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1

Improved Randomized Online Scheduling of Unit Length Intervals and Jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the online interval scheduling problem and the online job scheduling problem (with restart). In both problems, the\\u000a intervals or jobs have unit length and arbitrary weights, and the objective is to maximize the total weight of completed intervals\\u000a (or jobs). We first gave a 2-competitive randomized algorithm for the case of intervals. The algorithm is barely random in

Stanley P. Y. Fung; Chung Keung Poon; Feifeng Zheng

2008-01-01

2

Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

2005-01-01

3

Improved Randomized Online Scheduling of Intervals and Jobs  

E-print Network

We study the online preemptive scheduling of intervals and jobs (with restarts). Each interval or job has an arrival time, a deadline, a length and a weight. The objective is to maximize the total weight of completed intervals or jobs. While the deterministic case for intervals was settled a long time ago, the randomized case remains open. In this paper we first give a 2-competitive randomized algorithm for the case of equal length intervals. The algorithm is barely random in the sense that it randomly chooses between two deterministic algorithms at the beginning and then sticks with it thereafter. Then we extend the algorithm to cover several other cases of interval scheduling including monotone instances, C-benevolent instances and D-benevolent instances, giving the same competitive ratio. These algorithms are surprisingly simple but have the best competitive ratio against all previous (fully or barely) randomized algorithms. Next we extend the idea to give a 3-competitive algorithm for equal length jobs. F...

Fung, Stanley P Y; Zheng, Feifeng

2012-01-01

4

Relationship between Contingency Awareness and Human Performance on Random Ratio and Random Interval Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…

Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil

2012-01-01

5

HUMAN RESPONDING ON RANDOM-INTERVAL SCHEDULES OF RESPONSE-COST PUNISHMENT: THE ROLE OF REDUCED REINFORCEMENT DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response- cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money on a three-component multiple reinforcement schedule. During baseline, responding in all components produced money

CYNTHIA J. PIETRAS; Andrew E Brandt; GABRIEL D. SEARCY

2010-01-01

6

On Scheduling Problems Restricted to Interval Orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse a scheduling problem where each processor can execute only a subset of all unit-time jobs. We show that this problem is NP-complete even for interval orders. If each job has a specified type and processors can only execute jobs with one type, the problem can be solved in polynomial time. The same holds if the

Klaus Jansen; Fachbereich IV

1992-01-01

7

Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals  

SciTech Connect

Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

Diamond, P.

1988-04-01

8

Interval algorithm for random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of generating a random number with an arbitrary probability distribution by using a general biased M-coin is studied. An efficient and very simple algorithm based on the successive refinement of partitions of the unit interval (0, 1), which we call the interval algorithm, is proposed. A fairly tight evaluation on the efficiency is given. Generalizations of the interval

Te Sun Han; Mamoru Hoshi

1997-01-01

9

Intractable properties of responding under a fixed-interval schedule  

SciTech Connect

The behavior engendered by the fixed-interval schedule is characterized by its variability within and across intervals. The present experiment was designed to assess further the magnitude of interval-to-interval dynamics and to explore conditions which might enhance control by response number for subsequent output. Pigeons were exposed to three experimental manipulations after responding had stabilized under a fixed-interval five-minute schedule. First, a discrete five-stimulus counter was added so that the key color changed after a fixed number of responses. Then additional grain presentations were made at the end of the interval so that high response output was differentially reinforced in the presence of the counter stimuli. Finally, the counter stimuli were presented as an irregular clock (i.e., independently of responding), but the durations were yoked to performance under the counter condition. The data show that response number can exert influence from one interval to the next, but this source of control is weak and not influenced by the experimental manipulations. Results from the clock arrangement indicate that behavior is controlled largely by the stimulus conditions prevailing at the time of interval onset.

Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

1982-01-01

10

Schedule-induced biting under fixed-interval schedules of food or electric-shock presentation  

PubMed Central

Squirrel monkeys pressed a lever under fixed-interval schedules of food or of electric-shock presentation. Both schedules induced repeated biting on a latex hose. Whether lever pressing was controlled by food or by electric shock, a pattern of decreasing hose biting and increasing lever pressing occurred within fixed-interval cycles. As the fixed-interval duration was increased from 6 to 600 sec, average rates of lever pressing decreased under both schedules. Average rates of hose biting first increased with increasing parameter value, reaching a maximum at values that varied from 60 to 337 sec in different monkeys, and then declined at higher values. d-Amphetamine at appropriate doses increased overall rates of lever pressing maintained by food or by shock, but either did not affect or decreased overall rates of hose biting. When no timeout period occurred between fixed-interval cycles, the monkeys bit most frequently immediately after food or electric shock was presented. When there was a timeout period, hose biting began shortly after the start of the fixed-interval cycles, with little or no hose biting immediately after food or electric shock was presented. Most hose biting appeared to be schedule-induced rather than food- or shock-induced. PMID:16812004

DeWeese, Jo

1977-01-01

11

Drug discrimination under two concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedules.  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-interval (FI) 100-s FI 200-s schedule of food presentation, and later tinder a concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, in which the FI component with the shorter time requirement reinforced responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 100-s FI 200-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 66% (after pentobarbital) to 68% (after saline) of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 100-s component of the concurrent schedule. These birds made an average of 70% of their responses on both the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital and the saline-biased key after saline. After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 67% of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 40 component after both saline and the training dose of pentobarbital. These birds made an average of 75% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital, but only 55% of their responses on the saline-biased key after saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, ethanol, phencyclidine, or methamphetamine, the dose-response curves were similar under these two concurrent schedules. Pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and ethanol produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the pentobarbital-biased key as the doses increased. For some birds, at the highest doses of these drugs, the dose-response curve turned over. Increasing doses of phencyclidine produced increased responding on the pentobarbital-biased key in some, but not all, birds. After methamphetamine, responding was largely confined to the saline-biased key. These data show that pigeons can perform drug discriminations under concurrent schedules in which the reinforcement frequency under the schedule components differs only by a factor of two, and that when other drugs are substituted for the training drugs they produce dose-response curves similar to the curves produced by these drugs under other concurrent interval schedules. PMID:10966096

McMillan, D E; Li, M

2000-01-01

12

Drug discrimination under two concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedules.  

PubMed

Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-interval (FI) 100-s FI 200-s schedule of food presentation, and later tinder a concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, in which the FI component with the shorter time requirement reinforced responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 100-s FI 200-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 66% (after pentobarbital) to 68% (after saline) of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 100-s component of the concurrent schedule. These birds made an average of 70% of their responses on both the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital and the saline-biased key after saline. After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 67% of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 40 component after both saline and the training dose of pentobarbital. These birds made an average of 75% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital, but only 55% of their responses on the saline-biased key after saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, ethanol, phencyclidine, or methamphetamine, the dose-response curves were similar under these two concurrent schedules. Pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and ethanol produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the pentobarbital-biased key as the doses increased. For some birds, at the highest doses of these drugs, the dose-response curve turned over. Increasing doses of phencyclidine produced increased responding on the pentobarbital-biased key in some, but not all, birds. After methamphetamine, responding was largely confined to the saline-biased key. These data show that pigeons can perform drug discriminations under concurrent schedules in which the reinforcement frequency under the schedule components differs only by a factor of two, and that when other drugs are substituted for the training drugs they produce dose-response curves similar to the curves produced by these drugs under other concurrent interval schedules. PMID:10966096

McMillan, D E; Li, M

2000-07-01

13

Drug discrimination under a concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedule.  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a concurrent fixed-interval (FI) FI schedule of food presentation on which, after pentobarbital administration, responses on one key were reinforced with food under an FI 60-s component and responses on the other key were reinforced under an FI 240-s component. After saline administration, the schedule contingencies on the two keys were reversed. After both pentobarbital and saline, pigeons responded more frequently on the key on which responses had been programmed to produce the reinforcer under the FI 60 component of the concurrent schedule. The schedule was changed to concurrent FI 150 FI 150 s for drug-substitution tests. In each bird, increasing doses of pentobarbital, ethanol, and chlordiazepoxide produced increases in the proportion of responses on the key on which responses had been reinforced under the FI 60 component after pentobarbital administration during training sessions. The proportion of responses on that key was slightly lower for ethanol than for chlordiazepoxide and pentobarbital. At a dose of pentobarbital higher than the training dose, responding decreased on the key that had been reinforced under the FI 60 component during training sessions. Phencyclidine produced less responding on the key programmed under the FI 60-s component than did pentobarbital. Methamphetamine produced responding primarily on the key on which responses had been reinforced under the FI 60-s component after saline administration. PMID:9335138

McMillan, D E; Li, M; Hardwick, W C

1997-01-01

14

Spatiotemporal patterns of behavior produced by variable-interval schedules of reinforcement  

PubMed Central

The spatiotemporal patterns of behavior exhibited by two pigeons during a variable-interval 15-second schedule of food reinforcement, a variable-interval 5-minute schedule, and then extinction of key pecking were recorded using an apparatus that continuously tracked the position of the bird in the experimental chamber. The variable-interval 15-second schedule produced a close-to-key pattern between reinforcements with two types of regular excursions from the region of the key frequently occurring after reinforcement. Subsequent exposure to the variable-interval 5-minute schedule produced more extended and extremely regular patterns between responses. Reinstatement of the variable-interval 15-second schedule reestablished the close-to-key pattern with regular excursions frequently occurring after reinforcement. During extinction the spatiotemporal patterns that had developed during the variable-interval 5-minute schedule reappeared and gradually dissipated. These patterns may have been a form of superstitious behavior. PMID:16812432

Pear, Joseph J.

1985-01-01

15

Scheduling approaches for random job shop flexible manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the influences that scheduling schemes and the degree of routeing flexibility have on random, job shop flexible manufacturing systems within a static environment. The first factor in the experiment includes three scheduling schemes. Two of these schemes are off-line schemes which schedule many operations prior to actual production. The first of the off-line schemes establishes an overall

JIM HUTCHISON; KEONG LEONG; DAVID SNYDER; PETER WARD

1991-01-01

16

Measurement and modeling of behavior under fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Carneaux pigeons were exposed to various FI schedules of reinforcement to provide data for a general treatment of timing in such schedules. It was found that postreinforcement pause varied as a power function of interval length whereas breakpoint varied proportionately with interval length. A simple count-register model of timing accommodated the data and provided a flexible mechanism whose parameters

Stephen J. Hanson; Peter R. Killeen

1981-01-01

17

Determinants of Human Fixed-Interval Performance Following Varied Exposure to Reinforcement Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…

Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.

2006-01-01

18

The effect of d -amphetamine on operant behaviour maintained under variable-interval schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose-response curves were obtained for the effects of d-amphetamine sulphate (0.1–3.2 mg\\/kg) on the operant performance of rats in variable-interval 4-min and variableinterval 20-min schedules of reinforcement. Response rates maintained under variable-interval 4-min were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. Response rates maintained under variable-interval 20-min schedules tended to be elevated by low doses and suppressed by higher doses. The degree

M. J. Morley; C. M. Bradshaw; E. Szabadi

1985-01-01

19

Performance on ratio and interval schedules with matched reinforcement rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first study, rats were trained to pull a chain on a schedule (RPI) that regulates the probability of reinforcement to maintain a constant average reinforcement rate without differentially reinforcing long inter-response times (IRTs). Although the response rate was sensitive to the overall rate of reinforcement, performance was unaffected by variations between 1 and 50 in the IRT memory

G. R. Dawson; Anthony Dickinson

1990-01-01

20

Tolerance to Effects of Cocaine on Behavior under a Response-Initiated Fixed-Interval Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tolerance to effects of cocaine can be modulated by schedules of reinforcement. With multiple ratio schedules, research has shown an inverse relationship between ratio requirement and amount of tolerance that resulted from daily administration of the drug. In contrast, tolerance to the effects of cocaine on behavior under multiple interval

Weaver, Matthew T.; Branch, Marc N.

2008-01-01

21

Testing Concurrent Java Programs using Randomized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diculty of finding errors caused by unexpected interleavings of threads in con- current programs is well known. Model checkers can pinpoint such errors and verify correctness but are not easily scalable to large programs. The approach discussed here is more scalable but less systematic. We transform a given Java program by inserting calls to a scheduling function at selected

Scott D. Stoller

2002-01-01

22

Bouts of Responding on Variable-Interval Schedules: Effects of Deprivation Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats obtained food pellets on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement by nose poking a lighted key. After training to establish baseline performance (with the mean variable interval set at either 60, 120, or 240 s), the rats were given free access to food during the hour just before their daily session. This satiation operation reduced the…

Shull, Richard L.

2004-01-01

23

An Efficient Uplink Scheduling Algorithm with Variable Grant-Interval for VoIP Service in BWA Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter proposes an efficient uplink scheduling algorithm for the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with variable frame-duration according to the voice activity in IEEE 802.16e/m systems. The proposed algorithm dynamically changes the grant-interval to save the uplink bandwidth, and it uses the random access scheme when the voice activity changes from silent-period to talk-spurt. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can increase the VoIP capacity by 26 percent compared to the conventional extended real-time polling service (ertPS).

Oh, Sung-Min; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwun, Jonghyung

24

Fixed-interval and fixed-ratio reinforcement schedules with human subjects  

PubMed Central

Operant laboratory studies were conducted as part of the regular activities of a psychiatric research ward. This report includes only some early data obtained from the ward staff, not the patients. A multiple schedule having alternating fixed-ratio and fixed-interval components permitted observations of acquisition and maintenance of behavior at low schedule values, transition to and final performance at greater schedule values, and behavioral changes after a limited-hold contingency was added to the fixed-interval. Prior to the added limited-hold, subjects used watches to time the interval, and usually responded only once before obtaining each fixed-interval reinforcement. Short limited-hold values eliminated clock watching and increased fixed-interval responding. Subjects communicated freely with each other, and it was clear that their performances were controlled both by the contingencies and by instructions. Just as clearly, the instructions themselves were controlled by the contingencies. It was concluded that the kinds of verbal control that were responsible for “nonstandard” fixed-interval performances did not require the postulation of any new behavioral principles. PMID:22477562

Stoddard, Lawrence T.; Sidman, Murray; Brady, Joseph V.

1988-01-01

25

Performance under Competitive and Self-Competitive Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone, competitive…

Saville, Bryan K.

2009-01-01

26

Effects of On-Demand Versus Fixed-Interval Schedules in the Treatment of Chronic Pain With Analgesic Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of fixed-interval and on-demand administration of analgesic medications in chronic pain patients. A fixed-interval analgesic schedule was found more effective than an on-demand schedule in reducing subjective pain and elevating mood. No differences were found between the two conditions on measures of physical activity.…

Berntzen, Dagfinn; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

1987-01-01

27

On the Primacy of Molecular Processes in Determining Response Rates under Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on variables that may account for response-rate differences under variable-ratio (VR) and variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Four rats were exposed to VR, VI, tandem VI differential- reinforcement-of-high-rate, regulated-probability-interval, and negative-feedback schedules of reinforcement that provided the same…

Tanno, Takayuki; Sakagami, Takayuki

2008-01-01

28

Randomized OnLine Scheduling of Parallel Jobs Jir'i Sgall \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Randomized On­Line Scheduling of Parallel Jobs JiŸr'i Sgall \\Lambda Mathematical Institute Academy for on­line scheduling of parallel jobs in a model which was introduced and studied in [4, 3] for deterministic scheduling. We give a randomized on­line algorithm for scheduling independent jobs on mesh

Sgall, Jiri

29

The effects of schedule history and the opportunity for adjunctive responding on behavior during a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.  

PubMed

The effects of schedule history and the availability of an adjunctive response (polydipsia) on fixed-interval schedule performance were investigated. Two rats first pressed levers under a schedule of food reinforcement with an interresponse time greater than 11 s, and 2 others responded under a fixed-ratio 40 schedule. All 4 were then exposed to a fixed-interval 15-s schedule. Water was continuously available under these conditions, but after responding became stable on the fixed-interval schedule, access was experimentally manipulated. With water freely available, subjects did not display characteristic fixed-interval response rates and patterns (i.e., scalloping or break-and-run). Instead, they exhibited predictable, stable patterns of behavior as a function of their schedule histories: Subjects with the interresponse-time history exhibited low response rates, and those with the fixed-ratio history exhibited high rates. Manipulating the amount of water available resulted in marked changes in response rates for rats with the interresponse-time history but not for those with the fixed-ratio history. The results illustrate the multiple causation of behavior by its previous and current schedules of reinforcement and other concurrent factors. PMID:2066704

Johnson, L M; Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Morris, E K

1991-05-01

30

The effects of schedule history and the opportunity for adjunctive responding on behavior during a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.  

PubMed Central

The effects of schedule history and the availability of an adjunctive response (polydipsia) on fixed-interval schedule performance were investigated. Two rats first pressed levers under a schedule of food reinforcement with an interresponse time greater than 11 s, and 2 others responded under a fixed-ratio 40 schedule. All 4 were then exposed to a fixed-interval 15-s schedule. Water was continuously available under these conditions, but after responding became stable on the fixed-interval schedule, access was experimentally manipulated. With water freely available, subjects did not display characteristic fixed-interval response rates and patterns (i.e., scalloping or break-and-run). Instead, they exhibited predictable, stable patterns of behavior as a function of their schedule histories: Subjects with the interresponse-time history exhibited low response rates, and those with the fixed-ratio history exhibited high rates. Manipulating the amount of water available resulted in marked changes in response rates for rats with the interresponse-time history but not for those with the fixed-ratio history. The results illustrate the multiple causation of behavior by its previous and current schedules of reinforcement and other concurrent factors. PMID:2066704

Johnson, L M; Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Morris, E K

1991-01-01

31

An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

2013-07-01

32

Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance…

Berry, Meredith S.; Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

2012-01-01

33

On a Class of Problems Related to the Random Division of an Interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_n$ be $n$ independent random variables each distributed uniformly over the interval (0, 1), and let $Y_0, Y_1, \\\\cdots, Y_n$ be the respective lengths of the $n + 1$ segments into which the unit interval is divided by the $\\\\{X_i\\\\}$. A fairly wide class of statistical problems is related to finding the distribution of certain functions

D. A. Darling

1953-01-01

34

Comparing Pleasure and Pain: The Fundamental Mathematical Equivalence of Reward Gain and Shock Reduction under Variable Interval Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative…

Mallpress, Dave E. W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

2012-01-01

35

Rats' choices with token stimuli in concurrent variable-interval schedules.  

PubMed

Four rats responded on concurrent variable-interval schedules that delivered token stimuli (stimulus lights arranged vertically above each of two side levers). During exchange periods, each token could be exchanged for one food pellet by responding on a center lever, with one response required for each pellet delivery. In different conditions, the exchange requirements (number of tokens that had to be earned before they could be exchanged for food) varied between one and four for the two response levers. The experiments were closely patterned after research with pigeons by Mazur and Biondi (2013), and the results from the rats in the present experiment were similar. Response percentages on the two levers changed as each additional token was earned, and these patterns indicated that choice was controlled by both the time to the exchange periods and the number of food pellets that were delivered in the exchange period. In some conditions, the exchange requirement was three tokens for each lever, but the token lights were not turned on as they were earned for one of the two keys. The rats showed a slight preference for the lever without the token lights, which may indicate that the token lights were not serving as conditioned reinforcers (a result also found by Mazur and Biondi with pigeons). Overall, these results suggest that, in this choice procedure, the token stimuli served primarily as discriminative stimuli that signaled the temporal proximity and quantity of the primary reinforcer, food. PMID:25130299

Mazur, James E

2014-09-01

36

Differences in corticosterone level due to inter-food interval length: implications for schedule-induced polydipsia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different food-reinforcement schedules on plasma corticosterone (CORT), and its possible involvement in the acquisition and maintenance of schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). In Experiment 1, three groups of rats were submitted to two different fixed-interval (FI) schedules with inter-food intervals of 30 and 120 s, and to a massed-feeding presentation for 40 days until SIP was well stabilized. In Experiment 2, six groups of rats were exposed to the same schedules, FI 30s and FI 120s, and to the massed-feeding condition, but no water bottles were presented. CORT levels were determined on Days 3 and 40. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that FI 30s schedule, but not FI 120s or the massed-feeding condition, induces excessive drinking from Day 3. Results in Experiment 2 indicated that CORT levels were similar for all the groups on Day 3. However, only animals on the FI 30s schedule did increase their CORT levels on Day 40, with no variation in the hormone in the other two conditions, FI 120s and massed-feeding presentations. The data are discussed in terms of the implications of these results for hypotheses of SIP as anxiolitic behavior. PMID:15990099

López-Grancha, M; López-Crespo, G; Venero, C; Cañadas, F; Sánchez-Santed, F; Sandi, C; Flores, P

2006-02-01

37

Identification of quadriceps-shank dynamics using randomized interpulse interval stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model structures for artificially stimulated paralyzed muscle-limb system dynamics were developed and experimentally evaluated in paraplegic patients. The examined system consisted of the quadriceps, electrically stimulated using surface electrodes, and a freely swinging shank. The interpulse interval of the stimulation sequence was randomized to obtain persistent system excitation. The outputs of the system were the angular position, velocity, and acceleration,

Henry M. Franken; Peter H. Veltink; Roel Tijsmans; Henk Nijmeijer; Herman B. K. Boom

1995-01-01

38

Dynamic scheduling of manufacturing systems with setups and random disruptions  

E-print Network

Manufacturing systems are often composed of machines that can produce a variety of items but that most undergo time-consuming (and possibly costly) setups when switching between product types. Scheduling these setups ...

Tubilla Kuri, Fernando

2011-01-01

39

Randomized Scheduling Algorithm for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

amount of acceleration measurements gathered by the sensor nodes, but when those vibrations fade, the WSNRandomized Scheduling Algorithm for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks Mario O. D, kin.leung}@imperial.ac.uk Abstract--We consider a wireless sensor network in which a routing tree has

Leung, Kin K.

