 patients were accrued, with 131 in Arm 1, 67 in Arm 2, and 66 in Arm 3 being eligible. There are 112 patients (42.2%) alive with 25.3 months of median follow-up. There were no significant baseline differences among groups regarding quality-of-life measures and one of the neuropsychological tests, namely the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. However, at 12 months after PCI there was a significant increase in the occurrence of CNt in the 36-Gy cohort (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis revealed increasing age to be the most significant predictor of CNt (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Because of the increased risk of developing CNt in study patients with 36 Gy, a total PCI dose of 25 Gy remains the standard of care for patients with LD SCLC attaining a complete response to initial chemoradiation.

  11. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  12. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  13. 78 FR 38610 - Changes to Scheduling and Appearing at Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... hearings by video teleconferencing.\\1\\ Similarly, a change in residence could result in a re-assignment to... change in residence to undermine the random assignment of cases to our ALJs. \\1\\ We took steps to address... us to consider a change in residence when scheduling a hearing, the claimant must submit...

  14. Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dwight W.

    This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…

  15. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Scheduling Applications of the Knapsack Problem and Sudoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessoms, E.; Clark, M.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    We applied algorithmic approaches to both theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). When using a theoretical approach to scheduling, assigning a numerical value, or score, to a telescope period is only half of the problem. The other half consists of using the score to determine the best global arrangement of the telescope periods in order to maximize the scientific throughput of the telescope. The naive brute-force approach of trying all possible schedules is too computationally expensive. Instead we applied a well-studied approach from operations research, known as dynamic programming. Specifically, we found the so-called ``knapsack'' algorithm to be a good fit to this problem. On the other hand, we cannot actually achieve maximum theoretical efficiency due to many practical constraints on telescope scheduling. The most severe practical constraints are fixed periods that must be scheduled at a specific date and time regardless of possible score and windowed periods that must be scheduled in regular, recurring intervals. The primary difficulty in scheduling fixed and windowed sessions is that they have the potential to conflict and even to generate irresolvable conflicts (double booking). In working on this problem, we realized it shared many characteristics with the game of Sudoku. In Sudoku, there are many possible arrangements of the recurring numbers 1 through 9 (telescope sessions). Some of these are fixed (the hints) and the others must live in windows (distinct groups having one instance each of each digit). Sudoku puzzles are solved algorithmically using a heuristic-guided brute-force search. We followed a similar approach. A full brute-force search is, again, too computationally expensive, but we found ways to restrict the search enough to make it feasible. We used a number of heuristics but found the largest gains came from partitioning the problem into distinct subsets than can each be scheduled independently and from ordering the search in such a way that earlier choices had the greatest impact on reducing the computational complexity of later choices.

  16. [Birth interval differentials in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Ilinigumugabo, A

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1983 Rwanda Fertility Survey are the basis for this study of variations in birth intervals. An analysis of the quality of the Rwandan birth data showed it to be relatively good. The life table technique utilized in this study is explained in a section on methodology, which also describes the Rwanda Fertility Survey questionnaires. A comparison of birth intervals in which live born children died before their first birthday or survived the first birthday shows that infant mortality shortens birth intervals by an average of 5 months. The first birth interval was almost 28 months when the oldest child survived, but declined to 23 months when the oldest child died before age 1. The effect of mortality on birth intervals increased with parity, from 5 months for the first birth interval to 5.5 months for the second and third and 6.4 months for subsequent intervals. The differences amounted to 9 or 10 months for women separating at parities under 4 and over 14 months for women separating at parities of 4 or over. Birth intervals generally increased with parity, maternal age, and the duration of the union. But women entering into unions at higher ages had shorter birth intervals. In the absence of infant mortality and dissolution of the union, women attending school beyong the primary level had first birth intervals 6 months shorter on average than other women. Controlling for infant mortality and marital dissolution, women working for wages had average birth intervals of under 2 years for the first 5 births. Father's occupation had a less marked influence on birth intervals. Urban residence was associated with a shortening of the average birth interval by 6 months between the first and second birth and 5 months between the second and third births. In the first 5 births, Tutsi women had birth intervals 1.5 months longer on average than Hutu women. Women in polygamous unions did not have significantly different birth intervals except perhaps among older women. The data show that women who begin childbearing later in Rwanda are able to recuperate much of their lost fertility through their accelerated pace of childbearing. PMID:12286513

  17. Detectability of auditory signals presented without defined observation intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, C. S.; Nichols, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Ability to detect tones in noise was measured without defined observation intervals. Latency density functions were estimated for the first response following a signal and, separately, for the first response following randomly distributed instances of background noise. Detection performance was measured by the maximum separation between the cumulative latency density functions for signal-plus-noise and for noise alone. Values of the index of detectability, estimated by this procedure, were approximately those obtained with a 2-dB weaker signal and defined observation intervals. Simulation of defined- and non-defined-interval tasks with an energy detector showed that this device performs very similarly to the human listener in both cases.

  18. A Model of Alcohol Drinking under an Intermittent Access Schedule Using Group-Housed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smutek, Magdalena; Turbasa, Mateusz; Sikora, Magdalena; Piechota, Marcin; Zajdel, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week) for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment) to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule), they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ∼10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors. PMID:24804807

  19. INTERVAL SAMPLING METHODS AND MEASUREMENT ERROR: A COMPUTER SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method’s inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. PMID:24127380

  20. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  1. Non-Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling Dependent Tasks in Distributed Heterogeneous Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Gurdeep S. Hura

    2005-09-01

    The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary random scheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

  2. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  3. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  4. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB

  5. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  6. Effect of unsignaled delays between stimuli in a chain schedule on responding and resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E

    2008-03-01

    Behavioral momentum theory is an evolving theoretical account of the strength of behavior. One challenge for the theory is determining the role of signal stimuli in determining response strength. This study evaluated the effect of an unsignaled delay between the initial link and terminal link of a two-link chain schedule on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Pigeons were presented two different signaled delay to reinforcement schedules. Both schedules employed a two-link chain schedule with a variable interval 120-s initial link followed by a 5-s fixed time terminal link schedule. One of the schedules included a 5-s unsignaled delay between the initial link and the terminal link. Resistance to change was assessed with two separate disruption procedures: extinction and adding a variable time 20-s schedule of reinforcement to the inter-component interval. Baseline responding was lower in the schedule with the unsignaled delay but resistance to change for the initial link was unaffected by the unsignaled delay. The results suggest that not all unsignaled delays are equal in their effect on resistance to change. PMID:17933472

  7. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  8. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  9. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cludio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration. PMID:26529697

  10. Scheduling Results for the THEMIS Observation Scheduling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Anwar, Sadaat; Mehall, Greg; Christensen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheduling system intended to assist in the development of instrument data acquisitions for the THEMIS instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and compare results from multiple scheduling algorithms. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted geographical regions of interest and (b) general mapping observations, while respecting spacecraft constraints such as data volume, observation timing, visibility, lighting, season, and science priorities. This tool therefore must address both geometric and state/timing/resource constraints. We describe a tool that maps geometric polygon overlap constraints to set covering constraints using a grid-based approach. These set covering constraints are then incorporated into a greedy optimization scheduling algorithm incorporating operations constraints to generate feasible schedules. The resultant tool generates schedules of hundreds of observations per week out of potential thousands of observations. This tool is currently under evaluation by the THEMIS observation planning team at Arizona State University.

  11. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  12. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  13. Web-based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

  14. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  15. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  16. An explanation of the distribution of inter-seizure intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2010-09-01

    Recently Osorio et al. (Eur. J. Neurosci., 30 (2009) 1554) reported that the probability distribution of intervals between successive epileptic seizures follows a power law with exponent 1.5. We theoretically explain this finding by modeling the epileptic activity as a branching process, which we, in turn, approximate by a random walk. We confirm the theoretical conclusion by numerical simulation.

  17. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  18. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  19. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name,...

  20. Solve Your Scheduling Puzzle without a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toy, Steve

    1982-01-01

    The small Lone Star school district in Otis (Colorado) developed a year-long process for creating its master course schedule. The scheduling process includes a needs assessment, a curriculum scheduling committee of teachers and students, a trial run of the schedule, and board approval of the master schedule. (RW)

  1. Scheduling MEMS manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.; Lee, Loo H.; Wang, Lixin

    2000-04-01

    This paper focuses on the production scheduling in MEMS manufacturing. The whole MEMS production process can be broken into 3 sub-processes, i.e., the front-end process, the wafer cap process and the back-end process. Every wafer processed by the front end process needs to be bonded with a wafer cap that are manufactured by the wafer cap process, and then it will be sent to the back-end process. Therefore how to synchronize the release of wafers into the front end as well as the wafer cap process becomes an important topic. An ineffective coordination will create larger WHIP and longer cycle time. In this paper, four different synchronization rules are developed and they are evaluated together with seven dispatching rules. The performance measures considered are cycle time, throughput rate and WHIP. A visual interactive simulation model is constructed to imitate the production line. The simulation results indicate that the synchronization rules have more significant impact than the dispatching rules on the performance of MEMS manufacturing.

  2. An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  3. An assessment of fixed interval timing in free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): an analysis of individual performance.

    PubMed

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Sokolowski, Michel B C; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  4. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... instructions, see Display Immunization Schedules on Your Website . Create a Schedule of Vaccines Needed Since Birth Make ... How CDC sets the childhood immunization schedule Adobe PDF file [2 pages] Immunization Requirements for Child Care ...

