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1

Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals

Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

Diamond, P.

1988-04-01

2

Idletime Scheduling with Preemption Intervals Lars Eggert*

schedulers. In experiments, a FreeBSD implementation for idletime network scheduling maintains over 90% of remaining link capacity. A FreeBSD disk scheduler implementation maintains 80% of foreground read

Touch, Joe

3

Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

Saias, I.

1996-05-01

4

Order and chaos in fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement

Fixed-interval schedule performance is characterized by high levels of variability. Responding is absent at the onset of the interval and gradually increases in frequency until reinforcer delivery. Measures of behavior also vary drastically and unpredictably between successive intervals. Recent advances in the study of nonlinear dynamics have allowed researchers to study irregular and unpredictable behavior in a number of fields. This paper reviews several concepts and techniques from nonlinear dynamics and examines their utility in predicting the behavior of pigeons responding to a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement. The analysis provided fairly accurate a priori accounts of response rates, accounting for 92.8% of the variance when predicting response rate 1 second in the future and 64% of the variance when predicting response rates for each second over the entire next interreinforcer interval. The nonlinear dynamics account suggests that even the “noisiest” behavior might be the product of purely deterministic mechanisms. PMID:16812657

Hoyert, Mark S.

1992-01-01

5

Randomized Algorithms for that Ancient Scheduling Problem

The problem of scheduling independent jobs on m parallel machines in an online fashion was introduced by Graham in 1966. While the deterministic case of this problem has been studied extensively, little work has been done on the randomized case. For m = 2 an algorithm achieving a competitive ratio of 4\\/3 was found by Bartal, Fiat, Karloff and Vohra.

Steven S. Seiden

1997-01-01

6

Fuzzy confidence intervals for mean of Gaussian fuzzy random variables

A new approach to construct the two-sided and one-sided fuzzy confidence intervals for the fuzzy parameter is introduced, based on normal fuzzy random variables. Fuzzy data, that are observations of normal fuzzy random variables, are used in constructing such fuzzy confidence intervals. We invoke usual methods of finding confidence intervals for parameters obtained form h-level sets of fuzzy parameter to

J. Chachi; S. M. Taheri

2011-01-01

7

On random splitting of the interval

We study the colonizing process of space by some populations which can be verbally described as follows: suppose a first incoming species occupies a random fraction of the available unit space. The forthcoming species takes an independent random fraction of the remaining space. There are n species and so there is a fraction of space occupied by no species. This

Javiera Barrera; Thierry Huillet

2004-01-01

8

Spatiotemporal patterns of behavior produced by variable-interval schedules of reinforcement

The spatiotemporal patterns of behavior exhibited by two pigeons during a variable-interval 15-second schedule of food reinforcement, a variable-interval 5-minute schedule, and then extinction of key pecking were recorded using an apparatus that continuously tracked the position of the bird in the experimental chamber. The variable-interval 15-second schedule produced a close-to-key pattern between reinforcements with two types of regular excursions from the region of the key frequently occurring after reinforcement. Subsequent exposure to the variable-interval 5-minute schedule produced more extended and extremely regular patterns between responses. Reinstatement of the variable-interval 15-second schedule reestablished the close-to-key pattern with regular excursions frequently occurring after reinforcement. During extinction the spatiotemporal patterns that had developed during the variable-interval 5-minute schedule reappeared and gradually dissipated. These patterns may have been a form of superstitious behavior. PMID:16812432

Pear, Joseph J.

1985-01-01

9

Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

2004-01-01

10

PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR INTEGRALS OF GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS.

Methodology is proposed for the construction of prediction intervals for integrals of Gaussian random fields over bounded regions (called block averages in the geostatistical literature) based on observations at a finite set of sampling locations. Two bootstrap calibration algorithms are proposed, termed indirect and direct, aimed at improving upon plug-in prediction intervals in terms of coverage probability. A simulation study is carried out that illustrates the effectiveness of both procedures, and these procedures are applied to estimate block averages of chromium traces in a potentially contaminated region in Switzerland. PMID:25431507

De Oliveira, Victor; Kone, Bazoumana

2015-03-01

11

Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval…

Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

2008-01-01

12

Metaheuristics for Handling Time Interval Coverage Constraints in Nurse Scheduling

The problem of finding a high quality timetable for personnel in a hospital ward has been addressed by many researchers, personnel managers and schedulers over a number of years. Nevertheless, automated nurse rostering practice is not common yet in hospitals. Many head nurses are currently still spending several days per month on constructing their rosters by hand. In recent years,

Edmund K. Burke; Patrick De Causmaecker; Sanja Petrovic; Greet Vanden Berghe

2006-01-01

13

Static response and reliability analysis of structural systems with random and interval properties

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the displacement, stress and reliability analysis of structures with a mixture of random and interval parameters under uncertain static loads. The structural displacement and stress responses are random interval variables when some structural parameters/loads are modelled as random variables and others are considered as intervals. The random interval perturbation method and random interval moment method are employed to predict the random interval structural response. The structural reliability is not a deterministic value but an interval as the structural responses are random interval variables. The expressions for lower and upper bounds of reliability index, probability of failure and reliability of structural elements and systems are then developed by using the combination of the structural reliability theory and interval approach. Truss and frame structures are used as examples to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the presented methods. The probabilistic and interval characteristics of structural static response and reliability are investigated and some useful conclusions are given.

Gao, Wei; Song, Chongmin; Tin-Loi, Francis

2010-06-01

14

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter proposes an efficient uplink scheduling algorithm for the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with variable frame-duration according to the voice activity in IEEE 802.16e/m systems. The proposed algorithm dynamically changes the grant-interval to save the uplink bandwidth, and it uses the random access scheme when the voice activity changes from silent-period to talk-spurt. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the VoIP capacity by 26 percent compared to the conventional extended real-time polling service (ertPS).

Oh, Sung-Min; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwun, Jonghyung

15

Fixed-interval and fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules with human subjects

Operant laboratory studies were conducted as part of the regular activities of a psychiatric research ward. This report includes only some early data obtained from the ward staff, not the patients. A multiple schedule having alternating fixed-ratio and fixed-interval components permitted observations of acquisition and maintenance of behavior at low schedule values, transition to and final performance at greater schedule values, and behavioral changes after a limited-hold contingency was added to the fixed-interval. Prior to the added limited-hold, subjects used watches to time the interval, and usually responded only once before obtaining each fixed-interval reinforcement. Short limited-hold values eliminated clock watching and increased fixed-interval responding. Subjects communicated freely with each other, and it was clear that their performances were controlled both by the contingencies and by instructions. Just as clearly, the instructions themselves were controlled by the contingencies. It was concluded that the kinds of verbal control that were responsible for “nonstandard” fixed-interval performances did not require the postulation of any new behavioral principles. PMID:22477562

Stoddard, Lawrence T.; Sidman, Murray; Brady, Joseph V.

1988-01-01

16

Effects of concurrent schedules on human fixed-interval performance1

Young adults performed a lever-pressing task for money on two schedules of reinforcement: concurrent fixed-interval 1 min—differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 20-sec, and concurrent fixed-interval 1-min—fixed ratio 100 responses. All subjects were trained on both schedules. Fixed-interval performance concurrent with the differential reinforcement procedure was characterized by high constant rates with no post-reinforcement pauses. Fixed-interval performance concurrent with fixed ratio was characterized by low rates and lengthy post-reinforcement pauses. These results differ from those obtained in prior studies on the effects of conditioning history upon subsequent fixed-interval performance. The prior work, using non-concurrent procedures, had shown that fixed-interval performance following differential reinforcement of low rates was characterized by post-reinforcement pauses and low rates, while fixed-interval performance following fixed ratio exhibited high constant rates and no post-reinforcement pause. The present results suggest that alternative concurrent contingencies are another major determinant of human fixed-interval performance. PMID:16811607

Poppen, Roger

1972-01-01

17

Concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules can provide only weak evidence for matching.

Herrnstein and Heyman (1979) showed that when pigeons' pecking is reinforced on concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, (1) their behavior ratios match the ratio of the schedules' reinforcer frequencies, and (2) there is more responding on the variable interval. Since maximizing the reinforcement rate would require responding more on the variable ratio, these results were presented as establishing the primacy of matching over maximizing. In the present report, different ratios of behavior were simulated on a computer to see how they would affect reinforcement rates on these concurrent schedules. Over a wide range of experimenter-specified choice ratios, matching obtained - a result suggesting that changes in choice allocation produced changes in reinforcer frequencies that correspond to the matching outcome. Matching also occurred at arbitrarily selected choice ratios when reinforcement rates were algebraically determined by each schedule's reinforcement-feedback function. Additionally, three birds were exposed to concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules contingent on key pecking in which hopper durations were varied in some conditions to produce experimenter-specified choice ratios. Matching generally obtained between choice ratios and reinforcer-frequency ratios at these different choice ratios. By suggesting that reinforcer frequencies track choice on this procedure, instead of vice versa, this outcome questions whether matching-as-outcome was due to matching-as-process in the Herrnstein and Heyman study. PMID:16812360

Ziriax, J M; Silberberg, A

1984-01-01

18

Concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules can provide only weak evidence for matching

Herrnstein and Heyman (1979) showed that when pigeons' pecking is reinforced on concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, (1) their behavior ratios match the ratio of the schedules' reinforcer frequencies, and (2) there is more responding on the variable interval. Since maximizing the reinforcement rate would require responding more on the variable ratio, these results were presented as establishing the primacy of matching over maximizing. In the present report, different ratios of behavior were simulated on a computer to see how they would affect reinforcement rates on these concurrent schedules. Over a wide range of experimenter-specified choice ratios, matching obtained — a result suggesting that changes in choice allocation produced changes in reinforcer frequencies that correspond to the matching outcome. Matching also occurred at arbitrarily selected choice ratios when reinforcement rates were algebraically determined by each schedule's reinforcement-feedback function. Additionally, three birds were exposed to concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules contingent on key pecking in which hopper durations were varied in some conditions to produce experimenter-specified choice ratios. Matching generally obtained between choice ratios and reinforcer-frequency ratios at these different choice ratios. By suggesting that reinforcer frequencies track choice on this procedure, instead of vice versa, this outcome questions whether matching-as-outcome was due to matching-as-process in the Herrnstein and Heyman study. PMID:16812360

Ziriax, John M.; Silberberg, Alan

1984-01-01

19

Performance under Competitive and Self-Competitive Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone, competitive…

Saville, Bryan K.

2009-01-01

20

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same…

Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

2008-01-01

21

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Next Generation Air Transportation System will combine advanced air traffic management technologies, performance-based procedures, and state-of-the-art avionics to maintain efficient operations throughout the entire arrival phase of flight. Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) operations are expected to use sophisticated airborne spacing capabilities to meet precise in-trail spacing from top-of-descent to touchdown. Recent human-in-the-loop simulations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have found that selection of the assigned spacing goal using the runway schedule can lead to premature interruptions of the FIM operation during periods of high traffic demand. This study compares three methods for calculating the assigned spacing goal for a FIM operation that is also subject to time-based metering constraints. The particular paradigms investigated include: one based upon the desired runway spacing interval, one based upon the desired meter fix spacing interval, and a composite method that combines both intervals. These three paradigms are evaluated for the primary arrival procedures to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport using the entire set of Rapid Update Cycle wind forecasts from 2011. For typical meter fix and runway spacing intervals, the runway- and meter fix-based paradigms exhibit moderate FIM interruption rates due to their inability to consider multiple metering constraints. The addition of larger separation buffers decreases the FIM interruption rate but also significantly reduces the achievable runway throughput. The composite paradigm causes no FIM interruptions, and maintains higher runway throughput more often than the other paradigms. A key implication of the results with respect to time-based metering is that FIM operations using a single assigned spacing goal will not allow reduction of the arrival schedule's excess spacing buffer. Alternative solutions for conducting the FIM operation in a manner more compatible with the arrival schedule are discussed in detail.

Robinson, John E.

2014-01-01

22

Pigeons' choices with token stimuli in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

Twelve pigeons responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights for some pigeons, and white circles on the response keys for others). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for food on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. Across conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response keys. The main findings were that the pigeons' response percentages varied as a function of the number of tokens earned at any given moment, and they were determined by both the delays to food and by the number of food deliveries in the exchange periods. In some conditions, tokens had to be earned but were not visible during the variable-interval schedules for one or both keys. When one key had visible tokens and the other did not, the pigeons showed a preference for the key without visible tokens. A model based on the matching law and a hyperbolic delay-discounting equation could account for the main patterns of choice responding, and for how response percentages changed as successive tokens were earned. The results are consistent with the view that the token stimuli served as discriminative stimuli that signaled the current delays to food. PMID:23460072

Mazur, James E; Biondi, Dawn R

2013-03-01

23

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

2013-07-01

24

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…

Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

2012-01-01

25

This paper addresses the problem of finding robust and stable solutions for the flexible job shop scheduling problem with random machine breakdowns. A number of bi-objective measures combining the robustness and stability of the predicted schedule are defined and compared while using the same rescheduling method. Consequently, a two-stage Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) is proposed to generate the predictive schedule.

Nasr Al-Hinai; T. Y. ElMekkawy

2011-01-01

26

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

2012-01-01

27

Responding under fixed-interval schedules usually generates either scalloped or break-and-run cumulative records. Earlier, it was generally accepted that the characteristic pattern was the scallop, but in recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on the break-and-run pattern. The break-and-run pattern has been shown quantitatively to provide a good fit of certain fixed-interval patterns. In the present work, responding during fixed-interval 1000-second components of a multiple fixed-interval 1000-second fixed-ratio 50 responses schedule was examined in two rhesus monkeys. Even after responding had started in an interval, there was a high tendency for responding to accelerate over subsequent 100-second segments of the interval. In segments with responding, the rate increased from one segment to the next in 303 of 389 segments in one monkey and in 310 of 419 segments in the other. The size of the increase was substantial, the rate in the fifth segment after responding started being an average of 4.5 times higher than the rate in the first segment after responding started. Hence, the usual pattern of responding in individual intervals was of sustained and substantial acceleration, vindicating numerically the conclusion derived from inspection of the scalloped patterns of the cumulative records. PMID:16812040

Dews, P. B.

1978-01-01

28

True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.

We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008

Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie

2013-01-01

29

Confidence intervals for a difference between lognormal means in cluster randomization trials.

Cluster randomization trials, in which intact social units are randomized to different interventions, have become popular in the last 25 years. Outcomes from these trials in many cases are positively skewed, following approximately lognormal distributions. When inference is focused on the difference between treatment arm arithmetic means, existent confidence interval procedures either make restricting assumptions or are complex to implement. We approach this problem by assuming log-transformed outcomes from each treatment arm follow a one-way random effects model. The treatment arm means are functions of multiple parameters for which separate confidence intervals are readily available, suggesting that the method of variance estimates recovery may be applied to obtain closed-form confidence intervals. A simulation study showed that this simple approach performs well in small sample sizes in terms of empirical coverage, relatively balanced tail errors, and interval widths as compared to existing methods. The methods are illustrated using data arising from a cluster randomization trial investigating a critical pathway for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia. PMID:25267552

Poirier, Julia; Zou, Gy; Koval, John

2014-09-29

30

Background A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the immune response was not significantly increased following the second dose compared to that after the first dose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an extended four week dosing schedule on vibriocidal response. Methodology/Principal Findings In this double blind randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 356 Indian, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year or older were randomized to receive two doses of oral cholera vaccine at 14 and 28 day intervals. We compared vibriocidal immune responses between these schedules. Among adults, no significant differences were noted when comparing the rates of seroconversion for V. cholerae O1 Inaba following two dose regimens administered at a 14 day interval (55%) vs the 28 day interval (58%). Similarly, no differences in seroconversion were demonstrated in children comparing the 14 (80%) and 28 day intervals (77%). Following 14 and 28 day dosing intervals, vibriocidal response rates against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were 45% and 49% in adults and 73% and 72% in children respectively. Responses were lower for V. cholerae O139, but similar between dosing schedules for adults (20%, 20%) and children (28%, 20%). Conclusions/Significance Comparable immune responses and safety profiles between the two dosing schedules support the option for increased flexibility of current OCV dosing. Further operational research using a longer dosing regimen will provide answers to improve implementation and delivery of cholera vaccination in endemic and epidemic outbreak scenarios. PMID:25764513

Kanungo, Suman; Desai, Sachin N.; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Sinha, Anuradha; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yang, Jae Seung; Lopez, Anna Lena; Manna, Byomkesh; Bannerjee, Barnali; Ali, Mohammad; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh; Chandra, Ananga Mohan; Clemens, John D.; Sur, Dipika; Wierzba, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

31

RANDOM WALKS AND NEIGHBORHOOD BIAS IN OVERSUBSCRIBED SCHEDULING

This paper presents new results showing that a very simple stochastic hill climbing algorithm is as good or better than more complex metaheuristic methods for solving an oversubscribed scheduling problem: schedul- ing communication contacts on the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). The empirical results also suggest that the best neighborhood construction choices produce a search that is largely a

Mark Roberts; L. Darrell Whitley; Adele E. Howe; Laura Barbulescu

32

Various random models with balanced data that are relevant for analyzing practical test data are described, along with several\\u000a hypothesis testing and interval estimation problems concerning variance components. In this paper, we mainly consider these\\u000a problems in general random effect model with balanced data. Exact tests and confidence intervals for a single variance component\\u000a corresponding to random effect are developed

Rendao Ye; Songgui Wang

2007-01-01

33

A GREEDY RANDOM ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF P2P SATELLITE

AAS 07-150 A GREEDY RANDOM ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURE FOR OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF P2P SATELLITE as P2P) satellite refueling so far assume that all active satellites return back to their original constellation graph. We use a greedy random adaptive search procedure (GRASP) to determine the optimal P2P

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

34

Project Scheduling Problem for Software Development with Random Fuzzy Activity Duration Times

This paper presents a new method that describes activity duration times, which can be as random fuzzy variables to solve the\\u000a software project scheduling problem. It solves the problem of the present classic models, such as PERT and CPM, which are\\u000a weak in solving project scheduling problem for software development due to the concurrent, iterative and evolutionary nature\\u000a characteristics of

Wei Huang; Lixin Ding; Bin Wen; Buqing Cao

2009-01-01

35

DIFFERENT BREEDING SCHEDULES AT 6 MONTH INTERVALS IN FOUR BREEDS OF SHEEP

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dorset, Finnsheep, Composite I (50% Finnsheep, 25% Dorset, and 25% Rambouillet), and Composite II (50% Finnsheep, 25% Suffolk, and 25% Targhee) sheep were evaluated under three twice-a-year breeding schedules. Lactation status had a significant effect on conception rate but number of lambs suckling...

36

Single-Sample Discrimination of Different Schedules' Reinforced Interresponse Times

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…

Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

2009-01-01

37

Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

2012-01-01

38

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative reinforcement VI), there is a fundamental mathematical equivalence between reward gain and shock reduction. We also provide the first normative account of how animals should respond on a negative VI schedule, showing that it is better to space responses evenly than to respond with a variable interresponse time (IRT). Published data from rats, however, indicate that these animals respond irregularly, often with a burst of activity immediately following a shock. While this is irrational in the experimental setting, it may represent an appropriate response to the heterogeneity of stimuli commonly encountered in natural environments. We discuss the broader implications of our analysis for understanding how animals evaluate appetitive and aversive stimuli. PMID:23144510

Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

2012-11-01

39

Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

2014-01-01

40

Landscape Regularity and Random Walks for the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

\\u000a We perform a novel analysis of the fitness landscape of the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP). In contrast to other well-known\\u000a combinatorial optimization problems, we show that the landscape of the JSP is non-regular, in that the connectivity of solutions\\u000a is variable. As a consequence, we argue that random walks performed on such a landscape will be biased. We conjecture that

Christian Bierwirth; Dirk Christian Mattfeld; Jean-paul Watson

2004-01-01

41

Simultaneous Confidence Intervals for Functions of Variance Components in Random Models

Interval estimation of certain functions of variance components is of interest to research workers in all fields of applications in which the variance component model is used. Confidence intervals for linear functions and ratios of variance components have been proposed by several authors. For the most part, these intervals are approximate with unknown exact probabilities associated with their coverage. In

A. I. Khuri

1981-01-01

42

Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…

Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

2007-01-01

43

Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex fluctuation of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being (1) uncorrelated white noise, (2) short-range correlations, or (3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that sucessfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations.

Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Peng, C.-K.; Ladin, Zvi; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Goldberger, Ary L.

1995-01-01

44

Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait.

Complex fluctuations of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being 1) uncorrelated white noise, 2) short-range correlations, or 3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series, we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that successfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations. PMID:7713836

Hausdorff, J M; Peng, C K; Ladin, Z; Wei, J Y; Goldberger, A L

1995-01-01

45

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ranked set sampling (RSS) is recognized as a useful sampling scheme for improving the precision of the parameter estimates and increasing the efficiency of estimation. This type of scheme is appropriate when the variable of interest is expensive or time consuming to be quantified, but easy and cheap to be ranked. In this study, the estimation of the shape parameter of the Pareto distribution of the first type when the scale is known is studied for the data that are gathered under simple random sampling (SRS), RSS, and selective order statistics based on the maximum (SORSS(max)). The confidence intervals for the shape parameter of Pareto distribution under the sampling techniques considered are determined. A simulation study is carried out to compare the confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities (CPs) and expected lengths (ELs). When the coverage probabilities and expected lengths for the confidence intervals of the shape parameter of Pareto distribution determined based on the different sampling methods are compared, the coverage probabilities and expected lengths are found to be more precise under RSS as opposed to SRS. In particular, it is found that the coverage probabilities under SORSS(max) is closest to the nominal value of 0.95.

Aissa, Aissa Omar; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Dayyeh, Walid Abu; Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan

2015-02-01

46

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.

1987-01-01

47

Background Flexibility of vaccination schedule and lower antigen content can facilitate pandemic vaccine coverage. We assessed the immune response and safety of AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine containing half of the registered adult haemagglutinin (HA) antigen content, administered as a two-dose schedule at intervals of 21?days or 6?months in both young and elderly adults. Methods In this open-label randomized trial, healthy adults aged 18–60?years (N?=?163) and >60?years (N?=?143) received AS03A-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 vaccine containing 1.9??g HA on Day 0. A second dose was given on Day 21 (n?=?177) or Day 182 (n?=?106). Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses were analyzed on Days 0, 21, 42, 182, 364 and additionally on Day 203 for subjects vaccinated on Day 182. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Results The HI antibody response in both age strata 21?days after the first dose met and exceeded all regulatory acceptance criteria although the results suggested a lower response in the older age stratum (geometric mean titres [GMTs] for HI antibodies of 420.5 for subjects aged 18–60?years and 174.4 for those >60?years). A second dose of AS03A adjuvanted A/H1N1/2009 vaccine induced a further increase in antibody titres and the response was similar whether the second dose was administered at 21?days (GMTs of 771.8 for 18–60?years and 400.9 for >60?years) or 6?months (GMTs of 708.3 for 18–60?years and 512.1 for >60?years) following the first dose. Seroprotection rates remained high at 6?months after one dose or two doses while at 12?months rates tended to be higher for the 6?month interval schedule (93.3% for 18–60?years and 80.4% for >60?years) than the 21?day schedule (82.3% for 18–60?years and 50.0% for >60?years). Reactogenicity/safety profiles were similar for both schedules, there was no evidence of an increase in reactogenicity following the second dose. Conclusions The results indicate that flexibility in the dosing interval for AS03A adjuvanted vaccine may be possible. Such flexibility could help to reduce the logistic stress on delivery of pandemic vaccination programmes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00975884 PMID:22824474

2012-01-01

48

Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1?1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p?=?0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ?30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p?=?0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p?=?0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2014-01-01

49

Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating credible intervals using informative prior distributions for the residual between-study variance is presented. Methods Two recently proposed and, under the assumptions of the random effects model, exact methods for constructing confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random effects meta-analyses are extended to the meta-regression setting. The use of Generalised Cochran heterogeneity statistics is extended to the meta-regression setting and a Newton-Raphson procedure is developed to implement the Q profile method for meta-analysis and meta-regression. WinBUGS is used to implement informative priors for the residual between-study variance in the context of Bayesian meta-regressions. Results Results are obtained for two contrasting examples, where the first example involves a binary covariate and the second involves a continuous covariate. Intervals for the residual between-study variance are wide for both examples. Conclusions Statistical methods, and R computer software, are available to compute exact confidence intervals for the residual between-study variance under the random effects model for meta-regression. These frequentist methods are almost as easily implemented as their established counterparts for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-regressions are also easily performed by analysts who are comfortable using WinBUGS. Estimates of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regressions should be routinely reported and accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty. Confidence and/or credible intervals are well-suited to this purpose. PMID:25196829

2014-01-01

50

Confidence intervals A confidence interval for at level (usually = 95% or 99%) is

Confidence intervals A confidence interval for at level (usually = 95% or 99%) is a random;Confidence intervals A confidence interval for at level (usually = 95% or 99%) is a random interval (T1, T that the random interval includes the true value.] #12;Confidence intervals A confidence interval for at level

Pugliese, Andrea

51

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.