40

Effects of Cocaine on Performance under Fixed-Interval Schedules with a Small Tandem Ratio Requirement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however,…

Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

2004-01-01

41

How the Landscape of Random Job Shop Scheduling Instances Depends on the Ratio of Jobs to Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the search landscape of random instances of the job shop scheduling problem (JSSP). Specifically, we investigate how the expected values of (1) backbone size, (2) distance between near-optimal schedules, and (3) makespan of random schedules vary as a function of the job to machine ratio ( N M ). For the limiting cases N M ! 0 and

Matthew J. Streeter; Stephen F. Smith

2006-01-01

42

Development of Key-Pecking, Pause, and Ambulation during Extended Exposure to a Fixed-Interval Schedule of Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Six pigeons key-pecked under a fixed-interval (FI) 3-min schedule of food presentation. Each pigeon was studied for 200 daily sessions with 15 intervals per session (3,000 total food presentations). Analyses included the examination of latency to first peck (pause), mean rate of key pecking, and ambulation. Characterizations of stable performance were assessed across measures of behavior and evaluated using commonly employed stability criteria. Stability of response rate and pause was identified better by assessments that evaluated variability and trend, rather than just variability. Between-subject differences in rate of acquisition and terminal values of steady-state performance of pause were observed, and stable pause durations took longer to develop than did stable key-pecking rates. Relative variability in response rate and pause duration decreased as the means increased. A temporally organized pattern of key-pecking (the so-called FI scallop) developed within 50 sessions of exposure to the schedule. Overall ambulation decreased during the early sessions of exposure and further analyses showed greater rates of ambulation during the pause than after it for 4 of the 6 pigeons. Performance under the FI 3-min schedule developed relatively slowly, and key-pecking, pause, and ambulation developed at different rates. PMID:22693362

Berry, Meredith S; Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

2012-01-01

43

Scheduling and Control of Mobile Communications Networks with Randomly Time  

E-print Network

02912 USA hjk@dam.brown.edu Abstract-- Consider a communications network consisting of mobiles, some are weakened, and the distributions of the in- put file lengths can be heavy tailed. The resulting controls with randomly varying links, routing in ad-hoc networks, perturbed stochastic Liapunov functions, heavy tailed

44

Interval cancers in prostate cancer screening: Comparing 2- and 4-year screening intervals in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer, Gothenburg and Rotterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially since it became common practice to screen asymptomatic men for the disease. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) was initiated in 1993 to determine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening affects prostate cancer mortality. Variations in the screening algorithm, such as the interval between screening rounds, likely influence

M. J. Roobol; A. Grenabo; F. H. Schröder; J. Hugosson

2007-01-01

45

Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule among Drug Users - A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B vaccine provides a model for improving uptake and completion of multi-dose vaccinations in the drug-using community. Methods DASH project conducted randomized controlled trial among not-in-treatment current drug users in two urban neighborhoods. Neighborhoods were cluster-randomized to receive a standard (HIV information) or enhanced (HBV vaccine acceptance/adherence) behavioral intervention; participants within clusters were randomized to a standard (0, 1, 6 mo) or accelerated (0, 1, 2 mo) vaccination schedule. Outcomes were completion of three-dose vaccine and HBV seroprotection. Results Of those screening negative for HIV/HBV, 77% accepted HB vaccination and 75% of those received all 3 doses. Injecting drug users (IDUs) on the accelerated schedule were significantly more likely to receive 3 doses (76%) than those on the standard schedule (66%, p=.04), although for drug users as a whole the adherence was 77% and 73%. No difference in adherence was observed between behavioral intervention groups. Predictors of adherence were older age, African American race, stable housing, and alcohol use. Cumulative HBV seroprotection (?10 mIU/mL) was gained by 12 months by 65% of those completing. Seroprotection at 6 months was greater for the accelerated schedule group. Conclusions The accelerated vaccine schedule improves hepatitis B vaccination adherence among IDU. PMID:20936979

Hwang, Lu-Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Tran, Thanh Quoc; Clark, April; Xia, Rui; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine; Williams, Mark

2010-01-01

46

Online Scheduling of EqualLength Jobs: Randomization and Restarts Help  

E-print Network

Online Scheduling of Equal­Length Jobs: Randomization and Restarts Help Marek Chrobak #3; Wojciech of completed jobs. In the online version, each job arrives at its release time. We give two online algorithms the number of completed jobs. In the online version, each job j arrives at time r j , and its deadline d j

Chrobak, Marek

47

Effects of ethanol on multiple fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedule performances: dynamic interactions at different fixed-ratio values.  

PubMed Central

Key pecking by three pigeons was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. The fixed-interval value remained at 3 minutes, while the fixed-ratio size was increased systematically in 30-response increments from 30 to either 120 (two pigeons) or 150 (one pigeon). At least two lower fixed-ratio values were also redetermined. The effects of ethanol (5 to 2.5 g/kg) were assessed at each of the different schedule parameters. Both overall and running response rates under the fixed-ratio schedule decreased with increases in the size of the fixed-ratio schedule; pause duration under the fixed-ratio schedule was directly related to increases in fixed-ratio size. Overall and running rates of responding under the fixed-interval schedule changed little with increases in the size of the fixed-ratio schedule. Despite the relative invariance of fixed-interval responding across the different fixed-ratio values, the effects of ethanol on responding under the fixed-interval schedule differed depending on the size of the fixed-ratio schedule. Greater increases occurred in both overall and in lower local rates of responding under the fixed-interval schedule when the fixed-ratio value was 120 or 150. The effects of ethanol on responding under the fixed-ratio schedule also depended on the size of the fixed ratio. Increases in responding under the fixed-ratio schedule were typically greater at the higher fixed-ratio values where response rates were lower. When the effects of ethanol were redetermined at the lower fixed-ratio parameter values, rates and patterns of responding were comparable to those obtained initially. However, the dose-effect curves for responding under both fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules were shifted up and to the right of those determined during the ascending series. The effects of ethanol can depend on rate or responding, behavioral history, and the context in which behavior occurs. PMID:7411015

Barrett, J E; Stanley, J A

1980-01-01

48

An Exploration of Remote History Effects in Humans: II. The Effects under Fixed-Interval, Variable-Interval, and Fixed-Ratio Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five undergraduates responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 145 schedule, and 5 others responded under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 20-s schedule. Both groups were then exposed to a differential-reinforcement-of-rates- with-pacing 1 s less than interresponse time (IRT) less than or equal to 2 s schedule. Following this, probe sessions…

Okouchi, Hiroto

2010-01-01

49

COMPARING PLEASURE AND PAIN: THE FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICAL EQUIVALENCE OF REWARD GAIN AND SHOCK REDUCTION UNDER VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULES  

PubMed Central

The relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and the symmetry of Thorndike's law of effect are unresolved issues in operant psychology. Here we show that, for a given pattern of responding on variable interval (VI) schedules with the same programmed rate of food rewards (positive reinforcement VI) or electric shocks (negative reinforcement VI), there is a fundamental mathematical equivalence between reward gain and shock reduction. We also provide the first normative account of how animals should respond on a negative VI schedule, showing that it is better to space responses evenly than to respond with a variable interresponse time (IRT). Published data from rats, however, indicate that these animals respond irregularly, often with a burst of activity immediately following a shock. While this is irrational in the experimental setting, it may represent an appropriate response to the heterogeneity of stimuli commonly encountered in natural environments. We discuss the broader implications of our analysis for understanding how animals evaluate appetitive and aversive stimuli. PMID:23144510

Mallpress, Dave E.W.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

2012-01-01

50

Service-oriented node scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks using markov random field model.  

PubMed

Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

2014-01-01

51

Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

2012-01-01

52

An Efficient Randomized Algorithm for Real-Time Process Scheduling in PicOS Operating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PicOS is an event-driven operating environment designed for use with embedded networked sensors. More specifically, it is designed to support the concurrency in intensive operations required by networked sensors with minimal hardware requirements. Existing process scheduling algorithms of PicOS; a commercial tiny, low-footprint, real-time operating system; have their associated drawbacks. An efficient, alternative algorithm, based on a randomized selection policy, has been proposed, demonstrated, confirmed for efficiency and fairness, on the average, and has been recommended for implementation in PicOS. Simulations were carried out and performance measures such as Average Waiting Time (AWT) and Average Turn-around Time (ATT) were used to assess the efficiency of the proposed randomized version over the existing ones. The results prove that Randomized algorithm is the best and most attractive for implementation in PicOS, since it is most fair and has the least AWT and ATT on average over the other non-preemptive scheduling algorithms implemented in this paper.

Helmy*, Tarek; Fatai, Anifowose; Sallam, El-Sayed

53

IntervalValued and FuzzyValued Random Variables: From Computing Sample Variances  

E-print Network

quantities, we only know the intervals x i = [ex i \\Gamma \\Delta i ; e x i + \\Delta i ], where e x i describe an algorithm that computes this range Cx;y for the case when the measurements are accurate enough to measure directly. Examples of such quantities are the distance to a star and the amount of oil in a given

Ward, Karen

54

Poisson goes, random walker comes: Explaining the power-law distribution of the durations of stable-polarity intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the predominant paradigm, recent studies indicate that the lengths of polarity intervals do not follow Poisson statistics, not even if non-stationary Poisson processes are considered. It is here shown that first-passage time (FPT) statistics for a one-dimensional random walk provides a good fit to the polarity time scale (PTS) in the range of stable polarity durations between 10 ka and 3000 ka. This fit is achieved by adjusting only a single diffusion time T , which comes to lie between 70 ka and 100 ka depending on the PTS chosen. A physical interpretation, why the FPT distribution of a random-walk process applies to the geodynamo, could relate to a balance between decay of stochastic turbulence and generation of the magnetic field. A simplified picture assumes the field generation to occur from a collection of 10-100 statistically independent dynamo processes, where each is described, e.g., by a Rikitake equation in the chaotic regime. An interesting feature of the random walk model is that it naturally introduces an internal variable, the position of the walk, which could be linked to field intensity. This connection would suggest that the variance of field intensity increases with the duration of the polarity interval. It does not predict a strong correlation between the strength of the paleofield and the duration of a chron. A further strength of the random walk model is that superchrons are not outliers, but natural rare events within the system. The apparent non-stationary nature of the geodynamo can be interpreted in the random walk model by a continuous shift in the governing parameters, and does not require major restructuring of the internal geodynamo process as in case of the Poisson picture.

Fabian, Karl; Shcherbakov, Valera

2010-05-01

55

Estimates for interval probabilities of the sums of random variables with locally subexponential distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let {i}\\u000a i=1 be a sequence of independent identically distributed nonnegative random variables, S\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a = ?1 + ? +?n. Let ? = (0, T] and x + ? = (x, x + T]. We study the ratios of the probabilities P(S\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a ? x + ?)\\/P(? 1 ? x + ?) for all n and x. The estimates uniform

V. V. Shneer

2006-01-01

56

Initial Investigations of Controller Tools and Procedures for Schedule-Based Arrival Operations with Mixed Flight-Deck Interval Management Equipage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA?s Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) is a multi-year effort to demonstrate high-throughput, fuel-efficient arrivals at a major U.S. airport using NASA-developed scheduling automation, controller decision-support tools, and ADS-B-enabled Flight-Deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics. First-year accomplishments include the development of a concept of operations for managing scheduled arrivals flying Optimized Profile Descents with equipped aircraft conducting FIM operations, and the integration of laboratory prototypes of the core ATD-1 technologies. Following each integration phase, a human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to evaluate and refine controller tools, procedures, and clearance phraseology. From a ground-side perspective, the results indicate the concept is viable and the operations are safe and acceptable. Additional training is required for smooth operations that yield notable benefits, particularly in the areas of FIM operations and clearance phraseology.

Callantine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Omar, Faisal G.; Prevot, Thomas

2012-01-01

57

Online Scheduling of Equal-Length Jobs: Randomization and Restarts Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We consider the following scheduling problem. The input is a set of jobs with equal processingtimes, where each job is specified by its release time and deadline. The goal is to determine asingle-processor, non-preemptive schedule of these jobs that maximizes the number of completedjobs. In the online version, each job arrives at its release time. We give two online

Marek Chrobak; Wojciech Jawor; Jiri Sgall; Tomás Tichý

2004-01-01

58

An Adaptive Randomized Trial of an Intermittent Dosing Schedule of Aerosolized Ribavirin in Patients With Cancer and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A continuous dosing schedule of aerosolized ribavirin has been used for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) upper respiratory tract infection and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) but is associated with high cost and inconvenient administration. We conducted an adaptive randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an intermittent dosing schedule of ribavirin versus that of a continuous dosing schedule of ribavirin in preventing RSV LRTIs in 50 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematologic malignancies. LRTI occurred in 3 patients (9%) receiving the intermittent schedule and in 4 (22%) receiving the continuous schedule, with a 0.889 posterior probability. Because the intermittent schedule is easy to administer and has a higher efficacy than the continuous schedule, we recommend the intermittent schedule for patients who are at risk for RSV LRTI. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00500578. PMID:22927454

Chemaly, Roy F.; Torres, Harrys A.; Munsell, Mark F.; Shah, Dimpy P.; Rathod, Dhanesh B.; Bodey, Gerald P.; Hosing, Chitra; Saifan, Chadi; Raad, Issam I.; Champlin, Richard E.

2012-01-01

59

Flexibility of interval between vaccinations with AS03A-adjuvanted influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in adults aged 18–60 and >60?years: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Flexibility of vaccination schedule and lower antigen content can facilitate pandemic vaccine coverage. We assessed the immune response and safety of AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine containing half of the registered adult haemagglutinin (HA) antigen content, administered as a two-dose schedule at intervals of 21?days or 6?months in both young and elderly adults. Methods In this open-label randomized trial, healthy adults aged 18–60?years (N?=?163) and >60?years (N?=?143) received AS03A-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 vaccine containing 1.9??g HA on Day 0. A second dose was given on Day 21 (n?=?177) or Day 182 (n?=?106). Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses were analyzed on Days 0, 21, 42, 182, 364 and additionally on Day 203 for subjects vaccinated on Day 182. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Results The HI antibody response in both age strata 21?days after the first dose met and exceeded all regulatory acceptance criteria although the results suggested a lower response in the older age stratum (geometric mean titres [GMTs] for HI antibodies of 420.5 for subjects aged 18–60?years and 174.4 for those >60?years). A second dose of AS03A adjuvanted A/H1N1/2009 vaccine induced a further increase in antibody titres and the response was similar whether the second dose was administered at 21?days (GMTs of 771.8 for 18–60?years and 400.9 for >60?years) or 6?months (GMTs of 708.3 for 18–60?years and 512.1 for >60?years) following the first dose. Seroprotection rates remained high at 6?months after one dose or two doses while at 12?months rates tended to be higher for the 6?month interval schedule (93.3% for 18–60?years and 80.4% for >60?years) than the 21?day schedule (82.3% for 18–60?years and 50.0% for >60?years). Reactogenicity/safety profiles were similar for both schedules, there was no evidence of an increase in reactogenicity following the second dose. Conclusions The results indicate that flexibility in the dosing interval for AS03A adjuvanted vaccine may be possible. Such flexibility could help to reduce the logistic stress on delivery of pandemic vaccination programmes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00975884 PMID:22824474

2012-01-01

60

Randomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Machines Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden z Jir'i Sgall x Gerhard Woeginger z  

E-print Network

online scheduling of in­ dependent jobs with the objective to minimize the makespan (i.e., the length of running times of assigned jobs. In the online problem, jobs arrive one by one and we must assign each jobRandomized Online Scheduling on Two Uniform Machines Leah Epstein \\Lambda John Noga y Steve Seiden

Epstein, Leah

61

Human Responding on Random-Interval Schedules of Response-Cost Punishment: The Role of Reduced Reinforcement Density  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.

2010-01-01

62

Methods for calculating confidence and credible intervals for the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models  

PubMed Central

Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating credible intervals using informative prior distributions for the residual between-study variance is presented. Methods Two recently proposed and, under the assumptions of the random effects model, exact methods for constructing confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random effects meta-analyses are extended to the meta-regression setting. The use of Generalised Cochran heterogeneity statistics is extended to the meta-regression setting and a Newton-Raphson procedure is developed to implement the Q profile method for meta-analysis and meta-regression. WinBUGS is used to implement informative priors for the residual between-study variance in the context of Bayesian meta-regressions. Results Results are obtained for two contrasting examples, where the first example involves a binary covariate and the second involves a continuous covariate. Intervals for the residual between-study variance are wide for both examples. Conclusions Statistical methods, and R computer software, are available to compute exact confidence intervals for the residual between-study variance under the random effects model for meta-regression. These frequentist methods are almost as easily implemented as their established counterparts for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-regressions are also easily performed by analysts who are comfortable using WinBUGS. Estimates of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regressions should be routinely reported and accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty. Confidence and/or credible intervals are well-suited to this purpose. PMID:25196829

2014-01-01

63

Time, schedule-, and reinforcer-dependent effects of pimozide and amphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats performed on two multiple random-interval schedules, in which sequences of ascending or descending reinforcement densities were balanced between the schedules and between the two halves of the session. Using a standard reinforcer (10% sucrose pellets), pimozide decreased response rates, while amphetamine increased responding. The effects of both drugs were schedule dependent: larger changes were evident in low response rate,

Gavin Phillips; Paul Willner; David Sampson; Julia Nunn; Richard Muscat

1991-01-01

64

Optimal schedule of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for stage III colon cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although, in Western countries, oxaliplatin-based regimens have been established as a gold standard treatment for patients with stage III or high risk stage II colon cancer after curative resection, in Japan fluorouracil-based regimens have been widely accepted and recommended in the guidelines for adjuvant settings in patients with stage III colon cancer. S-1, an oral preparation evolved from uracil and tegafur, has equivalent efficacy to uracil and tegafur/leucovorin for treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer and might be a suitable regimen in an adjuvant setting. However, the completion rate of the standard six-week cycle of the S-1 regimen is poor and the establishment of an optimal treatment schedule is critical. Therefore, we will conduct a multicenter randomized phase II trial to compare six-week and three-week cycles to establish the optimal schedule of S-1 adjuvant therapy for patients with stage III colon cancer after curative resection. Methods/Design The study is an open-label, multicenter randomized phase II trial. The primary endpoint of this study is three-year disease-free survival rate. Secondary endpoints are the completion rate of the treatment, relative dose intensity, overall survival, disease-free survival, and incidence of adverse events. The sample size was 200, determined with a significance level of 0.20, power of 0.80, and non-inferiority margin of a 10% absolute difference in the primary endpoint. Discussion Although S-1 has not been approved yet as a standard treatment of colon cancer in an adjuvant setting, it is a promising option. Moreover, in Japan S-1 is a standard treatment for patients with stage II/III gastric cancer after curative resection and a promising option for patients with colorectal liver metastases in an adjuvant setting. However, a six-week cycle of treatment is not considered to be the best schedule, and some clinicians use a modified schedule, such as a three-week cycle to keep a sufficient dose intensity with few adverse events. Therefore, it will be useful to determine whether a three-week cycle has an equal or greater efficacy and tolerance to side-effects compared with the standard six-week cycle schedule, and thus may be the most suitable treatment schedule for S-1 treatment. Trial registration The University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006750. PMID:23320901

2013-01-01

65

The Strategic Use of Capacity Slack in the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem with Random Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest in designing systems with capacity slack as one form of flexibility raises many questions about its use and its usefulness. In the framework of the economic lot scheduling problem with stochastic demand, we develop on optimization-based model that considers capacity slack, safety stock, and overtime explicitly, and has the objective of minimizing the expected cost per unit time

Karla E. Bourland; Candace A. Yano

1994-01-01

66

Confidence Intervals, Power Calculation, and Sample Size Estimation for the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient under the Fixed and Random Regression Models: A Computer Program and Useful Standard Tables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a computer package written for Mathematica, the purpose of which is to perform a number of difficult iterative functions with respect to the squared multiple correlation coefficient under the fixed and random models. These functions include computation of the confidence interval upper and lower bounds, power calculation, calculation of…

Mendoza, Jorge L.; Stafford, Karen L.

2001-01-01

67

Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding  

SciTech Connect

The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

1983-03-01

68

Ethanol Preloads Increase Ethanol Preference Under Concurrent Random-Ratio Schedules in Social Drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol (ETOH) preference was measured following ETOH preload doses in normal social drinkers. Eleven Ss participated in a 5-session, double-blind choice study. In Session 1, Ss sampled an ETOH beverage (0.8 g\\/kg). In Sessions 2–5, they consumed a preload beverage containing placebo or ETOH (0.25 or 0.5 g\\/kg). One hour later, they responded on 2 concurrent randomratio (RR) schedules. One

Mary Ann D. Chutuape; Suzanne H. Mitchell; Harriet de Wit

1994-01-01

69

A Randomized Trial of a Mailed Intervention and Self-Scheduling to Improve Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Guidelines recommend bone density screening with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women 65 years or older, but <30% of eligible women undergo DXA testing. There is a need to identify a systematic, effective, and generalizable way to improve osteoporosis screening. Methods Group randomized, controlled trial of women ?65 years old with no DXA in the past 4 years, randomized to receive intervention materials (patient osteoporosis brochure and a letter explaining how to self-schedule a DXA scan) vs. usual care (control). Outcome of interest was DXA completion. Results Of 2997 women meeting inclusion criteria, 977 were randomized to the intervention group. A total of 17.3% of women in the intervention group completed a DXA, compared to 5.2% in the control group (12.1% difference, p<0.0001). When including only those medically appropriate, we found a difference of 19% between the two groups (p<0.0001). DXA receipt was greater in main clinic patients compared to satellite clinic patients (20.9% main clinic vs. 10.1% satellite clinic). The cost to print and mail the intervention was $0.79 per patient, per mailing. The number of women to whom intervention needed to be mailed to yield one extra DXA performed was 9, at a cost of $7.11. Conclusions DXA scan completion was significantly improved through use of a mailed osteoporosis brochure and the availability for patients to self-schedule. This simple approach may be an effective component of a multi-faceted quality improvement program to increase rates of osteoporosis screening. PMID:22836812

Warriner, Amy H.; Outman, Ryan C.; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Morgan, Sarah; Saag, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

70

Using a Nonparametric Bootstrap to Obtain a Confidence Interval for Pearson’s r with Cluster Randomized Data: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson’s r, and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students’ positive substance use expectancies\\u000a and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which\\u000a the unit of randomization was a public middle school. The

David A. Wagstaff; Elvira Elek; Stephen Kulis; Flavio Marsiglia

2009-01-01

71

Using a Nonparametric Bootstrap to Obtain a Confidence Interval for Pearson's "r" with Cluster Randomized Data: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonparametric bootstrap was used to obtain an interval estimate of Pearson's "r," and test the null hypothesis that there was no association between 5th grade students' positive substance use expectancies and their intentions to not use substances. The students were participating in a substance use prevention program in which the unit of…

Wagstaff, David A.; Elek, Elvira; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio

2009-01-01

72

Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait  

E-print Network

interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling remote times, and this dependence would decay in a scale-free (fractal- like) power-law fashion. Defining

73

Clinical trials. A place for randomization in the interval between the end of recruitment and availability of results.  