  5. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  6. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  7. Behavioral regulation of gravity: schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures1

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Fogle C.; Lange, Karl O.; Belleville, Richard E.

    1973-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4202386

  8. Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.

  9. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases.

  10. Ethanol self-administration in mice under a second-order schedule.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Richard J; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2015-09-01

    Long Fixed-Interval (FI) schedules, particularly second-order schedules, can engender substantial responding before drug or ethanol delivery that is uninfluenced by the direct effects of the drug or ethanol. Thus, these schedules can be used to study the effects of medications upon drug- or ethanol-seeking, uninfluenced by the direct effects of the self-administered drug or ethanol. Long FI second-order schedules are frequently used in primates and occasionally in rats. Under second-order schedules, completion of one response requirement, e.g., a Fixed Ratio 10 (FR10:S), produces a brief stimulus presentation, e.g., a 1-s 80-dB 4-kHZ tone, and this FR10:S serves as the response unit under another schedule, e.g., an FI 1800-s. Thus, the first FR10 completed after 1800 s would result in delivery both of the tone and of reinforcement, e.g., 10 × 0.01 mL 16% (w/v) ethanol. To examine if such schedules could be effectively used in mice, which have advantages in neurobiological and genetic studies, we trained eight C57BL/6J mice to respond under the schedule just described. This schedule maintained substantial responding. The temporal pattern of behavior was typical of an FI schedule with responding accelerating across the interval. We also examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of fluvoxamine on this responding, and these were modest. Finally, we examined responding when alcohol and/or tone deliveries were withheld, and found that extinction occurred most rapidly when both were withheld. This work demonstrates that long FI schedules of ethanol delivery may be useful in studying ethanol seeking in mice. PMID:26254963

  11. Facilitating the use of online visual feedback: advance information and the inter-trial interval?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Darian T; Manson, Gerome A; Kennedy, Andrew; Tremblay, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Cheng et al. (2008) showed that when goal-directed reaching movements are performed with a 2.5 s inter-trial interval (ITI) under a randomized visual feedback schedule, individuals use online visual information on trial n to perform efficient online corrections on trial n + 1 (i.e., "reminiscence" effect). These results persisted even when participants were given knowledge of the up-coming vision condition. In this study, the ITI was extended to 5 s in an attempt to negate any effects of the preceding trial. Results from this study revealed that trials with vision were always more accurate than trials performed without vision, suggesting that individuals relied significantly on online information. Furthermore, aiming precision improved when participants knew the vision condition before each trial. It is thus suggested that the reminiscence effects are not longer evident with a 5 s ITI, which in turn allows prior knowledge of visual feedback to influence the use of online vision. PMID:23579560

  12. Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824

  13. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  14. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  15. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  16. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  17. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

  18. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  19. Temporal distributions of schedule-induced licks, magazine entries, and lever presses on fixed- and variable-time schedules.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Patterson, Angela E; Kendig, Michael D; Harris, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    In this article, schedule-induced drinking (SID) refers to increased drinking by hungry rats exposed to intermittent delivery of food pellets. Two major accounts of SID differ in their explanation of why such drinking tends be concentrated soon after pellet delivery. Temporal discrimination theories propose that drinking is a form of displacement activity that occurs when a pellet is least likely. Adventitious reinforcement theories propose that drinking is displaced to early in an interpellet interval (IPI) by magazine-directed behavior that occurs toward the end of an IPI. The main aim of this study was to examine the latter response-competition account by recording distributions of both licking and magazine entries as SID developed when pellets were delivered to different groups either on a fixed-time (FT 30 s) or on a variable-time schedule (VT 30 s), as in Experiment 1. Although VT 30-s schedules produced essentially flat distributions of magazine entries, licking still tended to be concentrated early in an IPI. Furthermore, there was no indication (Experiments 1 and 2) that magazine entry distributions developed ahead of licking distributions. Experiment 3 examined distributions of lever presses instead of licks: Initially high rates of lever pressing declined both with response-independent schedules (FT and VT) and when a minimal response-dependency was introduced (recycling conjunctive schedule), yet this response also tended to be most frequent soon after pellet delivery. Overall, the data were generally consistent with temporal conditioning theories. PMID:25706546

  20. Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

  1. A New Genetic Algorithm for Scheduling for Large Communication Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecero, Johnatan E.; Trystram, Denis; Zomaya, Albert Y.

    In modern parallel and distributed systems, the time for exchanging data is usually larger than that for computing elementary operations. Consequently, these communications slow down the execution of the application scheduled on such systems. Accounting for these communications is essential for attaining efficient hardware and software utilization. Therefore, we provide in this paper a new combined approach for scheduling parallel applications with large communication delays on an arbitrary number of processors. In this approach, a genetic algorithm is improved with the introduction of some extra knowledge about the scheduling problem. This knowledge is represented by a class of clustering algorithms introduced recently, namely, convex clusters which are based on structural properties of the parallel applications. The developed algorithm is assessed by simulations run on some families of synthetic task graphs and randomly generated applications. The comparison with related approaches emphasizes its interest.

  2. Solution and reasoning reuse in space planning and scheduling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verfaillie, Gerard; Schiex, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    In the space domain, as in other domains, the CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problems) techniques are increasingly used to represent and solve planning and scheduling problems. But these techniques have been developed to solve CSP's which are composed of fixed sets of variables and constraints, whereas many planning and scheduling problems are dynamic. It is therefore important to develop methods which allow a new solution to be rapidly found, as close as possible to the previous one, when some variables or constraints are added or removed. After presenting some existing approaches, this paper proposes a simple and efficient method, which has been developed on the basis of the dynamic backtracking algorithm. This method allows previous solution and reasoning to be reused in the framework of a CSP which is close to the previous one. Some experimental results on general random CSPs and on operation scheduling problems for remote sensing satellites are given.

  3. Real-time flexible preventive maintenance scheduling.

    PubMed

    Kendall, E B; Cronk, J W; White, R N

    1993-01-01

    There are still obstacles to overcome as we enter the programming phase of this project. We envision an automated system, similar to an expert system, that performs the interval/history analysis and makes the changes. Initially a field will need to be added to the inventory to denote whether a device belongs to one of the previously described groups that are exempt from interval changes. An intermediate step will be the formatting of a periodic report showing equipment that meets the change criteria as described in the two rules. For now, the actual changes would be reviewed and made by our management and technical staff. This report would be retained as documentation of the basis for each change, for our own benefit and to meet JCAHO requirements. We are still discussing whether the repair count should include all repairs (user error, abuse, unpredictable failure, etc.) or just those that are "significant and preventable" and could have been averted by PM. This is perhaps a question whose answer might vary from hospital to hospital, depending upon size and patient mix. With more emphasis being placed on process outcomes, on quality of work, and on getting the most benefit for our efforts, we believe our flexible, real-time PM scheduling program is a major step in the right direction. It is outcome-driven and it focuses resources where they are needed the most. PMID:8418962

  4. Stochastic interval analysis of natural frequency and mode shape of structures with uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Wei; Song, Chongmin; Zhang, Nong

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures with mixed random and interval parameters are investigated by using a hybrid stochastic and interval approach. Expressions for the mean value and variance of natural frequencies and mode shapes are derived by using perturbation method and random interval moment method. The bounds of these probabilistic characteristics are then determined by interval arithmetic. Two examples are given first to illustrate the feasibility of the presented method and the results are verified by Monte Carlo Simulations. The presented approach is also applicable to solve pure random and pure interval problems. This capability is demonstrated in the third and fourth examples through the comparisons with the peer research outcomes.

  5. Resistance to Extinction following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16?min to 0.25?min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session of extinction (i.e., no reinforcers). Resistance to extinction (decline in response rate relative to baseline) was negatively related to the rate of reinforcers obtained during baseline, a relation analogous to the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect. A positive relation between these variables emerged, however, when the unit of extinction was taken as the mean interreinforcer interval that had been in effect during training (i.e., as an omitted reinforcer during extinction). In a second experiment, rats received blocks of training sessions, all with the same variable-interval schedule but with a reinforcer of four pellets for some blocks and one pellet for others. Resistance to extinction was greater following training with the larger (four pellets) than with the smaller (one pellet) reinforcer. Taken together, these results support the principle that greater reinforcement during training (e.g., higher rate or larger amount) engenders greater resistance to extinction even when the different conditions of reinforcement are varied between blocks of sessions. PMID:16602374

  6. The Effects of Variable-Interval Reinforcement on Academic Engagement: A Demonstration of Matching Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments analyzed the single-alternative form of the matching law as a description of student behavior. Four students (ages 8-10) exhibiting off-task behavior were exposed to variable-interval schedules of social reinforcement contingent on academic engagement. Results provided evidence that subject behavior was under control of the

  7. Estimating correlation under interval uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal-Kamali, Ali; Kreinovich, Vladik

    2013-05-01

    In many engineering situations, we are interested in finding the correlation ρ between different quantities x and y based on the values xi and yi of these quantities measured in different situations i. Measurements are never absolutely accurate; it is therefore necessary to take this inaccuracy into account when estimating the correlation ρ. Sometimes, we know the probabilities of different values of measurement errors, but in many cases, we only know the upper bounds Δxi and Δyi on the corresponding measurement errors. In such situations, after we get the measurement results x and y, the only information that we have about the actual (unknown) values xi and yi is that they belong to the corresponding intervals [x-Δxi,x+Δxi] and [y-Δyi,y+Δyi]. Different values from these intervals lead, in general, to different values of the correlation ρ. It is therefore desirable to find the range [ρ̲ ,ρ¯] of possible values of the correlation when xi and yi take values from the corresponding intervals. In general, the problem of computing this range is NP-hard. In this paper, we provide a feasible (=polynomial-time) algorithm for computing at least one of the endpoints of this interval: for computing ρ¯ when ρ¯>0 and for computing ρ̲ when ρ̲ <0.