2010-01-01

52

OBJECTIVES Among patients unlikely to attend a scheduled colonoscopy, we examined the impact of peer coach versus educational brochure\\u000a support and compared these with concurrent patients who did not receive support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS From health system data, we identified 275 consecutive patients aged >50 who kept <75% of visits to 4 primary care practices\\u000a and scheduled for a first colonoscopy from February 1,

Barbara J. Turner; Mark Weiner; Sheila D. Berry; Karen Lillie; Kevin Fosnocht; Christopher S. Hollenbeak

2008-01-01

53

Scheduled Follow-up After a Pediatric Emergency Department Visit for Asthma: A Randomized Trial

Objectives. Follow-up with a primary care provider (PCP) is recommended after an emergency department (ED) visit for asthma to assess clinical status and develop a management plan to improve future care. However, previous ED-based studies of urban children with asthma have reported low follow-up rates. The ob- jective of this study was to determine whether schedul- ing an appointment at

Joseph J. Zorc; Richard J. Scarfone; Yuelin Li; Travis Hong; Melina Harmelin; Lev Grunstein; Jalal B. Andre

54

A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson’s r, and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students’ positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of randomization was a public middle school. The bootstrap estimate indicated that expectancies explained 21% of the variability in students’ intentions (r = 0.46, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.50]). This case study illustrates the use of a nonparametric bootstrap with cluster randomized data and the danger posed if outliers are not identified and addressed. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Prevention researchers will benefit from the authors’ detailed description of this nonparametric bootstrap approach for cluster randomized data and their thoughtful discussion of the potential impact of cluster sizes and outliers. PMID:19685290

Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio

2009-01-01

55

We conducted a randomized phase II trial of two different schedules of topotecan in patients with advanced-stage non small lung cancer (NSCLC) without prior cytotoxic chemotherapy. All patients had histologic or cytologic confirmation of stage IV (M1) or III-B NSCLC. Patients were stratified by performance status, stage and weight loss. Patients were randomized to receive topotecan at intravenous doses of

John J Weitz; Robert F Marschke; Jeff A Sloan; Joseph P Grill; James R Jett; James A Knost; Alan K Hatfield; David W Zenk; Walter W Bate; Paul L Schaefer

2000-01-01

56

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

57

and destined for output j are buffered in a virtual output queue denoted by VOQ i j . Let A i j (t) 2 f0;1g be a random variable indicating the arrival of a new packet in VOQ i j at time t. We assume that A i j (t)'s are i.i.d. Bernoulli 1 with parameter l i j = Pr[A i j (t) = 1]. The lineÂrates at all the ports

Pratt, Vaughan

58

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schedules of reinforcement typically produce reliable patterns of behaviour, and one factor that can cause deviations from these normally reliable patterns is schizotypy. Low scorers on the unusual experiences subscale of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences performed as expected on a yoked random-ratio (RR), random-interval…

Randell, Jordan; Searle, Rob; Reed, Phil

2012-01-01

59

Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conduct- ing studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multi- ple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multi- ple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing

John B. Nezlek

2001-01-01

60

Apixaban is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor indicated for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. This randomized, blinded, 4-way crossover study investigated the potential effect of apixaban on the QTc interval. Forty healthy subjects (39 completers) each received 3 days of the following treatments: blinded apixaban 10?mg once daily (QD), 50?mg QD (supratherapeutic), matched apixaban placebo QD, and a single dose of open-label moxifloxacin 400?mg on Day 3, preceded by 2 days of placebo QD. Triplicate electrocardiograms obtained over 24?hours on Days -1 (baseline) and 3 were read by a blinded third party. The mean placebo-adjusted, time-matched, Fridericia-corrected change from baseline QTc (??QTcF) for apixaban and moxifloxacin was estimated at each time point. The maximum ??QTcF was 1.51?milliseconds (one-sided upper 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.71?milliseconds) after apixaban 50?mg QD, 1.36?milliseconds (one-sided upper 95%CI 3.54?milliseconds) after apixaban 10?mg QD, and 10.21?milliseconds (lower 95%CI 8.07?milliseconds) after moxifloxacin. Concentration-response analysis suggested no evidence of a positive relationship between apixaban concentration and ?QTcF. Apixaban doses up to 50?mg QD for 3 days were well tolerated and did not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. PMID:25501868

Frost, Charles; Nepal, Sunil; Byon, Wonkyung; Moore, Kenneth; Reeves, Richard A; Boyd, Rebecca; LaCreta, Frank

2015-05-01

61

Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance. PMID:19909536

2009-01-01

62

Effects of different accessibility of reinforcement schedules on choice in humans

Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight students were randomly assigned to three groups. In Phase 1, the duration of the less profitable schedule equaled the mean delay to reinforcement in all groups. In Phase 2, waiting time preceding the less profitable schedule was reduced in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. Thus, the schedule was correlated either with a relative delay increase (Group 1) or a delay reduction (Group 2). In Group 3, conditions remained unchanged. As predicted, acceptance of the less profitable schedule decreased in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. The increased acceptance in Group 2 was accompanied by a decreased acceptance of the more profitable (variable-interval 3 s) schedule, resembling a pattern of negative contrast. Response rates were higher under the component preceding (a) the more profitable schedule in Group 1 and (b) the less profitable schedule in Group 2. Implications for the modification of human choice behavior are discussed. PMID:16812743

Stockhorst, Ursula

1994-01-01

63

Background: Breast irradiation after lumpectomy is an in- tegral component of breast-conserving therapy that reduces the local recurrence of breast cancer. Because an optimal fractionation schedule (radiation dose given in a specified number of fractions or treatment sessions over a defined time) for breast irradiation has not been uniformly accepted, we examined whether a 22-day fractionation schedule was as effective

Timothy Whelan; Robert MacKenzie; Jim Julian; Mark Levine; Wendy Shelley; Laval Grimard; Barbara Lada; Himu Lukka; Francisco Perera; Anthony Fyles; Ethan Laukkanen; Sunil Gulavita; Veronique Benk; Barbara Szechtman

64

Two hundred female sex workers (FSWs) in Lima, Peru were randomized to receive HPV4 vaccine in the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or a modified schedule (0, 3, 6 months). One hundred and eighty four (92%) participants completed 3 doses of vaccine. Baseline seropositive rates were 58% for HPV6, 22.5% for HPV11, 41.5% for HPV16, and 13% for HPV18. The final geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) following vaccination was significantly greater for women who were seropositive at baseline compared to seronegative women: HPV6 (GMT ratio=2.3, p<0.01), HPV11 (GMT ratio=2.7, p<0.01), HPV16 (GMT ratio=1.3, p=0.04), and HPV18 (GMT ratio=2.4, p<0.01)). Antibody titers in the modified schedule were not inferior to those in the standard schedule, suggesting the modified schedule may be paired with required STD visits. Although all women benefit from vaccination, administration at a younger age and before sexual debut is needed to achieve maximum protection from vaccine. PMID:22306855

Brown, Brandon; Blas, Magaly; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Gravitt, Patti; Halsey, Neal

2012-01-01

65

Background: Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Methods: Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents’ physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. Results: We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents’ sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents’ somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents’ knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Interpretation: Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents’ symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. PMID:25667258

Parshuram, Christopher S.; Amaral, Andre C.K.B.; Ferguson, Niall D.; Baker, G. Ross; Etchells, Edward E.; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C.; Stewart, Thomas E.; Willan, Andrew R.; Friedrich, Jan O.

2015-01-01

66

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical activity and weight loss. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial 70 participants with stable CAD, age 45–75, body mass index 28–40 kg/m2 and no diabetes are randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of intensive exercise or weight loss both succeeded by a 40-week follow-up. The exercise protocol consist of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of VO2peak 3 times weekly for 12 weeks followed by supervised AIT twice weekly for 40 weeks. In the weight loss arm dieticians instruct the participants in a low energy diet (800–1000 kcal/day) for 12 weeks, followed by 40 weeks of weight maintenance combined with supervised AIT twice weekly. The primary endpoint of the study is change in coronary flow reserve after the first 12 weeks’ intervention. Secondary endpoints include cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and anthropometric measures. Discussion The study will compare the short and long-term effects of a protocol consisting of AIT alone or a rapid weight loss followed by AIT. Additionally, it will provide new insight in mechanisms behind the benefits of exercise and weight loss. We wish to contribute to the creation of effective secondary prevention and sustainable rehabilitation strategies in the large population of overweight and obese patients diagnosed with CAD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01724567 PMID:24252596

2013-01-01

67

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California at Berkeley, introduces the concept of confidence intervals. Select an alpha level, sample size, and the number of experiments, and click "Play." For each sample, the applet will show the data points as blue dots and the confidence interval as a red, vertical line. The true population mean is shown as a horizontal purple line, and green ovals indicate which intervals do not contain the true mean.

Dinov, Ivo

68

This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method. PMID:24550708

Xu, Jiuping

2014-01-01

69

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students create a confidence interval based on the historic snowfall records of a town in Ohio, the data for which is available online. The class will calculate the mean and standard deviation, applying formulas to the data. The standard deviation of the entire data set as well as a confidence interval will be created. A student handout is available for download here in Word Document format.

2010-12-16

70

Math C067 --Confidence Intervals Richard Beigel

Math C067 -- Confidence Intervals Richard Beigel April 10, 2006 Parameters vs. Statistics] is called a random 95%-confidence interval for Âµ. Â· [Â¯x - E, Â¯x + E] is called a 95%-confidence interval for Âµ. Â· Nothing special about 95. 99% confidence intervals, etc., defined similarly. 2 #12;Example

Beigel, Richard

71

Identifiability in interval censorship models

The identifiability of the distribution of an event time is established in two models of interval censorship appropriate in survival studies. In the first model, a fixed number of inspections are made at random times in the follow up period, and in the second, this follow up period is fixed but the number of inspections made is random.

Zhiming Wang; J. C. Gardiner; R. V. Ramamoorthi

1994-01-01

72

Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications

Motivation Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications Interval Polyhedra: An Abstract Domain to Infer. Cousot The Interval Polyhedra Abstract Domain p. 1 / 25 #12;Motivation Interval Polyhedra Domain Applications Overview Motivation Interval polyhedra domain Applications of interval polyhedra domain Conclusion

MinÃ©, Antoine

73

Circadian clocks control cellular proliferation and drug metabolism over the 24?h. However, circadian chronomodulated chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (chronoFLO4) offered no survival benefit as compared with the non-time-stipulated FOLFOX2, in an international randomized trial involving patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (EORTC 05963). The authors hypothesized that treatment near maximum tolerated dose could disrupt circadian clocks thus impairing the efficacy of chronoFLO4 but not of FOLFOX2. Patients with available data (N?=?556) were categorized into three subgroups according to the worst grade (G) of neutropenia experienced during treatment. Distinct multivariate models with time-dependent covariates were constructed for each treatment schedule. Neutropenia incidence (all grades) was 33% on chronoFLO4 and 61% on FOLFOX2 (p?schedule (FOLFOX2, p = .003; chronoFLO4, p = .04). Median survival was 20.7 mo in patients with G3-4 neutropenia versus 12.5 mo in neutropenia-free patients on FOLFOX2 (p < .0001). Corresponding figures were 13.7 and 19.4 mo, respectively, on chronoFLO4 (p?=?.36). Multivariate analysis confirmed occurrence of severe neutropenia independently predicted for better overall survival on FOLFOX2 (HR?=?0.56; p = .015), and worse survival on chronoFLO4 (HR?=?1.77, p = .06), with a significant interaction test (p < .0001). Prediction of better survival in neutropenic patients on FOLFOX2 supports the administration of conventional chemotherapy near maximum tolerated dose. The opposite trend shown here for chronoFLO4 supports the novel concept of jointly optimized hematologic tolerability and efficacy through personalized circadian-timed therapy. PMID:21859417

Innominato, Pasquale F; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Moreau, Thierry; Smaaland, Rune; Focan, Christian; Bjarnason, Georg A; Garufi, Carlo; Iacobelli, Stefano; Tampellini, Marco; Tumolo, Salvatore; Carvalho, Carlos; Karaboué, Abdoulaye; Lévi, Francis

2011-08-01

74

Synthesizing Concurrent Interval Performances

Concurrent schedules may be viewed as consisting of two pairs of stay and switch schedules, each pair associated with one of the alternatives. A stay schedule arranges reinforcers for staying and responding at one alternative, whereas the associated switch schedule arranges reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. In standard concurrent schedules, the stay schedule at each alternative is equivalent

JAMES S. MACDONALL

2000-01-01

75

Combination vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) represent the core of childhood vaccination programs. Quinvaxem, a fully-liquid, pentavalent combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis B (HepB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and whole-cell pertussis (wP) antigens, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, has been shown to be suitable for boosting children primed in infancy with another DTwP-HepB-Hib vaccine. This single-blind, randomized, controlled study was designed to demonstrate non-inferiority of a primary vaccination course (6-10-14 week schedule) of Tritanrix HB+Hib (first dose) and Quinvaxem (second/third doses) versus three doses of Quinvaxem with respect to the seroprotection/seroconversion rates for all antigens one month after vaccination course completion. Four hundred healthy subjects eligible for the local Expanded Program on Immunization were enrolled and equally randomized to the two treatment regimens. All subjects achieved seroprotection for tetanus and Hib, all except one for diphtheria, and all except two achieved seroconversion against Bordetella pertussis. Seroprotection against hepatitis B was achieved by 97.4% of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem and 94.9% of Quinvaxem subjects. Therefore, one month after vaccination course completion, seroprotection rates (seroconversion rate for B. pertussis) of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem were non-inferior to those elicited by Quinvaxem only, thus meeting the primary objective. Adverse events were comparable between the groups and were in line with the safety profile of the vaccines. The switch of vaccine had no apparent effect on safety endpoints. Our results support the use of Quinvaxem interchangeably with Tritanrix HB+Hib in a primary vaccination course and provides further evidence for the interchangeability of pentavalent vaccines (Clinical Trials.gov registry: NCT01357720). PMID:24176498

Capeding, Maria Rosario Z; Jica, Corina; Macura-Biegun, Anna; Rauscher, Martina; Alberto, Edison

2014-02-01

76

Scheduling semiconductor wafer fabrication

The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer

LAWRENCE M. WEIN

1988-01-01

77

The aim of this paper is to deal with resource-constrained multiple project scheduling problems (rc-mPSP) under a fuzzy random\\u000a environment by a hybrid genetic algorithm with fuzzy logic controller (flc-hGA), to a large-scale water conservancy and hydropower\\u000a construction project in the southwest region of China, whose main project is a dam embankment. The objective functions in\\u000a this paper are to

Jiuping Xu; Zhe Zhang

78

Choice between concurrent schedules1

Six pigeons pecked for food in a three-key experiment. A subject at any time could choose the left or right key and receive reinforcement according to one two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule of reinforcement, or it could peck the center key. A peck on the center key arranged the complementary two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule on the left and right keys. The two different two-key concurrent schedules arranged reinforcements concurrently and were signalled by two different colors of key lights. Choice behavior in the presence of a given color conformed to the usual relationship in two-key concurrent schedules: the relative frequency of responding on a key approximately equalled the relative frequency of reinforcement on that key. Preference for a two-key concurrent schedule, which was equivalent to preference for a color, was measured by the percentage of all responses on the left and right keys in the presence of that color: this percentage approximately equalled the percentage of all reinforcements that were delivered in the presence of that color. Thus, choice between concurrent schedules conforms approximately to the same relationship as does choice between alternatives in a single concurrent schedule. PMID:16811668

Menlove, Ronald L.; Moffitt, Marilynne; Shimp, Charles P.

1973-01-01

79

Please cite this article in press as: Brown B, et al. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers. Vaccine (2012), doi:10.1016/j trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex

Loudon, Catherine

80

Apple Picker: Computer software for studying human responding on concurrent and multiple schedules

Apple Picker, a software package for the Apple II microcomputer, is described. Subjects respond by searching for “apples”\\u000a in two “orchards.” “Attempted pickings” may be reinforced according to random ratio or interval schedules. “Search” responses\\u000a are recorded and may be examined either as rates of responding in the two orchards or visually as paths the subject has traced\\u000a during the

Wayne D. Norman; Jerry L. Jongerius

1985-01-01

81

Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session…

Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.

2006-01-01

82

The Effects of Interval Duration on Temporal Tracking and Alternation Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On cyclic-interval reinforcement schedules, animals typically show a postreinforcement pause that is a function of the immediately preceding time interval ("temporal tracking"). Animals, however, do not track single-alternation schedules--when two different intervals are presented in strict alternation on successive trials. In this experiment,…

Ludvig, Elliot A.; Staddon, John E. R.

2005-01-01

83

Discrimination of Variable Schedules Is Controlled by Interresponse Times Proximal to Reinforcement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…

Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

2012-01-01

84

The interval order polytope of a digraph

Interval orders and their cocomparability graphs, the interval graphs, are of significant importance as structures of solutions for several combinatorial optimization problems. This is due to the fact that each element is associated with an interval, which may be interpreted as a time interval, for example in a schedule, or as a substring in a string of items, for example, a substring of a DNA string in molecular biology. In the talk we show that the interval order polytope of a digraph may serve as a basis for a polyhedral combinatorial approach to this class of problems. We present results on odd cycle and clique based valid inequalities and discuss the complexity of their separation problem. We show that well-known valid inequalities of the linear ordering polytope, as, e.g., Mobius ladder inequalities and fence inequalities obtain a natural interpretation in terms of these inequalities of the interval order polytope.

Mueller, R.; Schulz, A.

1994-12-31

85

Enhancing the Selection of Backoff Interval Using Fuzzy Logic over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff—BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance.

Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

2015-01-01

86

The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables scheduling to these emerging architectures, including those that use shared buses and register file ports. Scheduling to these shared interconnect architectures is difficult because it requires simultaneously allocating

Peter R. Mattson; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens

2000-01-01

87

Interval Computations Rounding of Floating Point Intervals

Interval Computations No 4, 1994 Rounding of Floating Point Intervals Marc Daumas and David W. Matula Correct rounding of the infinitely precise arithmetic as prescribed for the float- ing point #12;Rounding of Floating Point Intervals 29 1 Introduction The IEEE floating point standard has been

Kearfott, R. Baker

88

Turnbull's Nonparametric Estimator for Interval-Censored Data

Summary In most applications, the data may be interval-censored. By interval-censored data, we mean that a random variable of interest is known only to lie in an interval, instead of being observed exactly. In such cases, the only information we have for each individual is that their event time falls in an interval, but the exact time is unknown. A

Suely Ruiz Giolo

89

Bootstrap confidence intervals for ratios of expectations

We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for the ratio E[Y]\\/E[X, where (X,Y) is a pair of random variables. This ratio estimation problem arises in, for instance, regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic normality, we study and compare different variants of the bootstrap for one-sided and two-sided intervals. We point out situations where these

Denis Choquet; Pierre L'ecuyer; Christian Léger

1999-01-01

90

Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) is now part of the armamentarium of cancer of the lower and middle rectum. It is recommended in current clinical practice prior to surgical excision if the lesion is classified T3/T4 or N+. Histological complete response, defined by the absence of persistent tumor cell invasion and lymph node (ypT0N0) after pathological examination of surgical specimen has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival and disease-free survival. Surgical excision is usually performed between 6 and 8 weeks after completion of CRT and pathological complete response rate ranges around 12%. In retrospective studies, a lengthening of the interval after RCT beyond 10 weeks was found as an independent factor increasing the rate of pathological complete response (between 26% and 31%), with a longer disease-free survival and without increasing the operative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in 264 patients the rate of pathological complete response rate of rectal cancer after RCT by lengthening the time between RCT and surgery. Methods/design The current study is a multicenter randomized trial in two parallel groups comparing 7 and 11 weeks of delay between the end of RCT and cancer surgery of rectal tumors. At the end of the RCT, surgery is planified and randomization is performed after patient’s written consent for participation. The histological complete response (ypT0N0) will be determined with analysis of the complete residual tumor and double reading by two pathologists blinded of the group of inclusion. Patients will be followed in clinics for 5 years after surgery. Participation in this trial does not change patient’s management in terms of treatment, investigations or visits. Secondary endpoints will include overall and disease free survival, rate of sphincter conservation and quality of mesorectal excision. The number of patients needed is 264. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01648894 PMID:24028546

2013-01-01

91

Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management

This paper presents lottery scheduling, a novel randomized resource allocation mechanism. Lottery scheduling provides efficient, responsive control over the relative execution rates of computations. Such control is beyond the capabilities of conventional schedulers, and is desirable in systems that service requests of varying importance, such as databases, media-based applications, and networks. Lottery scheduling also supports modular resource management by enabling

Carl A. Waldspurger; William E. Weihl

1994-01-01

92

Introduction to Confidence Intervals

Introduction to Confidence Intervals 40.2 Introduction In this Section you will learn how to construct a variety of confidence intervals for the mean and variance of a distribution, which have wide calculate a variety of intervals for the variance of a distribution #12;1. Confidence Intervals - Standard

Vickers, James

93

12.56 No, it would not be appropriate to find a 95% confidence interval for the mean. The sample% confidence interval is about .84 to .96. Men: Approximate 95% confidence is about .60 to .81. Women: 903. 93 84 ^ ==p and confidence interval is 93 )903.1(903. 96.1903. ! Â± Men: 707. 75 53 ^ ==p and confidence

Hunter, David

94

Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens)

The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an

J. J. Higa; L. A. Simm

2004-01-01

95

A Model for Residence Time in Concurrent Variable Interval Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A component-functions model of choice behavior is proposed for performance on interdependent concurrent variable-interval (VI) variable-interval schedules based on the product of two component functions, one that enhances behavior and one that reduces behavior. The model is the solution to the symmetrical pair of differential equations describing…

Navakatikyan, Michael A.

2007-01-01

96

Four experiments were conducted in which lever pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under multiple, mixed, or chained schedules of electric-shock presentation. In the first two experiments, a multiple schedule was employed in which a fixed-interval schedule of shock presentation alternated with a signaled two-minute component. Initially, no events were scheduled during the two-minute component (a safety period). In the first experiment, the safety period was “degraded” by introducing and systematically increasing the frequency of periodic shocks presented during that component. In the second experiment, the proportion of overall safe time to unsafe time was decreased by decreasing the value of the fixed-interval schedule while holding constant shock frequency during the two-minute component. In the third experiment, the overall arrangement was changed from a multiple to a mixed schedule in an attempt to determine whether fixed-interval responding would be maintained when a single exteroceptive stimulus was associated with both components. In the fourth experiment, the overall arrangement was changed from a multiple to a chained schedule in an effort to determine whether fixed-interval responding would be maintained when its consequence was presentation of a signaled “unsafe” period. Fixed-interval responding was well maintained under all experimental conditions; the varied relationships obtained lend more support to conceptualizations of shock-maintained behavior as exemplifying schedule-controlled behavior than to suggestions that such behavior may be readily accounted for by “safety theory.” PMID:16812238

Malagodi, E. F.; Gardner, Michael L.; Ward, Susan E.; Magyar, Regis L.

1981-01-01

97

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation scheduling is essential for maximum crop production. The humid climate in the midsouthern U.S. complicates irrigation scheduling, with annual rainfall generally sufficient for crop production, but periods of drought during the growing season that make irrigation essential for optimum yiel...