PubMed

There is a time delay between the final recruitment of patients to a randomized controlled trial and the publication of results. The practical options available to decision makers during this gap can be listed according to whether all treatments are already widely available or whether at least one has been restricted to the trial. When the treatments are already in widespread use, the options are simply either to stop randomizing or to continue. When one trial treatment is restricted, there are further options: a) withdraw the restricted treatment altogether, pending the final analysis; b) continue to offer randomization, with a view to providing further data should these be needed; or c) make the intervention widely available to patients who would have previously been eligible for the trial. In this paper, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of each option and discuss their attendant ethical implications. In particular, we suggest that continuing randomization is an option worthy of serious consideration. Randomizing patients acts as a "hedge" against the need for more data, given that sample size calculation is an inexact science. However, patients must be made aware of the basis on which randomization is offered. PMID:11155840

Lilford, R J; Braunholtz, D A; Edwards, S J

2000-01-01

74

Mature results of a randomized trial comparing two fractionation schedules of high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy for the treatment of endobronchial tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the efficacy of high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) for the treatment of centrally located lung tumors, two different fractionation schedules were compared regarding local tumor response, side effects and survival. Mature retrospective results with longer follow-up and more patients were analyzed. Initial results were published by Huber et al. in 1995. Methods and materials 142 patients with advanced, centrally located malignant tumors with preferential endoluminal growth were randomized to receive 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (time interval: 1 week, n?=?60, group I) or 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy (time interval: 3 weeks, n?=?82, group II) endobronchial HDR-BT. Age, gender, tumor stage, Karnofsky Performance Score and histology were equally distributed between both groups. Results Local tumor response with 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy was significantly higher as compared to 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (median 12 vs. 6 weeks; p???0.015). Median survival was similar in both groups (19 weeks in the 4 fractions group vs. 18 weeks in the 2 fractions group). Fatal hemoptysis was less frequent following irradiation with 2 × 7.2 Gy than with 4 × 3.8 Gy, although the difference did not achieve statistical significance (12.2% vs. 18.3%, respectively. p?=?0,345). Patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma were at higher risk of bleeding compared to other histology (21.9% vs. 9%, p?=?0,035). Multivariate analysis with regard to overall survival, revealed histology (p?=?0.02), Karnofsky Performance Score (p??60 (29 weeks). Moreover, the Karnofsky Performance Score of most patients improved during therapy (p?=?0,001), suggesting successful palliation of cancer associated symptoms. Multivariate analysis with regard to local tumor control found no significant factors. Conclusion Endobronchial HDR-BT is an effective local treatment for advanced centrally located malignant tumors with endoluminal tumor growth. Local tumor response was significantly higher after HDR-BT with 2 × 7.2 Gy. PMID:23289530

2013-01-01

75

A comparison of the regular interval, varying start technique of work sampling with the completely random technique  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A 4 M COLLEOE OF TEXAS A CONPARISON OF THE REGULAR IFlTERVAL~ VARYIITO START TECHNIQ@ OF NORE SANPLIND NITH THE CO~LZ RATKON TECHNIQUE SCOTT TABOR POAGE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... WITH THE COMPLETELY RANDOM TECHNIQUE A Thes|. s SCOTT TABOR POAGE Approved as to style and content by! a rman o ea o spar en Ny Grandmother Helen Conger Poage and Ny Grandfather John Wood Tabor PREFACE In recent years' the technique of work sampling has...

Poage, Scott Tabor

2012-06-07

76

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess QTc interval prolongation of standard dose aflibercept in cancer patients treated with docetaxel.  

PubMed

: The effect of repeated doses of aflibercept on ventricular repolarization in cancer patients was evaluated in an intensive electrocardiogram trial. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 87 treated solid tumor patients. Treatment was with 6 mg/kg aflibercept, 1-hour intravenous (n = 43), or placebo (n = 44), combined with ?75 mg/m docetaxel, every 3 weeks. Electrocardiograms were collected for 6 hours posttreatment using digital 12-lead Holter recorders, at day 1, in cycles 1 and 3. Free and vascular endothelial growth factor-bound aflibercept concentrations were assessed at similar time points. Eighty-four patients (43 placebo and 41 aflibercept) were evaluable for QT interval, Fridericia correction (QTcF) at cycle 1 and 59 (31 placebo and 28 aflibercept) at cycle 3. During cycle 3, from 30 minutes to 6 hours after the start of aflibercept, the maximum observed upper limit of the QTcF 90% confidence interval was 16 ms, for a mean of 8.4 ms. QTcF prolongation above 480 ms and 60 ms above baseline was observed in 1 aflibercept patient (2%). The slope of the relationship between free aflibercept concentration and QTcF was 0.048 (95% confidence interval, 0.013-0.082), corresponding to a 5-ms increase per 100 µg/mL increase in concentration. These results exclude a clinically important effect of aflibercept on ventricular repolarization. PMID:23429593

Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Vermorken, Jan B; Goksel, Tuncay; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Agarwala, Sanjiv; Rottey, Sylvie; Daugaard, Gedske; Volovat, Constantin; Scheulen, Max; Sengeløv, Lisa; Grecea, Dana; Eniu, Alexandru; Jäger, Elke; Meiri, Eyal; Cascinu, Stefano; Strumberg, Dirk; Demir, Gokhan; Clemens, Michael; Pinotti, Graziella; Nardi, Mario; Guthrie, Troy; Boelle, Emmanuelle; Magherini, Emmanuelle

2013-06-01

77

Exact statistics of the gap and time interval between the first two maxima of random walks and Lévy flights.  

PubMed

We investigate the statistics of the gap G(n) between the two rightmost positions of a Markovian one-dimensional random walker (RW) after n time steps and of the duration L(n) which separates the occurrence of these two extremal positions. The distribution of the jumps ?(i)'s of the RW, f(?), is symmetric and its Fourier transform has the small k behavior 1-f[over ^](k)~|k|(?), with 01 and 01 with ?(11 with fixed lg(-?), p(g,l) takes the scaling form p(g,l)~g(-1-2?)p[over ˜](?)(lg(-?)), where p[over ˜](?)(y) is a (?-dependent) scaling function. We also present numerical simulations which verify our analytic results. PMID:23992054

Majumdar, Satya N; Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory

2013-08-16

78

AN EXTENDED AKERS GRAPHICAL METHOD WITH A BIASED RANDOM-KEY GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR JOB-SHOP SCHEDULING  

E-print Network

AN EXTENDED AKERS GRAPHICAL METHOD WITH A BIASED RANDOM-KEY GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR JOB-SHOP.F. Gonçalves and M.G.C. Resende, "An extended Akers graphical method with a biased random-key genetic algorithm algorithm; Biased random-key genetic algorithm; Heuris- tics; Random keys, Graphical approach. Supported

Resende, Mauricio G. C.

79

The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK), time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done (TWD)) in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE) ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec) × W = J). Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate) (Cr; n = 16), placebo (PL; n = 17), or control (n = 10) groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL). No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance. PMID:19909536

2009-01-01

80

Influence of Schizotypy on Responding and Contingency Awareness on Free-Operant Schedules of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schedules of reinforcement typically produce reliable patterns of behaviour, and one factor that can cause deviations from these normally reliable patterns is schizotypy. Low scorers on the unusual experiences subscale of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences performed as expected on a yoked random-ratio (RR), random-interval

Randell, Jordan; Searle, Rob; Reed, Phil

2012-01-01

81

Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Two hundred female sex workers (FSWs) in Lima, Peru were randomized to receive HPV4 vaccine in the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or a modified schedule (0, 3, 6 months). One hundred and eighty four (92%) participants completed 3 doses of vaccine. Baseline seropositive rates were 58% for HPV6, 22.5% for HPV11, 41.5% for HPV16, and 13% for HPV18. The final geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) following vaccination was significantly greater for women who were seropositive at baseline compared to seronegative women: HPV6 (GMT ratio=2.3, p<0.01), HPV11 (GMT ratio=2.7, p<0.01), HPV16 (GMT ratio=1.3, p=0.04), and HPV18 (GMT ratio=2.4, p<0.01)). Antibody titers in the modified schedule were not inferior to those in the standard schedule, suggesting the modified schedule may be paired with required STD visits. Although all women benefit from vaccination, administration at a younger age and before sexual debut is needed to achieve maximum protection from vaccine. PMID:22306855

Brown, Brandon; Blas, Magaly; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Gravitt, Patti; Halsey, Neal

2012-01-01

82

Copenhagen study of overweight patients with coronary artery disease undergoing low energy diet or interval training: the randomized CUT-IT trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accountable for more than 7 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a European population 80% of patients diagnosed with CAD are overweight and 31% are obese. Physical inactivity and overweight are major risk factors in CAD, thus central strategies in secondary prevention are increased physical activity and weight loss. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial 70 participants with stable CAD, age 45–75, body mass index 28–40 kg/m2 and no diabetes are randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of intensive exercise or weight loss both succeeded by a 40-week follow-up. The exercise protocol consist of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of VO2peak 3 times weekly for 12 weeks followed by supervised AIT twice weekly for 40 weeks. In the weight loss arm dieticians instruct the participants in a low energy diet (800–1000 kcal/day) for 12 weeks, followed by 40 weeks of weight maintenance combined with supervised AIT twice weekly. The primary endpoint of the study is change in coronary flow reserve after the first 12 weeks’ intervention. Secondary endpoints include cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and anthropometric measures. Discussion The study will compare the short and long-term effects of a protocol consisting of AIT alone or a rapid weight loss followed by AIT. Additionally, it will provide new insight in mechanisms behind the benefits of exercise and weight loss. We wish to contribute to the creation of effective secondary prevention and sustainable rehabilitation strategies in the large population of overweight and obese patients diagnosed with CAD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01724567 PMID:24252596

2013-01-01

83

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource assists the user in reading, constructing, and understanding confidence intervals. Created and published by Gerard E. Dallal, this introductory text aims to get students to read, understand, and write statements which discuss confidence intervals.

Dallal, Gerard E.

2008-09-03

84

Bouts of Responding: The Relation between Bout Rate and the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable- interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of the variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was…

Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.; Bennett, J. Adam

2004-01-01

85

Randomized trial of two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin as induction monotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia in older patients not considered candidates for intensive chemotherapy. A phase II study of the EORTC and GIMEMA leukemia groups (AML-19)  

PubMed Central

Summary This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m2 on day 1 and 3 mg/m2 on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n=29; B, n=27). The rate of DnP was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 23%–55%) in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45%–78%) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1+8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care. PMID:20230405

Amadori, Sergio; Suciu, Stefan; Selleslag, Dominik; Stasi, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana; Baila, Liliana; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Borlenghi, Erika; Gaidano, Gianluca; Magro, Domenico; Torelli, Giuseppe; Muus, Petra; Venditti, Adriano; Cacciola, Emma; Lauria, Francesco; Vignetti, Marco; de Witte, Theo

2010-01-01

86

Effects of Home-Based Interval Walking Training on Thigh Muscle Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Female Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Due to the reduced physical activity of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA), there are no home-based exercise training regimens for preventing muscle atrophy and aerobic capacity impairment in these patients. We examined whether interval walking training (IWT) could prevented these issues. Twenty-eight female patients (?60 years of age) who had undergone THA more than 2 months prior were randomly divided into IWT (n?=?14) and control (CNT, n?=?14) groups. The IWT subjects trained at a target of 60 min of fast walking at >70% peak aerobic capacity for walking (O2peak) per wk for 12 wk, while those in the CNT maintained their previous sedentary life during the same period. We measured the energy expenditure of the daily physical activity, except during sleeping and bathing, every minute and every day during the intervention. We also measured the isometric knee extension (FEXT) and flexion (FFLX) forces, O2peak, and anaerobic threshold during the graded cycling exercise (O2AT) before and after the intervention. All subjects, except for one in IWT, completed the protocol. FFLX increased by 23% on the operated side (P?=?0.003) and 14% on the non-operated side of IWT (P?=?0.006), while it only increased on the operated side of CNT (P?=?0.03). The O2peak and O2AT in IWT increased by 8% (P?=?0.08) and 13% (P?=?0.002), respectively, and these changes were significantly higher in the IWT than in CNT group (both, P<0.05). In conclusion, IWT might be an effective home-based training regimen for preventing the muscle atrophy from reduced daily physical activity in THA patients. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000013172 PMID:25268505

Morishima, Yutaka; Mizushima, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Morikawa, Mayuko; Masuki, Shizue; Nose, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

87

The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance

Jennifer L Graef; Abbie E Smith; Kristina L Kendall; David H Fukuda; Jordan R Moon; Travis W Beck; Joel T Cramer; Jeffrey R Stout

2009-01-01

88

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Ivo Dinov of the University of California at Berkeley, introduces the concept of confidence intervals. Select an alpha level, sample size, and the number of experiments, and click "Play." For each sample, the applet will show the data points as blue dots and the confidence interval as a red, vertical line. The true population mean is shown as a horizontal purple line, and green ovals indicate which intervals do not contain the true mean.

Dinov, Ivo

2009-01-14

89

Interval Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

90

The Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS): A randomized study comparing two different follow-up schedules for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods. Material and methods SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10–15 years. Results Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres. Conclusions It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule. PMID:23883427

Carlsson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik; Holmberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Josefsson, Andreas; Nilsson, Annika; Nyberg, Maria; Robinsson, David; Sandberg, Jonas; Sandblom, Dag; Stattin, Par

2013-01-01

91

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applets in this section of Statistical Java allow you to see how levels of confidence are achieved through repeated sampling. The confidence intervals are related to the probability of successes in a Binomial experiment. The main page gives the equation for finding confidence intervals and describes the parameters (p, n, alpha). Each applet allows you to change a different parameter and simulate sampling to demonstrate the long run proportion of intervals that contain the true probability of success. The applets are available from a pull-down menu at the bottom of the page.

Anderson-Cook, C.; Dorai-Raj, S.; Robinson, T.

2008-12-17

92

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students create a confidence interval based on the historic snowfall records of a town in Ohio, the data for which is available online. The class will calculate the mean and standard deviation, applying formulas to the data. The standard deviation of the entire data set as well as a confidence interval will be created. A student handout is available for download here in Word Document format.

2010-12-16

93

Interactive Applet: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, designed by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, is designed to help students visualize the concept of confidence intervals by allowing the user to select sample size, standard deviation, and confidence level, then testing random samples. It accompanies "Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics," but does not require use of the text.

2011-10-03

94

Random Experiment Program Resource Impact (REPRI) program: User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete user and programmer guide for the REPRI program is presented. This program was developed to perform mission concept, subsystem capability, and experiment support compatibility studies for a space station. The program utilizes Monte Carlo techniques to randomly schedule events in discrete intervals. Resources, logistics, cost, and space station volume are considered.

Pease, W. T.; Alford, R. A.

1972-01-01

95

Methotrexate/fluorouracil scheduling influences normal tissue toxicity but not antitumor effects in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer: results from a randomized trial.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that sequential scheduling of methotrexate (MTX) and fluorouracil (FU) produces a synergistic antitumor effect, we randomized 113 patients with recurrent or locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck to receive MTX-FU either 18 hours apart or simultaneously, with leucovorin rescue. There were 100 patients with locally advanced newly presenting disease and 13 patients with recurrence. Excessive toxicity was observed in the first 11 patients who received MTX 250 mg/m2 administered intravenously (IV) and leucovorin at 36 hours, therefore all subsequent patients received MTX 200 mg/m2 administered IV and leucovorin at 24 hours. FU 600 mg/m2 IV was administered to all patients, and treatment was given on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycles. The treatment groups were well balanced for known prognostic variables. The response rate was 47.3% (26 of 55) for simultaneous v 44.8% (26 of 58) for sequential therapy. These results exclude a 20% difference in response rate favoring sequential therapy at P = .04. There was no observed difference in survival between the two treatment arms (P = .55) with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Toxicity was greater in patients who received sequential therapy, and the difference was confined to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A comparison of the distribution in maximum Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) toxicity scores during chemotherapy for the two treatment groups showed greater stomatitis (P = .001), diarrhea (P = .04), and overall toxicity (P = .02) for sequential treatment without an observed difference in bone marrow toxicity. The results of this trial indicate that sequential MTX-FU is not superior to simultaneous therapy for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. Biochemical modulation of MTX-FU by drug scheduling may occur in vivo and may be organ specific. PMID:3286831

Browman, G P; Levine, M N; Goodyear, M D; Russell, R; Archibald, S D; Jackson, B S; Young, J E; Basrur, V; Johanson, C

1988-06-01

96

Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Department of Statistics at Yale University, gives an explanation of, a definition for and an example of confidence intervals. It covers topics including inference about population mean and z and t critical values. The page nicely blends graphs and visuals, along with text, to provide a thorough presentation.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

97

Interbirth intervals  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos. PMID:24480612

Haig, David

2014-01-01

98

Effect of initial seed and number of samples on simple-random and Latin-Hypercube Monte Carlo probabilities (confidence interval considerations)  

SciTech Connect

In order to devise an algorithm for autonomously terminating Monte Carlo sampling when sufficiently small and reliable confidence intervals (CI) are achieved on calculated probabilities, the behavior of CI estimators must be characterized. This knowledge is also required in comparing the accuracy of other probability estimation techniques to Monte Carlo results. Based on 100 trials in a hypothesis test, estimated 95% CI from classical approximate CI theory are empirically examined to determine if they behave as true 95% CI over spectrums of probabilities (population proportions) ranging from 0.001 to 0.99 in a test problem. Tests are conducted for population sizes of 500 and 10,000 samples where applicable. Significant differences between true and estimated 95% CI are found to occur at probabilities between 0.1 and 0.9, such that estimated 95% CI can be rejected as not being true 95% CI at less than a 40% chance of incorrect rejection. With regard to Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS), though no general theory has been verified for accurately estimating LHS CI, recent numerical experiments on the test problem have found LHS to be conservatively over an order of magnitude more efficient than SRS for similar sized CI on probabilities ranging between 0.25 and 0.75. The efficiency advantage of LHS vanishes, however, as the probability extremes of 0 and 1 are approached.

ROMERO,VICENTE J.

2000-05-04

99

Scheduling semiconductor wafer fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact that scheduling can have on the performance of semi-conductor wafer fabrication facilities is assessed. The performance measure considered is the mean throughput time (sometimes called cycle time, turnaround time or manufacturing interval) for a lot of wafers. A variety of input control and sequencing rules are evaluated using a simulation model of a representative, but fictitious, semiconductor wafer

LAWRENCE M. WEIN

1988-01-01

100

Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p?=?0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p?=?0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p?=?0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p?=?0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645

Hatle, Havard; St?bakk, Per Kristian; M?lmen, Harald Edvard; Br?nstad, Eivind; Tj?nna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Bjork; Rognmo, ?ivind

2014-01-01

101

Interval Computations Interval Arithmetic in Mathematica  

E-print Network

Interval Computations No 3, 1993 Interval Arithmetic in Mathematica Jerry B. Keiper The use. Mathematica is one way to educate potential users regarding the usefulness of interval methods. This paper examines some of the ways that intervals can be used in Mathematica. Mathematica

Kearfott, R. Baker

102

Scheduling = CLRTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the five principal active money-making functions of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) of fuels and petrochemicals is scheduling. Scheduling of what? Processes, shipments, receipts, movements, purchases, sales, deliveries, people, computers, information, businesses and research\\/development\\/application. Scheduling is fundamental to all activities and interactions. This editorial is confined to closed-loop real-time scheduling (CLRTS) of manufacturing operations, one of the five active

Latour

1996-01-01

103

Fatigue in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving sunitinib on an intermittent versus continuous dosing schedule in a randomized phase II trial.  

PubMed

A phase II trial in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) found no benefit in efficacy or safety between patients receiving oral sunitinib 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2-week off-treatment (Schedule 4/2) and those receiving 37.5 mg continuous daily sunitinib. We hypothesized that fatigue would have a more variable "on-off" effect with the 4/2 schedule. A total of 292 patients completed two fatigue-related items on Days 1 and 29 of each treatment cycle. Mean absolute slopes were compared across treatments. A planned analysis of item "I feel fatigued" demonstrated that the mean absolute slope was greater in Schedule 4/2 compared to continuous dosing (0.042 vs. 0.032, P = 0.003), and analysis based on the change from Day 1 to Day 29 (0.52 vs. 0.21, P = 0.002) and, separately, Day 29 to the next Day 1 (-0.38 vs. -0.05, P < 0.001) showed the changes to be significantly larger in Schedule 4/2 than continuous dosing. "I have a lack of energy" showed a similar pattern graphically, however, the planned analysis was not statistically significant based on the absolute slopes but was when Day 1 to Day 29 and Day 29 to Day 1 changes were analyzed separately. The 4/2 arm was associated with a greater degree of variability in fatigue reflecting a possible "on-off" effect whereby patients receiving the 4/2 schedule reported less fatigue at the beginning of each cycle compared to Day 29. The findings can inform care for individuals with advanced RCC receiving intermittent dosing of sunitinib. PMID:25044922

Cella, David; Jensen, Sally E; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Korytowsky, Beata; Bhattacharyya, Helen; Motzer, Robert

2014-10-01

104

Case study on statistically estimating minimum makespan for flow line scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Lower bounds,are typically used to evaluate the performance,of heuristics for solving combinatorial,minimization problems. In the absence of tight analytical lower bounds, optimal objective-function values may be estimated statistically. In this paper, extreme value theory is used to construct confidence-interval estimates of the minimum makespan achievable when,scheduling nonsimilar groups of jobs on a two-stage flow line. Experimental,results based on randomly

Amy D. Wilson; Russell E. King; James R. Wilson

2004-01-01

105

Double-blind, randomized trial of scheduled use of a novel barrier cream and an oil-containing lotion for protecting the hands of health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Many health care workers suffer severe hand irritation, with cracking and bleeding, as a consequence of frequent handwashing and glove use. Integumentary breakdown has major implications for nosocomial infection control and promotes the spread of bloodborne viruses. The potential benefits of scheduled use of hand-care agents—lotions or creams—in health care workers has not been established by controlled trial. Objective:

Rita D. McCormick; Tracy L. Buchman; Dennis G. Maki

2000-01-01

106

A multicentric randomized controlled trial on the impact of lengthening the interval between neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery on complete pathological response in rectal cancer (GRECCAR-6 trial): rationale and design  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) is now part of the armamentarium of cancer of the lower and middle rectum. It is recommended in current clinical practice prior to surgical excision if the lesion is classified T3/T4 or N+. Histological complete response, defined by the absence of persistent tumor cell invasion and lymph node (ypT0N0) after pathological examination of surgical specimen has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival and disease-free survival. Surgical excision is usually performed between 6 and 8 weeks after completion of CRT and pathological complete response rate ranges around 12%. In retrospective studies, a lengthening of the interval after RCT beyond 10 weeks was found as an independent factor increasing the rate of pathological complete response (between 26% and 31%), with a longer disease-free survival and without increasing the operative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in 264 patients the rate of pathological complete response rate of rectal cancer after RCT by lengthening the time between RCT and surgery. Methods/design The current study is a multicenter randomized trial in two parallel groups comparing 7 and 11 weeks of delay between the end of RCT and cancer surgery of rectal tumors. At the end of the RCT, surgery is planified and randomization is performed after patient’s written consent for participation. The histological complete response (ypT0N0) will be determined with analysis of the complete residual tumor and double reading by two pathologists blinded of the group of inclusion. Patients will be followed in clinics for 5 years after surgery. Participation in this trial does not change patient’s management in terms of treatment, investigations or visits. Secondary endpoints will include overall and disease free survival, rate of sphincter conservation and quality of mesorectal excision. The number of patients needed is 264. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01648894 PMID:24028546

2013-01-01

107

Resistance to Extinction Following Variable-Interval Reinforcement: Reinforcer Rate and Amount  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats obtained food-pellet reinforcers by nose poking a lighted key. Experiment 1 examined resistance to extinction following single-schedule training with different variable-interval schedules, ranging from a mean interval of 16 min to 0.25 min. That is, for each schedule, the rats received 20 consecutive daily baseline sessions and then a session…

Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.