  8. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically

  9. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

  10. Schedules of controlled substances: rescheduling of buprenorphine from schedule V to schedule III. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    This final rule is issued by the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to reschedule buprenorphine from a Schedule V narcotic to a Schedule III narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This action is based on a rescheduling recommendation by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and a DEA review indicating that buprenorphine meets the criteria of a Schedule III narcotic. The DEA published a proposed rule to reschedule buprenorphine on March 21, 2002 (67 FR 13114). The comment period was extended for an additional 30 days until May 22, 2002 (67 FR 20072). The DEA received ten comments but no requests for hearings. This final action will impose the regulatory controls and criminal sanctions of a Schedule III narcotic on those persons who handle buprenorphine or products containing buprenorphine PMID:12369590

  11. Time needed to schedule dermatological consultations in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is not clear what the population's demand for dermatologists is, nor how many professionals are needed in order to provide adequate care in this area of expertise. Knowledge of the flow of patients at dermatological clinics throughout the country allows for the formation of expansion and distribution policies regarding professionals, and provides backing for the decision to increase medical residency places. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the time it takes to schedule a private dermatological consultation in Brazil, and other factors concerning consultations. METHODS Survey with a random sample of 14% of Brazilian dermatologists, simulating the scheduling of emergency clinical and cosmetic consultations, and botulinum toxin procedures. Also, details relating to cost and professionals, were studied. Data were adjusted for each region of the country. RESULTS A total of 873 dermatologists were evaluated. Full SBD members represented 85%, and 66% were women. The median time to schedule a consultation ranged from 6 (out-of-pocket payment) to 7 (medical insurance) consecutive working days. Times varied depending on the region. A multivariate analysis showed that out-of-pocket consultations and procedures were scheduled sooner than with medical insurance, regardless of whether they were clinical or cosmetic. CONCLUSION The characteristics of dermatologists are varied throughout regions of the country. Private consultations and procedures are scheduled sooner than with insurance companies. PMID:24068127

  12. Benefits and work-schedule options in hospital pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Gaither, C A; Mason, N A; Diokno, D A; Hoffman, E J

    1994-03-15

    Hospital pharmacy directors were surveyed to determine whether their departments offered specific family-related benefits and work-schedule options and how their attitudes about these options compared with those of female hospital pharmacists. Questionnaires were mailed to 300 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors to collect the following information: vacancy rates and male:female ratios in hospital pharmacy positions, which of 13 selected benefits and work-schedule options were offered, barriers that prevented the other options from being offered, and attitudes about the listed options. The options included in the survey were selected because they represent ways of balancing home and work (e.g., maternity leave, job sharing, day care). The pharmacy directors' responses were compared with those from a similar survey of female hospital pharmacists. The usable response rate was 50.3%. Position vacancy rates ranged from 5.5% for directors to 35.8% for clinical supervisors. All full-time positions had an even distribution of men and women except for director and assistant or associate director positions. Of 13 options, only maternity leave, part-time schedules, and flexible schedules were offered by more than half of the hospitals. These three were also the only listed options that the respondents considered important in recruiting and retaining pharmacists. Barriers to offering other options included the perception that current benefits and work-schedule options were adequate, lack of staff coverage, lack of funds, and the perception that some positions are not compatible with alternative schedules. Respondents' ratings of the importance of the listed benefits and work-schedule options were significantly lower than ratings given by female hospital pharmacists in a separate survey.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8010317

  13. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R; Veenhoven, R

    2011-07-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as 'very happy' and 'pretty happy'. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are then used to compute 'transformed' means and standard deviations. Transforming scores on different questions to the same scale allows to broadening the World Database of Happiness considerably. The central purpose of the Happiness Scale Interval Study is to identify the happiness values at which respondents change their judgment from e.g. 'very happy' to 'pretty happy' or the reverse. This paper deals with the methodological/statistical aspects of this approach. The central question is always how to convert the frequencies at which the different possible responses to the same question given by a sample into information on the happiness distribution in the relevant population. The primary (cl)aim of this approach is to achieve this in a (more) valid way. To this end, a model is introduced that allows for dealing with happiness as a latent continuous random variable, in spite of the fact that it is measured as a discrete one. The [0,10] scale is partitioned in as many contiguous parts as the number of possible ratings in the primary scale sums up to. Any subject with a (self-perceived) happiness in the same subinterval is assumed to select the same response. For the probability density function of this happiness random variable, two options are discussed. The first one postulates a uniform distribution within each of the different subintervals of the [0,10] scale. On the basis of these results, the mean value and variance of the complete distribution can be estimated. The method is described, including the precision of the estimates obtained in this way. The second option assumes the happiness distribution to be described as a beta distribution on the interval [0,10] with two shape parameters (α and β). From their estimates on the basis of the primary information, the mean value and the variance of the happiness distribution in the population can be estimated. An illustration is given in which the method is applied to existing measurement results of 20 surveys in The Netherlands in the period 1990-2008. The results clarify our recommendation to apply the model with a uniform distribution within each of the category intervals, in spite of a better validity of the alternative on the basis of a beta distribution. The reason is that the recommended model allows to construct a confidence interval for the true but unknown population happiness distribution. The paper ends with a listing of actual and potential merits of this approach, which has been described here for verbal happiness questions, but which is also applicable to phenomena which are measured along similar lines. PMID:21765582

  14. Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

  15. 12 CFR 1081.203 - Scheduling conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scheduling conference. 1081.203 Section 1081... PROCEEDINGS Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 1081.203 Scheduling conference. (a) Meeting of the parties before scheduling conference. As early as practicable before the scheduling...

  16. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Terminal schedules. 525.2 Section 525.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator,...

  17. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Terminal schedules. 525.2 Section 525.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator,...

  18. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  20. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-11-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in The Physics Teacher aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope2 in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis.3 A logical continuation of this project is to use MacScope not just to analyze the Fourier composition of musical tones but also musical intervals.

  1. Outpatient laparoscopic interval female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Intaraprasert, S; Taneepanichskul, S; Chaturachinda, K

    1997-05-01

    A 23-year retrospective review of laparoscopic sterilization in Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, is reported. A total of 9041 cases of outpatient laparoscopic interval female sterilizations were done from January 1973 to December 1995. Intraoperative complications occurred in 35 cases (0.39%) and hospital admissions totalled 65 cases (0.72%). Adnexal injuries were the most frequent complication. There was one case of death from anesthetic complication. Management and prevention of complications are discussed. PMID:9220224

  2. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  3. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  4. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine. PMID:26691413

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  6. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Anbarasan, K

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of fuzzy scheduled robustness, tracking, disturbance rejection and overall aggressiveness (RTDA) controller design for non-linear processes are discussed. pH process is highly non-linear and the design of good controller for this process is always a challenging one due to large gain variation. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design based on normalized integral square error (N_ISE) performance criteria for pH neutralization process is developed. The applicability of the proposed controller is tested for other different non-linear processes like type I diabetic process and conical tank process. The servo and regulatory performance of fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design is compared with well-tuned internal model control (IMC) and dynamic matrix control (DMC)-based control schemes. PMID:23317662

  7. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent or reduced schedule basis when medically necessary due...

  8. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent or reduced schedule basis when medically necessary due...

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent or reduced schedule basis when medically necessary due...

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent or reduced schedule basis when medically necessary due...

  11. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent or reduced schedule basis when medically necessary due...

  12. Computerized Schedule Effectiveness Technique /SET/ determines present and future schedule position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, D.; Birdsong, J.; Calva, R.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized scheduling system calculates an index of overall schedule-effectiveness. The schedule-effectiveness index is a measurement of actual overall performance against the existing schedule, and a series of schedule-effectiveness values indicates the trend of actual performance. This computer program is written in Fortran 4.

  13. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  14. 47 CFR 1.1106 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the enforcement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and... Audits: a. Field Audit Carriers will be invoiced for the amount due 106,790.00 BMA b. Review of...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1106 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the enforcement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and.... Accounting and Audits: a. Field Audit Carriers will be invoiced for the amount due $115,370.00 BMA b....

  16. 47 CFR 1.1106 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the enforcement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and... Audits: a. Field Audit Carriers will be invoiced for the amount due 106,790.00 BMA b. Review of...

  17. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  18. A planning and scheduling lexicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

    1989-01-01

    A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

  19. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  20. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  1. Enhanced Memetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmavathi, S.; Shalinie, S. Mercy; Someshwar, B. C.; Sasikumar, T.

    Scheduling tasks onto the processors of a parallel system is a crucial part of program parallelization. Due to the NP-hardness of the task scheduling problem, scheduling algorithms are based on heuristics that try to produce good rather than optimal schedules. This paper proposes a Memetic algorithm with Tabu search and Simulated Annealing as local search for solving Task scheduling problem considering communication contention. This problem consists of finding a schedule for a general task graph to be executed on a cluster of workstations and hence the schedule length can be minimized. Our approach combines local search (by self experience) and global search (by neighboring experience) possessing high search efficiency. The proposed approach is compared with existing list scheduling heuristics. The numerical results clearly indicate that our proposed approach produces solutions which are closer to optimality and/or better quality than the existing list scheduling heuristics.