98

Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

Kleck, W

1982-04-01

99

The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random…

Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2011-01-01

100

In this book we use only special types of intervals and introduce the notion of different types of interval linear algebras and interval vector spaces using the intervals of the form [0, a] where the intervals are from Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0}. A systematic development is made starting from set interval vector spaces to group interval vector spaces. Vector spaces are taken as interval polynomials or interval matrices or just intervals over suitable sets or semigroups or groups. Main feature of this book is the authors have given over 350 examples. This book has six chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Chapter two introduces the notion of set interval linear algebras of type one and two. Set fuzzy interval linear algebras and their algebras and their properties are discussed in chapter three. Chapter four introduces several types of interval linear bialgebras and bivector spaces and studies them. The possible applications are given in chapter five. Chapter six suggests nearly 110 problems of all levels.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

2010-12-08

101

Better Bootstrap Confidence Intervals

We consider the problem of setting approximate confidence intervals for a single parameter ? in a multiparameter family. The standard approximate intervals based on maximum likelihood theory, , can be quite misleading. In practice, tricks based on transformations, bias corrections, and so forth, are often used to improve their accuracy. The bootstrap confidence intervals discussed in this article automatically incorporate

Bradley Efron

1987-01-01

102

Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

Patil, R.B.

1995-05-01

103

Comparative Study of Confidence Intervals for Population Median

Comparative Study of Confidence Intervals for Population Median Submitted by Sagnika Chakraborty for determining the confidence interval for Population Median. For comparison purpose we have taken random samples and t2. Ideally a confidence interval should reflect the shape of a distribution, specially when

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

104

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

Gaspin, Christine

1989-01-01

105

\\u000a Sports scheduling has been an extremely active area of research over the past twenty 20years. One important reason for this\\u000a is that the computational methods for creating playable sports schedules have improved enough to be useful to real sports\\u000a leagues. A key aspect to these computational improvements has been the development of hybrid methods that combine two or more\\u000a of

Michael A. Trick

106

Food variety increases consumption and the rate of instrumental behavior that is reinforced by food in humans and animals. The present experiment investigated the relationship between the variety effect and habituation to food by testing the role of the interval between successive food presentations on responding in an operant food-seeking task. Habituation to food was expected at short, but not long, interfood intervals. The effects of variety on food's long-term reinforcing value were also tested. Four groups of rats were trained to lever-press on different random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement to earn 45-mg food pellets. Half the rats in each group received an unpredictable mix of grain and sucrose pellets, while the other half consistently received sucrose pellets. Response rate began at a high rate and then decreased within each 30-min session for groups that received short inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-3?s and RI-6?s reinforcement schedules) but not in groups that received longer inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-12?s and RI-24?s). A variety effect in the form of higher responding in the mix group than the sucrose-only group was also only evident at the shorter intervals. Habituation and variety effects were also most evident with the short intervals when we controlled for the number of reinforcers earned, suggesting that they were not merely due to rapid satiation. The variety effect also appeared quickly when groups trained with longer inter-pellet intervals (RI-12?s and RI-24?s) were transitioned to shorter intervals (RI-3?s and RI-6?s). There was no effect of variety on resistance to extinction or on resistance to the response-suppressing effects of pre-session feeding. The results more clearly link this version of the variety effect to the short-term effect of variety on food habituation. PMID:25261732

Thrailkill, Eric A; Epstein, Leonard H; Bouton, Mark E

2015-01-01

107

Best exact nonparametric confidence intervals for quantiles

Well-known nonparametric confidence intervals for quantiles are of the form (Xi:n, Xj:n) with suitably chosen order statistics Xi:n and Xj:n, but typically their coverage levels differ from those prescribed. It appears that the coverage level of the confidence interval of the form (Xi:n, Xj:n) with random indices I and J can be rendered equal, exactly to any predetermined level ????(0,

Ryszard Zieli?ski; Wojciech Zieli?ski

2005-01-01

108

Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

2009-01-01

109

Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

110

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

Cardillo, Alessio; Zanin, Massimiliano; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; García del Amo, Alejandro J.; Boccaletti, Stefano

2013-01-01

111

We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; del Amo, Alejandro J García; Boccaletti, Stefano

2012-01-01

112

Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems

Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems Ravindra reclamation techniques under procrastination scheduling to minimize the static and dynamic en- ergy idle intervals through slack reclamation. While using the entire slack for either slowdown

Gupta, Rajesh

113

In recent years, there has been much research on local search techniques for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including Boolean satisfiability problems. Some of the most successful procedures combine a form of random walk with a greedy bias. These procedures are quite effective in a number of problem domains, for example, constraint-based planning and scheduling, graph coloring, and hard random problem

Wei Wei; Bart Selman

2002-01-01

114

Virtual Cluster Scheduling Through the Scheduling Graph

This paper presents an instruction scheduling and cluster assignment approach for clustered processors. The proposed technique makes use of a novel representation named the scheduling graph which describes all possible schedules. A powerful deduction process is applied to this graph, reducing at each step the set of possible schedules. In contrast to traditional list scheduling techniques, the proposed scheme tries

Josep M. Codina; F. Jesús Sánchez; Antonio González

2007-01-01

115

This paper first presents a brief survey of the existing works on comparing and ranking any two interval numbers on the real line and then, on the basis of this, gives two approaches to compare any two interval numbers. The first one describes a value judgement index along with a discussion on its strength and weakness over the other approaches.

Atanu Sengupta; Tapan Kumar Pal

2000-01-01

116

Efficient Backtracking Instruction Schedulers

Current schedulers for acyclic regions schedule operations in dependence order and never undo a scheduling decision. In contrast, backtracking schedulers may unschedule operations and can often generate better schedules. In this paper, we describe a conventional cycle scheduler followed by two novel backtracking schedulers, OperBT and ListBT. The full-backtracking OperBT scheduler enables backtracking for all operations and unschedules operations to

Santosh G. Abraham; Waleed M. Meleis; Ivan D. Baev

2000-01-01

117

A bidirectional schedule-improvement procedure for Microsoft Project

Widely-used software packages for project management like Microsoft Project apply simple priority-based procedures for scheduling of resource-constrained projects. Various studies have shown that these procedures perform relatively poor when compared against state-of-the-art procedures. In this paper, we present a scheduling heuristic for Microsoft Project which generates a series of initial schedules by regret-based biased random sampling and improves these schedules

Philipp Baumann; Norbert Trautmann

2010-01-01

118

Update of randomized trials in first-line treatment.

Advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer remains a highly lethal malignancy, in spite of effective cytoreductive surgery and primary chemotherapy. Randomized phase III trials have provided the most consistent platform for the evaluation of new treatment interventions. Recently completed and ongoing international phase III studies in the primary disease setting, summarized and analyzed in the present review, have evaluated multidrug combinations, weekly scheduling, intraperitoneal delivery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, maintenance therapy and targeting of angiogenesis. The data from these studies have supported the consideration of intraperitoneal cisplatin, dose-dense weekly scheduling of paclitaxel or neoadjuvant chemotherapy with interval cytoreductive surgery in appropriate patient populations. Contrary to this, the use of three-drug combinations or maintenance chemotherapy is not supported by phase III data. Encouraging data have emerged using antiangiogenic agents, but with questions regarding optimal dose, timing and duration. Ongoing and planned trials will evaluate the inhibition of DNA repair and tailored treatment in accordance with tumor molecular profiles. PMID:22180402

Bookman, Michael A

2011-12-01

119

Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

Higa, J J; Simm, L A

2004-11-30

120

Bootstrap confidence intervals

This article surveys bootstrap methods for producing good approximate confidence intervals. The goal is to improve by an order of magnitude upon the accuracy of the standard intervals $\\\\hat{\\\\theta} \\\\pm z^{(\\\\alpha)} \\\\hat{\\\\sigma}$, in a way that allows routine application even to very complicated problems. Both theory and examples are used to show how this is done. The first seven sections

Thomas J. DiCiccio; Bradley Efron; Peter Hall; Michael A. Martin; A. J. Canty; A. C. Davison; D. V. Hinkley; Leon Jay Gleser; Stephen M. S. Lee; G. Alastair Young

1996-01-01

121

Altering Schedules of Reinforcement for Improved Classroom Behavior

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variable interval schedule of reinforcement was used with five behavior disordered boys (7-13 years old) to improve attending and study behavior of the children during the communicative skills period. (SBH)

Alexander, Ronnie N.; Apfel, Cathy H.

1976-01-01

122

New packet scheduling algorithm in wireless CDMA data networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future 3G/4G wireless communication systems will provide internet access for mobile users. Packet scheduling algorithms are essential for QoS of diversified data traffics and efficient utilization of radio spectrum.This paper firstly presents a new packet scheduling algorithm DSTTF under the assumption of continuous transmission rates and scheduling intervals for CDMA data networks . Then considering the constraints of discrete transmission rates and fixed scheduling intervals imposed by the practical system, P-DSTTF, a modified version of DSTTF, is brought forward. Both scheduling algorithms take into consideration of channel condition, packet size and traffic delay bounds. The extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithms are superior to some typical ones in current research. In addition, both static and dynamic wireless channel model of multi-level link capacity are established. These channel models sketch better the characterizations of wireless channel than two state Markov model widely adopted by the current literature.

Wang, Yu; Gao, Zhuo; Li, Shaoqian; Li, Lemin

2002-08-01

123

Comparison of Poisson Confidence Intervals

The standard method of obtaining a two-sided confidence interval for the Poisson mean produces an interval which is exact but can be shortened without violating the minimum coverage requirement. We classify the intervals proposed as alternatives to the standard method interval. We carry out the classification using two desirable properties of two-sided confidence intervals.

John Byrne; Paul Kabaila

2005-01-01

124

Median Confidence Intervals Extended Abstract

Median Confidence Intervals Extended Abstract Johann Christoph Strelen Rheinische Friedrich motivates us to consider confidence intervals around the median as a substitute of confidence intervals (CI). These median confidence intervals (MCI) are easier to obtain than usual confidence intervals: No variance

Strelen, Christoph

125

Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

Patil, R.B.

1995-05-01

126

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates a random walk on a discrete time interval from 0 to n. The time n and the probability of a step to the right can be varied. The random variables of interest are the final position, the maximum position, and the time of the last zero.

Kyle Siegrist

127

Local Preference in Concurrent Schedules: The Effects of Reinforcer Sequences

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects that sequences of reinforcers obtained from the same response key have on local preference in concurrent variable-interval schedules with pigeons as subjects. With an overall reinforcer rate of one every 27 s, on average, reinforcers were scheduled dependently, and the probability that a reinforcer would be arranged on…

Krageloh, Christian U.; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas M.

2005-01-01

128

Frequentist and Bayesian approaches for interval-censored data

Interval censoring appears when the event of interest is only known to have occurred within a random time interval. Estimation\\u000a and hypothesis testing procedures for interval-censored data are surveyed. We distinguish between frequentist and Bayesian\\u000a approaches. Computational aspects for every proposed method are described and solutions with S-Plus, whenever are feasible,\\u000a are mentioned. Three real data sets are analyzed.

Guadalupe Gómez; M. Luz Calle; Ramon Oller

2004-01-01

129

PROGRESSIVE INTERVAL CENSORING: SOME MATHEMATICAL RESULTS WITH APPLICATIONS TO INFERENCE

In this paper, we will introduce a union of two methods of collecting Type-I censored data, namely interval censoring and progressive censoring. We will call the resulting sample a progressively Type-I interval censored sample.We will discuss likelihood point and interval estimation, and simulation of such a censored sample from a random sample of units put on test whose lifetime distribution

Rita Aggarwala

2001-01-01

130

Exteroceptive control of fixed-interval responding

Two pigeons were exposed to several fixed-interval schedules of food reinforcement. In some cases, exteroceptive stimuli associated with the passage of time were present. Such visual “clock” stimuli were found to gain almost complete control over the behavior, although at the longest fixed interval studied, the superposition of a new temporal discrimination upon the visual discrimination was observed. Where clock stimuli were made contingent upon the birds' behavior, a new form of responding was generated. This behavior was discussed in terms of positive and negative response-tendencies resulting from several stimulus factors: Some of these functioned as S?'s and secondary negative reinforcers; some functioned as SD's and secondary positive reinforcers; and some were ambiguous with respect to reinforcement conditions. A “pure temporal” discrimination was superimposed upon these factors, but its exact nature was indeterminate from the present data. PMID:16811267

Segal, Evalyn F.

1962-01-01

131

Edgeworth Corrected Generalized Confidence Intervals

Edgeworth Corrected Generalized Confidence Intervals Anindya Roy and Arup Bose University of Maryland, Baltimore County and Indian Statistical Institute Abstract: Generalized confidence intervals provide confidence intervals for complicated parametric functions in many common practical problems

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

132

Confidence Intervals & Hypothesis Testing

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, authored by David M. Lane of HyperStat Online, explains the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. Because of the immense similarities between the two procedures many find them to be one in the same. Lane attempts to dispel this common misconception with his brief presentation on the subject.

Lane, David M.

133

Interval digraphs were introduced by West et al. They can be recognized in polynomial time and admit a characterization in terms of incidence matrices. Nevertheless, they do not have a forbidden structure characterization nor a low-degree polynomial recognition algorithm. We introduce a new class

Tomás Feder; Pavol Hell; Jing Huang; Arash Rafiey

2008-01-01

134

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity has students use stream discharge data obtained from the USGS Water Resources Division web site in order to calculate recurrence intervals for a local stream. Using the recurrence data generated, the students then make recommendations to the residents of a local town as to what they might do to reduce their loss from the effects of frequent flooding in their community.

Norlene Emerson

135

Childhood Immunization Schedule

... The Basics Vaccines Home Immunization Schedules Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Get Email Updates Get the best protection ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

136

Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was not in operation. The present study examined changes in heart rate and blood pressure under fixed-interval schedules which maintained a range of rates that varied from little or no responding at the beginning of the fixed interval to high rates at the end of the interval. The relations of cardiovascular function to rate of responding were examined. Squirrel monkeys prepared with arterial catheters were trained to respond under fixed-interval schedules of electric-shock presentation. The duration of the interval was varied across sessions and cardiovascular parameters were examined. Local rates of responding were typically near zero during timeout periods, low at the beginning of each fixed-interval cycle, and then increased as the fixed interval progressed. At most schedule durations, arterial blood pressure and heart rate levels were lowest at the beginning of the interval cycles, increased as the rate of responding increased, and then decreased during the timeout periods. At all parameters studied, there was a direct relationship between changes in response rate within fixed-interval cycles and changes in heart rate and blood pressure. The results suggest that a much closer concordance of these cardiovascular parameters and schedule-controlled responding is obtained by examining ongoing behavior as it occurs within the contingencies by which it is maintained. PMID:20514168

DeWeese, Jo

2009-01-01

137

Geography 547: Fluvial Geomorphology Tentative Lecture Schedule

Geography 547: Fluvial Geomorphology Tentative Lecture Schedule Fall, 2014 Instructor: Dr. Allan Branch -------- [5] Flood Frequency Analysis Hogan, Ch.1; James, 15-1 to 15-10 16 Recurrence intervals, Bohman [7] Spatial Analysis James, Anal. Sidebar 6-8 & DEM exercise 30 Mapping channel networks

James, L. Allan

138

Online market driven spectrum scheduling and auction

In this paper we study the online spectrum scheduling using a market driven approach. We assume that each new arrival spectrum request, when it arrives, requests for the exclusive usage of some channels for a certain time interval. The spectrum owner has to decide immediately whether to grant its exclusive usage or not. If it is granted, the secondary user

Ping Xu; Xiang-yang Li

2009-01-01

139

Getting Prediction Intervals and Confidence Intervals for Means

Getting Prediction Intervals and Confidence Intervals for Means You can do any of the following with JMP. 1. Obtain 95% confidence and/or prediction intervals corresponding to every x-value in the data set. 2. Obtain a 95% confidence and/or prediction interval at a specified x-value that need

140

Iterative refinement scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.

Biefeld, Eric

1992-01-01

141

Operant schedule transformations and human behavioral momentum.

Behavioral momentum, which can be defined as the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology, and has relevance to behavior therapy in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies. The present study investigated whether changing operant schedule contingencies affects how humans respond to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen subjects participated in a computer study, in which each of two keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement, multiple variable interval schedules, the only difference being that one reinforcer was ten times larger than the other. After six sessions, the contingency schedule changed to either an extinction condition, a variable time schedule, or a changed variable interval schedule to assess how 'subjects' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. Results of this study were found to be consistent with the general predictions of behavioral momentum. Subjects not only biased responding in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, subjects showed continued biased responding. Implications for behavioral momentum for behavior modification and behavior therapy are discussed, and it is concluded that behavioral momentum has significant implications for designing new and comprehensive behavior change programs. PMID:9327296

Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Lawrence, J B

1997-09-01

142

Chapter 8: Confidence Intervals Sean Collins1

Chapter 8: Confidence Intervals Sean Collins1 School of Mathematics University of Bristol 1 Estimating the population mean Confidence intervals Â population variance known Confidence intervals. Interval estimator Â confidence interval An interval estimator draws inferences about a population

Collins, Sean

143

Scheduler's assistant: a tool for intelligent scheduling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project was to use expert system technology to aid in the scheduling activities performed at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The WSMR range scheduling problem presents a complex interactive environment. A human factors approach was undertaken, in that, the goal was to implement a system which mimics current WSMR scheduling procedures. The results of this project have produced a prototypic scheduling tool, called Scheduler's Assistant (SA), to aid WSMR range schedulers to generate a daily schedule. The system provides resource conflict detection and resolution advice through a series of cooperating expert systems. Immediate advantages of the system are increased safety, insurance of proper schedule execution and improved speed for turnaround time of sudden schedule changes. Additional benefits of SA include: expandability as future operations grow, allows for rapid redeployment for changing resources, promotes efficient management of WSMR resources, provides a formal representation of knowledge such that years of range personnel experience is preserved and enables the flexibility of a scheduling aid as opposed to a rigid methodology. Prior development efforts by Perceptics have produced a sophisticated expert system development tool, called Knowledge Shaper, which was used to implement all of the expert systems. The development of SA included a library of routines (the SA toolbox) to permit the manipulation of internal data tables and define a data transfer protocol to and from the SA environment. The combination of Knowledge Shaper and the SA toolbox provide a powerful set of design tools for the development of future scheduling applications.

Griffin, Neal L.

1991-03-01

144

The Block Scheduling Handbook.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

Queen, J. Allen

145

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

Yeoh, Eric E., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fowler, Jack [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2011-12-01

146

Protocols for distributive scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

1993-01-01

147

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is responsive to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as darbepoetin alfa. Administration of ESAs on a synchronous schedule with chemotherapy administration could benefit patients by reducing clinic visits and potentially enhancing on-time chemotherapy delivery. METHODS: This phase 2, 25-week, open-label study evaluated the noninferiority of darbepoetin alfa administered weekly vs. as an extended dosing schedule

Lee Schwartzberg; Ronald Burkes; Barry Mirtsching; Timothy Rearden; Peter Silberstein; Lorrin Yee; Amy Inamoto; Tom Lillie

2010-01-01

148

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

Phillips, K.

1976-01-01

149

Non-interval and interval training progressions were used to determine (i) the mean rate at which treadmill speed could be incremented daily using a non-interval training progression to train rats to run continuously at different intensities and (ii) the number of training days required for rats to run continuously at different exercise intensities with non-interval- and interval-based training progressions to establish methods of progressive overload for rodent exercise training studies. Rats were randomly assigned to mild-intensity (n = 5, 20 m·min(-1), 5% grade), moderate-intensity (n = 5, 30 m·min(-1), 5% grade), and heavy-intensity non-interval groups (n = 5, 40 m·min(-1), 5% grade) or a heavy-intensity interval (n = 5, 40 m·min(-1), 5% grade) group and ran 5 days·week(-1) for 6 weeks. Non-interval training involved a daily increase of treadmill speed, whereas interval training involved a daily increase of interval time, until the animal could run continuously at a prescribed intensity. In mild-, moderate-, and heavy-intensity non-interval-trained rats, treadmill speed was increased by 0.6 ± 0.7 m·min(-1)·day(-1), 0.6 ± 0.2 m·min(-1)·day(-1), and 0.8 ± 0.1 m·min(-1)·day(-1), respectively. Target training intensity and duration were obtained following 0.4 ± 0.5 days, 17 ± 3 days, and 23 ± 3 training days (p < 0.05) in mild-, moderate-, and heavy-intensity groups, respectively. In contrast, interval-trained rodents required 11 ± 1 training days. These data demonstrate that rodents will tolerate an increase in treadmill speed of ?0.7 ± 0.1 m·min(-1)·day(-1) and that this progression enables rats to run continuously at moderate and heavy intensities with 3-4 weeks of progressive overload. Interval training significantly reduces the number of training days required to attain a target intensity. PMID:21999294

Jendzjowsky, Nicholas G; DeLorey, Darren S

2011-10-01

150

Yoked variable-ratio and variable-interval responding in pigeons1

Pigeons' key pecks were maintained by variable-ratio or variable-interval schedules of food reinforcement. For pairs of pigeons in one group, variable-ratio reinforcement was arranged for one pigeon's pecks; for the second pigeon, reinforcement was arranged according to a variable-interval schedule yoked to the interreinforcement times produced by the first pigeon. For pairs of pigeons in another group, variable-interval reinforcement was arranged for one pigeon's pecks; for the second pigeon, reinforcement was arranged according to a variable-ratio schedule yoked to the interreinforcement responses produced by the first pigeon. For each pair, the yoking procedure was maintained for four or five consecutive sessions of 50 reinforcements each. In more than three-quarters of the pairs, variable-ratio response rates were higher than variable-interval rates within two sessions; in all cases, the rate difference developed within four sessions. PMID:16812022

Catania, A. Charles; Matthews, T. James; Silverman, Phillip J.; Yohalem, Rona

1977-01-01

151

Statistics of the longest interval in renewal processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider renewal processes where events, which can for instance be the zero crossings of a stochastic process, occur at random epochs of time. The intervals of time between events, ?1, ?2, …, are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with a common density ?(?). Fixing the total observation time to t induces a global constraint on the sum of these random intervals, which accordingly become interdependent. Here we focus on the largest interval among such a sequence on the fixed time interval (0, t). Depending on how the last interval is treated, we consider three different situations, indexed by ? = I, II and III. We investigate the distribution of the longest interval \\ell^?\\max(t) and the probability Q?(t) that the last interval is the longest one. We show that if ?(?) admits a well defined first moment, i.e. if it decays faster than 1/?2 for large ?, then the full statistics of \\ell^?\\max(t) is given, in the large t limit, by the standard theory of extreme value statistics for i.i.d. random variables, showing in particular that the global constraint on the intervals ?i does not play any role at large times in this case. However, if ?(?) exhibits heavy tails, ?(?) ? ??1?? for large ?, with index 0 < ? < 1 (like the zero-crossings of random walks corresponding to ? = 1/2), we show that the fluctuations of \\ell^?\\max(t)/t are governed, in the large t limit, by a stationary non-trivial universal distribution (different from a Fréchet law) which depends on both ? and ?, which we compute exactly. On the other hand, Q?(t) is generically different from its counterpart for i.i.d. variables (both for narrow or heavy tailed distributions ?(?)). In particular, in the case 0 < ? < 1, the large t behaviour of Q?(t) gives rise to universal non-trivial constants (depending also on both ? and ?) which we compute exactly.

Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

2015-03-01

152

Random-key genetic algorithms Jose Fernando Goncalves

Random-key genetic algorithms JosÂ´e Fernando GonÂ¸calves LIAAD, INESC TEC, Faculdade de Economia do interval [0, 1). A decoder maps each vector of random keys to a solution of the optimization prob- lem at random in the continuous interval [0, 1). A decoder is a procedure that maps a vector of random keys

Resende, Mauricio G. C.