2006-01-01

108

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe the various techniques that were proposed for constructing non-parametric confidence intervals using the bootstrap. These include bootstrap pivotal intervals, percentile and bias-corrected percentile intervals, and non-parametric titling inter...

R. J. Tibshirani

1984-01-01

109

Elicited responding in chain schedules.  

PubMed Central

An omission procedure was employed to study elicited pecking in the first component of a two-component chain schedule. Both components were fixed-interval schedules correlated with colored keylights. The first response following the initial-link schedule produced a second fixed-interval schedule. We studied several fixed-interval lengths in two conditions: a standard response-dependent condition and an omission-contingent condition. The omission-contingent condition differed from the response-dependent condition in that responses during the initial fixed interval terminated the trial (omitting the terminal component and grain). If the terminal component was not omitted, a response following the terminal link's requirement produced 4-s access to grain. Pigeons responded during more than 70% of the initial links in the omission-contingent condition and responded during more than 90% of the initial links in the response-dependent condition. In general, rates of responding were consistent with the percentage data. The responding in the omission condition suggests that there may be elicited pecking, in chain schedules using pigeons, that is not the result of contingent conditioned reinforcement. PMID:1774540

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1991-01-01

110

Conditionalization for Interval Probabilities Alex Dekhtyar  

E-print Network

Conditionalization for Interval Probabilities Alex Dekhtyar dekhtyar@cs.uky.edu Department probability distribution given a joint probability distribution of two or more random variables probability distribution is straightforward when the exact point probabilities are involved, it is often

Dekhtyar, Alexander

111

Discrimination of Variable Schedules Is Controlled by Interresponse Times Proximal to Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval,…

Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

2012-01-01

112

Modeling the multi-layer nature of the European Air Transport Network: Resilience and passengers re-scheduling under random failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

Cardillo, Alessio; Zanin, Massimiliano; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; García del Amo, Alejandro J.; Boccaletti, Stefano

2013-01-01

113

Modeling the Multi-layer Nature of the European Air Transport Network: Resilience and Passengers Re-scheduling under random failures  

E-print Network

We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; del Amo, Alejandro J García; Boccaletti, Stefano

2012-01-01

114

Mission scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

Gaspin, Christine

1989-01-01

115

Safety of a 3-weekly schedule of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as first line chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the MITO-2 randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The MITO-2 (Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer) study is a randomized phase III trial comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel to carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in first-line chemotherapy of patients with ovarian cancer. Due to the paucity of published phase I data on the 3-weekly experimental schedule used, an early safety analysis was planned. Methods Patients with ovarian cancer (stage Ic-IV), aged < 75 years, ECOG performance status ? 2, were randomized to carboplatin AUC 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, every 3 weeks or to carboplatin AUC 5 plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 30 mg/m2, every 3 weeks. Treatment was planned for 6 cycles. Toxicity was coded according to the NCI-CTC version 2.0. Results The pre-planned safety analysis was performed in July 2004. Data from the first 50 patients treated with carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin were evaluated. Median age was 60 years (range 34–75). Forty-three patients (86%) completed 6 cycles. Two thirds of the patients had at least one cycle delayed due to toxicity, but 63% of the cycles were administered on time. In most cases the reason for chemotherapy delay was neutropenia or other hematological toxicity. No delay due to palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) was recorded. No toxic death was recorded. Reported hematological toxicities were: grade (G) 3 anemia 16%, G3/G4 neutropenia 36% and 10% respectively, G3/4 thrombocytopenia 22% and 4% respectively. Non-haematological toxicity was infrequent: pulmonary G1 6%, heart rhythm G1 4%, liver toxicity G1 6%, G2 4% and G3 2%. Complete hair loss was reported in 6% of patients, and G1 neuropathy in 2%. PPE was recorded in 14% of the cases (G1 10%, G2 2%, G3 2%). Conclusion This safety analysis shows that the adopted schedule of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin given every 3 weeks is feasible as first line treatment in ovarian cancer patients, although 37% of the cycles were delayed due to haematological toxicity. Toxicities that are common with standard combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (neurotoxicity and hair loss) are infrequent with this experimental schedule, and skin toxicity appears manageable. PMID:16882344

Pignata, Sandro; Scambia, Giovanni; Savarese, Antonella; Breda, Enrico; Scollo, Paolo; De Vivo, Rocco; Rossi, Emanuela; Gebbia, Vittorio; Natale, Donato; Del Gaizo, Filomena; Naglieri, Emanuele; Ferro, Antonella; Musso, Pietro; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Sorio, Roberto; Pisano, Carmela; Di Maio, Massimo; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Annalisa; Perrone, Francesco

2006-01-01

116

Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents lottery scheduling, a novel randomized resource allocation mechanism. Lottery scheduling provides efficient, responsive control over the relative execution rates of computations. Such control is beyond the capabilities of conventional schedulers, and is desirable in systems that service requests of varying importance, such as databases, media-based applications, and networks. Lottery scheduling also supports modular resource management by enabling

Carl A. Waldspurger; William E. Weihl

1994-01-01

117

Approximate schedule  

E-print Network

Oct 8, 2014 ... Binomial theorem (1), definition of probability (2.3) , properties of probability, examples ... Distribution function of random variables (4.10). Sep 25 ... Poisson random variables, Poisson approximation to binomial distribution ...

Alex Misiats

2014-08-25

118

Patient Follow-up in an Urban Resident Continuity Clinic: An Initiative to Improve Scheduling Practices  

PubMed Central

Introduction Failure to schedule timely follow-up appointments may impair continuity and quality of care, especially for patients with low health literacy and unstable living situations. Resident continuity clinics face particular challenges in scheduling patient follow-up because of residents' complex schedules and limited time in clinic. Methods As part of a structured quality-improvement curriculum, residents initiated discussions with clinical supervisors and clerical staff to evaluate and improve scheduling practices in an urban continuity clinic. The problem-solving process emphasized feasibility (rapid implementation/evaluation cycle, low time/resource burden) and measurable outcomes. These discussions led to design of a new scheduling form. We evaluated the short-term impact of awareness raising by comparing scheduling rates before (month 1) versus after (months 2–3) implementation, and of the form itself by randomly selecting 2 afternoon clinics to implement the new form, with a third serving as control. Results We analyzed all patient encounters over a 3-month period (n ?=? 910), excluding patients with a recommended follow-up interval of greater than 4 months. The proportion of appointments “never scheduled” (at 1 month after provider-requested follow-up date) declined from 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.5%–23.9%) in month 1 to 11.4% (CI, 8.1%–15.5%) in month 3. This proportion was significantly higher before than after implementation of the form (multivariable relative risk, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08–2.03; P ?=? .02), both in clinics that used and did not use the form (P ?=? .93 for difference). Conclusions We describe a model resident-led, team-based intervention that addressed core competencies in graduate medical education while improving outpatient scheduling practices. PMID:22655154

Dowdy, David W.; Horton, Claire K.; Lau, Ben; Ferrer, Rosaly; Chen, Alice H.

2011-01-01

119

Interval Linear Algebra  

E-print Network

In this book we use only special types of intervals and introduce the notion of different types of interval linear algebras and interval vector spaces using the intervals of the form [0, a] where the intervals are from Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0}. A systematic development is made starting from set interval vector spaces to group interval vector spaces. Vector spaces are taken as interval polynomials or interval matrices or just intervals over suitable sets or semigroups or groups. Main feature of this book is the authors have given over 350 examples. This book has six chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Chapter two introduces the notion of set interval linear algebras of type one and two. Set fuzzy interval linear algebras and their algebras and their properties are discussed in chapter three. Chapter four introduces several types of interval linear bialgebras and bivector spaces and studies them. The possible applications are given in chapter five. Chapter six suggests nearly 110 problems of all levels.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

2010-12-08

120

Better Bootstrap Confidence Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of setting approximate confidence intervals for a single parameter ? in a multiparameter family. The standard approximate intervals based on maximum likelihood theory, , can be quite misleading. In practice, tricks based on transformations, bias corrections, and so forth, are often used to improve their accuracy. The bootstrap confidence intervals discussed in this article automatically incorporate

Bradley Efron

1987-01-01

121

A computer algorithm to optimize the scheduling of strategic sealift  

E-print Network

Operation Desert Shield. A mathematical model for the problem is proposed and an algorithm is developed and applied to solve the scheduling problem. Results of the algorithm are compared with randomly generated schedules to determine algorithm effectiveness....

Lambert, Garrett Randall

2012-06-07

122

Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management Carl A. Waldspurger William E. Weihl  

E-print Network

Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management Carl A. Waldspurger William E. Weihl MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Abstract This paper presents lottery scheduling, a novel randomized resource allocation mechanism. Lottery scheduling provides ef- ficient

Iamnitchi, Adriana

123

Prospective randomized study of various irradiation doses and fractionation schedules in the treatment of inoperable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung  

SciTech Connect

Analysis is presented of a prospective randomized study involving 365 patients with histologically proven unresectable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung treated with deffinitive radiotherapy. The patients were radomized to one of four treatment regimens: 4000 rad split course, or 4000, 5000, or 6000-rad continuous courses in five fractions per week. Ninety to 100 patients were accessioned to each group. The one-year survival rate is 50% and the two-year survival rate, 25%. The patients treated with the split course have the lowest survival rate in comparison with the other groups. The complete and partial local regression of tumor was 49% in patients treated with 4000 rad and 55% in the groups treated with 5000 and 6000 rad. For patients who achieved complete regression of the tumor following irradiation, the two-year survival rate is 40%, in contrast to 20% for those with partial regression, and no survivors among the patients with stable or progressive disease. The incidence of intrathoracic recurrence was 33% for patients treated with 6000 rad, 39% for those receiving 5000 rad, and 44 to 49% for those treated with a 4000-rad split or continuous course. At present, the data stongly suggest that patients treated with 5000 or 6000 rad have a better response, tumor control, and survival rate than those receiving lower doses. Patients with high performance status or with tumors in earlier stages have a two-year survival rate of approx. 40%, in comparison with 20% for other patients. The various irradiation regimens have been well tolerated, with complications being slightly higher in the 4000-rad split course group and in the 6000-rad continuous course group. The most frequent complications have been pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and dyspagia due to transient esophagitis. Further investigation will be necessary before the optimal management of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma by irradiation is established.

Perez, C.A.; Stanley, K.; Rubin, P.; Kramer, S.; Brady, L.; Perez-Tamayo, R.; Brown, G.S.; Concannon, J.; Rotman, M.; Seydel, H.G.

1980-06-01

124

The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random

Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2011-01-01

125

Students' intuitions on randomness  

E-print Network

Test of Equality of Proportions from Pretest to Posttest. Paten of Responses from Pretest to Posttest . . Page 10 16 16 22 23 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Confidence Intervals by Class for Difference in Randomness Scores. 24 Figure 2 Figure 3... Test of Equality of Proportions from Pretest to Posttest. Paten of Responses from Pretest to Posttest . . Page 10 16 16 22 23 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Confidence Intervals by Class for Difference in Randomness Scores. 24 Figure 2 Figure 3...

Matis-Ogden, Christine

2012-06-07

126

Schedule shifts, cancer and longevity  

PubMed Central

Prompted by a recent report of the possible carcinogenic effect of shiftwork focusing on the disruption of circadian rhythms, we review studies involving shifts in schedule implemented at varying intervals in unicells, insects and mammals, including humans. Results indicate the desirability to account for a broader-than-circadian view. They also suggest the possibility of optimizing schedule shifts by selecting intervals between consecutive shifts associated with potential side-effects such as an increase in cancer risk. Toward this goal, marker rhythmometry is most desirable. The monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate present the added benefit of assessing cardiovascular disease risks resulting not only from an elevated blood pressure but also from abnormal variability in blood pressure and/or heart rate of normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. PMID:19227006

Cornelissen, Germaine; Halberg, Julia; Halberg, Franz; de la Pena, Salvador Sanchez; Nelson, Walter; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Stoynev, Alexander; Haus, Erhard

2008-01-01

127

Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

2009-01-01

128

The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…

Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.

2008-01-01

129

Asynchronous Scheduling of Redundant Disk Arrays Peter Sanders \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Asynchronous Scheduling of Redundant Disk Arrays Peter Sanders \\Lambda Abstract Allocation of data priorization schemes. Index Terms:Parallel disks, lazy scheduling, asynchronous, random redundant storage to the same disk. The main issue here is to schedule the request to the disks in such a way that access

Schmitt, Peter H.

130

Stochastic Online Scheduling with Precedence Constraints Nicole Megow  

E-print Network

without job preemptions. These are the first investiga- tion on online scheduling with precedence are modelled as random variables and the jobs become known to the scheduler online. In traditional onlineStochastic Online Scheduling with Precedence Constraints Nicole Megow Tjark Vredeveld June 8, 2007

Nabben, Reinhard

131

Bootstrap confidence intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys bootstrap methods for producing good approximate confidence intervals. The goal is to improve by an order of magnitude upon the accuracy of the standard intervals $\\\\hat{\\\\theta} \\\\pm z^{(\\\\alpha)} \\\\hat{\\\\sigma}$, in a way that allows routine application even to very complicated problems. Both theory and examples are used to show how this is done. The first seven sections

Thomas J. DiCiccio; Bradley Efron; Peter Hall; Michael A. Martin; A. J. Canty; A. C. Davison; D. V. Hinkley; Leon Jay Gleser; Stephen M. S. Lee; G. Alastair Young

1996-01-01

132

Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

Dynamic Slack Reclamation with Procrastination Scheduling in Real-Time Embedded Systems Ravindra reclamation techniques under procrastination scheduling to minimize the static and dynamic en- ergy idle intervals through slack reclamation. While using the entire slack for either slowdown

Gupta, Rajesh

133

Interval-class and Order of Presentation Affect Interval Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the connection between the concept interval-class (IC) and aural estimations of intervals. Sequences of five piano-sound or Shepard-tone intervals were used. In each sequence four intervals represented one IC (the context) and one interval represented another IC (the deviant). The participants (N = 36) were asked to select one interval deviating from the other intervals of the sequence.The participants

Tuire Kuusi

2007-01-01

134

Please cite this article in press as: Brown B, et al. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers. Vaccine (2012), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.058  

E-print Network

Please cite this article in press as: Brown B, et al. Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers. Vaccine (2012), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.058 ARTICLE IN PRESS GModel JVAC-12859; No.of Pages6 Vaccine xxx (2012) xxx­xxx Contents lists

Loudon, Catherine

135

A quantitative analysis of chain-schedule performance  

PubMed Central

Six pigeons were trained with a chain variable-interval variable-interval schedule on the left key and with reinforcers available on the right key on a single variable-interval schedule arranged concurrently with both links of the chain. All three schedules were separately and systematically varied over a wide range of mean intervals. During these manipulations, the obtained reinforcer rates on constant arranged schedules also frequently changed systematically. Increasing reinforcer rates in Link 2 of the chain increased response rates in both links and decreased response rates in the variable-interval schedule concurrently available with Link 2. Increasing Link-1 reinforcer rates increased Link-1 response rates and decreased Link-2 response rates. Increasing reinforcer rates on the right-key schedule decreased response rates in Link 1 of the chain but did not affect the rate in Link 2. The results extend and amplify previous analyses of chain-schedule performance and help define the effects that a quantitative model must describe. However, the complexity of the results, and the fact that constant arranged reinforcer schedules did not necessarily lead to constant obtained reinforcer rates, precluded a quantitative analysis. PMID:16812574

Davison, Michael; McCarthy, Dianne

1989-01-01

136

Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal duration. This duration of exposure was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to the rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component was studied. Results are plotted and discussed.

Todorov, J. C.

1972-01-01

137

Childhood Immunization Schedule  

MedlinePLUS

... If you prefer, you can make a schedule without a name. Related Pages Current Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Disclaimer: This immunization schedule is based on the ...

138

Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

Higa, J J; Simm, L A

2004-11-30

139

Time intervals between accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the evidence in favor of the commonly accepted hypothesis of individual differences in accident proneness of individuals is not affected by accidents in which they are involved. The validity of this assumption is investigated in terms of a study of time intervals between consecutive accidents of a number of taxi-drivers. Some features of the relevant mathematical theory of

Alexander Mintz

1954-01-01

140

Overconfidence in Interval Estimates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

2004-01-01

141

Confidence Intervals & Hypothesis Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, authored by David M. Lane of HyperStat Online, explains the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. Because of the immense similarities between the two procedures many find them to be one in the same. Lane attempts to dispel this common misconception with his brief presentation on the subject.

Lane, David M.

2009-10-14

142

Sampling SIM: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Beth Chance, Bob delmas and Joan Garfield, this web page provides instructions for teaching confidence intervals using Sampling SIM software. It includes information regarding prerequisite knowledge, common misconceptions, and objectives, as well as links to an activity and a pre/post-test. This resource will provide a nice assessment of the skills obtained during this lesson.

Chance, Beth; Delmas, Bob; Garfield, Joan

2009-03-16

143

Scheduling and Reliable Lead-Time Quotation for Orders with  

E-print Network

Scheduling and Reliable Lead-Time Quotation for Orders with Availability Intervals and Lead for coordinating scheduling with lead-time quotation: a basic model with a single customer type, and an enhanced, revenues obtained from the cus- tomers are sensitive to the lead time, there is a threshold of lead time

Ravi, R.

144

Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

Mace, F. Charles; And Others

1994-01-01

145

Protocols for distributive scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

1993-01-01

146

Schedule-induced electrodermal responding in children  

PubMed Central

The current studies were designed to determine whether different intermittent schedules of reinforcement would have a differential effect on the skin conductance responses (SCRs) of children in the 8–12-year-old age range. Results of two experiments indicated that the amplitude of children’s SCRs immediately following the occurrence of reinforcement were a function of the schedule of reinforcement, with larger SCRs associated with longer inter-reinforcement intervals. The findings are consistent with the research literature suggesting that long inter-reinforcement intervals can be evocative of aversively motivated emotions, as well as with research on the effects of interstimulus intervals on SCRs. Possible implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:17076819

LATZMAN, ROBERT D.; KNUTSON, JOHN F.; FOWLES, DON C.

2007-01-01

147

Multichannel interval timer (MINT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype Multichannel Interval Timer (MINT) has been built for measuring signal Time of Arrival (TOA) from sensors placed in blast environments. The MINT is intended to reduce the space, equipment costs, and data reduction efforts associated with traditional analog TOA recording methods, making it more practical to field the large arrays of TOA sensors required to characterize blast environments. The MINT design features are described. The information required for installing and operating the system is provided and proposed improvements for the next generation system are presented.

Kimball, K. B.

1982-06-01

148

Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.  

PubMed

Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

2007-01-01

149

DISCRIMINATION OF VARIABLE SCHEDULES IS CONTROLLED BY INTERRESPONSE TIMES PROXIMAL TO REINFORCEMENT  

PubMed Central

In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule; or (c) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate schedule. Completion of a sample-lever schedule, which took approximately the same time regardless of schedule, presented two comparison levers, one associated with each sample-lever schedule. Pressing the comparison lever associated with the schedule just presented produced food, while pressing the other produced a blackout. Conditional-discrimination accuracy was related to the size of the difference in reinforced interresponse times and those that preceded it (predecessor interresponse times) between the variable-ratio and other comparison schedules. In Experiment 2, control by predecessor interresponse times was accentuated by requiring rats to discriminate between a variable-ratio schedule and a tandem schedule that required emission of a sequence of a long, then a short interresponse time in the tandem's terminal schedule. These discrimination data are compatible with the copyist model from Tanno and Silberberg (2012) in which response rates are determined by the succession of interresponse times between reinforcers weighted so that each interresponse time's role in rate determination diminishes exponentially as a function of its distance from reinforcement. PMID:23144509

Tanno, Takayuki.; Silberberg, Alan.; Sakagami, Takayuki.

2012-01-01

150

Effects of a variable-ratio conditioning history on sensitivity to fixed-interval contingencies in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possibility that human-like fixed-interval performances would appear in rats given a variable-ratio history (Wanchisen, Tatham, & Mooney, 1989). Nine rats were trained under si n- gle or compound variable-ratio schedules and then under a fixed-interval 30-s schedule. The histories produced high fixed-interval rates that declined slowly over 90 sessions; differences as a function of the particular history

ALAN BARON; A Leinenweber

1995-01-01

151

Choice of timeout during response-independent food schedules.  