  2. A practical scheduling algorithm for Shuttle-based astronomy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Roberts, B. H.; Williamson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the Astro mission series (initial flight planned for March, 1986), the Shuttle will be used as a dedicated stellar astronomy observatory. A modified Spacelab pallet is to be used for the Astro payload, which will consist of three ultraviolet (UV) telescopes and a wide field camera mounted together on a single gimbal mount called the Inertial Pointing System (IPS). Three flights of 7-10 days duration are to be made with the same payload at intervals of 8-9 months. Previous experience has shown that changes in design requirements are inevitable, and the evolution of operational concepts will effect changes in scheduling algorithm software. For these reasons, the design goals of the Astron algorithm and its family of auxiliary software modules have been related to functional modularity, constraint flexibility, user friendliness, and 'light' input requirements. Attention is given to hardware characteristics, environmental constraints, the basic criteria function, 'Cinderella' logic, counters and constraints, and scheduling trends.

  3. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  4. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  5. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  6. Flexible Scheduling: Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makemson, Carroll; Early, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the kind of library media program that elementary students should have, focusing on the library schedule and its impact on student achievement. Considers time for collaborative planning with teachers; availability for multitasking in the library; and information literacy skills instruction integrated with content instruction. (LRW)

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  8. Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Edward L.

    This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

  9. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schrödinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others.

  10. Random thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  11. Persistent coherent random lasing using resonant scatterers.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2011-11-01

    We study the frequency behavior of coherent random lasers consisting monodisperse scatterers with single-particle resonances. A three-dimensional photon propagation model is employed to compute the wavelength-sensitive path length distribution of fluorescence photons in this system. We observe that a persistence interval of wavelengths exists for the coherent random lasing modes, corresponding to the Mie resonances of the individual resonant scatterer. Within the interval, characteristic pulse to pulse fluctuations continue to be observed from the system. The gain competition in the random laser suppresses likely coherent modes in other regions of the emission band, thereby reducing the wavelength fluctuations in the random laser. We further illustrate the tunability of this persistence interval by varying the size parameter of the resonant scatterers. PMID:22109230

  12. The effect of signaled reinforcement on rats' fixed-interval responding.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect on rats' response rate of presenting a brief (500 ms) stimulus simultaneously with the delivery of food on fixed-interval (FI) schedules. In Experiment 1, reinforcement signals that were spatially diffuse (both tones and lights) elevated rates of responding, but responding was attenuated by localized visual stimuli. The remaining experiments examined the signal-induced potentiation of responding. In Experiment 2, a tone reinforcement signal potentiated response rates on an FI schedule, but attenuated response rates on a variable-interval (VI) schedule. This difference was obtained even though the overall rate of responding was equated on the two schedules before the introduction of the signal. Signal-induced potentiation of responding occurred over a range of FI values employed in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, presenting a reinforcement signal when high local rates of response had occurred immediately before reinforcement resulted in potentiated rates of responding on an FI schedule. The opposite effect on response rate occurred when the reinforcement signal followed only low local rates of response. These results indicate that a variety of factors influence the effects of a reinforcement signal. They imply, however, that the local rate of response at the time of reinforcement is a key factor in establishing the nature of the signaling effect. PMID:12908763

  13. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  14. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  15. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  16. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  17. An Extended Deterministic Dendritic Cell Algorithm for Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, X. N.; Lau, H. Y. K.

    The problem of job shop scheduling in a dynamic environment where random perturbation exists in the system is studied. In this paper, an extended deterministic Dendritic Cell Algorithm (dDCA) is proposed to solve such a dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) where unexpected events occurred randomly. This algorithm is designed based on dDCA and makes improvements by considering all types of signals and the magnitude of the output values. To evaluate this algorithm, ten benchmark problems are chosen and different kinds of disturbances are injected randomly. The results show that the algorithm performs competitively as it is capable of triggering the rescheduling process optimally with much less run time for deciding the rescheduling action. As such, the proposed algorithm is able to minimize the rescheduling times under the defined objective and to keep the scheduling process stable and efficient.

  18. Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

    2011-01-01

    Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

  19. Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules for Problem Behavior and Appropriate Behavior: Experimental Applications of the Matching Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

  20. Preference for signaled versus unsignaled reinforcement delay in concurrent-chain schedules

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Richards, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A concurrent-chain schedule was employed to examine pigeons' preferences for signaled versus unsignaled delay of reinforcement in which the delay durations ranged from zero to ten seconds. In general, pigeons preferred signaled delay over unsignaled delay especially when a variable-interval 30-second schedule operated in each initial link; when a variable-interval 90-second schedule operated in each initial link, these preferences tended toward indifference or were attenuated. In addition, prior training seemed to exert partial control over behavior. Responding in the terminal link was higher under signaled delay than unsignaled delay in a majority of the cases. Moreover, response rates under signaled delay remained fairly constant whereas responding under unsignaled delay was initially high, but decreased systematically with delay durations as short as 2.5 seconds. These results are consistent with a number of other studies demonstrating the significant role of a signal for impending positive stimuli. PMID:16812241

  1. Adaptive Parallel Job Scheduling with Flexible CoScheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, Eitan; Feitelson, Dror; Petrini, Fabrizio; Fernandez, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abstract—Many scientific and high-performance computing applications consist of multiple processes running on different processors that communicate frequently. Because of their synchronization needs, these applications can suffer severe performance penalties if their processes are not all coscheduled to run together. Two common approaches to coscheduling jobs are batch scheduling, wherein nodes are dedicated for the duration of the run, and gang scheduling, wherein time slicing is coordinated across processors. Both work well when jobs are load-balanced and make use of the entire parallel machine. However, these conditions are rarely met and most realistic workloads consequently suffer from both internal and external fragmentation, in which resources and processors are left idle because jobs cannot be packed with perfect efficiency. This situation leads to reduced utilization and suboptimal performance. Flexible CoScheduling (FCS) addresses this problem by monitoring each job’s computation granularity and communication pattern and scheduling jobs based on their synchronization and load-balancing requirements. In particular, jobs that do not require stringent synchronization are identified, and are not coscheduled; instead, these processes are used to reduce fragmentation. FCS has been fully implemented on top of the STORM resource manager on a 256-processor Alpha cluster and compared to batch, gang, and implicit coscheduling algorithms. This paper describes in detail the implementation of FCS and its performance evaluation with a variety of workloads, including large-scale benchmarks, scientific applications, and dynamic workloads. The experimental results show that FCS saturates at higher loads than other algorithms (up to 54 percent higher in some cases), and displays lower response times and slowdown than the other algorithms in nearly all scenarios.

  2. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  3. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. PMID:24890928

  4. Using joint utilities of the times to response and toxicity to adaptively optimize schedule-dose regimes.

    PubMed

    Thall, Peter F; Nguyen, Hoang Q; Braun, Thomas M; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H

    2013-09-01

    A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death or discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

  5. Using Joint Utilities of the Times to Response and Toxicity to Adaptively Optimize Schedule-Dose Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Braun, Thomas M.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

  6. Using joint utilities of the times to response and toxicity to adaptively optimize schedule-dose regimes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Thall PF; Nguyen HQ; Braun TM; Qazilbash MH

    2013-09-01

    A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death or discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study.

  7. The Behavioral Economics of Choice and Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, J.; Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple behavioral economic model (BEM) describing how reinforcement and interval timing interact. The model assumes a Weber-law-compliant logarithmic representation of time. Associated with each represented time value are the payoffs that have been obtained for each possible response. At a given real time, the response with the highest payoff is emitted. The model accounts for a wide range of data from procedures such as simple bisection, metacognition in animals, economic effects in free-operant psychophysical procedures and paradoxical choice in double-bisection procedures. Although it assumes logarithmic time representation, it can also account for data from the time-left procedure usually cited in support of linear time representation. It encounters some difficulties in complex free-operant choice procedures, such as concurrent mixed fixed-interval schedules as well as some of the data on double bisection, that may involve additional processes. Overall, BEM provides a theoretical framework for understanding how reinforcement and interval timing work together to determine choice between temporally differentiated reinforcers. PMID:19618985

  8. Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S.; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V.; Paton, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473

  9. Using abstraction in multi-rover scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes how an iterative repair planner/scheduler can reason about the activities of multiple spacecraft at abstract levels in order to greatly improve the scheduling of their use of shared resources.

  10. Complex ambulatory settings demand scheduling systems.

    PubMed

    Ross, K M

    1998-01-01

    Practice management systems are becoming more and more complex, as they are asked to integrate all aspects of patient and resource management. Although patient scheduling is a standard expectation in any ambulatory environment, facilities and equipment resource scheduling are additional functionalities of scheduling systems. Because these functions were not typically managed in manual patient scheduling, often the result was resource mismanagement, along with a potential negative impact on utilization, patient flow and provider productivity. As ambulatory organizations have become more seasoned users of practice management software, the value of resource scheduling has become apparent. Appointment scheduling within a fully integrated practice management system is recognized as an enhancement of scheduling itself and provides additional tools to manage other information needs. Scheduling, as one component of patient information management, provides additional tools in these areas. PMID:10346586

  11. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  12. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens Recommend on Facebook ... on track. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Preteens and Teens (7-18 years) 2016 ...