153

Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

2011-01-01

154

Coverage of generalized confidence intervals

Generalized confidence intervals provide confidence intervals for complicated parametric functions in many common practical problems. They do not have exact frequentist coverage in general, but often provide coverage close to the nominal value and have the correct asymptotic coverage. However, in many applications generalized confidence intervals do not have satisfactory finite sample performance. We derive expansions of coverage probabilities of

Anindya Roy; Arup Bose

2009-01-01

155

Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

2009-03-01

156

On construction of the smallest one-sided confidence interval for the difference of two proportions

For any class of one-sided $1-\\\\alpha$ confidence intervals with a certain monotonicity ordering on the random confidence limit, the smallest interval, in the sense of the set inclusion for the difference of two proportions of two independent binomial random variables, is constructed based on a direct analysis of coverage probability function. A special ordering on the confidence limit is developed

Weizhen Wang

2010-01-01

157

Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.

Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan

1992-01-01

158

ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF THE GMLE IN THE CASE 1 INTERVAL-CENSORSHIP MODEL

ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF THE GMLE IN THE CASE 1 INTERVAL-CENSORSHIP MODEL WITH DISCRETE INSPECTION 1997. Abstract. We consider the case 1 interval censorship model in which the survival time has interval censorship model. In this model one is only able to observe a random time Y and whether X lies

Yu, Qiqing

159

Nonparametric Bayesian estimation from interval-censored data using Monte Carlo methods

We study the estimation of the survival function based on interval-censored data from a nonparametric Bayesian point of view. Interval censoring arises when the time variable of interest cannot be directly observed and it is only known to have occurred during a random interval of time. Susarla and Van Ryzin (1976) derived the nonparametric Bayesian estimator of the survival function

M. Luz Calle; Guadalupe Gómez

2001-01-01

160

A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm

Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. PMID:25254244

Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

2014-01-01

161

Simulation Analysis of Truck Driver Scheduling Rules

brought a landmark event in the changes to regula- tions governing hours of service for truck drivers. This paper describes an effort utilizing modeling and simula- tion for evaluating the impact of the new 2004 Hours of Service (HOS) rules in scheduling and dispatching one of the largest random over-the-road (OTR) trucking fleets in North America. The model was comprehensive

Eric C. Ervin; Russell C. Harris

2004-01-01

162

Conclusion Comparing genomes Genomes evolved from a common ancestor tend to share the same varieties of geneIntroduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 Jens Stoye2 1Université Paris

Blin, Guillaume

163

An adaptive drift-diffusion model of interval timing dynamics

Animals readily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed responding to rapidly changing intervals, sometimes as quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models—widely used to model response times in decision making—have been extended with new learning rules that allow them to accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their drift rate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing—when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favorably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals. PMID:23428705

Luzardo, Andre; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Rivest, François

2013-01-01

164

A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

165

Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-25

166

Reinforcement learning in scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

1994-01-01

167

Alternative congestion pricing schedules

It is important that alternative congestion pricing schedules are compared with respect to a broad spectrum of their effects. This paper uses an equilibrium simulation model of peak-period commuting along an urban highway to compare quantitatively both positive and normative effects of six congestion pricing schedules. Three of these schedules have been investigated qualitatively in the literature; the others are

Xuehao Chu

1999-01-01

168

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A random sample of 100 students from a specific high school resulted in 45% of them favoring a plan to implement block scheduling. Is it plausible that...

169

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random walks have been created using the pseudo-random generators in different computer language compilers (BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN, C++) using a Pentium processor. All the obtained paths have apparently a random behavior for short walks (?2 14 steps). From long random walks (2 33 steps) different periods have been found, the shortest being 2 18 for PASCAL and the longest 2 31 for FORTRAN and C++, while BASIC had a 2 24 steps period. The BASIC, PASCAL and FORTRAN long walks had even (2 or 4) symmetries. The C++ walk systematically roams away from the origin. Using deviations from the mean-distance rule for random walks, < d2>? N, a more severe criterion is found, e.g. random walks generated by a PASCAL compiler fulfills this criterion to N< 10 000 .

Nogués, J.; Costa-Krämer, J. L.; Rao, K. V.

170

Detectability of auditory signals presented without defined observation intervals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ability to detect tones in noise was measured without defined observation intervals. Latency density functions were estimated for the first response following a signal and, separately, for the first response following randomly distributed instances of background noise. Detection performance was measured by the maximum separation between the cumulative latency density functions for signal-plus-noise and for noise alone. Values of the index of detectability, estimated by this procedure, were approximately those obtained with a 2-dB weaker signal and defined observation intervals. Simulation of defined- and non-defined-interval tasks with an energy detector showed that this device performs very similarly to the human listener in both cases.

Watson, C. S.; Nichols, T. L.

1976-01-01

171

Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

172

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

173

Setting confidence intervals in coincidence search analysis

The main technique that has been used to estimate the rate of gravitational wave (gw) bursts is to search for coincidence among times of arrival of candidate events in different detectors. Coincidences are modeled as a (possibly non-stationary) random time series background with gw events embedded in it, at random times but constant average rate. It is critical to test whether the statistics of the coincidence counts is Poisson, because the counts in a single detector often are not. At some point a number of parameters are tuned to increase the chance of detection by reducing the expected background: source direction, epoch vetoes based on sensitivity, goodness-of-fit thresholds, etc. Therefore, the significance of the confidence intervals itself has to be renormalized. This review is an insight of the state-of-the-art methods employed in the recent search performed by the International Gravitational Event Collaboration for the worldwide network of resonant bar detectors.

Lucio Baggio; Giovanni A. Prodi

2003-12-13

174

Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

Stark, Philip B.

1992-01-01

175

Explorations in statistics: confidence intervals

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of Explorations in Statistics investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter such as the mean. A confidence interval provides the same statistical information as the P value from a hypothesis test, but it circumvents the drawbacks of that hypothesis test. Even more important, a confidence interval focuses our attention on the scientific importance of some experimental result.

Douglas Curran- Everett (University of Colorado Denver)

2009-06-01

176

Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

Thompson, Bruce

2007-01-01

177

Modal Intervals Revisited Part 1: A Generalized Interval Natural Extension

-extensions of the elementary op- erations are first built leading to a generalized interval arithmetic. This arithmetic is proved to coincide with the well known Kaucher arithmetic. Then the natural AE-extensions are constructed extensions) and its utilization. In particular, a new mean-value extension to generalized intervals

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

178

Behavior controlled by scheduled injections of cocaine in squirrel and rhesus monkeys.

Rates and patterns of key-press responding maintained under schedules in which responding resulted in intravenous injections of cocaine were studied in squirrel monkeys and rhesus monkeys. Each injection was followed by a 60- or 100-sec timeout period. Schedule-controlled behavior was obtained at appropriate cocaine doses in each species. Under FR 10 or FR 30 schedules, performance was characterized by high rates of responding (usually more than one response per second) in each ratio. Under FI 5-min schedules, performance was characterized by an initial pause, followed by acceleration of responding to a final rate that was maintained until the end of the interval. Under multiple fixed-ratio fixed-interval schedules, rates and patterns of responding appropriate to each schedule component were maintained. Responding seldom occurred during timeout periods under any schedule studied. At doses of cocaine above or below those that maintained characteristic schedule-controlled behavior, rates of responding were relatively low and patterns of responding were irregular. Characteristic fixed-interval responding was maintained over a wider range of cocaine doses than characteristic fixed-ratio responding. Complex patterns of responding controlled by discriminative stimuli under fixed-ratio or fixed-interval schedules can be maintained by cocaine injections in squirrel monkeys and rhesus monkeys. PMID:814192

Goldberg, S T; Kelleher, R T

1976-01-01

179

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

2008-01-01

180

Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

1988-01-01

181

Purpose Cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil (CMF) is a proven adjuvant option for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Randomized trials with other regimens demonstrate that dose-dense (DD) scheduling can offer greater efficacy. We investigated the feasibility of administering CMF using a DD schedule. Patients and Methods Thirty-eight patients with early-stage breast cancer were accrued from March 2008 through June 2008. They were treated every 14 days with C 600, M 40, F 600 (all mg/m2) with PEG-filgrastim (Neulasta®) support on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was tolerability using a Simon’s 2-stage optimal design. The design would effectively discriminate between true tolerability (as protocol-defined) rates of ? 60% and ? 80%. Results The median age was 52-years-old (range, 38–78 years of age). Twenty-nine of the 38 patients completed 8 cycles of CMF at 14-day intervals. Conclusion Dose-dense adjuvant CMF is tolerable and feasible at 14-day intervals with PEG-filgrastim support. PMID:21147686

Drullinsky, Pamela; Sugarman, Steven M.; Fornier, Monica N.; D’Andrea, Gabriella; Gilewski, Teresa; Lake, Diana; Traina, Tiffany; Wasserheit-Lieblich, Carolyn; Sklarin, Nancy; Atieh-Graham, Deena; Mills, Nancy; Troso-Sandoval, Tiffany; Seidman, Andrew D.; Yuan, Jeffrey; Patel, Hamangi; Patil, Sujata; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford

2012-01-01

182

Small-Sample Confidence Intervals

In this article we present a technique for constructing one- or two-sided confidence intervals, which are second-order correct in terms of coverage, for either parametric or nonparametric problems. The construction is valid in the presence of nuisance parameters. The situation we consider is this: there are p parameters and we want a confidence interval for some function of them, possibly

Maureen Tingley; Christopher Field

1990-01-01

183

Classification by Voting Feature Intervals

A new classification algorithm called VFI (for Voting Feature Intervals) is proposed. A concept is represented by a set of feature intervals on each feature dimension separately. Each feature participates in the classification by distributing real-valued votes among classes. The class receiving the highest vote is declared to be the predicted class. VFI is compared with the Naive Bayesian Classifier,

Gülsen Demiröz; H. Altay Güvenir

1997-01-01

184

Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

2008-01-01

185

Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2009-01-01

186

Binary Interval Search: a scalable algorithm for counting interval intersections

Motivation: The comparison of diverse genomic datasets is fundamental to understand genome biology. Researchers must explore many large datasets of genome intervals (e.g. genes, sequence alignments) to place their experimental results in a broader context and to make new discoveries. Relationships between genomic datasets are typically measured by identifying intervals that intersect, that is, they overlap and thus share a common genome interval. Given the continued advances in DNA sequencing technologies, efficient methods for measuring statistically significant relationships between many sets of genomic features are crucial for future discovery. Results: We introduce the Binary Interval Search (BITS) algorithm, a novel and scalable approach to interval set intersection. We demonstrate that BITS outperforms existing methods at counting interval intersections. Moreover, we show that BITS is intrinsically suited to parallel computing architectures, such as graphics processing units by illustrating its utility for efficient Monte Carlo simulations measuring the significance of relationships between sets of genomic intervals. Availability: https://github.com/arq5x/bits. Contact: arq5x@virginia.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23129298

Layer, Ryan M.; Skadron, Kevin; Robins, Gabriel; Hall, Ira M.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

187

Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

that a dinosaur that they are looking at is 14,000,005 years old. An impressed visitor asks how scientists can ago, when I started working here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older''. This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur

Ward, Karen

188

Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

in this paper can be illus trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis itors that a dinosaur here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older''. This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14

Kreinovich, Vladik

189

Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

that a dinosaur that they are looking at is 14,000,005 years old. An impressed visitor asks how scientists can, when I started working here, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older". This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which

Ward, Karen

190

Random Interval Arithmetic is Closer to Common Sense: An Observation

in this paper can be illus- trated by the following joke. A museum guide tells the vis- itors that a dinosaur, I was told that this dinosaur is 14,000,000 years old, so now it must be 5 years older". This is clearly a joke, because from the common sense viewpoint, a dinosaur which was approximately 14

Kreinovich, Vladik

191

Confidence Interval for the Estimated Mean of a Population

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given a sample of N values of X randomly drawn from a normally distributed population, this program will calculate the .95 and .99 confidence intervals (CI) for the estimated mean of the population. Data entry is simple, author Richard Lowry has allowed users to import data directly from a spreadsheet. This is a great resource for easy statistical calculations.

Lowry, Richard

192

A pseudolikelihood method for analyzing interval censored data

We introduce a method based on a pseudolikelihood ratio for estimating the distribution function of the survival time in a mixed-case interval censoring model. In a mixed-case model, an individual is observed a random number of times, and at each time it is recorded whether an event has happened or not. One seeks to estimate the distribution of time to

Bodhisattva Sen; Moulinath Banerjee

2007-01-01

193

A Pseudolikelihood Method For Analysing Interval Censored Data

SUMMARY We introduce a method based on a pseudolikelihood ratio for estimating the distribution function of the survival time in a mixed-case interval censoring model. In a mixed case model, an individual is observed a random number of times, and at each time it is recorded whether an event has happened or not. One seeks to estimate the distribution of

BODHISATTVA SEN; MOULINATH BANERJEE

2005-01-01

194

Automated telescope scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

195

Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

2014-01-01

196

Linear Regression Sample Proportions Interpretation of the Confidence Interval Interval Estimation

Linear Regression Sample Proportions Interpretation of the Confidence Interval Topic 16 Interval Interval Outline Linear Regression Sample Proportions Interpretation of the Confidence Interval 2 / 9 #12;Linear Regression Sample Proportions Interpretation of the Confidence Interval Linear Regression

Watkins, Joseph C.

197

Dynamic slack reclamation with procrastination scheduling in real-time embedded systems

Leakage energy consumption is an increasing concern in current and future CMOS technology generations. Procrastination scheduling, where task execution can be delayed to maximize the duration of idle intervals, has been proposed to minimize leakage energy drain. We address dynamic slack reclamation techniques under procrastination scheduling to minimize the static and dynamic energy consumption. In addition to dynamic task slowdown,

Ravindra Jejurikar; Rajesh K. Gupta

2005-01-01

198

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

2010-01-01

199

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

2011-01-01

200

Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

2007-01-01

201

Performance of two species of quail on basic reinforcement schedules1

Two bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and two Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were trained to peck a response key to obtain food. In general, performance on fixed ratio 20 and variable- and fixed-interval 60-sec schedules was comparable to the response patterns of other species under these schedules. PMID:5645877

Cloar, F. Thomas; Melvin, Kenneth B.

1968-01-01

202

Scheduling Job Families on Non-Identical Parallel Machines under Run-To-Run Control Constraints

1 Scheduling Job Families on Non-Identical Parallel Machines under Run-To-Run Control Constraints A constraint on jobs of the same product, i.e. the time interval between two consecutive jobs of the same are presented for scheduling jobs on non-identical parallel machines with setup times. In semiconductor

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

203

Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity

Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054

2014-01-01

204

NCI-Frederick PHL - Scheduling

Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Scheduling Project scheduling will depend on the type, scope and size of the project. Detailed information

205

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

206

Software Pipelining: An Effective Scheduling Technique for VLIW Machines

Abstract This paper shows that software pipelining is an effective and viable scheduling technique for VLIW processors In software pipelining, iterations of a loop in the source program are continuously initiated at constant intervals, before the preceding iterations complete The advantage of software pipelining is that optimal performance can be achieved with compact object code

Monica S. Lam

1988-01-01

207

A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

2013-01-01

208

Local patterns of responding maintained by concurrent and multiple schedules1

Local patterns of responding were studied when pigeons pecked for food in concurrent variable-interval schedules (Experiment I) and in multiple variable-interval schedules (Experiment II). In Experiment I, similarities in the distribution of interresponse times on the two keys provided further evidence that responding on concurrent schedules is determined more by allocation of time than by changes in local pattern of responding. Relative responding in local intervals since a preceding reinforcement showed consistent deviations from matching between relative responding and relative reinforcement in various postreinforcement intervals. Response rates in local intervals since a preceding changeover showed that rate of responding is not the same on both keys in all postchangeover intervals. The relative amount of time consumed by interchangeover times of a given duration approximately matched relative frequency of reinforced interchangeover times of that duration. However, computer simulation showed that this matching was probably a necessary artifact of concurrent schedules. In Experiment II, when component durations were 180 sec, the relationship between distribution of interresponse times and rate of reinforcement in the component showed that responding was determined by local pattern of responding in the components. Since responding on concurrent schedules appears to be determined by time allocation, this result would establish a behavioral difference between multiple and concurrent schedules. However, when component durations were 5 sec, local pattern of responding in a component (defined by interresponse times) was less important in determining responding than was amount of time spent responding in a component (defined by latencies). In fact, with 5-sec component durations, the relative amount of time spent responding in a component approximately matched relative frequency of reinforcement in the component. Thus, as component durations in multiple schedules decrease, multiple schedules become more like concurrent schedules, in the sense that responding is affected by allocation of time rather than by local pattern of responding. PMID:16811848

Menlove, Ronald L.

1975-01-01

209

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

2007-01-01

210

Stochastic interval analysis of natural frequency and mode shape of structures with uncertainties

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures with mixed random and interval parameters are investigated by using a hybrid stochastic and interval approach. Expressions for the mean value and variance of natural frequencies and mode shapes are derived by using perturbation method and random interval moment method. The bounds of these probabilistic characteristics are then determined by interval arithmetic. Two examples are given first to illustrate the feasibility of the presented method and the results are verified by Monte Carlo Simulations. The presented approach is also applicable to solve pure random and pure interval problems. This capability is demonstrated in the third and fourth examples through the comparisons with the peer research outcomes.

Wang, Chen; Gao, Wei; Song, Chongmin; Zhang, Nong

2014-04-01

211

In this study, a new algorithm for wavelength interval selection, known as interval variable iterative space shrinkage approach (iVISSA), is proposed based on the VISSA algorithm. It combines global and local searches to iteratively and intelligently optimize the locations, widths and combinations of the spectral intervals. In the global search procedure, it inherits the merit of soft shrinkage from VISSA to search the locations and combinations of informative wavelengths, whereas in the local search procedure, it utilizes the information of continuity in spectroscopic data to determine the widths of wavelength intervals. The global and local search procedures are carried out alternatively to realize wavelength interval selection. This method was tested using three near infrared (NIR) datasets. Some high-performing wavelength selection methods, such as synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), moving window partial least squares (MW-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), genetic algorithm PLS (GA-PLS) and interval random frog (iRF), were used for comparison. The results show that the proposed method is very promising with good results both on prediction capability and stability. The MATLAB codes for implementing iVISSA are freely available on the website: . PMID:25665981

Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Ma, Pan; Lin, Chen-Chen; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

2015-03-01

212

From Computation with Guaranteed Intervals to Computation with Confidence Intervals: A New to these guarÂ anteed intervals, we have confidence intervals for these quantities, i.e., intervals x i that con on the confidence intervals for x i , to produce the reÂ sulting confidence interval for y. It turns out

Kreinovich, Vladik

213

VU University Amsterdam Outpatient Scheduling

Practitioner PEARL STAM #12;2 Outpatient scheduling Outpatient scheduling for a general practitioner .................................................................................................................................. 7 1.1.2 General Practitioner

Bhulai, Sandjai

214

Long range correlations in the stride interval of running.

Fluctuations in the stride interval time series of unconstrained walking are not random but exhibit long range correlations that decay as a power law [Hausdorff JM, Peng CK, Ladin Z, Wei JY, Goldberger AL. Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long range correlations in stride interval of human gait. J Appl Physiol 1995;78:349-58]. Here, we examine whether the long range correlations are present in the stride interval time series of running. Recreational female runners ran 8min trials at their preferred running speed as well as 10% and 20% slower and faster than their preferred speed. Both the average time and the amount of variability of the stride interval decreased with increasing speed. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) showed that there were long range correlations present in the stride interval time series and these correlations followed a quasi U-shaped function, with the minimum at the preferred running speed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the preferred running speed, falling as it does between the upper and lower limits of possible running speeds, is the speed at which the most dynamical degrees of freedom are available for adaptive control of locomotion. PMID:16182530

Jordan, Kimberlee; Challis, John H; Newell, Karl M

2006-08-01

215

hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals

hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals The STAT menu Confidence Intervals Practice finding confidence intervals for the population mean #12;hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Confidence Intervals The STAT menu The Statistics menu is accessed from the ORANGE

Vetter, Frederick J.

216

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user guide and programmer documentation is provided for a system of PRIME 400 minicomputer programs. The system was designed to support loading analyses on the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The system is a scheduler for various types of data relays (including tape recorder dumps and real time relays) from orbiting payloads to the TDRSS. Several model options are available to statistically generate data relay requirements. TDRSS time lines (representing resources available for scheduling) and payload/TDRSS acquisition and loss of sight time lines are input to the scheduler from disk. Tabulated output from the interactive system includes a summary of the scheduler activities over time intervals specified by the user and overall summary of scheduler input and output information. A history file, which records every event generated by the scheduler, is written to disk to allow further scheduling on remaining resources and to provide data for graphic displays or additional statistical analysis.

Craft, R.; Dunn, C.; Mccord, J.; Simeone, L.

1980-01-01

217

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule...Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of...

2010-07-22

218

The fixed-interval scallop in human affairs

“Fixed-interval scalloping” is used to describe certain everyday patterns of behavior in textbooks and other educational communications. This is a misleading use of the term. It implies that the behavior is accounted for by the schedule, when, in fact, many other variables are operating. This paper reviews eleven such variables and the research evidence on them. These variables provide a more adequate account of complex behavior and point up areas of limited knowledge requiring further research in both laboratory and applied settings. Extrapolating from basic research on human fixed-performance suggests that there are phenomena of mutual interest to both basic and applied behavior analysts. PMID:22478564

Poppen, Roger

1982-01-01

219

Forecasting Duration Intervals of Scientific Workflow Activities based on Time-Series Patterns

which analyses the behaviour of time series itself to build a model for the correlation between itsForecasting Duration Intervals of Scientific Workflow Activities based on Time-Series Patterns Xiao In scientific workflow systems, time related functionalities such as workflow scheduling and temporal

Yang, Yun

220

Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

2006-01-01

221

The Power of Confidence Intervals

We consider the power to reject false values of the parameter in Frequentist methods for the calculation of confidence intervals. We connect the power with the physical significance (reliability) of confidence intervals for a parameter bounded to be non-negative. We show that the confidence intervals (upper limits) obtained with a (biased) method that near the boundary has large power in testing the parameter against larger alternatives and small power in testing the parameter against smaller alternatives are physically more significant. Considering the recently proposed methods with correct coverage, we show that the physical significance of upper limits is smallest in the Unified Approach and highest in the Maximum Likelihood Estimator method. We illustrate our arguments in the specific cases of a bounded Gaussian distribution and a Poisson distribution with known background.

C. Giunti; M. Laveder

2000-11-21

222

High resolution time interval meter

Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

Martin, A.D.

1986-05-09

223

Machine scheduling allocation of jobs to computational resources Scheduling of flexible assembly systems car production Employees scheduling nurse rostering Transport scheduling gate assignment for flightsScheduling CSP model Resources Optimization Basic Class Timetabling Constraint-based Scheduling

Qu, Rong

224

NASA Schedule Management Handbook

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

2011-01-01

225

Meta-Analytic Interval Estimation for Standardized and Unstandardized Mean Differences

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fixed-effects (FE) meta-analytic confidence intervals for unstandardized and standardized mean differences are based on an unrealistic assumption of effect-size homogeneity and perform poorly when this assumption is violated. The random-effects (RE) meta-analytic confidence intervals are based on an unrealistic assumption that the selected…

Bonett, Douglas G.

2009-01-01

226

High-Resistance Interval Training Improves 40-km Time-Trial Performance in Competitive Cyclists

Interval training at race-specific high cadences improves endurance cycling performance, but there is evidence that adding resistance to reduce the ca- dence might be more effective. AIM. To determine the effect of high-resistance interval training on endurance performance of male cyclists during the competi- tion phase of a season. METHODS. In a randomized controlled trial, 10 cy- clists in a

Amy M Taylor-Mason; Carl D Paton

227

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers

interactive and CPUÂbound workload offered by decay usage priority scheduler the FreeBSD operating system. Moreover, standard lottery scheduling ignores kernel priorities used FreeBSD scheduler reduce kernelÂ tions present FreeBSD scheduler to improve interacÂ tive response time and reduce kernel lock contention

228

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers

priority scheduler of the FreeBSD operating system. Moreover, standard lottery scheduling ignores kernel priorities used in the FreeBSD scheduler to reduce kernel lock contention. In this paper, we show how to use in the FreeBSD scheduler to improve interac- tive response time and reduce kernel lock contention. We achieve

229

Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

230

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

231

Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

Reddy, Surender

1991-01-01

232

Resource Allocation with Time Intervals

Each job consumes some quantity of a bounded resource during a certain time interval and induces a given .... Finally, in Sec- tion 4 we analyze the performance of a simple greedy algorithm, concluding that it also gives a .... We will now give a detailed specification of instance R. ..... The description of the cliques according ...