PubMed

Rats' lever pressing terminated visual or auditory stimuli associated with fixed-time or variable-time schedules of food delivery and produced a timeout period during which food delivery could not occur. Lever pressing during a timeout period reinstated the food-associated stimuli and again permitted food delivery according to the fixed-time or variable-time schedules. The mean interfood interval ranged from 1 minute to 16 minutes (variable-time schedules) or 32 minutes (fixed-time schedules); the timer controlling schedule intervals did not stop during timeout periods. The percentage of session time spent in timeout increased when the mean interfood intervals were lengthened and decreased when the mean interfood intervals were shortened. Timeouts were initiated most frequently about half way between successive food deliveries (fixed-time schedules) or after 15 seconds or more had lapsed since the last food delivery (variable-time schedules). Elimination of food delivery increased the percentage of session time spent in timeout, and elimination of the timeout contingency decreased lever press rates. When timeout was produced only when the lever was held in the depressed position, little time was spent in timeout. The main determinants of timeout initiation and termination appeared to be the rate of food delivery, freedom of movement during timeout, and the stimulus change associated with initiation and termination of timeout. PMID:16812162

Lydersen, T; Perkins, D; Thome, S; Lowman, E

1980-01-01

152

To appear in IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems 1 Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scheduling  

E-print Network

To appear in IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems 1 Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scheduling@ceng.usc.edu). Abstract-- An adaptive method to perform dynamic voltage and frequency scheduling (DVFS) for minimizing, the proposed DVFS system makes use of adaptive update intervals for optimal frequency and voltage scheduling

Pedram, Massoud

153

Concurrent Second-Order Schedules: Some Effects of Variations in Response Number and Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the effects on concurrent performance of independent manipulations of response-unit duration and number, 6 hens were exposed to concurrent second- order schedules of reinforcement. Each first-order operant unit required completion of a fixed-ratio schedule within the time specified by a fixed- interval schedule, with one further…

Sealey, Diane M.; Sumpter, Catherine E.; Temple, W.; Foster, T. Mary

2005-01-01

154

Bootstrapped MRMC confidence intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) paradigm of Swets and Pickett (1982) for ROC analysis was expressed as a components of variance model by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (1992) and validated by Roe and Metz (1997) for Type I error rates. Our group proposed an analysis of the MRMC components of variance model using bootstrap (Beiden, Wagner, and Campbell, 2000) experiments instead of jackknife pseudo-values. These approaches have been challenged by some contemporary authors (e.g. Zhou, Obuchowski, and McClish, 2002). The purpose of the present paper is to formally compare the models and to carry out validation tests of their performance. We investigate different approaches to statistical inference, including several types of nonparametric bootstrap confidence intervals and report on validation and simulation experiments of Type I errors.

Samuelson, Frank W.; Wagner, Robert F.

2005-04-01

155

Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling  

DOEpatents

A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

Wood, Robert R. (Livermore, CA); Eckert, Philip D. (Livermore, CA); Hommes, Gregg (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-25

156

PLAN-IT - Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

1987-01-01

157

PLAN-IT: Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

1987-01-01

158

SLAW: A scalable locality-aware adaptive work-stealing scheduler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces SLAW, a Scalable Locality-aware Adaptive Work-stealing scheduler. The SLAW scheduler is designed to address two common limitations in current work-stealing schedulers: use of a fixed task scheduling policy and locality-obliviousness due to randomized stealing. Past work has demonstrated the pros and cons of using fixed scheduling policies, such as work-first and help-first, in different cases without a

Yi Guo; Jisheng Zhao; Vincent Cavé; Vivek Sarkar

2010-01-01

159

Reinforcement learning in scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

1994-01-01

160

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers  

E-print Network

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations in Traditional Schedulers David. Gibson Carnegie Mellon University garth.gibson@cs.cmu.edu Abstract We describe extensions to lottery present in traditional non- real time process schedulers. Lottery scheduling enables flexible control over

161

Minimal-total-processing time drum and disk scheduling disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the application of minimal-total-processing-time (MTPT) scheduling disciplines to rotating storage units when random arrival of requests is allowed. Fixed-head drum and moving-head disk storage units are considered, and emphasis is placed on the relative merits of the MTPT scheduling discipline with respect to the shortest-latency-time-first (SLTF) scheduling discipline. The results of the simulation studies presented show that

Samuel H. Fuller

1974-01-01

162

Interval training guidance system with music and wireless group exercise motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interval training is a well known exercise protocol which helps strengthen and improve one's cardiovascular fitness. It interleaves high intensity exercises with rest periods. Despite the known benefits, proper scheduling and completion of interval training routines are not easy to perform. For example, without expensive equipment such as a treadmill, there is almost no way to figure out one's speed

Myung-kyung Suh; Kyujoong Lee; Ani Nahapetian; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2009-01-01

163

Robust Airline Schedule Planning: Minimizing Propagated Delay in ...  

E-print Network

model to calculate random ground operational delays and airborne delays in an airline ..... The bold red line denotes the scheduled departure time for flight .... by inductively applying equations (5) and (6); moving strictly forwards in time ...

2011-10-06

164

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Robust Runway Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for generating schedules of airport runway operations that are robust to perturbations caused by system uncertainty is presented. The algorithm computes a tradeoff curve between runway throughput and the probability that random deviations of aircraft from the schedule violate system constraints and require intervention from air traffic controllers. The algorithm accommodates various operational constraints imposed by the terminal-area

Bala Chandran; Hamsa Balakrishnan

2007-01-01

165

Lottery and Stride Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents flexible abstractions for specifying resource management policies, togetherwith efficient mechanisms for implementing those abstractions. Several novel scheduling techniquesare introduced, including both randomized and deterministic algorithms that provideproportional-share control over resource consumption rates. Such control is beyond the capabilitiesof conventional schedulers, and is desirable across a broad spectrum of systems thatservice clients of varying...

Carl A. Waldspurger

1995-01-01

166

A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance.

Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

2014-01-01

167

Determinants of human performance on concurrent schedules.  

PubMed Central

Six experiments, each with 5 human adults, were conducted to investigate the determinants of human performance on multiple concurrent variable-interval schedules. A two-key procedure was employed in which subjects' key presses produced points exchangeable for money. Variables manipulated across experiments were (a) changeover delay (Experiments 2, 4, and 6), (b) ordinal cues related to scheduled reinforcement frequencies (Experiments 3 and 4), and (c) instructions describing the ordinal relations between schedule-correlated stimuli and scheduled reinforcement frequency (Experiments 5 and 6). The performances of only 13 of the 30 subjects could be described by the generalized matching equation and were within a range of values typical of those reported in the animal literature. Eight subjects showed indifference, 9 undermatched, 7 approximated matching, 3 overmatched, and a further 3 responded exclusively to the richer component of the concurrent schedules. These differing modes of responding were closely related to the different types of performance rules reported by subjects in postexperimental questionnaires. The results are in good agreement with those from studies of human performance on single schedules, suggesting that rule-governed behavior, in interaction with contingencies, may be an important determinant of human choice. PMID:8433066

Horne, P J; Lowe, C F

1993-01-01

168

A systematic review of comparative schedule-related toxicities with maintenance rituximab in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Abstract We conducted a systematic review of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) reported in prospective trials enrolling patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) receiving maintenance rituximab (MR). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of AEs occurring during MR. Differences by induction program, histology, setting and MR schedule were examined by stratified analyses and univariate random-effects meta-regression. Eleven trials met the search criteria, with nine sufficiently reporting AEs during the MR phase. Of 1009 patients receiving MR, the proportion experiencing cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14-36%). Patients receiving MR every 6 months as four weekly infusions for 2 years had significantly less toxicity compared with those receiving MR every 2 months (10% vs. 28%; p = 0.035). Patients treated with rituximab alone during induction had fewer toxicities compared to those treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy induction (12% vs. 35%; p = 0.031). Myelosuppression and infections were the most common toxicities. Our literature analysis suggests that MR given every 6 months and rituximab alone as induction may be associated with fewer grade 3/4 AEs for patients with FL and MCL; however, assessing the true independent impact of induction regimens and schedule on toxicity will require prospective trials. PMID:23998254

Nabhan, Chadi; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Villines, Dana; Chiu, Brian C-H; Caces, Donne Bennett D; Valdez, Tina V; Ghielmini, Michele; Hsu Schmitz, Shu-Fang; Smith, Sonali M

2014-06-01

169

Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

Stark, Philip B.

1992-01-01

170

Economic evaluation and risk measurement for generation investment based on interval numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of power industry has increased uncertain factors for generation investment projects, and hence various risks. In particular, problems of investment decision-making arise from the random fluctuations of net cash flow and discount rate. Interval mathematics is introduced to economic evaluation of projects in this paper, establishing economic evaluation models based on interval net present value and interval internal

Feng Yi; Tian Kuo; Xiao Lin; Zeng Ming

2007-01-01

171

Explorations in statistics: confidence intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of Explorations in Statistics investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter such as the mean. A confidence interval provides the same statistical information as the P value from a hypothesis test, but it circumvents the drawbacks of that hypothesis test. Even more important, a confidence interval focuses our attention on the scientific importance of some experimental result.

Douglas Curran- Everett (University of Colorado Denver)

2009-06-01

172

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

173

Automated telescope scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.

1988-01-01

174

A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi

1991-01-01

175

Criticality analysis of activity networks under interval uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reconsiders the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) scheduling problem when information about task duration\\u000a is incomplete. We model uncertainty on task durations by intervals. With this problem formulation, our goal is to assert possible\\u000a and necessary criticality of the different tasks and to compute their possible earliest starting dates, latest starting dates,\\u000a and floats. This paper combines

Jérôme Fortin; Pawel Zielinski; Didier Dubois; Hélène Fargier

2010-01-01

176

Scalable Multimedia Disk Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multimedia disk scheduling algorithm, termed Cascaded-SFC, is presented. The Cascaded-SFC multime- dia disk scheduler is applicable in environments where mul- timedia data requests arrive with different quality of service (QoS) requirements such as real-time deadline and user pri- ority. Previous work on disk scheduling has focused on op- timizing the seek times and\\/or meeting the real-time dead- lines.

Mohamed F. Mokbel; Walid G. Aref; Khaled M. Elbassioni; Ibrahim Kamel

2004-01-01

177

The influence of different intermittent myofeedback training schedules on learning relaxation of the trapezius muscle while performing a gross-motor task.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different intermittent myofeedback training schedules, as provided by a Cinderella-based myofeedback system, on learning relaxation and resistance to extinction of the trapezius muscle, in subjects performing a unilateral gross-motor task. Eighteen healthy subjects performed the task without and with feedback to study baseline and learning relaxation. Subsequently, resistance to extinction was investigated by performing the task without feedback. The gross-motor task consisted of continuously moving the dominant arm between three target areas at a constant pace. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups, characterized by the sequence of feedback schedules with which the task was performed on 3 consecutive days. Auditory feedback was provided after a 5-, 10-, or 20-s interval when a pre-set level of 80% rest was not reached. Bipolar surface electromyography recordings performed at the dominant upper trapezius muscle were quantified using relative rest time (RRT) and root mean square (RMS) parameters. Learning relaxation was defined as an increase in RRT and a decrease in RMS values. Results showed the highest RRT levels as well as a decrease in RMS for the 10-s schedule. Additionally, the 10-s schedule was unique in its ability to elevate muscular rest above the 20% level, which may be considered relevant in preventing myalgia. None of the three schedules showed resistance to extinction. It was concluded that the 10-s interval was preferred over the 5- and 20-s schedules in learning trapezius relaxation in subjects performing a unilateral gross-motor task. PMID:15232700

Voerman, G E; Sandsjö, L; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C G M; Hermens, H J

2004-10-01

178

Interactive dynamic aircraft scheduling  

E-print Network

Introducing recent advances in computer technology to improve aircraft scheduling is investigated. Incorporating interactive graphics, modern database manipulation techniques, and decision support algorithms, the computer ...

Deckwitz, Thomas Anthony

1984-01-01

179

How Random is Random?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Annenberg Media, this site is a tutorial that takes students through a mayoral election process while discussing the concept of randomness. Topics include margin of error and confidence levels. This is a fairly basic lesson, but it does provide a good example of applied statistical theory. Aside from simply addressing the statistics behind the process, the resource also discusses the actual physical process of taking political polls.

2009-03-02

180

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2004-01-01

181

BULK PREFETCHING WITH DEADLINE-DRIVEN SCHEDULING TO MINIMIZE STARTUP LATENCY OF CONTINUOUS MEDIA SERVERS  

E-print Network

and analyzes their performance on multi-disk CM servers utilizing a deadline-driven scheduling and random dataBULK PREFETCHING WITH DEADLINE-DRIVEN SCHEDULING TO MINIMIZE STARTUP LATENCY OF CONTINUOUS MEDIA to real-time con- straints that impact the storage, scheduling, and delivery of data. If the real

Kim, Seon Ho

182

Online and o ine preemptive two-machine job shop schedul-Tracy Kimbrel  

E-print Network

Online and o#15;ine preemptive two-machine job shop schedul- ing Tracy Kimbrel IBM T.J. Watson online and o#15;ine algorithms for special cases of preemptive job shop scheduling to minimize makespan are asymptotically tight. keywords: online algorithms, job shop scheduling, preemption, randomized algorithms 1 #12

Saia, Jared

183

Charts With Variable Sampling Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual practice in using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling intervals. This article considers the properties of the chart when the sampling interval between each pair of samples is not fixed but rather depends on what is observed in the first sample. The idea is that the time

Marion R. Reynolds; Raid W. Amin; Jesse C. Arnold; Joel A. Nachlas

1988-01-01

184

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

185

Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2009-01-01

186

Maintaining Knowledge About Temporal Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interval-based temporal logic is introduced, together with a computationally effective reasoning algorithm based on constraint propagation. This system is notable in offering a delicate balance between expressive power and the efficiency of its deductive engine. A notion of reference intervals is introduced which captures the temporal hierarchy implicit in many domains, and which can be used to precisely control

James F. Allen

1983-01-01

187

A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy  

PubMed Central

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

188

A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.  

PubMed

Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

2013-01-01

189

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers  

E-print Network

Implementing Lottery Scheduling: Matching the Specializations Traditional Schedulers David Petrou Carnegie Mellon University garth.gibson@cs.cmu.edu Abstract We describe extensions to lottery scheduling in traditional non­ real time process schedulers. Lottery scheduling enables flexible control over relative

190

Branch-and-bound algorithm for UET scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of scheduling unit execution time task systems on m identical machines under certain precedence constraints. The aim is to compute the minimal length nonpreemptive schedule. The problem is NP-hard if m is arbitrary and only polynomially solvable for some special cases. The Coffman-Graham algorithm solves optimally the over-interval order class. Using this result, we propose

Marc Chardon; Aziz Moukrim

2002-01-01

191

INFLUENCE OF THE SCHEDULE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT ON PUNISHED BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 GROUP OF 24 RATS WAS REINFORCED FOR LEVER PRESSING ON A 5-MIN VARIABLE INTERVAL (VI) SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT; A 2ND GROUP OF 24 SS WAS REINFORCED ON A 1\\/5-MIN VI SCHEDULE. 1\\/2 THE SS IN EACH GROUP RECEIVED A PUNISHMENT TRAINING PROCEDURE WHILE THE REMAINING SS SERVED AS UNPUNISHED CONTROLS. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A PUNISHING SHOCK IN REDUCING THE

RUSSELL M. CHURCH; GEORGE A. RAYMOND

1967-01-01

192

Bouts of responding: the relation between bout rate and the rate of variable-interval reinforcement.  

PubMed Central

By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of tile variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was varied between blocks of sessions from 16 min to 0.25 min. Total rate of key poking increased similarly as a function of the reinforcer rate for the two schedule types, but response rate was higher with than without the four-response requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times showed that key poking occurred in bouts. The rate of initiating bouts increased as a function of reinforcer rate but was either unaffected or was decreased by adding the four-response requirement. Within-bout response rate was insensitive to reinforcer rate and only inconsistently affected by the four-response requirement. For both kinds of schedule, the ratio of bout time to between-bout pause time was approximately a power function of reinforcer rate, with exponents above and below 1.0. PMID:15113134

Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A; Bennett, J Adam

2004-01-01

193

Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

1977-01-01

194

A Schedule Management Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a scheduling technique which was used in the repair of an aircraft carrier. The paper presents the scheduling technique employed; how it was developed; its simplicity of design; its visibility, and its utilization....

V. E. Cooke

1973-01-01

195

Advice Complexity and Barely Random Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a new measurement - the advice complexity - was introduced for measuring the information content of online problems. The aim is to measure the bitwise information that online algorithms lack, causing them to perform worse than offline algorithms. Among a large number of problems, a well-known scheduling problem, job shop scheduling with unit length tasks, and the paging problem were analyzed within this model. We observe some connections between advice complexity and randomization. Our special focus goes to barely random algorithms, i.e., randomized algorithms that use only a constant number of random bits, regardless of the input size. We adapt the results on advice complexity to obtain efficient barely random algorithms for both the job shop scheduling and the paging problem.

Komm, Dennis; Královi?, Richard

196

Randomized Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the area of randomized algorithms.During this period, randomized algorithms went from being a tool in computational number theory to finding widespread application in many types of algorithms. Two benefits of randomization have spearheaded this growth: simplicity and speed. For many applications, a randomized algorithm is the simplest algorithm available, or the

Rajeev Motwani; Prabhakax Raghavan

1995-01-01

197

Behavioral contrast and responding during multiple food-food, food-water, and water-water schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five pigeons pecked lighted keys for food reinforcers delivered by several multiple variable interval 2-min variable interval\\u000a 2-min schedules. At different times, the components of the multiple schedule both supplied food reinforcers, both supplied\\u000a water, or one supplied food and the other supplied water. Rates of responding during the water component of the food-water\\u000a schedule were lower than the rates

R. H. Ettinger; F. K. McSweeney

1981-01-01

198

Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the utility of expert systems techniques for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling and describes a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

Miller, Glenn; Cohen, William; Rosenthal, Don; Johnston, Mark

1987-01-01

199

Matching and maximizing with variable-time schedules.  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were offered choices between a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers throughout the session and a variable-time schedule that arranged reinforcers only when the pigeon was spending time on it. The subjects could maximize the overall rate of reinforcement in this situation by biasing their time allocation towards the latter schedule. This arrangement provides an alternative to concurrent variable-interval variable-ratio schedules for testing whether animals maximize overall rates or match relative rates, and has the advantage of being free of the asymmetrical response requirements present with those schedules. The results were contrary to those predicted by maximizing: The bias it predicts did not appear. PMID:3981085

DeCarlo, L T

1985-01-01

200

Research Randomizer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Randomizer, made available by the Social Psychology Network (SPN), is a program (JavaScript) that assists researchers and students "who want an easy way to perform random sampling or assign participants to experimental conditions." A tutorial at the site works through example situations and explains how to use the Research Randomizer. The Research Randomizer is an excellent tool for researchers desiring simulations of random sampling in experimental situations.

201

Effect of Dexmedetomidine on the Corrected QT and Tp-e Intervals during Spinal Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on corrected QT (QTc) and Tp-e intervals in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods We studied 50 patients who were scheduled to undergo spinal anesthesia before orthopedic surgeries. Patients were allocated to receive either an infusion of dexmedetomidine or normal saline after spinal anesthesia. Results QTc intervals were significantly prolonged after spinal anesthesia, and the prolonged QTc interval returned to baseline values 10 minutes after either normal saline or dexmedetomidine administration in both groups. The QTc interval values after dexmedetomidine administration were significantly shorter compared to the QTc interval values just before dexmedetomidine administration. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine could promote the return of a prolonged QTc interval induced by spinal anesthesia and might be helpful in patients who have a prolonged QTc interval. PMID:24532526

Kim, Youngsoon; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Seok; Kong, Hee Jung

2014-01-01

202

BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

203

Confidence intervals for low-level, paired counting.  

PubMed

Neyman-Pearson principles are briefly discussed and 95% confidence intervals of the form [0, ##.##] are presented. Use is made of the fact that the probability of the difference of two random variables, each with a Poisson distribution, can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order and elementary functions. The validity of the values is discussed. PMID:10527160

Potter, W E

1999-11-01

204

Confidence Interval for the Estimated Mean of a Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given a sample of N values of X randomly drawn from a normally distributed population, this program will calculate the .95 and .99 confidence intervals (CI) for the estimated mean of the population. Data entry is simple, author Richard Lowry has allowed users to import data directly from a spreadsheet. This is a great resource for easy statistical calculations.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-14

205

An explanation of the distribution of inter-seizure intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Osorio et al. (Eur. J. Neurosci., 30 (2009) 1554) reported that the probability distribution of intervals between successive epileptic seizures follows a power law with exponent 1.5. We theoretically explain this finding by modeling the epileptic activity as a branching process, which we, in turn, approximate by a random walk. We confirm the theoretical conclusion by numerical simulation.

Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

2010-09-01

206

NASA Schedule Management Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

2011-01-01

207

Operating Systems: CPU Scheduling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the University of Bridgeport provides the context and explanation for CPU scheduling mechanisms. It includes a rationale for context switching along with with pseudocode, and it explains the difference between non-preemptive versus preemptive scheduling. It offers visuals that could be incorporated into lectures analyzing various scheduling algorithms including first in first out (FIFO), round-robin, priority-based, shortest job first (SJF), and multilevel feedback queues. It includes an assignment as well as an online slideshow presentation. This site is applicable for technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses.

2009-08-10

208

QT interval in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence of a long QT interval as a marker for sudden death in patients with anorexia nervosa and to assess the effect of refeeding. To define a long QT interval by linear regression analysis and estimation of the upper limit of the confidence interval (95% CI) and to compare this with the commonly used Bazett rate correction formula. DESIGN--Prospective case control study. SETTING--Tertiary referral unit for eating disorders. SUBJECTS--41 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa admitted over an 18 month period. 28 age and sex matched normal controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--maximum QT interval measured on 12 lead electrocardiograms. RESULTS--43.6% of the variability in the QT interval was explained by heart rate alone (p < 0.00001) and group analysis contributed a further 5.9% (p = 0.004). In 6 (15%) patients the QT interval was above the upper limit of the 95% CI for the prediction based on the control equation (NS). Two patients died suddenly; both had a QT interval at or above the upper limit of the 95% CI. In patients who reached their target weights the QT interval was significantly shorter (median 9.8 ms; p = 0.04) relative to the upper limit of the 60% CI of the control regression line, which best discriminated between patients and controls. The median Bazett rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in patients and controls was 435 v 405 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.0004), and before and after refeeding it was 435 v 432 ms.s1/2 (NS). In 14(34%) patients and three (11%) controls the QTc was > 440 ms.s-1/2 (p = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS--The QT interval was longer in patients with anorexia nervosa than in age and sex matched controls, and there was a significant tendency to reversion to normal after refeeding. The Bazett rate correction formula overestimated the number of patients with QT prolongation and also did not show an improvement with refeeding. PMID:8068473

Cooke, R A; Chambers, J B; Singh, R; Todd, G J; Smeeton, N C; Treasure, J; Treasure, T

1994-01-01

209

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

210

Scheduling in STAPL  

E-print Network

distributed fashion and a collection of pViews to abstract details of the data distribution. STAPL algorithms are written in terms of PARAGRAPHs which are high level descriptions of task dependence graphs. Scheduling plays a very important role...