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered as a 2-dose schedule compared with the licensed 3-dose schedule

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda M; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Schulze, Karin; Ramjattan, Brian; Hillemanns, Peter; Catteau, Grégory; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Schuind, Anne; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS 04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) administered according to its licensed vaccination schedule (3-dose, 3D) and formulation (20 µg of each HPV antigen; 20/20F) has previously been demonstrated. This partially-blind, controlled, randomized trial (NCT00541970) evaluated 2-dose (2D) schedules using the licensed 20/20F or an alternative formulation containing 40 µg of each antigen (40/40F), compared with the licensed 3D schedule. Healthy females stratified by age (9–14, 15–19, 20–25 y) were randomized to receive 2 doses of 20/20F at Months (M) 0,6 (n = 240), 40/40F at M0,6 (n = 241) or 40/40F at M0,2 (n = 240), or 3 doses of 20/20F at M0,1,6 (licensed schedule/formulation, n = 239). One month after the last dose, the 3D schedule was not immunologically superior to 2D schedules except in the 40/40F M0,2 group for HPV-16 (lower limit of 95% CI geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratio [2D/3D] <0.5). For both HPV-16 and HPV-18, the 2D schedules in girls 9–14 y were immunologically non-inferior to the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y (the age group in which efficacy has been demonstrated) (upper limit of 95% CI for GMT ratio [3D/2D] <2) one month after the last dose. At Month 24, non-inferiority was maintained for the 2D M0,6 schedules in girls 9–14 y vs. the 3D schedule in women 15–25 y. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. These results indicate that the HPV-16/18 vaccine on a 2D M0,6 schedule is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in girls 9–14 y and that the 2D schedule is likely adequate for younger females. PMID:22048171

  14. Universal randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S.

    2011-03-01

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part.

  15. Exact confidence intervals for the average causal effect on a binary outcome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Ding, Peng

    2016-03-15

    Based on the physical randomization of completely randomized experiments, in a recent article in Statistics in Medicine, Rigdon and Hudgens propose two approaches to obtaining exact confidence intervals for the average causal effect on a binary outcome. They construct the first confidence interval by combining, with the Bonferroni adjustment, the prediction sets for treatment effects among treatment and control groups, and the second one by inverting a series of randomization tests. With sample size n, their second approach requires performing O(n(4) )randomization tests. We demonstrate that the physical randomization also justifies other ways to constructing exact confidence intervals that are more computationally efficient. By exploiting recent advances in hypergeometric confidence intervals and the stochastic order information of randomization tests, we propose approaches that either do not need to invoke Monte Carlo or require performing at most O(n(2) )randomization tests. We provide technical details and R code in the Supporting Information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26833798

  16. Distributed Scheduling Extension on Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadan, Zeng; Xieqin, Wang; Ningkang, Jiang

    Distributed computing splits a large-scale job into multiple tasks and deals with them on clusters. Cluster resource allocation is the key point to restrict the efficiency of distributed computing platform. Hadoop is the current most popular open-source distributed platform. However, the existing scheduling strategies in Hadoop are kind of simple and cannot meet the needs such as sharing the cluster for multi-user, ensuring a concept of guaranteed capacity for each job, as well as providing good performance for interactive jobs. This paper researches the existing scheduling strategies, analyses the inadequacy and adds three new features in Hadoop which can raise the weight of job temporarily, grab cluster resources by higher-priority jobs and support the computing resources share among multi-user. Experiments show they can help in providing better performance for interactive jobs, as well as more fairly share of computing time among users.

  17. The NCRC Grid Scheduling Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Indiviglio, Frank M; Maxwell, Don E

    2011-01-01

    In support of the NCRC, a joint computing center between NOAA and ORNL, a grid-based scheduling infrastructure was designed to allow geographically separate computing resources to be used as production resources in climate and weather research workflows. These workflows require job coordination between the two centers in order to provide a complete workflow of data staging, computation, post-analysis and archival. This paper details the design, implementation and initial production phase of the infrastructure and lessons learned from the process.

  18. Obtaining schedules for digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagadish, H. V.; Kailath, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A systematic technique is presented to derive correct schedules for a synchronous digital system, given a signal flow graph for an algorithm. It is also shown how to use this technique to derive designs that are optimal in having the lowest latency, the highest throughput, or the smallest number of registers. The same technique can also be used to verify digital systems that have already been designed.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  1. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  2. Scheduled Peripheral Component Interconnect Arbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Scott Alan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for arbitrating access of a communication bus. In one embodiment, a method includes performing steps on one or more processors. The steps include: receiving an access request from a device of the communication bus; evaluating a bus schedule to determine an importance of the device based on the access request; and selectively granting access of the communication bus to the device based on the importance of the device.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF FIXED VERSUS ESCALATING REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES ON SMOKING ABSTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that when abstinence is initiated, escalating reinforcement schedules maintain continuous abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules. However, these studies were conducted for shorter durations than most clinical trials and also resulted in larger reinforcer value for escalating participants during the 1st week of the experiment. We tested whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintained abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules in a 12-week clinical trial. Smokers (146) were randomized to an escalating reinforcement schedule, a fixed reinforcement schedule, or a control condition. Escalating reinforcement participants received $5.00 for their first breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample <3 ppm, with a $0.50 increase for each consecutive sample. Fixed reinforcement participants received $19.75 for each breath CO sample <3 ppm. Control participants received payments only for delivering a breath CO sample. Similar proportions of escalating and fixed reinforcement participants met the breath CO criterion at least once. Escalating reinforcement participants maintained criterion breath CO levels longer than fixed reinforcement and control participants. Similar to previous short-term studies, escalating reinforcement schedules maintained longer durations of abstinence than fixed reinforcement schedules during a clinical trial. PMID:25640764

  4. The effects of fixed versus escalating reinforcement schedules on smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that when abstinence is initiated, escalating reinforcement schedules maintain continuous abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules. However, these studies were conducted for shorter durations than most clinical trials and also resulted in larger reinforcer value for escalating participants during the 1st week of the experiment. We tested whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintained abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules in a 12-week clinical trial. Smokers (146) were randomized to an escalating reinforcement schedule, a fixed reinforcement schedule, or a control condition. Escalating reinforcement participants received $5.00 for their first breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample <3 ppm, with a $0.50 increase for each consecutive sample. Fixed reinforcement participants received $19.75 for each breath CO sample <3 ppm. Control participants received payments only for delivering a breath CO sample. Similar proportions of escalating and fixed reinforcement participants met the breath CO criterion at least once. Escalating reinforcement participants maintained criterion breath CO levels longer than fixed reinforcement and control participants. Similar to previous short-term studies, escalating reinforcement schedules maintained longer durations of abstinence than fixed reinforcement schedules during a clinical trial. PMID:25640764

  5. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced delays as compared to FCFS, and the magnitude of the savings depends on the queue and departure fix structure. The MILP assumes deterministic aircraft arrival times at the runway queues. However, due to taxi time uncertainty, aircraft might arrive either earlier or later than these deterministic times. Thus, to incorporate this uncertainty, we present a method for using the MILP with "overlap discounted rolling planning horizon". The approach is based on valuing near-term decision results more than future ones. We develop a model of taxitime uncertainty based on real-world data, and then compare the baseline FCFS delays with delays using the above MILP in a simple rolling-horizon method and in the overlap discounted scheme.

  6. Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed. PMID:26474047

  7. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Prevention of Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age globally. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) documenting the effect of PCV dosing schedules on clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema among children of ages targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2- and 3-dose schedules were included. Percent change of pneumonia incidence rates from baseline to most recent year post-PCV introduction was calculated. Results: We identified 42 primary citations that evaluated PCV schedules and pneumonia. Thirty-seven (88%) were from North America, Europe or Australia; 37 (88%) evaluated PCV7 and 1 (2%) PCV10. Two studies (both observational) compared multiple schedules within the study. We found evidence of reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia incidence for all schedules, including 2+1 (1 nonrandomized trial, 5 observational studies), 3+0 (5 randomized trials, 2 observational studies) and 3+1 (5 clinical trials, 24 observational studies) schedules. The magnitude of disease impact did not differ among schedules. Evidence for impact on pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema varied. Conclusions: All schedules (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1) reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Quantifying differences in pneumonia disease impact between schedules was difficult due to heterogeneity among studies in design, case definition and population. These findings support World Health Organization recommendations for 3-dose schedules administered as either 3+0 or 2+1 regimens. Pneumonia impact data are still needed on expanded serotype PCV products, developing country settings and the role for a booster dose. PMID:24336056

  8. 40 CFR 52.2625 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.2625 Section 52.2625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2625 Compliance schedules. (a) The compliance schedules for the...

  9. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  10. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  11. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  12. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  13. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  14. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01...

  15. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01...

  16. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01...

  17. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01...

  18. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100 Schedule A. Byproduct material Col. I curies Col. II curies Antimony-122 1 0.01 Antimony-124 1 .01...