2009-09-21

233

Regression Models with Interval Censoring

In this paper we discuss estimation in semiparametric regression models with interval censoring, with emphasis on estimation of the regression parameter . The first section surveys some of the existing literature concerning these models and the various existing approaches to estimation, including a selected subset of the enormous literature on the binary choice model used in econometrics. In section 2

Jian Huang; Jon A. Wellner

234

Transformational approach to transportation scheduling

The authors have used KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to derive extremely fast and accurate transportation schedulers from formal specifications. As test data, strategic transportation plans which are generated by US government planners are used. In one such problem, the derived scheduler was able to schedule 15,460 individual movement requirements in 71 cpu seconds. The computed schedules use relatively few

Douglas R. Smith; Eduardo A. Parra

1993-01-01

235

The Stanford School Scheduling System.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet gives a general overview of the computerized Stanford School Scheduling System (SSSS) which is designed to make scheduling less difficult for individualized programs in secondary education. Topics covered include new flexible scheduling and variable course structure designs in secondary education, the school scheduling problem,…

Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Industrial Engineering.

236

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

237

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online television schedule provides listings of NASA's televised programming, including mission coverage, educational shows, and historical programs. A link is provided to a list of organizations that transmit NASA television to the World Wide Web.

238

Immunization Schedules for Adults

... Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Vaccines Home Share Compartir Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... never outgrow the need for vaccines. The specific immunizations you need as an adult are determined by ...

239

Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for arrival traffic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by time-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.

Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

1990-01-01

240

High resolution time interval counter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

1995-01-01

241

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Randomizer, made available by the Social Psychology Network (SPN), is a program (JavaScript) that assists researchers and students "who want an easy way to perform random sampling or assign participants to experimental conditions." A tutorial at the site works through example situations and explains how to use the Research Randomizer. The Research Randomizer is an excellent tool for researchers desiring simulations of random sampling in experimental situations.

242

Confidence Interval for a Proportion 1 Confidence Interval for a Proportion

Confidence Interval for a Proportion 1 Confidence Interval for a Proportion Example 74^ within npp 196.1 of p. An approximate 95% Confidence Interval The section begins with a description in different intervals. #12;Confidence Interval for a Proportion 2 The Result Â a 95% Confidence Interval for p

Preston, Scott

243

Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

1991-01-01

244

Conditioning SLEs and loop erased random walks

We discuss properties of dipolar SLE(k) under conditioning. We show that k=2, which describes continuum limits of loop erased random walks, is characterized as being the only value of k such that dipolar SLE conditioned to stop on an interval coincides with dipolar SLE on that interval. We illustrate this property by computing a new bulk passage probability for SLE(2).

Michel Bauer; Denis Bernard; Tom Kennedy

2008-06-13

245

Induced Attack During Fixed-Ratio and Matched-Time Schedules of Food Presentation

Adjunctive or induced behavior is generated during a variety of schedules of reinforcement. Several theoretical conceptualizations suggest that rate of reinforcement is the primary variable controlling the strength or levels of induced behavior. The operant response requirement within the schedule context has not been extensively studied as a determinant of induced responding. In the present study, levels of induced attack by food-deprived pigeons against restrained conspecifics were compared during response-dependent and response-independent schedules of food presentation equated or yoked interval-by-interval for reinforcement frequency. Experiment 1 compared levels of attack induced by fixed-ratio schedules of key pecking and yoked “matched-time” schedules. Experiment 2 similarly compared chained fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 74 and yoked chained matched-time matched-time schedules. In both experiments, the response-dependent schedules generated greater levels (amount and probability) of induced attack than the response-independent time-based schedules. Thus, the ratio response requirement may be an important determinant of levels of induced responding, and the lower levels of attack observed during the response-independent condition may not be due to the absence of stimuli predicting food presentations. It is concluded that rate of reinforcement is not the sole variable determining levels of induced responding and that response-based and time-based schedules differ in their generation of induced responding. PMID:18338674

Kupfer, Anne S; Allen, Ron; Malagodi, E.F

2008-01-01

246

Confidence Intervals Estimation in the Identification of Electromechanical Modes from Ambient Noise

1 Confidence Intervals Estimation in the Identification of Electromechanical Modes from Ambient from ambient data resulting from random load switching throughout the day in power systems of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada, email: ccanizar@uwaterloo.ca. disturbance or random ambient

Cañizares, Claudio A.

247

Stopping Rules for Double Bootstrap Confidence Intervals

Abstract The error in the ,coverage ,probability of (single) bootstrap confidence intervals may ,be reduced,by the ,use of double ,bootstrap confidence intervals. The ,computer ,resources required for double bootstrap confidence intervals are often prohibitive, especially in the context of Monte Carlo studies. This paper sets out methods,of estimating double bootstrap confidence intervals using computational ,algorithms that incorporate simple stopping rules.

John C. Nankervis

248

PROBABILISTIC INTERVALS OF CONFIDENCE Norbert Jankowski1

PROBABILISTIC INTERVALS OF CONFIDENCE Norbert Jankowski1 Department of Computer Methods Nicolaus as black boxes. A method which determine confidence intervals and probabilistic confidence intervals confidence intervals help to visualize the class memberships of a given case and its neighborhood. Keywords

Jankowski, Norbert

249

CONSERVATIVE CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR A SINGLE PARAMETER

CONSERVATIVE CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR A SINGLE PARAMETER By Mark Finkelstein, Howard G. Tucker March 10, 1999 Abstract. The method of constructing confidence intervals from hypothesis tests intervals with coverage probability that is at least the nominal level. The confidence intervals obtained

Finkelstein, Mark

250

INTERVAL DIGRAPHS THAT ARE INDIFFERENCE DIGRAPHS

INTERVAL DIGRAPHS THAT ARE INDIFFERENCE DIGRAPHS InÂJen Lin \\Lambda and Douglas B. West y Department of Mathematics University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 Abstract A digraph is an interval digraph if each vertex can be assigned a source interval and a sink interval such that there is an edge

West, Douglas B.

251

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30

252

Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this

Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

2006-01-01

253

The Power of Confidence Intervals

We connect the power of Confidence Intervals in different Frequentist methods to their reliability. We show that in the case of a bounded parameter a biased method which near the boundary has large power in testing the parameter against larger alternatives and small power in testing the parameter against smaller alternatives is desirable. Considering the recently proposed methods with correct coverage, we show that the Maximum Likelihood Estimator method has optimal bias.

C. Giunti; M. Laveder

2002-06-20

254

A Calculator for Confidence Intervals

A calculator program has been written to give confidence intervals on branching ratios for rare decay modes (or similar quantities) calculated from the number of events observed, the acceptance factor, the background estimate and the associated errors. Results from different experiments (or different channels from the same experiment) can be combined. The calculator is available in http://www.slac.stanford.edu/~barlow/limits.html

Roger Barlow

2002-03-01

255

A calculator for confidence intervals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calculator program has been written to give confidence intervals on branching ratios for rare decay modes (or similar quantities) calculated from the number of events observed, the acceptance factor, the background estimate and the associated errors. Results from different experiments (or different channels from the same experiment) can be combined. The calculator is available in http://www.slac.stanford.edu/~barlow/limits.html.

Barlow, Roger

2002-12-01

256

Credible intervals for nanoparticle characteristics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the inverse problem of nanoparticle characterization has the potential to advance science and benefit society. While considerable progress has been made within a framework based on the scattering of surface plasmon-polaritons, an aspect not heretofore considered is the quantification of uncertainty in the estimation of a nanoparticle characteristic. Therefore, the present article offers a technique by which an investigator may augment an estimate of a nanoparticle characteristic with a companion “credible interval”. Analogous to the familiar confidence interval but arising from within the Bayesian statistical paradigm, a credible interval allows the investigator to make a statement such as “the nanoparticle diameter lies between 36 and 48 nm with 95% probability” instead of merely “the nanoparticle diameter is estimated to be 42 nm”. Our technique may even be applied outside of the surface plasmon-polariton scattering framework, as long as the investigator specifies his/her prior beliefs about the nanoparticle characteristic and indicates which potential outcomes are likely or unlikely in whatever experiment he/she designs to estimate the nanoparticle characteristic. Two numerical studies illustrate the implementation and performance of our technique in constructing ranges of likely values for nanoparticle diameters and agglomeration levels, respectively.

Charnigo, Richard; Francoeur, Mathieu; Kenkel, Patrick; Mengüç, M. Pinar; Hall, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Cidambi

2012-01-01

257

The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary random scheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

Wayne F. Boyer; Gurdeep S. Hura

2005-09-01

258

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) has been widely recognized as a promising method for solving real production planning and scheduling problems. Based on the proposal of a real-time job shop scheduling mechanism under an APS environment, which adopts the Lagrangean relaxation method as the optimization logic, the present paper describes a feasibility study of this mechanism by evaluating its calculation speed and re-scheduling quality. Numerical experiments have been carried out for various models having different scales, as well as different densities and strengths of random events, such as the arrival of new jobs or changes to the due dates for existing jobs. The results of experiments show that the proposed scheduling mechanism has the potential to satisfy the real-time scheduling requirements, not only in terms of calculation speed and solution quality, but also with respect to predictability of the calculation load. Finally, an improvement to the Lagrangean relaxation method is proposed to improve re-scheduling quality.

Shin, Kaikou; Kuroda, Mitsuru; Natsuyama, Kouichi

259

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

2001-07-01

260

Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower and

Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower of scheduling n jobs on a single machine. A fixed processing time and an execution interval are associated with each job. Preemption is not allowed. The objective is to find a feasible job sequence that minimizes

Briand, Cyril

261

Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

2013-01-01

262

Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

263

Robust optimization of dose schedules in radiotherapy

A major difficulty of choosing an optimal radiation schedule is the uncertainty of model parameters due to geometric and patient specific uncertainties. This paper proposes a method for determining the optimal fractionation schedule in the Linear Quadratic (LQ) model with multiple normal tissue toxicity constraints in the presence of uncertainties in model parameters. To this end, we assumed uncertainty in the LQ model can take two forms: (i) estimation errors for parameters of constant but unknown value, and (ii) stochasticity of random variables. For the unknown parameters, we formulated our problem as a conservative model whose solution is immune to the parameter drifts. When the underlying distributions of uncertain parameters are known, we developed a model which required the decision maker to specify a probability that determined the feasibility of normal tissues constraints and risk factor in the objective function. We proved that our problem can be solved efficiently through a decision variable transf...

Badri, Hamidreza; Leder, Kevin

2015-01-01

264

Scheduling in multibeam satellites with interfering zones

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traffic scheduling problem in a satellite-switched time-division multiple-access (SS/TDMA) system with interfering beams is studied. A two-step approach to this problem is investigated, in which the first step is the assignment of orthogonal polarization to reduce the interference and the second step is the scheduling of traffic, taking into account the 'resultant' interference. It is shown that the first step can be solved in polynomial time in most cases, while the second step is proved to be NP-complete, even for very simple patterns. Several suboptimal algorithms are suggested for this second step, and it is shown by experimental trials on randomly generated traffic patterns that on the average these algorithms produce close to optimal solutions.

Gopal, I. S.; Wong, C. K.; Bonuccelli, M. A.

1983-08-01

265

Coalescing Particles on an Interval

At time 0, we begin with a particle at each integer in [0, n]. At each positive integer time, one of the particles remaining in [1, n] is chosen at random and moved one to the left, coalescing with any particle that might already be there. How long does it take until all particles coalesce (at 0)?

Michael Larsen; Russell Lyons

1999-01-01

266

Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking

Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...

Jiang, Hai, 1979-

2006-01-01

267

Scheduling with genetic algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

268

Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…

Allen, Dwight W.

269

Purpose: To determine the effect of dose and fractionation schedule of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on the incidence of chronic neurotoxicity (CNt) and changes in quality of life for selected patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LD SCLC who achieved a complete response after chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation were eligible for randomization to undergo PCI to a total dose of 25 Gy in 10 daily fractions (Arm 1) vs. the experimental cohort of 36 Gy. Those receiving 36 Gy underwent a secondary randomization between daily 18 fractions (Arm 2) and twice-daily 24 fractions (Arm 3). Enrolled patients participated in baseline and follow-up neuropsychological test batteries along with quality-of-life assessments. Results: A total of 265 patients were accrued, with 131 in Arm 1, 67 in Arm 2, and 66 in Arm 3 being eligible. There are 112 patients (42.2%) alive with 25.3 months of median follow-up. There were no significant baseline differences among groups regarding quality-of-life measures and one of the neuropsychological tests, namely the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. However, at 12 months after PCI there was a significant increase in the occurrence of CNt in the 36-Gy cohort (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis revealed increasing age to be the most significant predictor of CNt (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Because of the increased risk of developing CNt in study patients with 36 Gy, a total PCI dose of 25 Gy remains the standard of care for patients with LD SCLC attaining a complete response to initial chemoradiation.

Wolfson, Aaron H., E-mail: awolfson@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Garces, Yolanda I. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX (United States)

2011-09-01

270

An information model based weld schedule database

As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicken, G.K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gershanok, G.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

271

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

Wainger, Lisa A.

272

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions and anticipating to the following stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) with affine noise and a random (possibly anticipating) initial

Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

273

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah for solutions of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions to the following stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) with a#ne noise and a random (possibly anticipating) initial

Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

274

To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

2013-08-01

275

Confidence Intervals and Prediction Intervals for FeedForward Neural Networks

1 Confidence Intervals and Prediction Intervals for FeedÂForward Neural Networks Richard Dybowski the maximumÂlikelihood framework. This is followed by a general introduction to classical confidence intervals and prediction intervals. We set the scene by first considering confidence and prediction intervals based

Roberts, Stephen

276

Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

1992-01-01

277

QoS scheduling Pag. 1 QoS scheduling QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 1Andrea Bianco a link among all packets stored in a given buffer (multiplexing point) · Mainly look at QoS scheduling algorithms QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 2Andrea Bianco TNG group - Politecnico di Torino N

278

QoS scheduling Pag. 1 QoS scheduling Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group QoS Issues) · Mainly look at QoS scheduling algorithms Choose the packet according to QoS needs QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 2Andrea Bianco TNG group - Politecnico di Torino N inputs OUTPUT BUFFER #12;QoS

279

MINIMUM DISSATISFACTION PERSONNEL SCHEDULING D ?

Abstract: In this paper we consider two problems regarding the scheduling of available personnel in order to perform a given ..... Vanden Berghe, G., “A Memetic Approach to the Nurse ... scheduling in a complex logistic system: a railway.

Mugurel

2008-08-07

280

... Home > Pregnancy > C-section > Scheduling a c-section C-section A cesarean section is the birth of ... It's been added to your dashboard . Scheduling a c-section Cesarean birth (also called c-section) is ...

281

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

282

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! WHEN: Saturday

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

283

GENERAL INFORMATION Scheduling Events

, cash, check or credit card. Tentative catered events must be confirmed or released within ten (10GENERAL INFORMATION Scheduling Events An estimate of guests attending will be required for all equipment provided by Verde Catering. Any lost or damaged catering equipment or property

Mohanty, Saraju P.

284

Scheduling Nonlinear Computational Loads

Scheduling Nonlinear Computational Loads JUI TSUN HUNG THOMAS G. ROBERTAZZI, Fellow, IEEE Stony node is nonlinear in the size of the assigned load. Optimal load allocation and speedup for simultaneous load distribution for a quadratic nonlinearity are obtained using simple equations. An iterative

Robertazzi, Thomas G.

285

Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

Kimmet, James L.

286

Fair Scheduling in Broadcast Environments

This report considers the problems of scheduling transmissions in broadcast environments, including, wireless environments. Issues that affect the design of fair scheduling algorithms, and several alternative approaches to implementing fair scheduling in single-hop and multi-hop environments are identified.

Paramvir Bahl; Nitin H. Vaidya

1999-01-01

287

High School Schedules. Research Brief

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings are mixed on the effectiveness of various scheduling models. These models include a traditional 7 or 8 period day, a block schedule with four classes meeting one day and another four meeting the next (A/B Block), a block schedule of four classes that meet every day for a term (4x4 Block), and several hybrid models. Some findings conclude…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

288

Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

Creighton, Peggy Milam

2008-01-01

289

Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

2006-01-01

290

Parallel Job Scheduling and Workloads

Parallel Job Scheduling and Workloads Dror Feitelson Hebrew University #12;Parallel Jobs Â· A set Â· On multicores: probably more dynamic #12;MPP Parallel Job Scheduling Â· Each job is a rectangle in processorsXtime space Â· Given many jobs, we must schedule them to run on available processors Â· This is like packing

Segall, Adrian

291

State-based scheduling: An architecture for telescope observation scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of constraint-based scheduling, a methodology previously developed and validated in the domain of factory scheduling, is extended to problem domains that require attendance to a wider range of state-dependent constraints. The problem of constructing and maintaining a short-term observation schedule for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which typifies this type of domain is the focus of interest. The nature of the constraints encountered in the HST domain is examined, system requirements are discussed with respect to utilization of a constraint-based scheduling methodology in such domains, and a general framework for state-based scheduling is presented.

Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

1989-01-01

292

Fixed-time schedule effects in combination with response-dependent schedules.

We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response persistence for 2 of 3 participants. Results have implications for the maintenance of desirable behavior, as well as for situations in which FT treatment has been implemented for problem behavior and problem behavior is nevertheless reinforced by caregivers. PMID:21541131

Borrero, John C; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A; Sy, Jolene R; Francisco, Monica T

2011-01-01

293

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity has students create rules to allow them to judge whether or not the shuffle feature on a particular iPod appears to produce randomly generated playlists. Because people's intuitions about random events and randomly generated data are often incorrect or misleading, this activity initially focuses students' attention on describing characteristics of 25 playlists that were randomly generated. Students then use these characteristics to come up with rules for judging whether a playlist does NOT appear to be randomly generated. Students test and revise their rules (model) using five additional playlsits. Then, they apply their model to three particular playlists that have been submitted to Apple by an unhappy iPod owner who claims the shuffle feature on his iPod is not generating random playlists. In the final part of the activity, students write a letter to the ipod owner, on behalf of Apple, explaining the use of their model and their final conclusion about whether these three suspicious playlists appear to have been randomly generated. This lesson provides an introduction to the fundamental ideas of randomness, random sequences and random samples.

This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota

294

Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.

Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.

1973-01-01

295

Scheduling algorithms for multihop radio networks

Aew algorithms for transmission scheduling in multi- hop broadcast radio networks are presented. Both link scheduling and broadcast scheduling are considered. In each instance, sched- uling algorithms are given that improve upon existing algorithms both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it is shown that tree networks can be scheduled optimally, and that arbitrary networks can be scheduled so that the schedule

Subramanian Ramanathan; Errol L. Lloyd

1993-01-01

296

Overview of STIP intervals 15-19

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five STIP Intervals for special scientific study of solar and interplanetary phenomena were designated between February 1984 and March 1986. The first two intervals were selected retrospectively after unusual periods of solar activity; the remaining three intervals were selected in advance in conjunction with anticipated spacecraft configurations and measurements. In this overview the historical background of these STIP Intervals and a summary of the rationale in the selection of these particular time periods for concentrated studies are presented.

Shea, M. A.; Dryer, M.

1987-01-01

297

Temporal Reasoning Based on Semi-Intervals

A generalization of Allen's interval-based approach to temporal reasoning is presented. The notion of 'conceptual neighborhood' of qualitative relations between events is central to the presented approach. Relations between semi-intervals rather than intervals are used as the basic units of knowledge. Semi-intervals correspond to temporal beginnings or endings of events. We demonstrate the advantages of reasoning on the basis of

Christian Freksa

1992-01-01

298

Computational algorithms for double bootstrap confidence intervals

In some cases, such as in the estimation of impulse responses, it has been found that for plausible sample sizes the coverage accuracy of single bootstrap confidence intervals can be poor. The error in the coverage probability of single bootstrap confidence intervals may be reduced by the use of double bootstrap confidence intervals. The computer resources required for double bootstrap

John C. Nankervis

2005-01-01

299

HyperStat Online: Confidence Intervals

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource gives a thorough definition of confidence intervals. It shows the user how to compute a confidence interval and how to interpret them. It goes into detail on how to construct a confidence interval for the difference between means, correlations, and proportions. It also gives a detailed explanation of Pearson's correlation. It also includes exercises for the user.

Lane, David M.

300

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations DENIS CHOQUET, PIERRE L'ECUYER, and CHRISTIAN L ' EGER Universit'e de Montr'eal We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for instance in regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

301

Confidence Intervals: Giving Meaning to your results

Confidence Intervals: Giving Meaning to your results Eric Gilleland EricG@ucar.edu Â· What does RMSE Testing and Confidence Intervals Â· Hypothesis testing Â Given a null hypothesis (e.g., "Model forecast a single null hypothesis. Â· Confidence intervals Â Related to hypothesis tests, but more useful. Â How

Gilleland, Eric

302

Detections Limits, Upper Limits, and Confidence Intervals

Detections Limits, Upper Limits, and Confidence Intervals in High-Energy Astrophysics David van Dyk Â· What do short Confidence Intervals Mean? Â· Is there an all-purpose statistical solution? Â· Why compute Confidence Intervals at all? 2. Illustrations from High-Energy Astro-statistics Â· Detection and Detection

Wolfe, Patrick J.

303

TEACHING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS JOHN M. HOLTE

TEACHING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS JOHN M. HOLTE NCS-MAA SPRING MEETING Abstract. An easy way to teach distribution, and form confidence intervals for the median from the minimum and maximum of each sample. Other by a "95% confidence interval"? Many students in introductory statistics classes cannot answer

Holte, John M.

304

The Interval Order Polytope of a Digraph

. We introduce the interval order polytope of a digraph D as the convex hull of interval order inducing arc subsets of D. Two general schemes for producing valid inequalities are presented. These schemes have been used implicitly for several polytopes and they are applied here to the interval order

Rudolf Müller; Andreas S. Schulz

1995-01-01

305

Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation

Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

2014-01-01

306

Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques

Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising paradigm for the next-generation Internet. In OBS, a key problem is to schedule bursts on wavelength channels, whose bandwidth may become fragmented with the so-called void (or idle) intervals, using both fast and bandwidth efficient algorithms so as to reduce burst loss. To date, two well-known scheduling algorithms, called Horizon and LAUC-VF, have

Jinhui Xu; Chunming Qiao; Jikai Li; Guang Xu

2004-01-01

307

RVLS Confidence Interval on a Proportion

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows you to explore the validity of confidence intervals on a proportion with various values for sample size (N) and population proportion (Pi). After you specify N, Pi, the level of confidence, and the number of simulations you wish to perform, the applet samples data according to your specification and computes a confidence interval for each simulation. The proportion of simulations for which the confidence interval contains Pi is recorded. If the method for constructing confidence intervals is valid, then about 95% of the 95% confidence intervals should contain Pi.

Lane, David M.

308

Parametric likelihood inference for interval censored competing risks data.

Parametric estimation of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) is considered for competing risks data subject to interval censoring. Existing parametric models of the CIF for right censored competing risks data are adapted to the general case of interval censoring. Maximum likelihood estimators for the CIF are considered under the assumed models, extending earlier work on nonparametric estimation. A simple naive likelihood estimator is also considered that utilizes only part of the observed data. The naive estimator enables separate estimation of models for each cause, unlike full maximum likelihood in which all models are fit simultaneously. The naive likelihood is shown to be valid under mixed case interval censoring, but not under an independent inspection process model, in contrast with full maximum likelihood which is valid under both interval censoring models. In simulations, the naive estimator is shown to perform well and yield comparable efficiency to the full likelihood estimator in some settings. The methods are applied to data from a large, recent randomized clinical trial for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:24400873

Hudgens, Michael G; Li, Chenxi; Fine, Jason P

2014-03-01

309

Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our work and results may be outdated when this paper is published.

Hull, Larry G.