Sharma, Shishir

2013-05-07

211

Time Schedule Preliminary  

E-print Network

#12;I · Time Schedule Preliminary Autumn Quarter 1985 Prer:egistration: May 21-24, 28 ... ;:,~ . ~ ·.. ',' ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 6 Full-time Student 'Rcq~ent (veteran's benefits, Social Security , benefits, intemation~ students

Kaminsky, Werner

212

Scheduling Techniques for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling  

E-print Network

Scheduling Techniques for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling by Matthew Andrews B for Packet Routing, Load Balancing and Disk Scheduling by Matthew Andrews Submitted to the Department and disk scheduling. A fundamental problem in the design of packet­switched communication networks

Andrews, Matthew

213

Static SchedulingStatic Scheduling Synchronous communication with a fixed  

E-print Network

22 Static SchedulingStatic Scheduling Synchronous communication with a fixed number of tokens transferred çBalance equations determine repetitions çPeriodic schedule is computed statically 11 Synchronous çPeriodic schedules are computed statically 1 -1 0 0 2 -3 � 3 3 2 = 0 0 5 -7 0

214

Scheduling Efficiency of Distributed Greedy Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. In a network depletion problem with an initial traffic load and no further arrivals, we define the scheduling efficiency to be the ratio between the number of time slots required to deplete the network under an optimal centralized scheduling scheme and a distributed greedy scheduling

Xinzhou Wu; R. Srikant

2006-01-01

215

Approximation Schemes for Scheduling with Availability Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the problems of scheduling n weighted jobs to m identical machines with availability constraints. We consider two different models of availability constraints: the preventive model where the unavailability is due to preventive machine maintenance, and the fixed job model where the unavailability is due to a priori assignment of some of the n jobs to certain machines at certain times. Both models have applications such as turnaround scheduling or overlay computing. In both models, the objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time. We assume that m is a constant, and the jobs are non-resumable. For the preventive model, it has been shown that there is no approximation algorithm if all machines have unavailable intervals even when w i = p i for all jobs. In this paper, we assume there is one machine permanently available and the processing time of each job is equal to its weight for all jobs. We develop the first PTAS when there are constant number of unavailable intervals. One main feature of our algorithm is that the classification of large and small jobs is with respect to each individual interval, thus not fixed. This classification allows us (1) to enumerate the assignments of large jobs efficiently; (2) and to move small jobs around without increasing the objective value too much, and thus derive our PTAS. Then we show that there is no FPTAS in this case unless P = NP.

Fu, Bin; Huo, Yumei; Zhao, Hairong

216

Recognising Randomness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a project that highlights the difficulties encountered when considering randomness. Findings indicate that the concept of randomness tends to make very subtle intellectual demands when considering it. Presents a game that may be helpful in developing understanding of two-dimensional random differences. (JRH)

Green, David

1997-01-01

217

Appears in Proceedings of the First Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation, November 1994 Lottery Scheduling: Flexible ProportionalShare Resource Management  

E-print Network

, November 1994 Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional­Share Resource Management Carl A. Waldspurger This paper presents lottery scheduling, a novel randomized resource allocation mechanism. Lottery scheduling of varying importance, such as databases, media­based applica­ tions, and networks. Lottery scheduling also

Krishnamurthy, Arvind

218

Effects of Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments examined the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) at various doses administration for different length of time on a schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and possible associations with behavioral activation. Two stages of a two-week AMPH treatment were introduced with interposed interval of two months. In terms of behavioral activation, AMPH induced a robust depression across stages but with less

Yia-Ping Liu; Hung-Chin Wang; Ching-Jiunn Tseng; Hung-Shan Tang; Tsai-Hsin Yin; Che-Se Tung

2005-01-01

219

A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

2013-01-01

220

Software Pipelining: An Effective Scheduling Technique for VLIW Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper shows that software pipelining is an effective and viable scheduling technique for VLIW processors In software pipelining, iterations of a loop in the source program are continuously initiated at constant intervals, before the preceding iterations complete The advantage of software pipelining is that optimal performance can be achieved with compact object code

Monica S. Lam

1988-01-01

221

Effect of contingent auditory stimuli on concurrent schedule performance: An alternative punisher to electric shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether load auditory stimuli could be used as functional punishing stimuli in place of electric shock. Three experiments examined the effect of a loud auditory stimulus on rats’ responding maintained by a concurrent reinforcement schedule. In Experiment 1, overall response rate decreased when a concurrent 1.5s tone presentation schedule was superimposed on the concurrent variable interval (VI)

Phil Reed; Toshihiko Yoshino

2008-01-01

222

Performance of two species of quail on basic reinforcement schedules1  

PubMed Central

Two bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and two Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were trained to peck a response key to obtain food. In general, performance on fixed ratio 20 and variable- and fixed-interval 60-sec schedules was comparable to the response patterns of other species under these schedules. PMID:5645877

Cloar, F. Thomas; Melvin, Kenneth B.

1968-01-01

223

Thermal-Aware Energy Minimization for Real-Time Scheduling on Multi-core Systems  

E-print Network

consumption for each state interval can be rapidly calculated. Accordingly, the total system energy con on how to minimize the overall energy consumption for a real-time schedule on multi-core platform on our energy calculation method, we pro- pose an energy minimization algorithm to schedule real

Quan, Gang

224

The Isolation of Motivational, Motoric, and Schedule Effects on Operant Performance: A Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

2011-01-01

225

Discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats trained under different schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been few comparisons between different schedules of reinforcement for establishing drugs as discriminative stimuli. Fixed-ratio (FR) 10 and tandem variable-interval 1-min FR-10 schedules have been compared directly in a conventional, nicotine-saline discrimination paradigm with food reinforcement in rats. The discrimination was acquired rapidly under both schedules, with stimulus control by nicotine (0.1 mg\\/kg SC) being very slightly superior

I. P. Stolerman

1989-01-01

226

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

227

Maintenance scheduling problems as benchmarks for constraint algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on evaluating constraint satisfaction search algorithms on application based random problem instances. The\\u000a application we use is a well-studied problem in the electric power industry: optimally scheduling preventive maintenance of\\u000a power generating units within a power plant. We show how these scheduling problems can be cast as constraint satisfaction\\u000a problems and used to define the structure of

Daniel Frost; Rina Dechter

1999-01-01

228

Sprint vs. interval training in football.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations. PMID:18080951

Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

2008-08-01

229

An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance  

PubMed Central

Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

2014-01-01

230

Search Space Characterization for a Telescope Scheduling Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a technique for statistically characterizing a search space and demonstrates the use of this technique within a practical telescope scheduling application. The characterization provides the following: (i) an estimate of the search space size, (ii) a scaling technique for multi-attribute objective functions and search heuristics, (iii) a "quality density function" for schedules in a search space, (iv) a measure of a scheduler's performance, and (v) support for constructing and tuning search heuristics. This paper describes the random sampling algorithm used to construct this characterization and explains how it can be used to produce this information. As an example, we include a comparative analysis of an heuristic dispatch scheduler and a look-ahead scheduler that performs greedy search.

Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

231

Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054

2014-01-01

232

Self-Learning Disk Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of disk I\\/O schedulers is affected by many factors, such as workloads, file systems, and disk systems. Disk scheduling performance can be improved by tuning scheduler parameters, such as the length of read timers. Scheduler performance tuning is mostly done manually. To automate this process, we propose four self-learning disk scheduling schemes: change-sensing Round-Robin, feedback learning, per-request learning, and

Yu Zhang; Bharat Bhargava

2009-01-01

233

Thread scheduling for multiprogrammed multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a user-level thread scheduler for shared-memory multiprocessors, and we analyze its performance under multiprogramming. We model multiprogramming with two scheduling levels: our scheduler runs at user-level and schedules threads onto a fixed collection of processes, while below, the operating system kernel schedules processes onto a fixed collection of processors. We consider the kernel to be an adversary, and

Nimar S. Arora; Robert D. Blumofe; C. Greg Plaxton

1998-01-01

234

Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

2008-01-01

235

Constraint-based scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

Zweben, Monte

1991-01-01

236

SPANR planning and scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

2001-07-01

237

Confidence Intervals for Functions of Variance Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project confidence intervals were determined for the functions of variance components. These included one-sided and two-sided confidence intervals. Since no method is available for exact (exact confidence coefficients) for confidence intervals on ...

F. A. Graybill

1982-01-01

238

High resolution time interval counter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

1995-01-01

239

Confidence intervals for low-level, paired counting  

SciTech Connect

Fong and Alvarez (1997) make clear the lack of precision at MDA for paired counting. Confidence intervals provide a way of expressing a measurement process that lacks precision. Neyman-Pearson principles are briefly discussed and 95% confidence intervals of the form [0, {number_sign}{number_sign}.{number_sign}{number_sign}] are presented. Use is made of the fact that the probability of the difference of two random variables, each with a Poisson distribution, can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order and elementary functions. The validity of the values is discussed.

Potter, W.E.

1999-11-01

240

Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this

Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

2006-01-01

241

Outline: CPU Scheduling Mechanisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint slide show from an instructor with the Departmentof Computer Science at Florida State University offers an in-depth lecture notes for CPU scheduling mechanisms. Most notably, this presentation includes diagrams and logical flowcharts of CPU processes which would make the material easier to understand for instructors or students engaged in technical/community college or university level computer science or engineering courses. It provides an overview of scheduling criteria and explanation and comparison of first-come-first-served, shortest-job-next, priority and non-preemptive priority, deadline, real-time, compared with round robin CPU scheduling. Mathematical models and formulas are included along with efficiency graphs. The presentation also covers process thread context, context switching, and multilevel queues.

Liu, Xiuwen

2009-08-05

242

iTransformer: Using SSD to Improve Disk Scheduling for High-performance I/O Xuechen Zhang  

E-print Network

iTransformer: Using SSD to Improve Disk Scheduling for High-performance I/O Xuechen Zhang ECE systems either rely on the disk scheduler at each data server, or use SSD as storage, to minimize, the scheme allows the scheduling of requests in the background to hide the cost of random disk access behind

Jiang, Song

243

Scheduling with genetic algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

1994-01-01

244

Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

2014-09-01

245

Scheduler software for tracking and data relay satellite system loading analysis: User manual and programmer guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user guide and programmer documentation is provided for a system of PRIME 400 minicomputer programs. The system was designed to support loading analyses on the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The system is a scheduler for various types of data relays (including tape recorder dumps and real time relays) from orbiting payloads to the TDRSS. Several model options are available to statistically generate data relay requirements. TDRSS time lines (representing resources available for scheduling) and payload/TDRSS acquisition and loss of sight time lines are input to the scheduler from disk. Tabulated output from the interactive system includes a summary of the scheduler activities over time intervals specified by the user and overall summary of scheduler input and output information. A history file, which records every event generated by the scheduler, is written to disk to allow further scheduling on remaining resources and to provide data for graphic displays or additional statistical analysis.

Craft, R.; Dunn, C.; Mccord, J.; Simeone, L.

1980-01-01

246

On Constructing Confidence Intervals for a Standardized Mean Difference in Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the random effects model for meta-analysis, confidence intervals for the overall effect are typically constructed using quantiles of the standard normal distribution. We discuss confidence intervals based on both the standard normal distribution and the t-distribution, in conjunction with several methods of estimating the heterogeneity variance for a standardized mean difference, and we compare the empirical coverage probabilities of

Kurex Sidik; Jeffrey N. Jonkman

2003-01-01

247

Empirical likelihood confidence intervals for the differences of quantiles with missing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that there are two nonparametric populations x and y with missing data on both of them. We are interested in constructing confidence intervals on the quantile differences of\\u000a x and y. Random imputation is used. Empirical likelihood confidence intervals on the differences are constructed.

Yong-song Qin; Yong-jiang Qian

2009-01-01

248

Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory resources and to reduce the costs of communication. Planning and scheduling is generally a heavy consumer of time, memory and energy resources. This means careful thought must be given to how much planning and scheduling should be done on the sensors themselves, and how much to do elsewhere. The difficulty of planning and scheduling is exacerbated when reasoning about uncertainty. More time, memory and energy is needed to solve such problems, leading either to more expensive sensors, or suboptimal plans. For example, scientifically interesting events may happen at random times, making it difficult to ensure that sufficient resources are availanble. Since uncertainty is usually lowest in proximity to the sensors themselves, this argues for planning and scheduling onboard the sensors. However, cost minimization dictates sensors be kept as simple as possible, reducing the amount of planning and scheduling they can do themselves. Furthermore, coordinating each sensor's independent plans can be difficult. In the full presentation, we will critically review the planning and scheduling systems used by previously fielded sensor networks. We do so primarily from the perspective of the computational sciences, with a focus on taming computational complexity when operating sensor networks. The case studies are derived from sensor networks based on UAVs, satellites, and planetary rovers. Planning and scheduling considerations include multi-sensor coordination, optimizing science value, onboard power management, onboard memory, planning movement actions to acquire data, and managing communications.These case studies offer lessons for future designs of environmental sensor networks.

Frank, J. D.

2005-12-01

249

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30

250

Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for arrival traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing times to all arrivals. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an arrival sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated times of arrival, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by time-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.

Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz

1990-01-01

251

Online scheduling in grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses nonclairvoyant and non- preemptive online job scheduling in Grids. In the applied basic model, the Grid system consists of a large number of identical processors that are divided into several machines. Jobs are independent, they have a fixed degree of parallelism, and they are submitted over time. Further, a job can only be executed on the processors

Andrei Tchernykh; Ramin Yahyapour

2008-01-01

252

Online scheduling Frederic Vivien  

E-print Network

When the job is released When the job completes Offline (Clairvoyant) Online Non-clairvoyant online #12) Hypotheses Job may be preempted One machine (1 | pmtn | ???) #12;Evaluating the quality of an online schedule An online algorithm has a competitive factor if and only if Whatever the set of jobs T1, ..., Tn Online

Marchal, Loris

253

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule  

E-print Network

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

254

Round Robin Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a computer program written in BASIC that covers round-robin schedules for team matches in competitions. The program was originally created to help teams in a tennis league play one match against every other team. Part of the creation of the program involved use of modulo arithmetic. (MP)

Iannone, Michael A.

1983-01-01

255

"Creative" Work Schedules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

Blai, Boris

256

Integrating Queueing Theory and Scheduling for Dynamic Scheduling Problems  

E-print Network

Integrating Queueing Theory and Scheduling for Dynamic Scheduling Problems Daria Terekhov dterekho and conference papers (Terekhov, Tran, & Beck, 2010; Terekhov, Tran, Down, & Beck, 2012). The work in Section 4

Down, Doug

257

Dynamic airline scheduling and robust airline schedule de-peaking  

E-print Network

Demand stochasticity is a major challenge for the airlines in their quest to produce profit maximizing schedules. Even with an optimized schedule, many flights have empty seats at departure, while others suffer a lack of ...

Jiang, Hai, 1979-

2006-01-01

258

The comparative psychology of fixed-interval responding: Some quantitative analyses*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on variation in the average relative frequency of responding with elapsed time since reinforcement during various fixed-interval schedules were available from cats, rats, woodmice. pigeons, turtle doves, a fish species Tilapia, and fresh- water turtles. These data were analyzed in a uniform manner by fitting Gaussian curves to the response frequency versus time functions, with the curve peak forced

HELGA LEJEUNE; J. H. WEARDEN

1991-01-01

259

Potentiation of disruptive effects of dextromethorphan by naloxone on fixed-interval performance in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A centrally acting antitussive agent dextromethorphan (DM) was tested to determine its possible interaction with naloxone in rats responding under a fixed-interval schedule of positive reinforcement. A sugar sweetened milk reward was used as a positive reinforcer. Under the same experimental conditions the effects of morphine alone and in combination with naloxone were also determined. Low dose DM (10 mg\\/kg)

Tambay Ta?kin

1986-01-01

260

Random Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review elementary properties of random matrices and discuss widely used\\u000amathematical methods for both hermitian and nonhermitian random matrix\\u000aensembles. Applications to a wide range of physics problems are summarized.\\u000aThis paper originally appeared as an article in the Wiley Encyclopedia of\\u000aElectrical and Electronics Engineering.

M. A. Stephanov; J. J. M. Verbaarschot; T. Wettig

2005-01-01

261

Random Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

Vanmarcke, Erik

1983-03-01

262

Scheduling Efficiency of Distributed Greedy Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. We define the efficiency of a distributed scheduling algorithm to be the largest number (fraction) such that the throughput under the distributed scheduling policy is at least equal to the efficiency multiplied by the maximum throughput achievable under a centralized policy. For a general interference

Xinzhou Wu; R. Srikant; James R. Perkins

2007-01-01

263

Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

Zoch, David R.

1991-01-01

264

Occupancy Simulation Schedule Appendix C -Occupancy Simulation Schedule  

E-print Network

Appendix C ­ Occupancy Simulation Schedule #12;C.1 Appendix C - Occupancy Simulation Schedule Figure C.1 and Figure C.2 present the load simulation and occupancy schedules for the lab homes highly insulating windows demonstration. The bases for occupancy simulation were data and analysis developed

265

Scheduling a C-Section  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Pregnancy > C-section > Scheduling a c-section C-section A cesarean section is the birth of ... It's been added to your dashboard . Scheduling a c-section Cesarean birth (also called c-section) is ...

266

Integrated production and maintenance scheduling  

E-print Network

. This on-line information can be utilized to make more informed decisions about the production and maintenance scheduling problem. The integrated maintenance and production scheduling problem on a single machine is formulated for the single and multiple job...

Whitaker, Laura Oakes

2012-06-07

267

A Model of Alcohol Drinking under an Intermittent Access Schedule Using Group-Housed Mice  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week) for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment) to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule), they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ?10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors. PMID:24804807

Smutek, Magdalena; Turbasa, Mateusz; Sikora, Magdalena; Piechota, Marcin; Zajdel, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

2014-01-01

268

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES  

E-print Network

for non�linear external random forcing in the SBE (1.1). The stochastic Burgers equation has been studiedSTOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah for solutions of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions

Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

269

High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation.  

PubMed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently used in sports training. The effects on cardiorespiratory and muscle systems have led scientists to consider its application in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to report the effects and interest of HIIT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), as well as in persons with high cardiovascular risk. A non-systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE database using keywords 'exercise', 'high-intensity interval training', 'interval training', 'coronary artery disease', 'coronary heart disease', 'chronic heart failure' and 'metabolic syndrome' was performed. We selected articles concerning basic science research, physiological research, and randomized or non-randomized interventional clinical trials published in English. To summarize, HIIT appears safe and better tolerated by patients than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). HIIT gives rise to many short- and long-term central and peripheral adaptations in these populations. In stable and selected patients, it induces substantial clinical improvements, superior to those achieved by MICE, including beneficial effects on several important prognostic factors (peak oxygen uptake, ventricular function, endothelial function), as well as improving quality of life. HIIT appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with CAD and HF. It may also assist in improving adherence to exercise training. Larger randomized interventional studies are now necessary to improve the indications for this therapy in different populations. PMID:22694349

Guiraud, Thibaut; Nigam, Anil; Gremeaux, Vincent; Meyer, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent

2012-07-01

270

The stochastic economic lot scheduling problem: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity and set-up times under random demands and random production times, i.e., the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP). The main task for the production manager in this setting is the construction of a production plan for the machine that minimizes the total costs, i.e.,

Erik M. M. Winands; Ivo J. B. F. Adan; Houtum van GJJAN

2011-01-01

271

Probabilistic analysis for scheduling with conflicts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we consider the scheduling of jobs that may be competing for mutually exclusive resources. We model the conflicts between jobs with a conflict graph, so that all concurrently running jobs must form an independent set in the graph. This model is natural and general enough to have applications in a variety of settings; however, we are motivated by the following two specific applications: traffic intersection control and session scheduling in high speed local area networks with spatial reuse. Our goal is to bound the maximum completion time of any job in the system. It has been previously shown that the best competitive ratio achievable by any online algorithm for the maximum completion time on interval or bipartite graphs is 0(n), where n is the number of nodes in the conflict graph. As a result, we study scheduling with conflicts under probabilistic assumptions about the input. Each node i has a value pi such that a job arrives at node i in any given time unit with probability p{sub i}. Arrivals at different nodes and during different time periods are independent. We focus on distributions where the expected time to complete the jobs that arrive in a single time unit is less than 1. Under these assumptions, we are able to obtain a bounded competitive ratio for an arbitrary conflict graph. In addition, if the conflict graph is a perfect graph, we give an algorithm whose competitive ratio converges to 1.