  19. Creating a Complex Schedule with "REFLEX."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, George M.; Christakes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "REFLEX," a software package for scheduling. Explores the program's applications in preparing a departmental class schedule. Explains that "REFLEX" includes a filter function and some attributes of a spreadsheet but lacks the ability to interact with other databases. Concludes that the program can make scheduling easier and more…

  20. 7 CFR 283.29 - Scheduling conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scheduling conference. 283.29 Section 283.29... Procedure for Appeals of QC Claims of Less Than $50,000 § 283.29 Scheduling conference. (a) Time and place. The ALJ shall direct the parties or their counsel to attend a scheduling conference following...

  1. 49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scheduling. 665.21 Section 665.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665.21 Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a...

  2. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  3. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  4. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  5. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  6. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  7. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  8. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  9. 7 CFR 58.440 - Make schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Make schedule. 58.440 Section 58.440 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.440 Make schedule. A uniform schedule should be established and followed as closely...

  10. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice... Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold a... the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please contact...

  11. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  12. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the system...

  13. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the system...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.49 - Emergency scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency scheduling. 1308.49 Section 1308.49 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.49 Emergency scheduling. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 811(h) and without regard to...

  15. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  16. Randomness in Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

    2013-05-01

    We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top ?{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

  17. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  18. Effects of intermittent punishment on self-injurious behavior: an evaluation of schedule thinning.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Shore, B A; DeLeon, I G

    1997-01-01

    Although the use of punishment often raises ethical issues, such procedures may be needed when the reinforcers that maintain behavior cannot be identified or controlled, or when competing reinforcers cannot be found. Results of several studies on the effects of intermittent schedules of punishment suggest that therapists must use fairly rich schedules of punishment to suppress problem behavior. However, residential caretakers, teachers, and parents often have difficulty implementing programs that require constant monitoring of the client's behavior. In this study, we examined the feasibility of gradually thinning the delivery of punishment from a continuous schedule to an intermittent schedule during the course of treatment for self-injurious behavior (SIB). Results of functional analyses for 5 individuals who had been diagnosed with profound mental retardation indicated that their SIB was not maintained by social consequences. Treatment with continuous schedules of time-out (for 1 participant) or contingent restraint (for the other 4 participants) produced substantial reductions in SIB. When they were exposed to intermittent schedules of punishment (fixed-interval [FI] 120 s or FI 300 s), SIB for all but 1 of the participants increased to levels similar to those observed during baseline. For these 4 participants, the schedule of punishment was gradually thinned from continuous to FI 120 s or FI 300 s. For 2 participants, SIB remained low across the schedule changes, demonstrating the utility of thinning from continuous to intermittent schedules of punishment. Results for the other 2 participants showed that intermittent punishment was ineffective, despite repeated attempts to thin the schedule. PMID:9210302

  19. Random root movements in weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, A; Karlsson, C; Iversen, T H; Chapman, D K

    1996-02-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment. PMID:11541141

  20. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  1. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  2. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  3. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  4. Influence of intravenous self-administered psychomotor stimulants on performance of rhesus monkeys in a multiple schedule paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, F

    1980-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained to complete three multiple schedules. The schedules consisted of three components: a fixed interval (component 1), a variable interval (component 2), and a fixed ratio (component 3). During components 1 and 2, pressing lever 1 was always reinforced by food delivery. During component 3, pressing lever 2 resulted in either food delivery or intravenous infusions of saline solution, solutions of cocaine, of d-amphetamine, of phenmetrazine, or fenetylline. In schedule I, animals were presented with all three components independent of key-pressing behavior during components 1 and 2. In schedule II the availability of component 2 was dependent on completion of component 1. Component 3 was made available only on completion of component 2. Noncompletion of components 1 or 2 resulted in time-out of 15 and 10 min, respectively. Schedule III was identical with schedule II, except that in schedule III the completion of components was indicated only by a change in the lever lights. The influence of self-administered drugs on behavior in all three components was evaluated. Self-administration of psychomotor stimulants impaired the performance of animals and delayed completion of components 1 and 2 of schedules I, II, and III. The effects on behavior were similar with low drug intake in schedule III, moderate intake in schedule II, and high drug intake in schedule I. These effects were strong with self-administration of phenmetrazine, moderate with self-administration of cocaine and d-amphetamine, and weak with self-administration of fenetylline. PMID:6781006

  5. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  6. Behavioral adaptation to fixed-interval and fixed-time food delivery in golden hamsters1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Merrill C.; Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1977-01-01

    Food-deprived golden hamsters in a large enclosure received food every 30 sec contingent on lever pressing, or free while their behavior was continuously recorded in terms of an exhaustive classification of motor patterns. As with other species in other situations, behavior became organized into two main classes. One (terminal behaviors) increased in probability throughout interfood intervals; the other (interim behaviors) peaked earlier in interfood intervals. Which class an activity belonged to was independent of whether food was contingent on lever pressing. When food was omitted on some of the intervals (thwarting), the terminal activities began sooner in the next interval, and different interim activities changed in different ways. The interim activities did not appear to be schedule-induced in the usual sense. Rather, the hamsters left the area of the feeder when food was not due and engaged in activities they would normally perform in the experimental environment. PMID:16811980

  7. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  8. Temporal control of periodic schedules: signal properties of reinforcement and blackout1

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Bettie C.; Staddon, J. E. R.

    1974-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to periodic food-reinforcement schedules in which intervals ended with equal probability in either reinforcement or brief blackout. The effects on the pattern of key pecking of sequential probability of reinforcement, interval duration, and time to reinforcement opportunity were investigated in three experiments. The major results were: (1) at short absolute interval durations, time to reinforcement opportunity determined both postreinforcement and postblackout pause (time to first key peck within an interval); (2) at long intervals, postblackout pause was consistently shorter than postreinforcement pause, even if both events signalled the same time to the next reinforcement opportunity (omission effect); (3) when reinforcement and blackout signalled different times to the next reinforcement opportunity, within the same experiment, there was some evidence for interactions analogous to behavioral contrast. PMID:16811818

  9. Testing Task Schedulers on Linux System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenković, Leonardo; Groš, Stjepan; Jakobović, Domagoj

    Testing task schedulers on Linux operating system proves to be a challenging task. There are two main problems. The first one is to identify which properties of the scheduler to test. The second problem is how to perform it, e.g., which API to use that is sufficiently precise and in the same time supported on most platforms. This paper discusses the problems in realizing test framework for testing task schedulers and presents one potential solution. Observed behavior of the scheduler is the one used for “normal” task scheduling (SCHED_OTHER), unlike one used for real-time tasks (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR).

  10. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  11. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  12. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine administered according to 2- and 3-dose schedules in girls aged 9–14 years: Results to month 12 from a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18(2D)) vs. 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D)) in healthy girls aged 9–14 y. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive HPV-16/18(2D) at months (M) 0,6 (N = 359), HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M0,6 (N = 358) or HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M0,2,6 (N = 358). The primary objective was non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M7 in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I) and total vaccinated cohort, respectively. Secondary objectives included non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7, non-inferiority/superiority at M12, HPV-16/18 neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of T-cells/B-cells, reactogenicity and safety. Antibody responses at M7 for HPV-16/18(2D) were superior to those for HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) (lower limit of 95% confidence interval for geometric mean titer ratio (GMR) was >1): HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) GMRs were 1.69 [1.49–1.91] for anti-HPV-16 and 4.52 [3.97–5.13] for anti-HPV-18; HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) GMRs were 1.72 [1.54–1.93] for anti-HPV-16 and 3.22 [2.82–3.68] for anti-HPV-18; p = 0.0001 for all comparisons. Non-inferiority/superiority was also demonstrated at M12. Among initially seronegative girls in the ATP-I, neutralizing antibody titers were at least 1.8-fold higher for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7 and M12. Frequencies of HPV-16/18-specific T-cells and B-cells were in similar ranges between groups. Reactogenicity and safety were in line with the known profile of each vaccine. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine compared with 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in girls (9–14 years). PMID:26062002

  13. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  14. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  15. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  16. Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

  17. Sensitivity of time allocation to concurrent-schedule reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Aldiss, Matthew; Davison, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules programmed on a center response key, with access to those schedules controlled by responses on left or right side keys. Two procedures were used. In one, the pigeon was given limited access, in that each side-key response produced 3-s access to a center-key schedule, and in the other procedure, access was unlimited. Data were analyzed using the generalized matching law. Comparison of sensitivities to reinforcement of interchangeover time for both procedures showed them to be of similar magnitude. Response sensitivities were also similar in magnitude for both procedures. From the limited-access procedure a second time measure that was available, switched-in time, was relatively uncontaminated by time spent emitting behavior other than key pecking. Sensitivities to reinforcement for the switched-in time measure were always smaller than interchangeover-time sensitivities for either procedure, and were approximately equal to response sensitivities for the limited-access procedure. Two other access times (5 and 7.5 s) were studied to validate the choice of 3 s as the main access time. These results indicate that when time spent emitting other behavior is excluded from interchangeover time, time and response sensitivities will be approximately equal. PMID:16812427

  18. Confidence intervals in QTL mapping by bootstrapping

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, P.M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. 27 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Effect of sprint interval versus continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Min Sze; Mok, Alexander; Yap, Mei Chan; Burns, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The present study compares the effect of a single bout of sprint interval cycling against continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia. Participants were nine healthy volunteers (five male), aged 20-26 years. Each participant undertook three 2-d trials in a random order. On day 1, participants rested (control), undertook a single 20 minute bout of continuous cycling at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake or completed four 30-second bouts of sprint interval cycling on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4.5 minutes of recovery. On day 2, participants rested and consumed a test meal (75% fat). Triacylglycerol concentrations were measured fasting and for 6 hours after the meal. The total area under the triacylglycerol concentration against time curve was similar among trials (mean (SD): control, 9.51 (3.50) mmol · l(-1) compared with continuous cycling, 8.58 (3.08) mmol · l(-1) compared with sprint interval cycling, 9.28 (1.89) mmol · l(-1); P = 0.517). There was no difference in the pattern of TAG response to the test meal among trials (trial × time interaction, P = 0.637). The present study found no effect of sprint interval or continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia, with the reason for this finding unclear. Future studies need to more precisely determine the relationship between exercise and postprandial lipaemia across different types of exercise. PMID:23350957

  20. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  1. Detomidine: a preliminary analysis of its duration of action in the horse by variable interval responding.