1990-01-01

310

Multivariate random effect models with complete and incomplete data

This paper considers the problem of estimating fixed effects, random effects and variance components for the multi-variate random effects model with complete and incomplete data. It also considers making inferences about fixed and random effects, a problem which requires careful consideration of the choice of degrees of freedom to use in confidence intervals. This paper uses the EM algorithm to

James O. Chipperfield; David G. Steel

2012-01-01

311

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…

Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.

2007-01-01

312

Interval Management Display Design Study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

2014-01-01

313

Statistical Rate Monotonic Scheduling

Statistical Rate Monotonic Scheduling (SRMS) is a general- ization of the classical RMS results of Liu and Layland (10) for periodic tasks with highly variable execution times and statistical QoS requirements. The main tenet of SRMS is that the variability in task resource requirements could be smoothed through aggregation to yield guaranteedQoS. This aggregation is done over time for a

Alia Atlas; Azer Bestavros

1998-01-01

314

Schedule for Interdisciplinary Oceanography

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class schedule, submitted by Dr. Robert Stewart of Texas A & M University, lays out the topics of discussion by day of class. One of the first days is devoted to a problem-based learning module where the students download information about the 12/26/04 tsunami from the web and forming opinions about what happened and why. The next day is devoted to the relationships between earthquakes, geologic setting and tsunamis as well as early warning systems.

Robert H Stewart

315

The use of subsystems is fundamental to the modeling of hierarchical hardware using recurrence equations. Scheduling adds\\u000a temporal information to a system and is thus a key step in the synthesis of parallel hardware from algorithms. It determines\\u000a such things as the placement of pipeline registers, the latency and throughput of the circuit, and the order and rate that\\u000a inputs

Jason B. Crop; Doran K. Wilde

1999-01-01

316

An implementation of opportunistic scheduling for robotic assembly

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Cesar 0. Malave The goal of this research is to combine computerized vision and artificial intelligence programming in an application of robotic assembly that will use opportunistic scheduling. Opportunistic scheduling is making... I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Trends in the Market Place 1. 2 Robots in Assembly 1. 3 The Problem 1. 3. 1 Robotic Programming 1. 3. 2 Random Assembly 1. 4 Method of Approach 1. 4. 1 Computer Vision 1. 4. 2 Artificial Intelligence 1. 4. 3 Literature Survey 1...

Butler, Allan Wayne

1990-01-01

317

A Novel Hybrid Algorithm for Task Graph Scheduling

One of the important problems in multiprocessor systems is Task Graph Scheduling. Task Graph Scheduling is an NP-Hard problem. Both learning automata and genetic algorithms are search tools which are used for solving many NP-Hard problems. In this paper a new hybrid method based on Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata is proposed. The proposed algorithm begins with an initial population of randomly generated chromosomes and after some stages, each chromosome maps to an automaton. Experimental results show that superiority of the proposed algorithm over the current approaches.

Nezhad, Vahid Majid; Efimov, Evgueni

2011-01-01

318

Upper bounds for coverage probabilities of confidence intervals for nonmonotone parametric functions

Consider a statistical model F?F and let ?=?(F) be a structural parameter which admits a (1??)-level two-sided confidence interval based on a random sample taken from F. Let g(?) be some parametric function of interest. The problem of deriving a confidence interval for g(?) directly from that given on ? is considered. If g is one-to-one then a (1??)-level two-sided

Shaul K. Bar-Lev; Daoud Bshouty; Benjamin Reiser

2000-01-01

319

Two-Body Random Ensembles: From Nuclear Spectra to Random Polynomials

The two-body random ensemble (TBRE) for a many-body bosonic theory is mapped to a problem of random polynomials on the unit interval. In this way one can understand the predominance of 0+ ground states, and analytic expressions can be derived for distributions of lowest eigenvalues, energy gaps, density of states and so forth. Recently studied nuclear spectroscopic properties are addressed.

Dimitri Kusnezov

2000-09-26

320

Feasibility Criteria for Interval Management Operations as Part of Arrival Management Operations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that aims to provide more precise inter-aircraft spacing to yield throughput improvements and greater use of fuel efficient trajectories for arrival and approach operations. To participate in an IM operation, an aircraft must be equipped with avionics that provide speeds to achieve and maintain an assigned spacing interval relative to another aircraft. It is not expected that all aircraft will be equipped with the necessary avionics, but rather that IM fits into a larger arrival management concept developed to support the broader mixed-equipage environment. Arrival management concepts are comprised of three parts: a ground-based sequencing and scheduling function to develop an overall arrival strategy, ground-based tools to support the management of aircraft to that schedule, and the IM tools necessary for the IM operation (i.e., ground-based set-up, initiation, and monitoring, and the flight-deck tools to conduct the IM operation). The Federal Aviation Administration is deploying a near-term ground-automation system to support metering operations in the National Airspace System, which falls within the first two components of the arrival management concept. This paper develops a methodology for determining the required delivery precision at controlled meter points for aircraft that are being managed to a schedule and aircraft being managed to a relative spacing interval in order to achieve desired flow rates and adequate separation at the meter points.

Levitt, Ian M.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Castle, Michael W.

2014-01-01

321

A physiologically based mathematical model of sleep-wake cycles is used to examine the effects of shift rotation interval (RI) (i.e., the number of days spent on each shift) on sleepiness and circadian dynamics on forward rotating 3-shift schedules. The effects of the schedule start time on the mean shift sleepiness are also demonstrated but are weak compared to the effects of RI. The dynamics are studied for a parameter set adjusted to match a most common natural sleep pattern (i.e., sleep between 0000 and 0800) and for common light conditions (i.e., 350 lux of shift lighting, 200 lux of daylight, 100 lux of artificial lighting during nighttime, and 0 lux during sleep). Mean shift sleepiness on a rotating schedule is found to increase with RI, reach maximum at intermediate RI=6 d, and then decrease. Complete entrainment to shifts within the schedules is not achieved at RI?10 d. However, circadian oscillations synchronize to the rotation cycles, with RI=1,2 d and RI?6 d demonstrating regular periodic changes of the circadian rhythm. At rapid rotation, circadian phase stays within a small 4-h interval, whereas slow rotation leads to around-the-clock transitions of the circadian phase with constantly delayed sleep times. Schedules with RI=3-5 d are not able to entrain the circadian rhythms, even in the absence of external circadian disturbances like social commitments and days off. To understand the circadian dynamics on the rotating shift schedules, a shift response map is developed, showing the direction of circadian change (i.e., delay or advance) depending on the relation between the shift start time and actual circadian phase. The map predicts that the un-entrained dynamics come from multiple transitions between advance and delay behavior on the shifts in the schedules. These are primarily caused by the imbalance between the amount of delay and advance on the different shift types within the schedule. Finally, it is argued that shift response maps can aid in the development of shift schedules with desired circadian characteristics. PMID:24492883

Postnova, Svetlana; Postnov, Dmitry D; Seneviratne, Martin; Robinson, Peter A

2014-02-01

322

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01

323

Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M&O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be less than the spacing determined in this analysis. Therefore, in terms of repository performance the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. In summary, performance analysis will be conservative if the flowing interval spacing determined by this study is used in the simulation of mass transport in the saturated zone instead of the fracture spacing.

S. Kuzio

2001-05-16

324

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

2014-08-01

325

DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

1994-01-01

326

Random root movements in weightlessness

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

1996-01-01

327

Tigecycline Does Not Prolong Corrected QT Intervals in Healthy Subjects

We evaluated the effect of tigecycline (50-mg and 200-mg doses) on corrected QT (QTc) intervals and assessed safety and tolerability in a randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover study of 48 (44 male) healthy volunteers aged 22 to 53 years. Fed subjects received tigecycline (50 mg or 200 mg) or placebo in a blinded fashion or an open-label oral dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg) after 1 liter of intravenous fluid. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded before, and for 96 h after, dosing. Blood samples for tigecycline pharmacokinetics were collected after each recording. QTc intervals were corrected using Fridericia's correction (QTcF). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods with potential relationships examined using linear mixed-effects modeling. Adverse events were recorded. The upper limits of the 90% confidence interval for the mean difference between both tigecycline doses and placebo for all time-matched QTcF interval changes from baseline were <5 ms. The tigecycline concentrations initially declined rapidly and then more slowly. In the group given 50 mg of tigecycline, the pharmacokinetic parameters and means were as follows: maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), 432 ng/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0–?), 2,366 ng · h/ml; clearance (CL), 21.1 liters/h; volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), 610 liters; and terminal half-life (t1/2), 22.1 h. Proportional or similar values were found for the group given 200 mg of tigecycline. Linear mixed-effects modeling failed to show an effect on QTcF values by tigecycline concentrations (P = 0.755). Tigecycline does not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01287793. PMID:23403419

McGovern, Paul C.; Salageanu, Joanne; Matschke, Kyle; Plotka, Anna; Pawlak, Sylvester

2013-01-01

328

[The QT interval: standardization, limits and interpretation].

Despite clinical importance of ventricular repolarisation, it remains difficult to analyse. Conventionally, quantification of the electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization is usually performed with reference to axis of the T wave and QT interval duration. A variety of factors can prolong the QT interval, such as drug effects, electrolyte imbalances, and myocardial ischemia. The biggest risk with prolongation of the QT interval is the development of torsades de pointes. Commonly accepted reference ranges for the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been in use, with little change, for many years. Populations throughout the world present several differences: age, ethnic compositions, and are exposed to different environmental factors. Recent studies have reported reference data for QT interval in healthy population and have evaluated the influence of age, gender, QRS duration and heart rate on this interval. In this review, we address several issues relative to the measurement, and interpretation of QT interval and its adjustment for rate, age, gender and QRS duration. PMID:21277561

Ouali, S; Ben Salem, H; Gribaa, R; Kacem, S; Hammas, S; Fradi, S; Neffeti, E; Remedi, F; Boughzela, E

2012-02-01

329

Smallest confidence intervals for one binomial proportion

We specify three classes of one-sided and two-sided 1-? confidence intervals with certain monotonicity and symmetry on the confidence limits for the probability of success, the parameter in a binomial distribution. For each class of one-sided confidence intervals the smallest interval, in the sense of the set inclusion, is obtained based on the direct analysis of coverage probability functions. A

Weizhen Wang

2006-01-01

330

Smallest confidence intervals for one binomial proportion

We specify three classes of one-sided and two-sided 1 ? confidence intervals with certain monotonicity and symmetry on the confidence limits for the probability of success, the parameter in a binomial distribution. For each class of one-sided confidence intervals the smallest interval, in the sense of the set inclusion, is obtained based on the direct analysis of coverage probability functions.

Weizhen Wang

2005-01-01

331

Confidence Intervals 9.1 Introduction

Chapter 9 Confidence Intervals 9.1 Introduction Definition 9.1. Let the data Y1, ..., Yn have pdf(y) Un(y), y Y. Then (Ln(y), Un(y)) is a 100 (1-) % confidence interval (CI) for if P(Ln(Y ) (Y )) = 1 - for all . The interval (Ln(y), Un(y)) is a large sample 100 (1 - ) % CI for if P

Masci, Frank

332

Memory for empty time intervals in pigeons

Pigeons were trained to discriminate short (2 sec) and long (8 sec) empty intervals that began each trial. In group consistent,\\u000a onset of an empty interval was marked by a brief presentation of red keylight, and termination of the interval was marked\\u000a by a brief presentation of green keylight. In group inconsistent, red and green served equally often as the

Douglas S. Grant

2001-01-01

333

Cisapride-induced long QT interval

A 2-month-old infant with gastroesophageal reflux was treated with cisapride. Bradycardia developed and an electrocardiogram revealed 2:1 atrioventricular conduction and a prolonged QT interval. After cessation of cisapride therapy, both the rhythm and the QT interval returned to normal. Prolonged QT interval during treatment with cisapride may occur in children as in adults. (J PEDIATR 1996;128:279-81)

Mark B. Lewin; Randall M. Bryant; Arnold L. Fenrich; Ronald G. Grifka

1996-01-01

334

Revisiting Interval Graphs for Network Science

The vertices of an interval graph represent intervals over a real line where overlapping intervals denote that their corresponding vertices are adjacent. This implies that the vertices are measurable by a metric and there exists a linear structure in the system. The generalization is an embedding of a graph onto a multi-dimensional Euclidean space and it was used by scientists to study the multi-relational complexity of ecology. However the research went out of fashion in the 1980s and was not revisited when Network Science recently expressed interests with multi-relational networks known as multiplexes. This paper studies interval graphs from the perspective of Network Science.

Loe, Chuan Wen

2015-01-01

335

Primary Production Scheduling at Steel making Industries

This paper describes primary production scheduling in the steel industry-the problem and the approaches to the solution. The scheduling problem in steel plants is known to be among the most difficult of several industrial scheduling problems. We first describe the main steelmaking processes and show how scheduling affects the effectiveness of plant operations. We characterize the problems associated with scheduling

H. Lee; S. Murthy; W. Haider; D. Morse

1995-01-01

336

A REVIEW OF SCHEDULING PROBLEMS IN RADIOTHERAPY

This paper describes the radiotherapy patient scheduling problem of minimising waiting times. Like many other service industry problems, radiotherapy patient scheduling may be solved by first modelling and formulating it into a shop scheduling problem. Over the years, these shop scheduling models have been researched and solved using various approaches. This paper typifies radiotherapy patient scheduling into a job shop

T. Kapamara; K. Sheibaniy; D. Petrovic; Coventry CV

337

Assessing occupational exposure via the one-way random effects model with unbalanced data

; Power; Random Effects; Variance Components. -------------------------------------- 1 Corresponding effect and the two variance components in the model. This makes the problem more complicated, and exact from a random sample of workers. Hypothesis testing and interval estimation for the relevant parameter

Krishnamoorthy, Kalimuthu

338

Economic Path Scheduling for Mobile Agent System on Computer Network

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile agent technology has a lot of gains to offer network-centric applications. The technology promises to be very suitable for narrow-bandwidth networks by reducing network latency and allowing transparent per-to-per computing. Multi-agent technology had been proposed for many network-centric applications with little or no path scheduling algorithms. This paper describes the need for path scheduling algorithms for agents in multi-agent systems. Traveling salesman problem (TSP) scheme is used to model ordered agents and the unordered agents schedule their path based on random distribution. The two types of agents were modeled and simulated based on bandwidth usage and response time as performance metrics. Our simulation results shows that ordered agents have superior performance against unordered agents. The ordered agents exhibit lower bandwidth usage and higher response time.

Olajubu, E. A.

339

Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W?) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W?, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W? (?14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (?8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (?10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (?6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (?6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V?O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

2015-01-01

340

Lecture scheduleLecture schedule Introduction; Marine geology

1.1 5.2 The OceansThe Oceans #12;Continental Margins Continental Shelf Submerged part continental and oceanic crust Steeply sloping compared to shelf (averages about 5 degree slope, up to 25Lecture scheduleLecture schedule · Introduction; Marine geology · Mid-ocean ridge systems · Oceanic

Siebel, Wolfgang

341

Multicore Scheduling for Network Applications Based on Highest Random Weight

Analysis . 58 4.4.6 Memory Requirement (8 threads):and matching thread. our theoretical analysis in Sectionanalysis showed that CPU time is more effectively distributed to the pattern matching threads

Guo, Danhua

2010-01-01

342

A pseudo random coordinated scheduling algorithm for Bluetooth scatternets

The emergence of Bluetooth as a default radio interface allows handheld devices to be rapidly interconnected into ad hoc networks. Bluetooth allows large numbers of piconets to form a scatternet using designated nodes that participate in multiple piconets. A unit that participates in multiple piconets can serve as a bridge and forwards traffic between neighbouring piconets. Since a Bluetooth unit

András Rácz; György Miklós; Ferenc Kubinszky; András Gergely Valkó

2001-01-01

343

Scheduling Dags under Uncertainty

This paper introduces a parallel scheduling problem where a directed acyclic graph modeling $t$ tasks and their dependencies needs to be executed on $n$ unreliable workers. Worker $i$ executes task $j$ correctly with probability $p_{i,j}$. The goal is to find a regimen $\\Sigma$, that dictates how workers get assigned to tasks (possibly in parallel and redundantly) throughout execution, so as to minimize the expected completion time. This fundamental parallel scheduling problem arises in grid computing and project management fields, and has several applications. We show a polynomial time algorithm for the problem restricted to the case when dag width is at most a constant and the number of workers is also at most a constant. These two restrictions may appear to be too severe. However, they are fundamentally required. Specifically, we demonstrate that the problem is NP-hard with constant number of workers when dag width can grow, and is also NP-hard with constant dag width when the number of workers can grow. W...

Malewicz, Grzegorz

2007-01-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top ?{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

2013-05-01

345

Analytical approximations for iterated bootstrap confidence intervals

Standard algorithms for the construction of iterated bootstrap confidence intervals are computationally very demanding, requiring nested levels of bootstrap resampling. We propose an alternative approach to constructing double bootstrap confidence intervals that involves replacing the inner level of resampling by an analytical approximation. This approximation is based on saddlepoint methods and a tail probability approximation of DiCiccio and Martin (1991).

Thomas J. DiCiccio; Michael A. Martin; G. Alastair Young

1992-01-01

346

Confidence intervals for partially identified parameters

In the last decade a growing body of research has studied inference on partially identified parameters (e.g., Manski, 1990, 2003). In many cases where the parameter of interest is realvalued, the identification region is an interval whose lower and upper bounds may be estimated from sample data. Confidence intervals may be constructed to take account of the sampling variation in

Guido W. Imbens; Charles F. Manski

2003-01-01

347

Confidence Intervals for Bisquare Regression Estimates

This paper describes the results from a Monte Carlo study of robust regression confidence-interval estimation in the model y = a + bx + ?. Bisquare estimators were studied on samples of 11 and 21 with five design matrices. Four estimators of scale were used to form confidence intervals. Samples were generated from two distributions: normal and slash. For many

Alan M. Gross

1977-01-01

348

Confidence intervals in QTL mapping by bootstrapping

The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well

Peter M. Visscher; Robin Thompson; Chris S. Haley

1996-01-01

349

Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Confidence Intervals

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates sampling from a population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For each sample, the 95% and 99% confidence intervals on the mean are computed based on the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Exercises accompany the applet to help students understand what confidence intervals mean.

Lane, David M.

350

Multiple Regression: The Confidence Interval of rho

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page will calculate the 0.95 and 0.99 confidence intervals for rho, based on the Fisher r-to-z transformation. To perform the calculations, enter the values of r and n in the designated places, then click the "calculate" button. Note that the confidence interval of rho is symmetrical around the observed r only with large values of n.

Lowry, Richard

351

Calculating Confidence Intervals for Rates and Ratios

Since the probability of developing or dying from most neurologic disorders is relatively small, the Poisson distribution is often utilized to establish confidence intervals around rates or ratios for diseases of the nervous system. This report describes a simplified method and provides a table of factors based on the Poisson distribution for calculating confidence intervals around estimates of rates and

Bruce S. Schoenberg

1983-01-01

352

Confidence interval estimation using standardized time series

Observations of a stationary stochastic process can be transformed into a standardized time series. This paper presents a lemma giving the asymptotic properties of this standardized series under quite general conditions. In particular, the conditions are satisfied by stationary discrete-event simulations. Confidence intervals can be constructed using this lemma. For illustration, we develop two easily computed interval estimators for the

Lee W. Schruben

1983-01-01

353

Confidence Intervals for Current Status MOULINATH BANERJEE

. Here, the individual is checked only at a single point in time and the status of the individualConfidence Intervals for Current Status Data MOULINATH BANERJEE Department of Statistics in the current status model can be inverted to yield confidence intervals (CIs). One advantage of this procedure

Wellner, Jon A.

354

Unconditioned Stimulus Intensity and Retention Interval Effects

In single-element taste-aversion learning, retention interval effects are seen if taste aversions are paradoxically weak when they are tested 1 day after conditioning than when they are tested 3 or more days after conditioning. One explanation of this phenomenon is that weaker taste aversions may increase in strength across a retention interval. To test this possibility, rats were given saccharin

W. ROBERT BATSELL; JOHN W. GEORGE

1996-01-01

355

Interval Arithmetic Kalman Filtering Steven Reece

Interval Arithmetic Kalman Filtering Steven Reece Abstract The problem of robust estimation filter (BDF), is proposed which combines interval arithmetic with statistical Kalman filter estimation and v t are zeroÂmean and temporarily uncorrelated. The EKF determines the estimate of the system state

Roberts, Stephen

356

Variable sampling interval np process control chart

A new form of policy for the design of np charts is presented. The policy is characterized by a variable sampling interval, such that the taking of each sample is begun at a constant prior probability that the process is out of control. The new policy is shown to generate a vector of sampling intervals which dominates the fixed sampling

Timothy S. Vaughan

1992-01-01

357

Calibration-interval adjustment indicator - A concept

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit, when used with decision table, permits relatively unskilled personnel to maintain effective quality control. Design determines required changes in calibration intervals. Interval readings are recorded to nearest integer, making high precision unnecessary. Specific required performance-history information is discussed.

Hedene, P. S.

1971-01-01

358

SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

359

A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues

A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues Kimmo Nurmia , Dries Goossensb , Thomas constrained sports scheduling problem which is modeled from the requirements of various professional sports leagues. We define a sports scheduling problem, introduce the necessary terminology and detail

Bonomo, Flavia

360

Scheduling algorithms for arbitrary communication networks

We consider the problem of designing scheduling schemes for networks with arbitrary topology and scheduling constraints. We address the optimality of scheduling schemes for packet networks in terms of throughput, delay and ...

Jagabathula, Srikanth

2008-01-01

361

such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special are designed by con- necting regular off-the-shelf computer processors together. IV. GLOBAL COMPUTING Since

Ward, Karen

362

such things as nuclear weapons design was an important part of military confrontation. As a result, special are designed by con necting regular offtheshelf computer processors together. IV. GLOBAL COMPUTING Since

Ward, Karen

363

CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases.

Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

2014-07-01

364

Biomathematics and Interval Analysis: A Prosperous Marriage

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this survey paper we focus our attention on dynamical bio-systems involving uncertainties and the use of interval methods for the modelling study of such systems. The kind of envisioned uncertain systems are those described by a dynamical model with parameters bounded in intervals. We point out to a fruitful symbiosis between dynamical modelling in biology and computational methods of interval analysis. Both fields are presently in the stage of rapid development and can benefit from each other. We point out on recent studies in the field of interval arithmetic from a new perspective—the midpoint-radius arithmetic which explores the properties of error bounds and approximate numbers. The midpoint-radius approach provides a bridge between interval methods and the "uncertain but bounded" approach used for model estimation and identification. We briefly discuss certain recently obtained algebraic properties of errors and approximate numbers.

Markov, S. M.

2010-11-01

365

Constraint programming for nurse scheduling

Nurse scheduling is a difficult, multifaceted problem. Here, the authors have presented the efficiency of Constraint Programming for solving this problem. The results obtained are very satisfactory for response time and for flexibility. The advantages of implementing this method are multiple: 1) it saves much time for the head nurse in the generation of schedules (the authors met head nurses

G. Weil; K. Heus; P. Francois; M. Poujade

1995-01-01

366

Integrating nurse and surgery scheduling

One common problem at hospitals is the extreme variation in daily (even hourly) workload pressure for nurses. The operating room is considered to be the main engine and hence the main generator of variance in the hospital. It is our believe that integrating the operation room scheduling process with the nurse scheduling process is a simple, yet effective way to

Jeroen Beliën; Erik Demeulemeester

2005-01-01

367

Web-based irrigation scheduler

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

368

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman

Paired Gang Scheduling£ Yair WisemanÜ School of CS & Engineering Hebrew University and Dept Hebrew University Jerusalem Israel feit@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract Conventional gang scheduling has alternative processes cannot be run independently of their own gangs. To alleviate this problem we suggest

Feitelson, Dror

369

UPDATING THE ARKANSAS IRRIGATION SCHEDULER

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complexity of scheduling irrigation can be greatly reduced by the use of publicly available computer programs. However, irrigation scheduling is more complicated in humid regions than arid locations, due to factors such as cloudy weather, rainfall, and temperature swings caused by the movement o...