Irani, S.; Leung, V. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

272

Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules  

PubMed Central

Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292

2012-01-01

273

An information model based weld schedule database  

SciTech Connect

As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicken, G.K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gershanok, G.A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

274

Self-directed practice schedule enhances learning of suturing skills  

PubMed Central

Background Most preoperative surgical training programs experience challenges with the availability of expert surgeons to teach trainees. Some research suggests that trainees may benefit from being allowed to actively shape their learning environments, which could alleviate some of the time and resource pressures in surgical training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-directed or prescribed practice schedules (random or blocked) on learning suturing skills. Methods Participants watched an instructional video for simple interrupted, vertical mattress and horizontal mattress suturing then completed a pretest to assess baseline skills. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 practice groups: self-directed practice schedule, prescribed blocked practice schedule, prescribed random practice schedule or matched to the self-directed group (control). Practice of the skill was followed by a delayed (1 h) posttest. Improvement from pretest to posttest was determined based on differences in performance time and expert-based assessments. Results Analyses revealed a significant effect of group for difference in performance time of the simple interrupted suture. Random practice did not show the expected advantage for skill learning, but there was an advantage of self-directed practice. Conclusion Self-directed practice schedules may be desirable for optimal learning of simple technical skills, even when expert instruction is available. Instructors must also take into account the interaction between task difficulty and conditions of practice to develop ideal training environments. PMID:24284153

Safir, Oleg; Williams, Camille K.; Dubrowski, Adam; Backstein, David; Carnahan, Heather

2013-01-01

275

Auction Protocols for Decentralized Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized scheduling is the problem of allocating resources to alternative possible uses over time, where competing uses are represented by autonomous agents. Market mech- anisms use prices derived through distributed bidding protocols to determine schedules. We investigate the existence of equilibrium prices for some general classes of scheduling problems, the quality of equilibrium solutions, and the behavior of an ascending

Michael P. Wellman; William E. Walsh; Peter R. Wurman; Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason

1998-01-01

276

Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

Walker, Karen

2006-01-01

277

F1.5 Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, a continually increasing number of research efforts have investigated the application of evolutionary computation techniques for the solution of scheduling problems. Scheduling problems can pose extremely complex combinatorial optimization problems. The necessity to satisfy various kinds of constraint makes the scheduling task even more difficult. The major portion of this section is devoted to a

Ralf Bruns

278

FlexMod Scheduling Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

Murray, Shannon

2008-01-01

279

Group behavior of rats under schedules of reinforcement1  

PubMed Central

Groups of three rats were placed in a chamber containing one response lever and one water dispenser. A variety of schedule conditions were explored including fixed ratio, extinction, satiation, fixed interval, fixed time, differential reinforcement of low rates, and discrimination learning. Each group was treated as a single unit, with the collective lever responses emitted by the three rats being the main dependent variable. Group responding was found to be controlled by the reinforcement schedules in an orderly and consistent manner. However, the groups often paused less and responded faster than individual rats working under identical conditions. PMID:4413600

Grott, Robert; Neuringer, Allen

1974-01-01

280

Sample Size for Confidence Interval of Covariate-Adjusted Mean Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a way to determine adequate sample size for the confidence interval of covariate-adjusted mean difference in randomized experiments. The standard error of adjusted mean difference depends on covariate variance and balance, which are two unknown quantities at the stage of planning sample size. If covariate observations are viewed as randomly varying from one study to another, the

Xiaofeng Steven Liu

2010-01-01

281

Approximation techniques for average completion time scheduling  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of nonpreemptive scheduling to minimize average (weighted) completion time, allowing for release dates, parallel machines, and precedence constraints. Recent work has led to constant-factor approximations for this problem, based on solving a preemptive or linear programming relaxation and then using the solution to get an ordering on the jobs. We introduce several new techniques which generalize this basic paradigm. We use these ideas to obtain improved approximation algorithms for one-machine scheduling to minimize average completion time with release dates. In the process, we obtain an optimal randomized on-line algorithm for the same problem that beats a lower bound for deterministic on-line algorithms. We consider extensions to the case of parallel machine scheduling, and for this we introduce two new ideas: first, we show that a preemptive one-machine relaxation is a powerful tool for designing parallel machine scheduling algorithms that simultaneously produce good approximations and have small running times; second, we show that a non-greedy {open_quotes}rounding{close_quotes} of the relaxation yields better approximations than a greedy one. We also prove a general theorem relating the value of one-machine relaxations to that of the schedules obtained for the original m-machine problems. This theorem applies even when there are precedence constraints on the jobs. We apply this result to precedence graphs such as in-trees, out-trees, and series- parallel graphs; these are of particular interest in compiler applications that partly motivated our work.

Chekuri, C.; Motwani, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Natarajan, B. [Hewlett Packard Labs., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Stein, C. [Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH (United States)

1997-06-01

282

NASA launch schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D?, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

Bell, Peter M.

283

An inverse relationship between baseline fixed-interval response rate and the effects of a tandem response requirement.  

PubMed

Previous experiments examining the effects of adding a tandem fixed-ratio response requirement on fixed-interval schedule performance have reported inconsistent results. One variable that may account for such inconsistencies is the baseline response rate in the fixed-interval condition. This possibility was investigated in the present study. Rats were given histories with either interresponse times greater than 11 s or fixed-ratio 40 schedules of reinforcement, which engendered either relatively low or high rates of responding, respectively, in the subsequent fixed-interval condition. A tandem ratio response requirement (fixed-ratio 9) was then introduced. The effects of adding this tandem response requirement were inversely related to the baseline fixed-interval response rates; low rates of responding in the fixed-interval condition were markedly increased, whereas high rates of responding were relatively unaffected. This inverse relationship appears to be similar to the rate-dependent relations observed in behavioral pharmacology. These results may provide an explanation for the inconsistent findings reported in previous studies on tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules and suggest that principles of behavioral pharmacology research may be applicable to the study of the effects of nonpharmacological variables on schedule-controlled behavior. PMID:3193055

Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Kirby, K; Johnson, L M

1988-09-01

284

An inverse relationship between baseline fixed-interval response rate and the effects of a tandem response requirement.  

PubMed Central

Previous experiments examining the effects of adding a tandem fixed-ratio response requirement on fixed-interval schedule performance have reported inconsistent results. One variable that may account for such inconsistencies is the baseline response rate in the fixed-interval condition. This possibility was investigated in the present study. Rats were given histories with either interresponse times greater than 11 s or fixed-ratio 40 schedules of reinforcement, which engendered either relatively low or high rates of responding, respectively, in the subsequent fixed-interval condition. A tandem ratio response requirement (fixed-ratio 9) was then introduced. The effects of adding this tandem response requirement were inversely related to the baseline fixed-interval response rates; low rates of responding in the fixed-interval condition were markedly increased, whereas high rates of responding were relatively unaffected. This inverse relationship appears to be similar to the rate-dependent relations observed in behavioral pharmacology. These results may provide an explanation for the inconsistent findings reported in previous studies on tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules and suggest that principles of behavioral pharmacology research may be applicable to the study of the effects of nonpharmacological variables on schedule-controlled behavior. PMID:3193055

Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Kirby, K; Johnson, L M

1988-01-01

285

Random graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

Alan M. Frieze

2006-01-01

286

Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

287

Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

Civeit, Thomas

2013-01-01

288

Photon arrival time quantum random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient random number generator based on the randomness present in photon emission and detection. The interval between successive photons from a light source with Poissonian statistics is separated into individual time bins, which are then used to create several random bits per detection event. Using a single-photon counter and FPGA-based data processing allows for a cost-efficient and

MICHAEL ALAN WAYNE; Evan R. Jeffrey; Gleb M. Akselrod; Paul G. Kwiat

2009-01-01

289

Random Walks in Random Environments  

E-print Network

Random walks provide a simple conventional model to describe various transport processes, for example propagation of heat or diffusion of matter through a medium. However, in many practical cases the medium is highly irregular due to defects, impurities, fluctuations etc., and it is natural to model this as random environment. In the random walks context, such models are referred to as Random Walks in Random Environments (RWRE). This is a relatively new chapter in applied probability and physics of disordered systems, initiated in the 1970s. Early interest was motivated by some problems in biology, crystallography and metal physics, but later applications have spread through numerous areas. After 30 years of extensive work, RWRE remain a very active area of research, which has already led to many surprising discoveries. The goal of this article is to give a brief introduction to the beautiful area of RWRE. The principal model to be discussed is a random walk with nearest-neighbor jumps in independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random environment in one dimension, although we shall also comment on some extensions and generalizations. The focus is on rigorous results; however, heuristics is used freely to motivate the ideas and explain the approaches and proofs. In a few cases, sketches of the proofs have been included, which should help the reader to appreciate the flavor of results and methods.

L. V. Bogachev

2007-07-20

290

SCC Programming Model for Crude Oil Scheduling and Storage Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic chance constrained mixed-integer nonlinear programming (SCC-MINLP) model is developed in this paper to solve the integrated problem of refinery short term crude oil scheduling, blending and storage management under demands uncertainty of crude oil distillation units (CDUs). It is the first time that the uncertain CDUs' demands in this problem are set as random variables which have discrete

B. Jiao; C. Cao; X. Gu

2007-01-01

291

Flexibility for Vocational Education through Computer Scheduling. Quarterly Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This progress report of a 2-year project (ending April 30, 1968) offers a random sampling of course schedule configurations and specific course performance criteria submitted to the Stanford project staff for evaluation and comment, and a brief statement of the project's data collection and data evaluation objectives. The project seeks to…

Allen, Dwight W.

292

Time table scheduling using Genetic Algorithms employing guided mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithms, a class of evolutionary optimization techniques offer benefits of being probabilistic, requiring no auxiliary knowledge in comparison to conventional search methods such as calculus based, enumerative and random strategies. This paper discusses a Genetic Algorithm based university time table scheduling algorithm satisfying constraints that avoid clash of faculty, class room slots, etc. The paper exploits the rank based

Vinayak Sapru; Kaushik Reddy; B. Sivaselvan

2010-01-01

293

Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results  

SciTech Connect

To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

2013-08-01

294

A MEMORY SCHEDULE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS…

PIMSLEUR, PAUL

295

Optimal External Memory Interval Management  

E-print Network

in X v l , D ow nl oa de d 05 /2 8/ 14 to 1 29 .2 37 .4 6. 99 . R ed ist rib ut io n su bje ct to SIA M lic en se or co py rig ht; se e h ttp ://w ww .si am .or g/j ou rna ls/ ojs a.p hp 1492 LARS ARGE AND JEFFREY SCOTT VITTER the intervals... l and L r . Below we show how to do so lazily using O(1) I/Os over O(w(v)/ ? B) updates accessing v so that we can still D ow nl oa de d 05 /2 8/ 14 to 1 29 .2 37 .4 6. 99 . R ed ist rib ut io n su bje ct to SIA M lic en se or co py rig ht...

Arge, Lars; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

2003-01-01

296

Random Walks in Random Environments  

E-print Network

Random walks provide a simple conventional model to describe various transport processes, for example propagation of heat or diffusion of matter through a medium. However, in many practical cases the medium is highly irregular due to defects, impurities, fluctuations etc., and it is natural to model this as random environment. In the random walks context, such models are referred to as Random Walks in Random Environments (RWRE). This is a relatively new chapter in applied probability and physics of disordered systems, initiated in the 1970s. Early interest was motivated by some problems in biology, crystallography and metal physics, but later applications have spread through numerous areas. After 30 years of extensive work, RWRE remain a very active area of research, which has already led to many surprising discoveries. The goal of this article is to give a brief introduction to the beautiful area of RWRE. The principal model to be discussed is a random walk with nearest-neighbor jumps in independent identica...

Bogachev, L V

2006-01-01

297

Series on Statistical Application and Methodology on the Use of Confidence Intervals as Probability Intervals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The practice of using statistical confidence intervals as probability intervals in studies of system uncertainties is examined. In several examples, most of which relate to system reliability analysis, it is shown that this practice can lead to intervals ...

R. G. Easterling

1976-01-01

298

Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower and  

E-print Network

Minimizing the number of tardy jobs for the single machine scheduling problem: MIP-based lower of scheduling n jobs on a single machine. A fixed processing time and an execution interval are associated with each job. Preemption is not allowed. The objective is to find a feasible job sequence that minimizes

Briand, Cyril

299

Temporal Reasoning Based on Semi-Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalization of Allen's interval-based approach to temporal reasoning is presented. The notion of 'conceptual neighborhood' of qualitative relations between events is central to the presented approach. Relations between semi-intervals rather than intervals are used as the basic units of knowledge. Semi-intervals correspond to temporal beginnings or endings of events. We demonstrate the advantages of reasoning on the basis of

Christian Freksa

1992-01-01

300

Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration  

PubMed Central

The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473

Gouvea, Thiago S.; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V.; Paton, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

301

HyperStat Online: Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource gives a thorough definition of confidence intervals. It shows the user how to compute a confidence interval and how to interpret them. It goes into detail on how to construct a confidence interval for the difference between means, correlations, and proportions. It also gives a detailed explanation of Pearson's correlation. It also includes exercises for the user.

Lane, David M.

2009-10-16

302

The association of clinical follow-up intervals in HIV-infected persons with viral suppression on subsequent viral suppression.  

PubMed

The recommendation for the frequency for routine clinical monitoring of persons with well-controlled HIV infection is based on evidence that relies on observed rather than intended follow-up intervals. We sought to determine if the scheduled follow-up interval is associated with subsequent virologic failure. Participants in this 6-clinic retrospective cohort study had an index clinic visit in 2008 and HIV viral load (VL) ?400 c/mL. Univariate and multivariate tests evaluated if scheduling the next follow-up appointment at 3, 4, or 6 months predicted VL >400 c/mL at 12 months (VF). Among 2171 participants, 66%, 26%, and 8% were scheduled next follow-up visits at 3, 4, and 6 months, respectively. With missing 12-month VL considered VF, 25%, 25%, and 24% of persons scheduled at 3, 4, and 6 months had VF, respectively (p=0.95). Excluding persons with missing 12-month VL, 7.1%, 5.7%, and 4.5% had VF, respectively (p=0.35). Multivariable models yielded nonsignificant odds of VF by scheduled follow-up interval both when missing 12-month VL were considered VF and when persons with missing 12-month VL were excluded. We conclude that clinicians are able to make safe decisions extending follow-up intervals in persons with viral suppression, at least in the short-term. PMID:23886048

Buscher, April; Mugavero, Michael; Westfall, Andrew O; Keruly, Jeanne; Moore, Richard; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Sullivan, Meg; Wilson, Tracey E; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Malitz, Faye; Giordano, Thomas P

2013-08-01

303

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.  

SciTech Connect

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01

304

Effects of LSD on time-based schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional relationship between rate of bar-pressing and a wide range of dosages of LSD was studied under different conditions or schedules of reinforcement, i.e., variable-interval (VI), differential reinforcement of low rate (drl), and drl plus concurrent periods of punishment. In general, low doses (0.01–0.04 nig\\/kg of LSD) increased or facilitated responding as an inverse function of base line response

James B. Appel

1971-01-01

305

Interval estimation for statistical control  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop meaningful statistical control limits when applicable based upon the normal distribution, the mean and the standard deviation of a population must be known. In cases when an accurate approximation of the standard deviation is not known, the calculation of reasonable statistical control limits can be performed by using the Student's t-distribution. The Student's t-value for n-1 degrees of freedom (n is the sample size) and the confidence intervals that correspond to 20 and 30 (95.45% and 99.73% respectively) is used to determine control limits from a relatively small data set. The control limits with this method are obtained by multiplying the calculated standard deviation of the data set by the appropriate t-value for the specified confidence level and degrees of freedom While the t-distribution method is needed primarily for a small sample size (n <30), it approaches the normal distribution with increasing n, and hence can be used for any size sample.

ABDURRAHAM, N.M.

2002-08-22

306

Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z2 orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z2 projection. We introduce a family of “straight gauges”, which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS5/AdS4 setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical “brane-bending” modes.

Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon

2005-10-01

307

Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

SciTech Connect

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of 'straight gauges', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical 'brane-bending' modes.

Carena, Marcela [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2005-10-15

308

Randomized metarounding  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a new technique for the design of approximation algorithms that can be viewed as a generalization of randomized rounding. They derive new or improved approximation guarantees for a class of generalized congestion problems such as multicast congestion, multiple TSP etc. Their main mathematical tool is a structural decomposition theorem related to the integrality gap of a relaxation.

CARR,ROBERT D.; VEMPALA,SANTOSH

2000-01-25

309

RVLS Confidence Interval on a Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows you to explore the validity of confidence intervals on a proportion with various values for sample size (N) and population proportion (Pi). After you specify N, Pi, the level of confidence, and the number of simulations you wish to perform, the applet samples data according to your specification and computes a confidence interval for each simulation. The proportion of simulations for which the confidence interval contains Pi is recorded. If the method for constructing confidence intervals is valid, then about 95% of the 95% confidence intervals should contain Pi.

Lane, David M.

2009-01-06

310

The LSST OCS scheduler design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

2014-08-01

311

Scheduling with conflicts, and applications to traffic signal control  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we consider the scheduling of jobs that may be competing for mutually exclusive resources. We model the conflicts between jobs with a conflict graph, so that all concurrently running jobs must form an independent set in the graph. We believe that this model is natural and general enough to have applications in a variety of settings; however, we are motivated by the following two specific applications: traffic intersection control and session scheduling in high speed local area networks with spatial reuse. In both of these applications, guaranteeing the best turnaround time to any job entering the system is important. Our results focus on two special classes of graphs motivated by our applications: bipartite graphs and interval graphs. Although the algorithms for bipartite and intervals graphs are quite different, the bounds they achieve are the same: we prove that for any sequence of jobs in which the maximum completion time of a job in the optimal schedule is bounded by A, the algorithm can complete every job in time O(n{sup 3} A{sup 2}). n is the number of nodes in the conflict graph. We also show that the best competitive ratio achievable by any online algorithm for the maximum completion time on interval or bipartite graphs is {Omega}(n).

Irani, S.; Leung, V. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

312

Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

2014-01-01

313

Behavioral regulation of gravity - Schedule effects under escape-avoidance procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Squirrel monkeys were restrained in a centrifuge capsule and trained to escape and avoid increases in artificial gravity. During escape-avoidance, lever responses reduced centrifugally simulated gravity or postponed scheduled increases. The effect of variation in the interval of postponement (equal to the duration of decrease produced by escape responses) was studied under a multiple schedule of four components. Three components were gravity escape-avoidance with postponement times of 20, 40, and 60 sec. The fourth component was extinction. Each component was associated with a different auditory stimulus. Rate of responding decreased with increasing postponement time and higher mean g-levels occurred at shorter intervals of postponement. Effects of the schedule parameter on response rate and mean g-level were similar to effects of the schedule on free-operant avoidance and on titration behavior maintained by shock.

Clark, F. C.; Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.

1973-01-01

314

Randomness in Competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top ?{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

2013-05-01

315

Scheduling Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm that applies a new mechanism in order to generate scheduling which allows for evaluation of the quality of solutions that are obtained in the job shop scheduling problem (JSSP). In this research, the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the makespan as an objective function. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed algorithm

Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez; Martín G. Martínez-Rangel; J. A. Hernandez; José Crispín Zavala-Díaz; Ocotlán Díaz-Parra

2007-01-01

316

On Eulerian extensions and their application to no-wait flowshop scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variant of no-wait flowshop scheduling that is motivated by continuous casting in the multistage production\\u000a process in steel manufacturing. The task is to find a feasible schedule with a minimum number of interruptions, i.e., continuous idle time intervals on the last production stage. Based on an interpretation as Eulerian Extension Problems, we fully settle the complexity status

Wiebke Höhn; Tobias Jacobs; Nicole Megow

317

The stimulus-response overshadowing phenomenon with VI versus FI schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that response rates on a variable interval (VI) schedule of reinforcement decrease if a brief\\u000a response-produced signal is given prior to reward. One explanation is that the signal overshadows the response because it\\u000a is a better predictor of reinforcement. The S-R overshadowing effect does not occur with variable ratio (VR) schedules, however.\\u000a Tarpy, Lea, and Midgley

Roger M. Tarpy; Jean E. Roberts; Stephen E. G. Lea; Marie Midgley

1984-01-01

318

A disk head scheduling simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk head scheduling is a standard topic in undergraduate operating systems courses. Disk drives were once fairly simple devices with little intelligence. Disk head scheduling and bad block mapping were done exclusively by operating systems. As disk drives became larger and faster, they took on some of these tasks. Modern drives often have a large cache and hide their internal

Steven Robbins

2004-01-01

319

Agent-based project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology offers a new way of thinking about many of the classic problems in operations research. Among these are problems such as project scheduling subject to resource constraints. In this paper, we develop and experimentally evaluate eight agent-based algorithms for solving the multimode, resource-constrained project scheduling problem. Our algorithms differ in the priority rules used to control agent access

Gary Knotts; Moshe Dror; Bruce C. Hartman

2000-01-01

320

Chemotherapy Operations Planning and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy Operations Planning and Scheduling Turkcan et al. Chemotherapy operations planning and scheduling in oncology clinics is a complex problem due to several factors such as the cyclic nature of chemotherapy treatment plans, the high variability in resource requirements (treatment time, nurse time, pharmacy time) and the multiple clinic resources involved. Treatment plans are made by oncologists for each patient

Ayten Turkcan; Bo Zeng; Mark Lawley

2012-01-01

321

Advanced planning and scheduling technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research on the core technology in advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems that are currently the state-of-art in supply chain planning and optimisation. Further research is needed to enable the opportunities given, especially the area of combined planning and scheduling. Mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methods have been successfully applied to solve diverse problems, such as planning

Kenn Steger-Jensen; Hans-Henrik Hvolby; Peter Nielsen; Izabela Nielsen

2011-01-01

322

Optimal Crane Scheduling Iiro Harjunkoski  

E-print Network

1 Optimal Crane Scheduling Ionu Aron Iiro Harjunkoski John Hooker Latife Genç Kaya March 2007 #12;2 Problem · Schedule 2 cranes to transfer material between locations in a manufacturing plant. ­ For example, copper processing. ­ Cranes move on a common track. ­ Cranes cannot move past each other. · One crane can

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

323

Production Functions and Cost Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Production functions, such as the Cobb-Douglas and CES, underly cost schedules used to model firms in micro-economics. The models illustrate this link and show the relation between long and short run cost schedules. Uses calculus (Langrangians) and online diagrams.

Wiens, Elmer

2007-03-02

324

Multiprocessor Scheduling with Availability Constraints  

E-print Network

) the end of the last downtime or the end of the optimal schedule. For problems where the optimal schedule ends after the last downtime, and when the downtimes represent fixed jobs, the maximum completion time of FFDL Multifit is within 3 2 or ( 3 2+ 1 2k...

Grigoriu, Liliana

2010-07-14

325

Delay-aware Scheduling in Wireless Coding Networks: To Wait or Not to Wait  

E-print Network

to store and forward packets from various sources to destinations. Time is slotted into small intervals and in each interval every node gets to transmit at most one packet of a ow. This packet is transmitted during a \\mini-slot" that the node has been... assigned. We assume that this mini-slot is instantaneous for all practical purposes. Also, in this model we will not consider any scheduling issues and assume that we have scheduled mini-slots assigned to each node for each ow where nodes have...