    PubMed

    Wood, T; Weckman, T; Woods, W E; Tobin, T; Dougherty, J

    1988-09-01

    Variable interval (VI) reinforcement scheduling is a specific type of operant conditioning that is sensitive to drug effects even when overt clinical signs of the drug have diminished. Six horses were conditioned to break a light beam with a head-bobbing movement and this behaviour was reinforced with a reward of clean oats (approximately 30 mg/reinforcement). Initial training procedures included familiarisation with the behavioural equipment and fixed-ratio reinforced scheduling. To establish baseline rates of behaviour, the horses were converted to a variable interval (60 secs) reinforcement schedule and kept on this schedule for the remainder of the study. A within subjects cross-over design was used with three treatments counterbalanced with the six horses. Detomidine (40 micrograms/kg bodyweight, xylazine (1.1 mg/kg bodyweight) and saline (10 ml) were administered intravenously on Monday mornings with VI responding rates measured during a routine 30 min session each day from Monday to Friday. Responses and reinforcements were recorded and dispensed by use of an electromechanical relay system wired to an electric eye, an automatic feeder and a programming and recording system. Xylazine produced a small decrease in responding rates at 1 h post dose, while detomidine treated horses showed a dramatic decrease in responding rates after 1 h and a lingering effect at 24 h. No long range effects were seen with either treatment and all horses returned to baseline responding rates by 48 h post dose. PMID:3181114

  2. Cues Produced by Reward and Nonreward and Temporal Cues Influence Responding in the Intertrial Interval and to the Conditioned Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…

  3. Feasibility Criteria for Interval Management Operations as Part of Arrival Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Ian M.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Castle, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that aims to provide more precise inter-aircraft spacing to yield throughput improvements and greater use of fuel efficient trajectories for arrival and approach operations. To participate in an IM operation, an aircraft must be equipped with avionics that provide speeds to achieve and maintain an assigned spacing interval relative to another aircraft. It is not expected that all aircraft will be equipped with the necessary avionics, but rather that IM fits into a larger arrival management concept developed to support the broader mixed-equipage environment. Arrival management concepts are comprised of three parts: a ground-based sequencing and scheduling function to develop an overall arrival strategy, ground-based tools to support the management of aircraft to that schedule, and the IM tools necessary for the IM operation (i.e., ground-based set-up, initiation, and monitoring, and the flight-deck tools to conduct the IM operation). The Federal Aviation Administration is deploying a near-term ground-automation system to support metering operations in the National Airspace System, which falls within the first two components of the arrival management concept. This paper develops a methodology for determining the required delivery precision at controlled meter points for aircraft that are being managed to a schedule and aircraft being managed to a relative spacing interval in order to achieve desired flow rates and adequate separation at the meter points.

  4. Pigeons' preference for variable-interval water reinforcement under widely varied water budgets.

    PubMed Central

    Case, D A; Nichols, P; Fantino, E

    1995-01-01

    Water budget of pigeons was varied to assess the dependence of risk-sensitive preferences upon economic context such as has been reported for energy-budget manipulations with small animals in behavioral ecology research. Fixed- and variable-interval terminal-link water schedules reinforced choice between equal variable-interval initial-link schedules arranged on two pecking keys. While keeping a severely restrictive budget the same across three phases of the experiment, a contrasting distinct ample budget was arranged in each. To mimic typical methods in behavioral ecology studies, in each ample budget a more than three-fold increase in amount of water per reinforcer presentation was instituted simultaneously with significantly increased overall access to water. Total choice response rates plummeted in the ample budgets, and body weights either increased significantly or remained unchanged in different phases as expected by the nature of the different manipulations. Clear preferences for the variable-interval schedule were found throughout the experiment, except for rare instances of key bias. The results agree with similar operant food-reinforcement studies and extend conditions under which risk preference apparently does not depend upon economic context. PMID:8551191

  5. Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block. Also, at each variable-interval duration, a block of sessions was conducted with a schedule that imposed a variable-ratio 4 response requirement after each variable interval (i.e., a tandem variable-time variable-ratio 4 schedule). The total rate of lever pressing increased as a function of the rate of reinforcement and as a result of imposing the variable-ratio requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times indicated that lever pressing occurred in bouts that were separated by pauses. Increasing the rate of reinforcement increased total response rate by increasing the rate of initiating bouts and, less reliably, by lengthening bouts. Imposing the variable-ratio component increased response rate mainly by lengthening bouts. This pattern of results is similar to that reported previously with key poking as the response. Also, response rates within bouts were relatively insensitive to either variable. PMID:14674726

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  7. Schedule optimization study implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed.

  8. Schedules of controlled substances: rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products from schedule III to schedule II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-22

    With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration reschedules hydrocodone combination products from schedule III to schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act which requires that such actions be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing through formal rulemaking. This action imposes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule II controlled substances on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, dispense, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities with, conduct chemical analysis with, or possess) or propose to handle hydrocodone combination products. PMID:25167591

  9. EVALUATION OF FIXED MOMENTARY DRO SCHEDULES UNDER SIGNALED AND UNSIGNALED ARRANGEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennifer L; Iwata, Brian A; Fritz, Jennifer N; Dempsey, Carrie M

    2011-01-01

    Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response requirement of the schedule per se or (b) discrimination of the contingency made more salient by the signal. To separate these two potential influences, we compared the effects of signaled versus unsignaled FM DRO with 4 individuals with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by social-positive reinforcement. During signaled FM DRO, the experimenter presented a visual stimulus 3 s prior to the end of the DRO interval and delivered reinforcement contingent on the absence of problem behavior at the second the interval elapsed. Unsignaled DRO was identical except that interval termination was not signaled. Results indicated that signaled FM DRO was effective in decreasing 2 subjects' problem behavior, whereas an unsignaled schedule was required for the remaining 2 subjects. These results suggest that the response requirement per se of FM DRO may not be problematic if it is not easily discriminated. PMID:21541110

  10. An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…

  11. An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2

  12. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  13. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  14. Schedule tightness among tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Beilock, Richard

    2003-06-01

    The extent to which schedules are sufficiently tight to encourage violations of Hours-of-Service Regulations, speed limits, or both was investigated through a survey of over 1,600 tractor-trailer drivers. The focus was on drivers with refrigerated trailers. The results indicate high incidence levels of tight schedules. For example, assuming average speed limits of 65 mph, 24% had violation-inducing schedules with regard to the movement they were making at the time of the interviews. Incorporating information about previous driving, the incidence of violation-inducing schedules rose to 40%. Comparison with an earlier study suggests that, despite increases in speed limits which would tend to loosen schedules, schedules have become tighter over the past decade. The implications of these findings for reforms of Hours-of-Service Regulations are briefly discussed. PMID:16210195

  15. Dynamic Proportional Share Scheduling in Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholm, Thomas; Lai, Kevin

    We present the Dynamic Priority (DP) parallel task scheduler for Hadoop. It allows users to control their allocated capacity by adjusting their spending over time. This simple mechanism allows the scheduler to make more efficient decisions about which jobs and users to prioritize and gives users the tool to optimize and customize their allocations to fit the importance and requirements of their jobs. Additionally, it gives users the incentive to scale back their jobs when demand is high, since the cost of running on a slot is then also more expensive. We envision our scheduler to be used by deadline or budget optimizing agents on behalf of users. We describe the design and implementation of the DP scheduler and experimental results. We show that our scheduler enforces service levels more accurately and also scales to more users with distinct service levels than existing schedulers.

  16. Random versus Blocked Practice in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative effects of random vs. blocked practice schedules in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Although there have been repeated suggestions in the literature to use random practice in CAS treatment, no systematic studies exist that have directly compared random with blocked practice in this population.…

  17. Random versus Blocked Practice in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Farinella, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative effects of random vs. blocked practice schedules in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Although there have been repeated suggestions in the literature to use random practice in CAS treatment, no systematic studies exist that have directly compared random with blocked practice in this population.

  18. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Skorupski KA; Uhl JM; Szivek A; Allstadt Frazier SD; Rebhun RB; Rodriguez CO Jr

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous published studies describing adjuvant chemotherapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma, there is no consensus as to the optimal chemotherapy protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether either of two protocols would be associated with longer disease-free interval (DFI) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following amputation. Dogs with histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma that were free of gross metastases and underwent amputation were eligible for enrollment. Dogs were randomized to receive either six doses of carboplatin or three doses each of carboplatin and doxorubicin on an alternating schedule. Fifty dogs were included. Dogs receiving carboplatin alone had a significantly longer DFI (425 versus 135 days) than dogs receiving alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin (P = 0.04). Toxicity was similar between groups. These results suggest that six doses of carboplatin may be associated superior DFI when compared to six total doses of carboplatin and doxorubicin.