370

time Schedule Summer Quarter 1984

#12;time Schedule Summer Quarter 1984 Lastdayto register Preregistration: Aprll30-May 4 and receiveIncomplete , . Satisfactory/NotSatisfactory , CreditINo Credit Only Courses .Final Examinations SummerQuarter 1984Calendar Schedule ofSummerQuarter.1984 Course.offerings Department. Major, and College Codes ,'. Index to the Time

Kaminsky, Werner

371

Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College

1 2011 Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College University of California Santa Cruz September 16 - 26 60 05 1 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Kresge College our time is now #12;#12;3 1 Orientation Week Planner your first several days on campus. This Orientation Schedule is designed to help guide you. Use

California at Santa Cruz, University of

372

Lesson 18: Courses, Schedule, Routine

Lesson 18: Courses, Schedule, Routine Courses, Schedule, Routine [kosi, ratiba, shughuli za study in class.] [12:00 pm - 1:00 pm] Saa sita mchana hadi/mpaka saa saba mchana: Hula chakula cha historia/Kiswahili, hufanya marudio na pia hupiga nguo pasi. [I study history/Kiswahili, I do a review

373

Resource-constrained project scheduling

Resource-constrained project scheduling involves the scheduling of project activities subject to precedence and resource constraints in order to meet the objective(s) in the best possible way. The area covers a wide variety of problem types. The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of what we believe are important recent in the area . Our main focus will

Willy Herroelen; Erik Demeulemeester

1996-01-01

374

Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System

This paper introduces an automated tool named Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System (AS4). It integrates critical path method (CPM) schedule data exported from Primavera Project Planner (P3) and historical activity duration data obtained from a project data warehouse, computes the best-fit probability distribution functions (PDFs) of historical activity durations, assigns the PDFs identified to respective activities, computes the optimum number

Dong-Eun Lee; Tae-Hyun Bae; David Arditi

2012-01-01

375

Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System

This paper introduces an automated tool named Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System (AS4). It integrates critical path method (CPM) schedule data exported from Primavera Project Planner (P3) and historical activity duration data obtained from a project data warehouse, computes the best-fit probability distribution functions (PDFs) of historical activity durations, assigns the PDFs identified to respective activities, computes the optimum number

Dong-Eun Lee; Tae-Hyun Bae; David Arditi

2011-01-01

376

Fairness-Free Periodic Scheduling

We consider a problem of repeatedly scheduling n jobs on m parallel machines. Each job is associated with a proflt, gained each time the job is completed, and the goal is to maximize the average proflt per time unit. Unlike other periodic scheduling problems, there is no fairness requirement. Still, it is impossible to process only the most profltable jobs,

Jiri Sgall; Hadas Shachnai; Tami Tamir

377

Constraint-Based Scheduling System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

1995-01-01

378

Scheduling optimization through iterative refinement

Scheduling DAGs with communication times is the theoret- ical basis for achieving ecien t parallelism on distributed memory systems. We generalize Graham's task-level in a manner to incorporate the eects of computation, data size, and network latency. A new scheduling that uses the pro- posed task-level to make early reservation of resources for critical computation and communication is proposed. We

Mayez A. Al-mouhamed; Adel Al-massarani

2000-01-01

379

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigate the use of confidence intervals and standard error intervals to draw conclusions regarding tests of hypotheses about normal population means. Mathematical expressions and algebraic manipulations are given, and computer simulations are performed to assess the usefulness of confidence ...

380

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

381

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

2010-01-01

382

Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.

2011-01-01

383

Fuzzy gain scheduling PI controller for a sensorless four switch three phase BLDC motor

A sensorless method for six-space-vector four Switch three phase BLDC motor driver is described in this paper. Due to the nature of low resolution of position sensing, the speed feedback is variable sampling. A fuzzy gain scheduling PI controller is proposed in this paper. It is based on three selected PI controllers in fixed sampling time intervals, high-, median- and

Chung-Wen Hung; Jen-Ta Su; Chih-Wen Liu; Cheng-Tsung Lin; Jhih-Han Chen

2010-01-01

384

Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more Power to Determine Signs

Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more Power to Determine Signs Yoav Benjamini Department simultaneous confidence intervals for the components of a multi- variate mean. The intervals determine are large, the new intervals coincide with standard simultaneous confidence in- tervals, so

Stark, Philip B.

385

Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

2006-01-01

386

Cost-Optimal Assessment Scheduling for Outcome Management in Psychotherapy

The random walk model for psychological distress justify the following outcome management strategy: consider prolonging psychotherapy as long as an acceptable distress level is not reached and terminating the therapy if this level is reached. This strategy promises to increase the efficiency of psychotherapy provision by guiding the allocation of therapeutic resources. As the strategy rely on frequent assessments, the question of cost-optimal assessment scheduling arises. In this study the cost effects of two scheduling modes were explored by computer simulations. With fixed schedule the assessments were carried out each S sessions. With adaptive schedule the assessments were carried out at the percentile P of the distribution of predicted time till reaching acceptable distress whereby the prediction were updated at each assessment. S and P influence the sensitivity/specificity ratio of the schedule. To find the costoptimal values, they were varied. The model parameters were based on SCL-90-R GSI courses from an inpatient sample (N=2046). With therapy/assessment cost ratio set to 5 and acceptable distress set to ?0.58, the cost-optimal fixed solution yields a mean therapy length of 52 days and a mean number of 11 assessments. The cost-optimal adaptive solution yields a mean therapy length of 51 days and a mean number of 4 assessments.

Percevic Robert

387

Parallel Machine Scheduling with Load Balancing and Sequence Dependent Setups

AbstractIn this paper, we study the problem of minimizing total completion time with load balancing and sequence dependent setups in a non-identical parallel machine environment. A mathematical model has been presented for the objective of minimizing total completion time with workload balancing constraint. Since this problem is an NP-Hard problem, some simple heuristics and a genetic algorithm are developed for efficient scheduling of resources. The heuristics and genetic algorithm are tested on random data.

Mehmet B. Yildirim; Ekrem Duman; Krishnan Krishna

2006-01-01

388

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Mike Lestik, Scott Plous and Geoffrey Urbaniak of the Social Psychology Network, this "Research Randomizer" is a free service offered to "assist researchers and students who want an easy way to perform random sampling or assign participants to experimental conditions." Since its creation in 1997, this resource has been used 7.5 million times for a various amount of different tests. The authors offer a simple survey to fill in to begin the exam. This is a great resource for those interested in statistical testing or simply need assistant performing a specific test.

Lestik, Mike

389

Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule

Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule Syracuse Biomaterials Institute Syracuse and Challenge Course #12;Interactive Biomaterials REU Program Week 1 Schedule Syracuse Biomaterials Institute

Mather, Patrick T.

390

DUAL EMPLOYMENT REVISED SCHEDULE REQUEST NAME: _______________________ DUAL EMPLOYMENT DATES: ____________________ TO ______________________ TIMES: __________________ AM SCHEDULE. IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CLEMSON UNIVERSITY DUAL EMPLOYMENT POLICY, ALL HOURS MISSED WHILE

Bolding, M. Chad

391

One-sided confidence intervals on nonnegative sums of variance components

Let nqS2q\\/[theta]q for q = 1,...,Q represent independently distributed chi-squared random variables with nq degrees of freedom. This paper considers the construction of one-sided confidence intervals on [gamma] = [Sigma]Qqcq[theta]q where cq [greater-or-equal, slanted] 0 for all q.

Naitee Ting; Richard K. Burdick; Franklin A. Graybill; Rongde Gui

1989-01-01

392

Dissociating Temporal Preparation Processes as a Function of the Inter-Trial Interval Duration

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparation over time is a ubiquitous capacity which implies decreasing uncertainty about when critical events will occur. This capacity is usually studied with the variable foreperiod paradigm, which consists in the random variation of the time interval (foreperiod) between a warning stimulus and a target. With this paradigm, response time (RT)…

Vallesi, Antonino; Lozano, Violeta N.; Correa, Angel

2013-01-01

393

To appear in J. Theor. Probab. Version of 30 August 1997 Coalescing Particles on an Interval

To appear in J. Theor. Probab. Version of 30 August 1997 Coalescing Particles on an Interval to the left, coalescing with any particle that might already be there. How long does it take until all particles coalesce (at 0)? Key words. Coalescence, random walk, asymptotics, parallel processing. Schabanel

Lyons, Russell

394

The effect of ingestion time interval on the interaction between itraconazole and triazolam

Background: The plasma concentrations and effects of triazolam are markedly increased when it is ingested with itraconazole. The dependence of this interaction on the time interval of their ingestion and the possibility of avoiding the interaction by a correct daily dosing was studied.Methods: Ten healthy volunteers took part in this randomized crossover study of five phases, each separated by 4

Pertti J. Neuvonen; Anu Varhe; Klaus T. Olkkola

1996-01-01

395

Sample Size for Confidence Interval of Covariate-Adjusted Mean Difference

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a way to determine adequate sample size for the confidence interval of covariate-adjusted mean difference in randomized experiments. The standard error of adjusted mean difference depends on covariate variance and balance, which are two unknown quantities at the stage of planning sample size. If covariate observations are…

Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

2010-01-01

396

Estimation of the coherence spectrum and its confidence interval using the fast Fourier transform

Correction factors were devised for correction of bias and computation of confidence intervals around estimates of coherence spectra computed upon Gaussian random time series. Using Monte Carlo methods to compute approximate sampling distributions for coherence, statistical descriptions of the bias and standard deviations were obtained. Correction factors were devised which extend the utility of coherence estimates to a value of

V. Benignus

1969-01-01

397

A semiparametric Bayesian proportional hazards model for interval censored data with frailty effects

BACKGROUND: Multivariate analysis of interval censored event data based on classical likelihood methods is notoriously cumbersome. Likelihood inference for models which additionally include random effects are not available at all. Developed algorithms bear problems for practical users like: matrix inversion, slow convergence, no assessment of statistical uncertainty. METHODS: MCMC procedures combined with imputation are used to implement hierarchical models for

Volkmar Henschel; Jutta Engel; Dieter Hölzel; Ulrich Mansmann

2009-01-01

398

CHROMIUM SUPPLEMENTATION SHORTENS QTC INTERVAL DURATION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the potential effects of chromium supplementation on QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received 1000 'g of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic) daily for 3 months, fo...

399

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

400

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

Du, Yunfei

401

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2003-01-01

402

CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.

A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

Cooley, Richard L.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

1987-01-01

403

Acceleration-induced electrocardiographic interval changes.

The electrocardiographic intervals (PR, QRS, QT, and RR) before, during, and post +Gz stress were measured in 24 healthy male subjects undergoing +Gz centrifuge exposure. The PR and QRS intervals responded in a predictable manner, shortening during stress and returning to baseline resting values post-stress. The QT interval, however, was not observed to be dependent solely on heart rate. Bazett's formula, which was developed to correct for heart rate variability, did not adequately result in a homogeneous correction of the QT interval for each stress-related period. During +Gz stress, the QT was shortened, and the QTc prolonged. The QT interval remained shortened even though the heart rate returned to baseline (with the QTc undercorrected) in the post-stress period. The QT (QTc) interval variations probably reflect the effects of both heart rate and autonomic balance during and after +Gz stress, and may provide a measure of the prevailing autonomic (sympathetic or parasympathetic) tone existing at a given point associated with +Gz stress. These electrocardiographic interval changes define the normal response for healthy individuals. Individuals with exaggerated autonomic responses could be identified by comparing their responses to these normal responses resulting from +Gz stress. PMID:3345170

Whinnery, C C; Whinnery, J E

1988-02-01

404

[Interval treatment with local corticosteroids and bases].

Three therapy models under the application of fluocinolone acetonide 0.025% (Jellin) were compared with each other. Conventional therapy: application of Jellin ointment or cream alone, n = 24; daily interval therapy: alternating application (morning and evening) of Jellin ointment or cream and their bases, n = 26; weekly interval therapy: application of Jellin ointment or cream for 4 days followed by a 3-day application of the corresponding base, n = 21. 71 patients participated in the investigation. 21 suffered from psoriasis, 26 from chronic eczema and 24 from neurodermatitis. The duration of treatment was 2--3 weeks. The results show that the daily interval therapy is equivalent to the conventional mode of application and that both treatment methods were superior to the weekly interval therapy. Therapy was stopped in 2 patients of the weekly interval therapy-group and in one patient of the daily interval-group because of insufficient effect. Intolerance reactions were noticed in one patient of the conventional therapy group. The interval therapy leads--as expected--to a reduction of side reactions and to lessening of the corticosteroid amount applied. PMID:7262795

Schmid, P

1981-07-23

405

A Bayesian two-stage phase I-II design is proposed for optimizing administration schedule and dose of an experimental agent based on the times to response and toxicity in the case where schedules are non-nested and qualitatively different. Sequentially adaptive decisions are based on the joint utility of the two event times. A utility function is constructed by partitioning the two-dimensional positive real quadrant of possible event time pairs into rectangles, eliciting a numerical utility for each rectangle, and fitting a smooth parametric function to the elicited values. We assume that each event time follows a gamma distribution with shape and scale parameters both modeled as functions of schedule and dose. A copula is assumed to obtain a bivariate distribution. To ensure an ethical trial, adaptive safety and efficacy acceptability conditions are imposed on the (schedule, dose) regimes. In stage 1 of the design, patients are randomized fairly among schedules and, within each schedule, a dose is chosen using a hybrid algorithm that either maximizes posterior mean utility or randomizes among acceptable doses. In stage 2, fair randomization among schedules is replaced by the hybrid algorithm. A modified version of this algorithm is used for nested schedules. Extensions of the model and utility function to accommodate death discontinuation of follow up are described. The method is illustrated by an autologous stem cell transplantation trial in multiple myeloma, including a simulation study. PMID:23957592

Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Braun, Thomas M.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar

2014-01-01

406

Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock. PMID:24570386

Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

2014-06-01

407

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

2010-01-01

408

Temporal control of periodic schedules: signal properties of reinforcement and blackout1

Pigeons were exposed to periodic food-reinforcement schedules in which intervals ended with equal probability in either reinforcement or brief blackout. The effects on the pattern of key pecking of sequential probability of reinforcement, interval duration, and time to reinforcement opportunity were investigated in three experiments. The major results were: (1) at short absolute interval durations, time to reinforcement opportunity determined both postreinforcement and postblackout pause (time to first key peck within an interval); (2) at long intervals, postblackout pause was consistently shorter than postreinforcement pause, even if both events signalled the same time to the next reinforcement opportunity (omission effect); (3) when reinforcement and blackout signalled different times to the next reinforcement opportunity, within the same experiment, there was some evidence for interactions analogous to behavioral contrast. PMID:16811818

Starr, Bettie C.; Staddon, J. E. R.

1974-01-01

409

A practical scheduling algorithm for Shuttle-based astronomy missions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Astro mission series (initial flight planned for March, 1986), the Shuttle will be used as a dedicated stellar astronomy observatory. A modified Spacelab pallet is to be used for the Astro payload, which will consist of three ultraviolet (UV) telescopes and a wide field camera mounted together on a single gimbal mount called the Inertial Pointing System (IPS). Three flights of 7-10 days duration are to be made with the same payload at intervals of 8-9 months. Previous experience has shown that changes in design requirements are inevitable, and the evolution of operational concepts will effect changes in scheduling algorithm software. For these reasons, the design goals of the Astron algorithm and its family of auxiliary software modules have been related to functional modularity, constraint flexibility, user friendliness, and 'light' input requirements. Attention is given to hardware characteristics, environmental constraints, the basic criteria function, 'Cinderella' logic, counters and constraints, and scheduling trends.

Guffin, O. T.; Roberts, B. H.; Williamson, P. L.

1985-01-01

410

Gang scheduling a parallel machine

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

411

Gang scheduling a parallel machine

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

412

Cournot oligopoly interval games Lardon Aymeric

Cournot oligopoly interval games Lardon Aymeric May 19, 2010 Abstract In this paper we consider-mail: aymeric.lardon@univ-st-etienne.fr 1 In the remainder of this paper we use the term "oligopoly" to refer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City

The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

James, R.T.

1980-01-01

414

What is an Earthquake?: Recurrence Interval

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since large fault ruptures require the build-up of a great deal of stress, many years pass between repeated surface ruptures on a single fault. The average time between such ruptures, known as the recurrence interval of that fault, is a useful measurement for assessing both the slip rate of the fault and the risk the fault presents. This activity contains three exercises. In the first, students study a hypothetical fault to determine slip rate, likely recurrence interval, and determine the degree of hazard presented to residents presently living near the fault. In the second, students examine data from the San Andreas Fault, determine recurrence interval, and graph the data to reveal patterns. In the third exercise, students examine the relationship between fault length and recurrence interval by analyzing data from two faults of different lengths. Links to a graphing template and an example graph are provided.

415

Approximate Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the approximate confidence intervals for effect sizes developed by K. Bird (2002) and proposed a more accurate method developed through simulation studies. The average coverage probability for the new method was 0.959. (SLD)

Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

2003-01-01

416

Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

Murphy, Patrick C.

1992-01-01

417

On time interval measurements using BCG.

Time intervals measured between the electrocardiogram (ECG), the photoplethysmogram (PPG) or the impedance plethysmogram (IPG), have long been used to noninvasively assess cardiovascular function. Recently, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been proposed as an alternative physiological signal to be used in time interval measurements for the same purpose. In this work, we study the behavior of the RJ interval, defined as the time between the R wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the J wave of the BCG, under fast pressure changes induced by paced respiration and tracked by a beat-to-beat blood pressure (SBP and DBP) waveform monitor. The aim of this work is to gain a deeper understanding of these newly proposed time intervals and to further assess their usefulness to determine cardiovascular performance. PMID:23367059

Casanella, R; Gomez-Clapers, J; Pallas-Areny, R

2012-01-01

418

Confidence intervals for the tail index

One of the best-known estimators for the tail index of a heavy-tailed distribution is the Hill estimator. In this paper, confidence intervals based on the asymptotic normal approximation of the Hill estimator are studied. The coverage accuracy is evaluated and the theoretical optimal choice of the sample fraction for the one-sided confidence interval is given. One surprising finding is that

Shihong Cheng; Liang Peng

2001-01-01

419

Confidence Intervals for Poisson Distribution Parameter

Results of numerical procedure of constructing confidence intervals for parameter of the Poisson distribution of signal events in the presence of background events with known value of parameter of Poisson distribution are presented. It is shown that the used procedure has both the Bayesian and frequentist interpretations. Also the possibility to construct a continuous analogue of the Poisson distribution to search the bounds of confidence intervals for the parameter of the Poisson distribution is discussed.

S. I. Bityukov; N. V. Krasnikov; V. A. Taperechkina

2001-08-09

420

Setting the revisit interval in primary care

OBJECTIVE: Although longitudinal care constitutes the bulk of primary care, physicians receive little guidance on the fundamental question\\u000a of how to time follow-up visits. We sought to identify important predictors of the revisit interval and to describe the variability\\u000a in how physicians set these intervals when caring for patients with common medical conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of physicians performed at

Lisa M. Schwartz; Steven Woloshin; John H. Wasson; Roger A. Renfrew; H. Gilbert Welch

1999-01-01

421

Errors in manual measurement of QT intervals

OBJECTIVE--To quantify the errors associated with manual measurement of QT intervals and to determine the source of the errors. DESIGN--A randomised study of QT measurement by four cardiologists of electrocardiograms plotted on paper in presentations with different noise levels, paper speeds, amplifier gains, and with and without a second QRST complex to indicate the RR interval. SUBJECTS--Four electrocardiograph leads (I,

A. Murray; N. B. McLaughlin; J. P. Bourke; J. C. Doig; S. S. Furniss; R. W. Campbell

1994-01-01

422

Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior

Summary Interval timing in the seconds-to-minutes range is be- lieved to underlie a variety of complex behaviors in hu- mans and other animals. One of the more interesting problems in interval timing is trying to understand how the brain times events lasting for minutes with millisec- ond-based neural processes. Timing models proposing the use of coincidence-detection mechanisms (e.g., the detection

Matthew S. Matell; Warren H. Meck

2000-01-01

423

Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes. PMID:20866478

Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

2010-06-01

424

A logic of concrete time intervals

A description is given of: (1) a finite-state model for asynchronous systems in which the time delays between the scheduling and occurrence of the events that cause state changes are constrained to fall between fixed numerical upper and lower time bounds; (2) a branching-time temporal logic suitable for describing the temporal and logical properties of asynchronous systems, for which the

Harry R. Lewis

1990-01-01

425

Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. In terms of repository performance, the results of this analysis may underestimate the effect of matrix diffusion processes in SZ transport models. Underestimation of matrix diffusion in the transport modeling would result in more rapid simulated migration of radionuclide mass to the accessible environment and correspondingly higher simulated dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual in the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) analyses. The flowing interval spacing is appropriate for use in the SZ site-scale transport abstraction model because the 500 m grid block size in the numerical transport model is more than an order of magnitude larger than the expected flowing interval spacing (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042], Section 6.3.1). Therefore, the use of the developed flowing interval spacing parameter is limited to a numerical grid spacing that is at least an order of magnitude greater than the average flowing interval spacing to ensure a reasonable description of transport behavior in a grid. This analysis report supports several features, events, and processes (FEPs) and contributes to the characterization of the SZ as a natural barrier, which provides evidence related to the capability of the SZ to delay movement of radionuclides through the SZ to the accessible environment.

S. Kuzio

2004-09-22

426

The effects of context and musical training on auditory temporal-interval discrimination.