  19. Creating activity schedules using Microsoft Powerpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Kinney, Elisabeth M; Root, Shannon; Stromer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We describe how PowerPoint presentation software can be used to create computer activity schedules to teach individuals with special needs. Presented are the steps involved in creating activity schedules with close-ended and open-ended activities, and for preparing schedules that include photos, sounds, text, and videos that can be used to occasion an individual's engagement in a variety of learning activities. PMID:15154226

  20. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  2. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  3. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  4. Tool for Merging Proposals Into DSN Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Kwok, John; Call, Jared

    2008-01-01

    A Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) script called merge7da has been developed to facilitate determination, by a project scheduler in NASA's Deep Space Network, of whether a proposal for use of the DSN could create a conflict with the current DSN schedule. Prior to the development of merge7da, there was no way to quickly identify potential schedule conflicts: it was necessary to submit a proposal and wait a day or two for a response from a DSN scheduling facility. By using merge7da to detect and eliminate potential schedule conflicts before submitting a proposal, a project scheduler saves time and gains assurance that the proposal will probably be accepted. merge7da accepts two input files, one of which contains the current DSN schedule and is in a DSN-standard format called '7da'. The other input file contains the proposal and is in another DSN-standard format called 'C1/C2'. merge7da processes the two input files to produce a merged 7da-format output file that represents the DSN schedule as it would be if the proposal were to be adopted. This 7da output file can be loaded into various DSN scheduling software tools now in use.

  5. Ada task scheduling: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    The types of control that are important for real time task scheduling are discussed. Some closely related real time issues are mentioned and major committee and research activities in this area are delineated. Although there are some problems with Ada and its real time task scheduling, Ada presents fewer than any known alternative. Ada was designed for the domain of real time embedded systems, but Ada compilers may not contain a level of task scheduling support that is adequate for all real time applications. The question addressed is which implementations of Ada's task scheduling are adequate for effective real time systems for NASA applications.

  6. Production scheduling and rescheduling with genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bierwirth, C; Mattfeld, D C

    1999-01-01

    A general model for job shop scheduling is described which applies to static, dynamic and non-deterministic production environments. Next, a Genetic Algorithm is presented which solves the job shop scheduling problem. This algorithm is tested in a dynamic environment under different workload situations. Thereby, a highly efficient decoding procedure is proposed which strongly improves the quality of schedules. Finally, this technique is tested for scheduling and rescheduling in a non-deterministic environment. It is shown by experiment that conventional methods of production control are clearly outperformed at reasonable run-time costs. PMID:10199993

  7. Payload crew training scheduler (PACTS) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of the payload specialist training scheduler (PACTS) is discussed in this user's manual which is used to schedule payload specialists for mission training on the Spacelab experiments. The PACTS program is a fully automated interactive, computerized scheduling program equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The PACTS program is designed to operate on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system, and has the capability to load output into a PDP 11/45 Interactive Graphics Display System for printing schedules. The program has the capacity to handle up to three overlapping Spacelab missions.

  8. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Network-Aware HEFT Scheduling for Grid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a network-aware HEFT. The original HEFT does not take care of parallel network flows while designing its schedule for a computational environment where computing nodes are physically at distant locations. In the proposed mechanism, such data transfers are stretched to their realistic completion time. A HEFT schedule with stretched data transfers exhibits the realistic makespan of the schedule. It is shown how misleading a schedule can be if the impact of parallel data transfers that share a bottleneck is ignored. A network-aware HEFT can be used to yield a benefit for Grid applications. PMID:24587719

  10. What Is Wrong with Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems related to block scheduling and suggests three elements for improvement: appropriate subject material, appropriate teaching styles, and appropriate level of cognitive development. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  11. Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

  12. Operant and nonoperant vocal responding in the mynah: Complex schedule control and deprivation-induced responding

    PubMed Central

    Hake, D. F.; Mabry, J.

    1979-01-01

    Several recent studies have been concerned with operant responses that are also affected by nonoperant factors, (e.g., biological constraints, innate behavior patterns, respondent processes). The major reason for studying mynah vocal responding concerned the special relation of avian vocalizations to nonoperant emotional and reflexive systems. The research strategy was to evaluate operant and nonoperant control by comparing the schedule control obtained with the vocal response to that characteristic of the motor responses of other animals. We selected single, multiple, and chain schedules that ordinarily produce disparate response rates at predictable times. In multiple schedules with one component where vocal responding (“Awk”) was reinforced with food (fixed-ratio or fixed-interval schedule) and one where the absence of vocal responding was reinforced (differential reinforcement of other behavior), response rates never exceeded 15 responses per minute, but clear schedule differences developed in response rate and pause time. Nonoperant vocal responding was evident when responding endured across 50 extinction sessions at 25% to 40% of the rate during reinforcement. The “enduring extinction responding” was largely deprivation induced, because the operant-level of naive mynahs under food deprivation was comparable in magnitude, but without deprivation the operant level was much lower. Food deprivation can induce vocal responding, but the relatively precise schedule control indicated that operant contingencies predominate when they are introduced. PMID:16812153

  13. The MCNP5 Random number generator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F. B.; Nagaya, Y.

    2002-01-01

    MCNP and other Monte Carlo particle transport codes use random number generators to produce random variates from a uniform distribution on the interval. These random variates are then used in subsequent sampling from probability distributions to simulate the physical behavior of particles during the transport process. This paper describes the new random number generator developed for MCNP Version 5. The new generator will optionally preserve the exact random sequence of previous versions and is entirely conformant to the Fortran-90 standard, hence completely portable. In addition, skip-ahead algorithms have been implemented to efficiently initialize the generator for new histories, a capability that greatly simplifies parallel algorithms. Further, the precision of the generator has been increased, extending the period by a factor of 10{sup 5}. Finally, the new generator has been subjected to 3 different sets of rigorous and extensive statistical tests to verify that it produces a sufficiently random sequence.

  14. Planning and scheduling in AI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the many related activities employing AI that are classifiable as 'automatic planning and scheduling'. A human can form plans and successfully execute them, but no current automatic-planning AI system can match this robustness and generality; it is in fact suggested that automatic planning is unlikely to be achieved by a general-purpose planning system. It is judged likely that partially-specialized planners will emerge for the efficient solution of specific classes of problems. Current planners are also found to make unrealistic informational demands, especially in the requirement that the 'state of the world' be known at all times, and that the only changes that occur are under the planner's control.

  15. [Morbidity of irregular work schedules].

    PubMed

    Noël, S

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a review of literature on the effects of shift work on physical health, mental health and well-being. In Europe, 20% of the workforce is involved in irregular work schedules. Up to 70% of workers report problems, with increasing age, associated with more difficulties in adjusting to shift work. Epidemiologic studies on large populations have suggested a relation between employment in shift work and the incidence of sleep disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, reduced fecundity, preterm births, low birth weight, spontaneous abortion, work and traffic accidents, etc. Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body, mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms. PMID:19899378

  16. CASSIUS: The Cassini Uplink Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellinger, Earl

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Uplink Scheduler (CASSIUS) is cross-platform software used to generate a radiation sequence plan for commands being sent to the Cassini spacecraft. Because signals must travel through varying amounts of Earth's atmosphere, several different modes of constant telemetry rates have been devised. These modes guarantee that the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network agree with respect to the data transmission rate. However, the memory readout of a command will be lost if it occurs on a telemetry mode boundary. Given a list of spacecraft message files as well as the available telemetry modes, CASSIUS can find an uplink sequence that ensures safe transmission of each file. In addition, it can predict when the two on-board solid state recorders will swap. CASSIUS prevents data corruption by making sure that commands are not planned for memory readout during telemetry rate changes or a solid state recorder swap.

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  18. Scheduling with Bully Selfish Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamir, Tami

    In job scheduling with precedence constraints, i ≺ j means that job j cannot start being processed before job i is completed. In this paper we consider selfish bully jobs who do not let other jobs start their processing if they are around. Formally, we define the selfish precedence-constraint where i ≺ s j means that j cannot start being processed if i has not started its processing yet. Interestingly, as was detected by a devoted kindergarten teacher whose story is told below, this type of precedence constraints is very different from the traditional one, in a sense that problems that are known to be solvable efficiently become NP-hard and vice-versa.

  19. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  20. SO/ST/SRG - SCHEDULING PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Organizer contains a primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options as follows: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds 25 groups of up to 25 names for each group. The other file holds 25 records. Each 60-character-long record holds a task schedule title or it is a blank entry. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout. There is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the schedule title of the last schedule title file deleted by the user. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are "past due" and/or "near term". ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SRG sorts three types of reports using one or more data fields as sort keys. One type is sorted using the calendar year as the primary key and the end date as the secondary key. Another type is sorted by flight number. A third type of report, Waterfall plots, is also generated by SRG using the end date as the sorting key. SRG requires as input a single file or two concatenated files with up to 400 single line entries. The user constructs the input file by using the LSE editor VAX utility prior to the execution of the program. The user is able to modify the current functional description text lines just displayed. SO, ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. The programs require the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and were written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). SO requires a memory of 61 KB; ST requires 233 KB; and SRG requires 371 KB. The programs can also be purchased separately. They were developed in 1985.