Non sensory factors such as stimulus context and musical experience are known to influence auditory frequency discrimination, but whether the context effect extends to auditory temporal processing remains unknown. Whether individual experiences such as musical training alter the context effect is also unknown. The goal of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of stimulus context and musical experience on auditory temporal-interval discrimination. In experiment 1, temporal-interval discrimination was compared between fixed context conditions in which a single base temporal interval was presented repeatedly across all trials and variable context conditions in which one of two base intervals was randomly presented on each trial. Discrimination was significantly better in the fixed than in the variable context conditions. In experiment 2 temporal discrimination thresholds of musicians and non-musicians were compared across 3 conditions: a fixed context condition in which the target interval was presented repeatedly across trials, and two variable context conditions differing in the frequencies used for the tones marking the temporal intervals. Musicians outperformed non-musicians on all 3 conditions, but the effects of context were similar for the two groups. Overall, it appears that, like frequency discrimination, temporal-interval discrimination benefits from having a fixed reference. Musical experience, while improving performance, did not alter the context effect, suggesting that improved discrimination skills among musicians are probably not an outcome of more sensitive contextual facilitation or predictive coding mechanisms. PMID:22200608

Banai, Karen; Fisher, Shirley; Ganot, Ron

2012-02-01

427

Nurse scheduling using fuzzy modeling approach

Nurse scheduling is a complex scheduling problem and involves generating a schedule for each nurse that consists of shift duties and days off within a short-term planning period. In real world applications, multiple sources of uncertainties are needed to be treated in providing higher quality schedules. This paper presents a seminal research on the application of fuzzy set theory to

Seyda Topaloglu; Hasan Selim

2010-01-01

428

Evolutional reactive scheduling for agile manufacturing systems

A predetermined production schedule is often disturbed in agile manufacturing systems, due to unscheduled disruptions, such as delays of manufacturing operations and addition of new jobs. The objective of the research is to propose a new reactive scheduling method based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA), which generates improved production schedules reactively against the disturbances. A basic reactive scheduling method was

Y. Tanimizu; T. Sakaguchi; K. Iwamura; N. Sugimura

2006-01-01

429

On Job Scheduling with Preemption Penalties

This paper studies the problem of online job scheduling in a model with preemption penalty introduced by Zheng et al. [11].\\u000a In such a model with preemption penalty parameter ?, the scheduler has to pay a penalty of ? times the weight of each aborted job. We consider two cases according to the scheduler’s knowledge of ? (ratio of length

Feifeng Zheng; Yinfeng Xu; Chung Keung Poon

2009-01-01

430

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

431

Rotation scheduling: a loop pipelining algorithm

We consider the resource-constrained scheduling of loops with interiteration dependencies. A loop is modeled as a data flow graph (DFG) , where edges are labeled with the number of iterations between dependencies. We design a novel and flexible technique, called rotation scheduling, for scheduling cyclic DFG's using loop pipelining. The rotation technique re- peatedly transforms a schedule to a more

Liang-Fang Chao; Andrea S. LaPaugh; Edwin Hsing-Mean Sha

1993-01-01

432

Efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in third molar surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of different pharmacological regimens on the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in urine and saliva, and to correlate the findings to the clinical course after removal of impacted lower third molars. Eighty patients were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 received placebo; group 2 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week; group 3 received intraoperative dexamethasone; and group 4 received preoperative ibuprofen, which was continued for a week, in addition to intraoperative dexamethasone. Saliva and urine samples were taken at scheduled intervals. Patients receiving ibuprofen fared significantly better in most parameters. A single dose of dexamethasone alone had a potent but transient beneficial effect when compared to the results with ibuprofen, which showed significant improvement in both subjective and objective parameters. Use of a single dose of intravenous steroids perioperatively helped reduce untoward sequelae, although to a lesser degree and for a shorter duration than continuous ibuprofen. Combining ibuprofen with perioperative dexamethasone added some benefit in some of the measured parameters, but without a statistically significant advantage over using ibuprofen only. PMID:23535007

Mehra, P; Reebye, U; Nadershah, M; Cottrell, D

2013-07-01

433

Scheduled out-patient endoscopy and lack of compliance in a minority serving tertiary institution

Background Lack of adherence to appointments wastes resources and portends a poorer outcome for patients. We sought to determine if the type of scheduled endoscopic procedures affect compliance. Methods We reviewed the final endoscopy schedule from January 2010 to August 2010 in an inner city teaching hospital that serves a predominantly African American population. The final schedule only includes patients who did not cancel, reschedule or notify the facility of their inability to adhere to their care plan up to 24 hours prior to their procedures. All patients had face to face consultation with gastroenterologists or surgeons prior to scheduling. We identified patients who did not show up for their procedures. We used Poisson regression models to calculate Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results Of 2,183 patients who were scheduled for outpatient endoscopy, 400 (18.3%) patients were scheduled for Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD), 1,335 (61.2%) for colonoscopy and 448 (20.5%) for both EGD and colonoscopy. The rate of non compliance was 17.5%, 22.8% and 22.1%, respectively. When compared to those scheduled for only EGD, patients scheduled for colonoscopy alone (RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.13-1.92) and patients scheduled for both EGD and colonoscopy (RR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.84) were less likely to show up for their procedures. Conclusions Our study suggests a high rate of non-compliance with scheduled out-patient endoscopy, particularly for colonoscopy. Since this may be a contributing factor to colorectal cancer disparities, increased community outreach on colorectal cancer education is needed and may help to reduce non compliance. PMID:22197978

Jackson, Danielle S.; Egbuonnu, Nneka; Umunakwe, Chukwuma; Fullum, Terrence M.; Ford, Debra H.; Anders, Kyle B.; McDonald-Pinkett, Shelly; Smoot, Duane T.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

2011-01-01

434

Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

2009-01-01

435

Future aircraft networks and schedules

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

Shu, Yan

2011-07-01

436

Planning and scheduling for success

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

Manzanera, Ignacio

1994-01-01

437

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

1996-01-01

438

Diversity ALOHA--A Random Access Scheme for Satellite Communications

A generalization of the slotted ALOHA random access scheme is considered in which a user transmits multiple copies of the same packet. The multiple copies can be either transmitted simultaneously on different frequency channels (frequency diversity) or they may be transmitted on a single high-speed channel but spaced apart by random time intervals (time diversity). In frequency diversity, two schemes

G. Choudhury; S. S. Rapparort

1983-01-01

439

Optimal Randomized Response Models and Methods for Hypothesis Testing.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several randomized response models for gathering self-report data when persons are asked sensitive questions are reviewed. A new general model for reducing error by asking questions conditional upon earlier answers is introduced. Hypothesis testing and confidence-interval procedures are demonstrated for data collected by the randomized response…

Carr, John W.; And Others

1982-01-01

440

Scheduling: A guide for program managers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

1994-01-01

441

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

442

Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision. PMID:24895663

Jihong, Qu

2014-01-01

443

Mechanism of intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations and interspike interval distributions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration exhibits oscillations with a wide range of periods. It was suggested in recent years by several modelling studies that these oscillations do not result from an oscillatory local dynamics but that fluctuations drive the formation of spatial and temporal structures in a non-oscillatory dynamic regime. Fluctuations arise from the random opening and closing of release channels on the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Consequently, the interspike interval (ISI) has not a sharp value as with regular oscillations but distributions of ISI arise. We present these distributions and relate them to underlying processes. Oscillations with long average ISI can be comprehended as repetitive wave triggering. The standard deviation of the ISI approximates the inverse of the triggering rate. Oscillations with short average ISI are often complex oscillations consisting of base line oscillations and intermittent oscillations on an elevated cytosolic Ca 2+ level.

Falcke, M.

2007-06-01

444

One-sided confidence intervals in discrete distributions

One-sided confidence intervals in the binomial, negative binomial, and Poisson distributions are considered. It is shown that the standard Wald interval suffers from a serious systematic bias in the coverage and so does the one-sided score interval. Alternative confidence intervals with better performance are considered. The coverage and length properties of the confidence intervals are compared through numerical and analytical

T. Tony Cai

2005-01-01

445

Chapter 7 Confidence Interval and Sample 7.1 Introduction

Chapter 7 Confidence Interval and Sample Size 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Confidence interval for the mean ( known or n 30) and sample size 7.3 Confidence interval for the mean ( unknown and n .4 Confidence intervals and sample size for proportions 6.5 Confidence intervals for variance and standard

Hong, Don

446

hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Real Estate

hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Â Real Estate The STAT menu Confidence Intervals Practice finding confidence intervals Â Real Estate #12;hp calculators HP 50g Confidence Intervals Â Real Estate hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Confidence Intervals Â Real Estate The STAT menu The Statistics menu

Vetter, Frederick J.

447

Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

Zi?ba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

2014-07-01

448

Methotrexate hepatotoxicity in psoriasis. Consideration of liver biopsies at regular intervals.

Fibrosis of the liver developed to a degree that contraindicated further treatment with methotrexate in 11 of 43 patients who had been receiving maintenance therapy with methotrexate for psoriasis. Liver biopsy had been performed prior to initiation of methotrexate therapy and was repeated at 12- to 18-month intervals. In this retrospective study, age of the patient and duration of therapy have been found to be significant factors in those patients receiving only the weekly oral dosage schedule. Yearly biopsies of the liver are recommended for patients who receive methotrexate throughout their courses of therapy. PMID:7369769

Robinson, J K; Baughman, R D; Auerbach, R; Cimis, R J

1980-04-01

449

Fair Scheduling Mechanisms with QoS Consideration for the IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN

Two scheduling mechanisms called enhanced distributed deficit round robin with backoff interval (EDDRR-BI) and enhanced distributed elastic round robin with backoff interval (EDERR-BI) are proposed in this paper for the IEEE 802.11e wireless LAN. EDDRR-BI and EDERR-BI take both priority which is a mean to guarantee quality of service (QoS) and fairness simultaneously into account so that QoS and fairness

Huei-wen Ferng; Han-yu Liau; Jeng-ji Huang

2007-01-01

450

National survey of extended-interval aminoglycoside dosing.

A random sample survey of 500 acute care hospitals in the United States was conducted to evaluate the adoption of extended-interval aminoglycoside dosing (EIAD). The survey revealed that EIAD has been adopted in 3 of every 4 acute care hospitals, a 4-fold increase since 1993. Of the 74.7% of hospitals reporting EIAD, 64% had written guidelines. Equal or less toxicity (87.1%), equal efficacy (76.9%), and cost-savings (65.6%) were common rationales. There has been a trend toward higher adult dosages of gentamicin (e.g., >5 mg/kg/dose) and an increase in the adoption of EIAD across all age groups (neonatal, 11%, and pediatric, 23%). Monitoring of aminoglycoside concentrations has shifted to a single determination of concentration, at 6-18 h after drug administration. The most common methods of dosage adjustment for declining renal function were an interval extension with the same dose (47%) or use of the Hartford nomogram (32%). PMID:10722424

Chuck, S K; Raber, S R; Rodvold, K A; Areff, D

2000-03-01

451

Exact intervals and tests for median when one sample value possibly an outliner

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available are independent observations (continuous data) that are believed to be a random sample. Desired are distribution-free confidence intervals and significance tests for the population median. However, there is the possibility that either the smallest or the largest observation is an outlier. Then, use of a procedure for rejection of an outlying observation might seem appropriate. Such a procedure would consider that two alternative situations are possible and would select one of them. Either (1) the n observations are truly a random sample, or (2) an outlier exists and its removal leaves a random sample of size n-1. For either situation, confidence intervals and tests are desired for the median of the population yielding the random sample. Unfortunately, satisfactory rejection procedures of a distribution-free nature do not seem to be available. Moreover, all rejection procedures impose undesirable conditional effects on the observations, and also, can select the wrong one of the two above situations. It is found that two-sided intervals and tests based on two symmetrically located order statistics (not the largest and smallest) of the n observations have this property.

Keller, G. J.; Walsh, J. E.

1973-01-01

452

Confidence intervals with a priori parameter bounds

We review the methods of constructing confidence intervals that account for a priori information about one-sided constraints on the parameter being estimated. We show that the so-called method of sensitivity limit yields a correct solution of the problem. Derived are the solutions for the cases of a continuous distribution with non-negative estimated parameter and a discrete distribution, specifically a Poisson process with background. For both cases, the best upper limit is constructed that accounts for the a priori information. A table is provided with the confidence intervals for the parameter of Poisson distribution that correctly accounts for the information on the known value of the background along with the software for calculating the confidence intervals for any confidence levels and magnitudes of the background (the software is freely available for download via Internet).

Lokhov, A V

2014-01-01

453

In this article, schedule-induced drinking (SID) refers to increased drinking by hungry rats exposed to intermittent delivery of food pellets. Two major accounts of SID differ in their explanation of why such drinking tends be concentrated soon after pellet delivery. Temporal discrimination theories propose that drinking is a form of displacement activity that occurs when a pellet is least likely. Adventitious reinforcement theories propose that drinking is displaced to early in an interpellet interval (IPI) by magazine-directed behavior that occurs toward the end of an IPI. The main aim of this study was to examine the latter response-competition account by recording distributions of both licking and magazine entries as SID developed when pellets were delivered to different groups either on a fixed-time (FT 30 s) or on a variable-time schedule (VT 30 s), as in Experiment 1. Although VT 30-s schedules produced essentially flat distributions of magazine entries, licking still tended to be concentrated early in an IPI. Furthermore, there was no indication (Experiments 1 and 2) that magazine entry distributions developed ahead of licking distributions. Experiment 3 examined distributions of lever presses instead of licks: Initially high rates of lever pressing declined both with response-independent schedules (FT and VT) and when a minimal response-dependency was introduced (recycling conjunctive schedule), yet this response also tended to be most frequent soon after pellet delivery. Overall, the data were generally consistent with temporal conditioning theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25706546

Boakes, Robert A; Patterson, Angela E; Kendig, Michael D; Harris, Justin A

2015-01-01

454

The effect of altering the rest period on adaptations to high-repetition resistance training is not well known. Eighteen active females were matched according to leg strength and repeated-sprint ability and randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group performed resistance training with 20-s rest intervals between sets, while the other group employed 80-s rest intervals between sets. Both groups

S. Hill-Haas; D. Bishop; B. Dawson; C. Goodman; J. Edge

2007-01-01

455

Interval-censored recurrent event data can exhibit considerable between subject heterogeneity in the event rate, and frequently there is a proportion of individuals experiencing no events. We consider a likelihood based analysis of bivariate interval-censored recurrent event data in which a random effect is used to accommodate heterogeneity in the rate of events, and bivariate mover–stayer indicators are introduced to accommodate

Rinku Sutradhar; Richard J. Cook

2009-01-01

456

about in an erratic fashion. In this study, we approach the problem of characterizing postural sway from the perspective of random-walk theory. Specifically, we analyze COP trajectories as one-dimensional and two-dimensional random walks. These analyses reveal that over short-term intervals of time during undisturbed stance the COP behaves as a positively correlated random walk, whereas over long-term intervals of time

J. J. Collins; C. J. de Luca

1995-01-01

457

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

2014-12-01

458

There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident–intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules. PMID:19794833

May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

2009-01-01

459

Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

Kurtzman, Clifford R.

1991-01-01

460

Estimating confidence intervals for information transfer analysis of confusion matrices

Estimating confidence intervals for information transfer analysis of confusion matrices Mahan statistical method is intro- duced and investigated for estimating confidence intervals resulting from information transfer (IT) analysis of confusion matrices. Confidence intervals can be used to statistically

Allen, Jont

461

Globally robust confidence intervals for simple linear regression

Globally robust confidence intervals for simple linear regression Jorge Adrover a , Matias Salibian in the literature. Although the results regarding the coverage level of these confidence intervals are asymptotic, Linear regression, Robust confidence intervals, Robust tests Corresponding Author Email addresses

SalibiÃ¡n-Barrera, MatÃas

462

Is random access memory random?

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

463

A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced delays as compared to FCFS, and the magnitude of the savings depends on the queue and departure fix structure. The MILP assumes deterministic aircraft arrival times at the runway queues. However, due to taxi time uncertainty, aircraft might arrive either earlier or later than these deterministic times. Thus, to incorporate this uncertainty, we present a method for using the MILP with "overlap discounted rolling planning horizon". The approach is based on valuing near-term decision results more than future ones. We develop a model of taxitime uncertainty based on real-world data, and then compare the baseline FCFS delays with delays using the above MILP in a simple rolling-horizon method and in the overlap discounted scheme.

Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

2009-01-01

464

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

Bisping, L.E.

1991-01-01

465

Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

466

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

467

The modern trend in Operations Research methodology deserves modelling of all relevant vague or uncertain information involved in a real decision problem. Generally, vagueness is modelled by a fuzzy approach and uncertainty by a stochastic approach. In some cases, a decision maker may prefer using interval numbers as coefficients of an inexact relationship. As a coefficient an interval assumes an

Atanu Sengupta; Tapan Kumar Pal; Debjani Chakraborty

2001-01-01

468

Beam Selection Strategies for Orthogonal Random Beamforming in Sparse Networks

Orthogonal random beamforming (ORB) consti- tutes a mean to exploit spatial multiplexing and multi-user diversity (MUD) gains in multi-antenna broadcast channels. To do so, as many random beamformers as transmit antennas (M) are generated and on each beam the user experiencing the most favorable channel conditions is scheduled. Whereas for a large number of users the sum-rate of ORB exhibits

José López Vicario; Renato G. Bosisio; Carles Antón-haro; Umberto Spagnolini

2008-01-01

469

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

1997-01-01

470

User requirements for a patient scheduling system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

Zimmerman, W.

1979-01-01

471

BETTER CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR IMPORTANCE SAMPLING

It is well known that for highly skewed distributions the standard method of using the t statistic for the confidence interval of the mean does not give robust results. This is an important problem for importance sampling (IS) as its final distribution is often skewed due to a heavy tailed weight distribution. In this paper, we first explain Hall's transformation

HALIS SAK; WOLFGANG HÖRMANN; JOSEF LEYDOLD

2010-01-01

472

An Interval Classifier for Database Mining Applications

We are given a large population database that containsinformation about population instances. The populationis known to comprise of m groups, but the population instances are not labeled with the group identification. Also given is a population sample (muchsmaller than the population but representative of it)in which the group labels of the instances are known.We present an interval classifier (IC) which

Rakesh Agrawal; Sakti P. Ghosh; Tomasz Imielinski; Balakrishna R. Iyer; Arun N. Swami

1992-01-01

473

Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

2014-01-01

474

Computation of confidence intervals for Poisson processes

We present an algorithm which allows a fast numerical computation of Feldman-Cousins confidence intervals for Poisson processes, even when the number of background events is relatively large. This algorithm incorporates an appropriate treatment of the singularities that arise as a consequence of the discreteness of the variable.

J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra

1999-11-18

475

Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

Foster, Colin

2014-01-01

476

Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…

Zou, Guang Yong

2007-01-01

477

Discrimination of Brief Empty Time Intervals

This research deals with the coding of brief empty time intervals bounded by very brief auditory markers. From the results of two experiments it is concluded that the discrimination between two brief durations within the range .05 to .3 seconds is not based on the energy content of the stimulus pattern defining the durations. At the same time, this evidence

Ramona Marie Carbotte

1972-01-01

478

Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics

Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics J-P. Merlet INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France Abstract: A robot is typical of systems that are inherently submitted to uncertainties although they should be highly reliable (i.e. for a robot used in surgical applications). The sources of uncertainties

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

479

Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…

Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

2011-01-01

480

MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

481

Actions and Events in Interval Temporal Logic

We present a representation of events and action based on interval temporal logic that is significantly more expressive and more natural than most previous AI approaches. The representation is motivated by work in natural language semantics and discourse, temporal logic, and AI planning and plan recognition. The formal basis of the representation is presented in detail, from the axiomatization of

James F. Allen; George Ferguson

1994-01-01

482

On Scheduling and Redundancy for P2P Backup

An online backup system should be quick and reliable in both saving and restoring usersâ?? data. To do so in a peer-to-peer implementation, data transfer scheduling and the amount of redundancy must be chosen wisely. We formalize the problem of exchanging multiple pieces of data with intermittently available peers, and we show that random scheduling completes transfers nearly optimally in terms of duration as long as the system is sufficiently large. Moreover, we propose an adaptive redundancy scheme that improves performance and decreases resource usage while keeping the risks of data loss low. Extensive simulations show that our techniques are effective in a realistic trace-driven scenario with heterogeneous bandwidth.

Toka, Laszlo; Michiardi, Pietro

2010-01-01

483

Two groups of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained to use either a stay or shift response strategy in a radial maze analogue. Each trial had a preretention stage, a retention interval, and a postretention test. In Experiment 1, acquisition with a 5-min retention interval was studied. Response strategy did not affect the rate at which the task was learned. Performance following longer retention intervals was tested in Experiments 2-4. Changes in retention intervals were presented in trial blocks of increasing duration in Experiment 2 and were randomly presented between trials in Experiment 3. Experiment 4 extended the retention interval to 24 hr. No difference in performance was found between the 2 groups in any of these experiments. These results suggest a flexible relationship between spatial memory and response requirement in food-hoarding birds for at least 1 spatial memory task. PMID:8505594

Olson, D J; Kamil, A C; Balda, R P

1993-04-01

484

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

Bisping, L.E.

1997-01-01

485

Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design.

In this paper, the design and development of fuzzy scheduled robustness, tracking, disturbance rejection and overall aggressiveness (RTDA) controller design for non-linear processes are discussed. pH process is highly non-linear and the design of good controller for this process is always a challenging one due to large gain variation. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design based on normalized integral square error (N_ISE) performance criteria for pH neutralization process is developed. The applicability of the proposed controller is tested for other different non-linear processes like type I diabetic process and conical tank process. The servo and regulatory performance of fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design is compared with well-tuned internal model control (IMC) and dynamic matrix control (DMC)-based control schemes. PMID:23317662

Srinivasan, K; Anbarasan, K

2013-03-01

486

Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population

Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526

Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

2014-01-01

487

Background: Bispectral index (BIS) used for intra-operative depth assessment under general anesthesia (GA) can be altered by different factors. This study was designed to detect the alteration in BIS reading with two different Trendelenburg (TBG) tilt in laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) procedure. Materials and Methods: A prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was designed involving 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II female patients, aged 35-60 years, scheduled to undergo LAVH under GA. Patients were divided into two groups with TBG >30° and TBG <30°. BIS readings; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate were recorded in supine position. Patients were then shifted to desired TBG position either (>30°) or (<30°) as per group allotment. Data were recorded at 30 min intervals and all the patients were followed upto 24 h postoperatively for any recall. Results: A rise in BIS value was noticed, when position was changed from supine to head down in both groups. During comparison between two groups with different angulations, TBG >30° showed a higher BIS value than TBG <30°. This statistically significant (P < 0.05) trend was observed at all the 30, 60, 90, and 120th min interval. Interestingly, BIS values returned to preoperative levels following adopting final supine position. No incidence of awareness was reported in both the series throughout the study. Conclusion: Though awareness remains unaltered BIS value gets increased with higher angle of inclination in TBG position during LAVH operation.

Mallick, Shibananda; Das, Anjan; Dutta, Sanjib; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Das, Tanuka; Banu, Rezina

2015-01-01

488

Two-dimensional electrons in random magnetic fields: Universality class of random matrices

An analysis is made of the statistics of energy levels for a system of an electron in a square lattice with random magnetic fields. The density of states and the connected density-density correlations are calculated numerically for finite lattice dimension N and energy interval DeltaE. Some of their characteristic features are found to agree with the predictions of an ensemble

Yshai Avishai; Mahito Kohmoto

1996-01-01

489

Genetic algorithm and the application for Job-Shop group scheduling

Genetic algorithm (GA) is a heuristic and random search technique mimicking nature. This paper first presents the basic principle of GA, the definition and the function of the genetic operators, and the principal character of GA. On the basis of these, the paper proposes using GA as a new solution method of the job-shop group scheduling problem, discusses the coded

Jianzhong Mao; Zhiming Wu

1995-01-01

490

An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…

Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

2011-01-01

491

To overcome the weakness of the contextual interference (CI) effect within applied settings, Brady, 2008 recommended that the amount of interference be manipulated. This study investigated the effect of five practice schedules on the learning of three field hockey skills. Fifty-five pre-university students performed a total of 90 trials for each skill under blocked, mixed or random practice orders. Results showed a significant time effect with all five practice conditions leading to improvements in acquisition and learning of the skills. No significant differences were found between the groups. The findings of the present study did not support the CI effect and suggest that either blocked, mixed, or random practice schedules can be used effectively when structuring practice for beginners. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect did not surface when using sport skills.There appears to be no difference between blocked and random practice schedules in the learning of field hockey skills.Low (blocked), moderate (mixed) or high (random) interference practice schedules can be used effectively when conducting a multiple skill practice session for beginners. PMID:24149204

Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Lay, Brendan; Grove, J. Robert; Medic, Nikola; Razman, Rizal

2012-01-01

492

The Rate Monotonic Scheduling Algorithm: Exact Characterization and Average Case Behavior

An exact characterization of the ability of the rate monotonic scheduling algorithm to meet the deadlines of a periodic task set is represented. In addition, a stochastic analysis which gives the probability distribution of the breakdown utilization of randomly generated task sets is presented. It is shown that as the task set size increases, the task computation times become of

John P. Lehoczky; Lui Sha; Ye Ding

1989-01-01

493

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Robust Runway Scheduling Bala Chandran and Hamsa Balakrishnan

sequences, the uncertainty in the system could result in the aircraft violating important safety constraints throughput and the probability that random deviations of aircraft from the schedule violate system successive aircraft, earliest and latest times for each aircraft, precedence constraints among aircraft

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

494

Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25234604

Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

2014-11-01

495

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

496

A planning and scheduling lexicon

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

1989-01-01

497

Affectionate Writing Reduces Total Cholesterol: Two Randomized, Controlled Trials

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two 5-week trials, healthy college students were randomly assigned either to experimental or control groups. Participants in the experimental groups wrote about their affection for significant friends, relatives, and/or romantic partners for 20 minutes on three separate occasions; on the same schedule, those in the control groups wrote about…

Floyd, Kory; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Hesse, Colin; Pauley, Perry M.

2007-01-01

498

Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

1989-01-01

499

The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination During Chained Schedules of Food Presentation

Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates increased significantly when the houselight was extinguished in the first component and illuminated in the second. The results suggest that the increase was not the result of disinhibition or modification of stimulus control by component stimuli, but appears to result from the reinforcement of responding by the onset of illumination in the second component. Additionally, the apparent reinforcing properties of houselight illumination resulted neither from association of the houselight with the terminal component of the chained schedule nor through generalization of the hopper illumination present during food presentation. The results of the present series of experiments are related to previous demonstrations of illumination-reinforced responding and to the interpretation of data from experiments employing houselight illumination as stimuli associated with timeout or brief stimuli in second-order schedules. PMID:18831125

Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E.F