Ramasamy, Solairaja

2012-02-14

326

A REVIEW OF SCHEDULING PROBLEMS IN RADIOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the radiotherapy patient scheduling problem of minimising waiting times. Like many other service industry problems, radiotherapy patient scheduling may be solved by first modelling and formulating it into a shop scheduling problem. Over the years, these shop scheduling models have been researched and solved using various approaches. This paper typifies radiotherapy patient scheduling into a job shop

T. Kapamara; K. Sheibaniy; D. Petrovic; Coventry CV

327

Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan  

E-print Network

03/12/2007 1 Job Scheduling in HPC systems Julita Corbalan EEAP Job Scheduling for HPC systems-levels ­ Meta-scheduling · Performance evaluation · Some existing queuing systems Job Scheduling for HPC systems of queued jobs Job Scheduling for HPC systems Julita Corbalan #12;03/12/2007 2 Definitions · Jobs can

Corbalan, Julita

328

Scheduling manufacturing systems with work-in-process inventory control: Reentrant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a procedure for production flow control in reentrant manufacturing systems. The system under study consists ofN machines and producesM product types simultaneously. Each part goes through the system following a predefined process and may visit a machine many times. All machines are subject to random failures and need random repair times. The scheduling objectives are

S. X. Bai; S. B. Gershwin

1996-01-01

329

Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

Brown, Estevancio

2010-01-01

330

Spatial matching and nonmatching in male and female Wistar rats: Effects of delay-interval duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female Wistar rats were trained in a delayed matching-to-position procedure in which one of the two levers (sample)\\u000a was presented. Pressing this lever resulted in its retraction and began a delay interval of random variable duration, which\\u000a terminated with the occurrence of the first nose poke in the pellet retrieval unit after the delay interval had expired. Both

Frans Van Haaren; Annemieke Van Hest

1989-01-01

331

Age-related alterations in the fractal scaling of cardiac interbeat interval dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.0. In the group of healthy elderly subjects, the interbeat interval time series had two scaling regions. Over the short range, interbeat interval fluctuations resembled a random walk process (Brownian noise, ~1 = 1.5), whereas over the longer range they resembled white noise (CX = 0.5). Short ((x,)- and long-range ((x1) scaling exponents were significantly different in the elderly subjects

NIKHIL IYENGAR; C.-K. PENG; RAYMOND MORIN; ARY L. GOLDBERGER; LEWIS A. LIPSITZ

1996-01-01

332

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems #  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems # Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

333

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate­fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

334

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems  

E-print Network

Deadline Fair Scheduling: Bridging the Theory and Practice of Proportionate Fair Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems Abhishek Chandra, Micah Adler and Prashant Shenoy Department of Computer Science, we present Deadline Fair Scheduling (DFS), a proportionate-fair CPU scheduling algorithm

Chandra, Abhishek

335

Random Samples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on random samples. The author provides examples, exercises, and applets concerning many different topics. Some of these include: sample mean, law of large numbers, sample variance, partial sums, central limit theorem, special properties of normal samples, order statistics, and sample covariance and correlation. Additionally, the author provides links to external resources for students wanting to engage further with the topic. This is simply one of seventeen lessons. They are all easily accessible as the author has formatted his site much like an online textbook.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-02-18

336

Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.  

PubMed

Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs. PMID:24773287

Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

2014-07-01

337

CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases.

Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

2014-07-01

338

Concurrent-chains schedules as a method to study choice between alcohol-associated conditioned reinforcers.  

PubMed

An extensive body of research using concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement has shown that choice for one of two differentially valued food-associated stimuli is dependent upon the overall temporal context in which those stimuli are embedded. The present experiments examined whether the concurrent chains procedure was useful for the study of behavior maintained by alcohol and alcohol-associated stimuli. In Experiment 1, rats responded on concurrent-chains schedules with equal variable-interval (VI) 10-s schedules in the initial links. Across conditions, fixed-interval schedules in the terminal links were varied to yield 1?1, 9?1, and 1?9 ratios of alcohol delivery. Initial-link response rates reflected changes in terminal-link schedules, with greater relative responding in the rich terminal link. In Experiment 2, terminal-link schedules remained constant with a 9?1 ratio of alcohol delivery rates while the length of two equal duration initial-link schedules was varied. Preference for the rich terminal link was less extreme when initial links were longer (i.e., the initial-link effect), as has been previously reported with food reinforcers. This result suggests that the conditioned reinforcing value of an alcohol-associated stimulus depends on the temporal context in which it is embedded. The concurrent-chains procedure and quantitative models of concurrent chains performance may provide a useful framework within which to study how contextual variables modulate preference for drug-associated conditioned reinforcers. PMID:22287805

Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A

2012-01-01

339

Scheduling algorithms for arbitrary communication networks  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of designing scheduling schemes for networks with arbitrary topology and scheduling constraints. We address the optimality of scheduling schemes for packet networks in terms of throughput, delay and ...

Jagabathula, Srikanth

2008-01-01

340

Cues Produced by Reward and Nonreward and Temporal Cues Influence Responding in the Intertrial Interval and to the Conditioned Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rats in a Pavlovian situation were trained under three different reward schedules, at either a 30 s or a 90 s intertrial interval (ITI): Consistent reward (C), 50% irregular reward (I), and single alternation of reward and nonrewarded trials (SA). Activity was recorded to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and in all 10 s bins in each ITI except the…

Capaldi, E. J.; Martins, Ana; Miller, Ronald M.

2007-01-01

341

Bootstrap confidence intervals in a complex situation: A sequential paired clinical trial  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the problem of determining a confidence interval for the difference between two treatments in a simplified sequential paired clinical trial, which is analogous to setting an interval for the drift of a random walk subject to a parabolic stopping boundary. Three bootstrap methods of construction are applied: Efron's accelerated bias-covered, the DiCiccio-Romano, and the bootstrap-t. The results are compared with a theoretical approximate interval due to Siegmund. Difficulties inherent in the use of these bootstrap methods in a complex situations are illustrated. The DiCiccio-Romano method is shown to be the easiest to apply and to work well. 13 refs.

Morton, S.C.

1988-06-01

342

Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior  

E-print Network

behaviors in hu- mans and other animals. One of the more interesting problems in interval timing is trying could be proposed for some of these psychological models. The search for both the psychological to the mean of the interval, has been termed the scalar property.(8) The scalar property is graphically

Matell, Matthew S.

343

Interval arithmetic in power flow analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a method for taking uncertainty into account during power flow solutions with uncertain input data. The method is based on interval arithmetic which takes into consideration the uncertainty of the nodal information, and is able to provide strict bounds for the solutions to the problem: all possible solutions are included within the bounds given by interval arithmetic.

Zian Wang; Fernando L. Alvarado

1992-01-01

344

The Generality of the Retention Interval Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaborations and refinements were made for core constructs of the retention interval (RI) model that specified a major difference between anticipation and study-test methods to be short-term memory (STM) processes in differential retention intervals. Subsequent developments reinforce the model and suggest that basic processes per each type of event are, respectively, the same for both methods (except for quantitatively differential

Chizuko Izawa

1983-01-01

345

SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

346

Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

1997-01-01

347

CUSUM Charts With Variable Sampling Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart for controlling the process mean takes samples from the process at fixed-length sampling intervals and uses a control statistic based on a cumulative sum of differences between the sample means and the target value. This article proposes a modification of the standard CUSUM scheme that varies the time intervals between samples depending on the

Marion R. Reynolds; Raid W. Amin; Jesse C. Arnold

1990-01-01

348

Multiple Regression: The Confidence Interval of rho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page will calculate the 0.95 and 0.99 confidence intervals for rho, based on the Fisher r-to-z transformation. To perform the calculations, enter the values of r and n in the designated places, then click the "calculate" button. Note that the confidence interval of rho is symmetrical around the observed r only with large values of n.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-12

349

Confidence intervals in QTL mapping by bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well

Peter M. Visscher; Robin Thompson; Chris S. Haley

1996-01-01

350

Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Confidence Intervals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet simulates sampling from a population with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For each sample, the 95% and 99% confidence intervals on the mean are computed based on the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Exercises accompany the applet to help students understand what confidence intervals mean.

Lane, David M.

2009-01-06

351

Confidence interval estimation using standardized time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of a stationary stochastic process can be transformed into a standardized time series. This paper presents a lemma giving the asymptotic properties of this standardized series under quite general conditions. In particular, the conditions are satisfied by stationary discrete-event simulations. Confidence intervals can be constructed using this lemma. For illustration, we develop two easily computed interval estimators for the

Lee W. Schruben

1983-01-01

352

Calculating Confidence Intervals for Rates and Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the probability of developing or dying from most neurologic disorders is relatively small, the Poisson distribution is often utilized to establish confidence intervals around rates or ratios for diseases of the nervous system. This report describes a simplified method and provides a table of factors based on the Poisson distribution for calculating confidence intervals around estimates of rates and

Bruce S. Schoenberg

1983-01-01

353

Confidence Intervals for Bisquare Regression Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results from a Monte Carlo study of robust regression confidence-interval estimation in the model y = a + bx + ?. Bisquare estimators were studied on samples of 11 and 21 with five design matrices. Four estimators of scale were used to form confidence intervals. Samples were generated from two distributions: normal and slash. For many

Alan M. Gross

1977-01-01

354

Interval and Contour Processing in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

Heaton, Pamela

2005-01-01

355

Globally Convergent Autocalibration using Interval Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of autocalibration of a moving camera with unknown constant intrinsic parameters. Existing autocalibration techniques use numerical optimization algorithms whose convergence to the correct result cannot be guaranteed, in general. To address this problem, we have developed a method where an interval branch- and-bound method is employed for numerical minimization. Thanks to the properties of Interval Analysis

Andrea Fusiello; Arrigo Benedetti; Michela Farenzena; Alessandro Busti

2004-01-01

356

Limit of random walks of random trees  

E-print Network

Limit of random walks and of random trees ------------------------------ Elements phenomenons (quantum physics, magnetism, polymer, DNA, genealogical tree, random walk, Markov chain, etc, statistical physics, biology, a lot of objects hav­ ing a discrete nature appear for various reason

Marckert, Jean-François

357

Privacy-Enhanced Event Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Event schedulers, well-known from groupware and social software, typically share the problem that they disclose detailed availability patterns,of their users. This paper,distin- guishes event scheduling,from,electronic voting and,proposes,a privacy-enhanced,event scheduling scheme. Based on superposed sending and Diffie?Hellman key agreement, it is designed to be efficient enough,for practical implementations,while requiring minimal,trust in a central entity. Protocols to enable,dynamic joining and,leaving of participants

Benjamin Kellermann; Rainer Bohme

2009-01-01

358

Research Ship Information and Schedules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unusual resource for Research Ship Information and Schedules is maintained by the University of Delaware's Ocean Information Center (OCEANIC). Complete with a searchable database of schedules and characteristics of deep-water scientific research vessels, this site is an excellent example of the range of eclectic and specialized information available on the Web. Information on facilities, research capabilities, layouts, schedules, and much more is organized by country and ship name; for US research vessels, information is also listed by agency and institution. Other features include links to a staggering array of related research ship information sites.

1999-01-01

359

Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

360

DUAL EMPLOYMENT REVISED SCHEDULE REQUEST NAME: ____________________________________________________ EMPLID: ______________________________  

E-print Network

DUAL EMPLOYMENT REVISED SCHEDULE REQUEST NAME: _______________________ DUAL EMPLOYMENT DATES: ____________________ TO ______________________ TIMES: __________________ AM SCHEDULE. IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CLEMSON UNIVERSITY DUAL EMPLOYMENT POLICY, ALL HOURS MISSED WHILE

Bolding, M. Chad

361

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

362

Cross-Validation of the Schedule of Racist Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a cross-validation study of the Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), a brief inventory that assesses the frequency of various types of racist dis-crimination in Blacks’lives. A new, larger, more representative sample of 520 Af-rican Americans residing in 10 randomly-selected southern California census tracts completed the SRE and a measure of psychiatric symptoms. Results re-vealed that 96% of

Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

1999-01-01

363

Planning and Scheduling for Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of ...

I. Manzanera

1994-01-01

364

robust passenger oriented airline scheduling  

E-print Network

coordinated through a flight schedule, comprised of flight legs between ... integrating the planning phases is a big challenge: dynamics and competitive behaviours, .... demand forecast quality for a particular departure date improves as it ...

Luis

2010-10-29

365

Lesson 18: Courses, Schedule, Routine  

E-print Network

go to games.] 2. Ratiba yako ni gani semesta hii? [What is your schedule this semester?] a). Semesta this semester is:] 3. Unafanya kosi gani semesta hii?; Semesta hii unafanya kosi gani? [What courses are you

366

On parallel machine scheduling 1  

E-print Network

On parallel machine scheduling 1 machines with setup times. The setup has to be performed by a single server. The objective is to minimize even for the case of two identical parallel machines. This paper presents a pseudopolynomial

Magdeburg, Universität

367

A GPU interval library based on Boost.Interval Sylvain Collange  

E-print Network

A GPU interval library based on Boost.Interval Sylvain Collange Universit´e de Perpignan Via these applications are computationally demanding. One solution is to use graphics processing unit (GPU) in order to take advantage of its computational power. We describe in this paper a GPU implementation of interval

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Dynamic Scheduling on Parallel Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of online job scheduling on various parallel architectures is studied. An O((log log n)1\\/2 )-competitive algorithm for online dynamic scheduling on an n ×n mesh is given. It is proved that this algorithm is optimal up to a constant factor. The algorithm is not greedy, and the lower bound proof shows that no greedy-like algorithm can be very

Anja Feldmann; Jiri Sgall; Shang-hua Teng

1991-01-01

369

Modeling and Supporting Grid Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract\\\\ \\\\ Grid resource management systems and schedulers are important components for building Grids. They are responsible for the\\u000a selection and allocation of Grid resources to current and future applications. Thus, they are important building blocks for\\u000a making Grids available to user communities. In this paper we briefly analyze the requirements of Grid resource management\\u000a and provide a classification of schedulers. Then,

Andrea Pugliese; Domenico Talia; Ramin Yahyapour

2007-01-01

370

Planning and scheduling for success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

Manzanera, Ignacio

1994-01-01

371

Phase transition in multiprocessor scheduling.  

PubMed

An "easy-hard" phase transition is shown to characterize the multiprocessor scheduling problem in which one has to distribute the workload on a parallel computer such as to minimize the overall run time. The transition can be analyzed in detail by mapping it on a mean-field antiferromagnetic Potts model. The static phase transition, characterized by a vanishing ground state entropy, corresponds to a transition in the performance of practical scheduling algorithms. PMID:12732079

Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan; Engel, Andreas

2003-04-18

372

Phase Transition in Multiprocessor Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An “easy-hard” phase transition is shown to characterize the multiprocessor scheduling problem in which one has to distribute the workload on a parallel computer such as to minimize the overall run time. The transition can be analyzed in detail by mapping it on a mean-field antiferromagnetic Potts model. The static phase transition, characterized by a vanishing ground state entropy, corresponds to a transition in the performance of practical scheduling algorithms.

Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan; Engel, Andreas

2003-04-01

373

Nocturnalism induced by scheduled feeding in diurnal Octodon degus.  

PubMed

Octodon degus, a mainly diurnal rodent, characterized by its ability to shift to a nocturnal locomotor pattern under laboratory conditions, was studied to determine whether restricted food access during the scotophase could induce nocturnalism. To address this question, wheel running activity, feeding, and body temperature rhythms were analyzed for diurnal degus housed with a wheel and subjected to either long (12 h) or short (2 h) food availability periods, in the latter case with random or scheduled food access times. The results show that allowing nocturnal feeding for 2 h, but not 12 h, can shift a previous diurnal phase preference for wheel running activity and body temperature to the scotophase, with random feeding being more effective than scheduled food availability. However, this behavioral inversion proved to be unstable, as the degus returned to the diurnal phase within only a few days after the restricted feeding was discontinued. In addition, the negative masking effect induced by light, which is characteristic of the degus' nocturnal chronotype, was not observed when the animals were forced to feed at night. Thus, neither long, short, random, nor scheduled food-availability during the scotophase was able to induce all the characteristics of the nocturnal chronotype in Octodon degus. PMID:20370467

Vivanco, Pablo; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Madariaga, Ana Maria; Rol, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio

2010-01-01

374

Interval arithmetic in power flow analysis  

SciTech Connect

The power flow is the fundamental tool for the study of power systems. The data for this problem are subject to uncertainty. This paper uses interval arithmetic to solve the power flow problem. Interval arithmetic takes into consideration the uncertainty of the nodal information, and is able to provide strict bounds for the solution to the problem: all possible solutions are included within the bounds given by interval arithmetic. Results are compared with those obtainable by Monte Carlo simulations and by the use of stochastic power flows.

Wang, Z.; Alvarado, F.L. (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (US))

1992-08-01

375

Interval Assignment for Volumes with Holes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new technique for automatically detecting interval constraints for swept volumes with holes. The technique finds true volume constraints that are not necessarily imposed by the surfaces of the volume. A graphing algorithm finds independent, parallel paths of edges from source surfaces to target surfaces. The number of intervals on two paths between a given source and target surface must be equal; in general, the collection of paths determine a set of linear constraints. Linear programming techniques solve the interval assignment problem for the surface and volume constraints simultaneously.

BENZLEY, STEVEN; MITCHELL, SCOTT A.; SHEPHERD, JASON F.

1999-09-07

376

STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES  

E-print Network

of Burgers equation under deterministic dynamics and/or additive stochastic forcing. We expect that ourSTOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions and anticipating

Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

377

Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules for Problem Behavior and Appropriate Behavior: Experimental Applications of the Matching Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

2010-01-01

378

Single-machine scheduling with periodic and flexible periodic maintenance to minimize maximum tardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a single-machine scheduling problem with several maintenances periods. Specifically, two situations are investigated. In the first one, maintenance periods are periodically fixed: maintenance is required after a periodic time interval. In the second one, the maintenance is not fixed but the maximum continuous working time of the machine which is allowed is determined. The objective is to

Mohammed Sbihi; Christophe Varnier

2008-01-01

379

Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

2011-01-01

380

Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

2003-01-01

381

Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City  

SciTech Connect

The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

James, R.T.

1980-01-01

382

Cournot oligopoly interval games Lardon Aymeric  

E-print Network

Cournot oligopoly interval games Lardon Aymeric May 19, 2010 Abstract In this paper we consider-mail: aymeric.lardon@univ-st-etienne.fr 1 In the remainder of this paper we use the term "oligopoly" to refer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Computer graphics, linear interpolation, and nonstandard intervals  

E-print Network

enclosure, overestimation, patents, range enclosure, ray tracing 2000 MSC Classification: primary 65G40 interval standard should support these. Its purpose is to justify the decisions proposed in the Vienna

Neumaier, Arnold

384

Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

Murphy, Patrick C.

1992-01-01

385

On Simultaneous Confidence Intervals for Multinomial Proportions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this article the author presents a method for obtaining simultaneous confidence intervals for the parameters of a multinomial distribution, and compares this method with the one suggested recently by Quesenberry and Hurst (1964). For the usual probabil...

L. A. Goodman

1964-01-01

386

What is an Earthquake?: Recurrence Interval  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since large fault ruptures require the build-up of a great deal of stress, many years pass between repeated surface ruptures on a single fault. The average time between such ruptures, known as the recurrence interval of that fault, is a useful measurement for assessing both the slip rate of the fault and the risk the fault presents. This activity contains three exercises. In the first, students study a hypothetical fault to determine slip rate, likely recurrence interval, and determine the degree of hazard presented to residents presently living near the fault. In the second, students examine data from the San Andreas Fault, determine recurrence interval, and graph the data to reveal patterns. In the third exercise, students examine the relationship between fault length and recurrence interval by analyzing data from two faults of different lengths. Links to a graphing template and an example graph are provided.

387

Does virtualization make disk scheduling passé?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether traditional disk I\\/O scheduling still provides benefits in a layered system consisting of virtualized operating systems and underlying virtual machine monitor. We demonstrate that choosing the appropriate scheduling algorithm in guest operating systems provides performance benefits, while scheduling in the virtual machine monitor has no measurable advantage. We propose future areas for investigation, including schedulers optimized for

David Boutcher; Abhishek Chandra

2010-01-01

388

SCHEDULING IN CONCURRENT PASCAL * F. B. Schneider  

E-print Network

impose a scheduling discipline on a shared resource (e.g. disk) is studied. The Scheduling Scenario for processes attempting to access the disk, can be realized by using a disk head scheduling algorithm. An access graph [B72] for the implementation of a scheduling algorithm for a disk is illustrated in Figure i

Schneider, Fred B.

389

Systems Support for Preemptive Disk Scheduling  

E-print Network

Systems Support for Preemptive Disk Scheduling Zoran Dimitrijevicc, Member, IEEE, Raju Rangaswami--Storage, preemptible disk access, preemptive disk scheduling, real-time, QoS, disk IO preemption. æ 1 INTRODUCTION. One such domain is that of real-time disk scheduling. Real-time scheduling theoreticians have devel

Rangaswami, Raju

390

Module 4 CPU Scheduling Reading: Chapter 5  

E-print Network

1! 1 Module 4 ­ CPU Scheduling Reading: Chapter 5 Providing some motivation and scheduling criteria. Shall study a number of different algorithms used by CPU (short-term) schedulers. Overview some advance in some real systems. 2 Ready Blocked CPU Scheduling Introduction Algorithms Advanced topics Examples #12

Stojmenovic, Ivan

391

On Job Scheduling with Preemption Penalties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the problem of online job scheduling in a model with preemption penalty introduced by Zheng et al. [11].\\u000a In such a model with preemption penalty parameter ?, the scheduler has to pay a penalty of ? times the weight of each aborted job. We consider two cases according to the scheduler’s knowledge of ? (ratio of length

Feifeng Zheng; Yinfeng Xu; Chung Keung Poon

2009-01-01

392

DYNAMIC SCHEDULING M. C. H. Wright  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC SCHEDULING M. C. H. Wright Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley levels of dynamic schedulers: those which allocate suitable ob­ serving time, and those which adjust the observing parameters. We describe a dynamic scheduling program which determines the observ­ ing schedule

Militzer, Burkhard

393

A review of machine learning in scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two primary purposes: to motivate the need for machine learning in scheduling systems and to survey work on machine learning in scheduling. In order to motivate the need for machine learning in scheduling, we briefly motivate the need for systems employing artificial intelligence methods for scheduling. This leads to a need for incorporating adaptive methods-learning

Haldun Aytug; Siddhartha Bhattacharyya; Gary J. Koehler; Jane L. Snowdon

1994-01-01

394

Measured Outcomes of Learning under Block Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 270 sophomores taught in either a block scheduling or traditional scheduling format showed significant results for English and biology. Block schedules significantly predicted pretest to posttest differences in Educational Testing Service subject scores over and above those of students following traditional schedules. (Contains 16…

Hess, Caryl; Wronkovich, Michael; Robinson, James

1999-01-01

395

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

396

Errors in manual measurement of QT intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To quantify the errors associated with manual measurement of QT intervals and to determine the source of the errors. DESIGN--A randomised study of QT measurement by four cardiologists of electrocardiograms plotted on paper in presentations with different noise levels, paper speeds, amplifier gains, and with and without a second QRST complex to indicate the RR interval. SUBJECTS--Four electrocardiograph leads (I,

A. Murray; N. B. McLaughlin; J. P. Bourke; J. C. Doig; S. S. Furniss; R. W. Campbell

1994-01-01

397

Pyridostigmine reduces QTc interval during recovery from maximal exercise in ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a randomized, cross-over, and double-blind design, 14 patients with coronary heart disease were submitted, to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a treadmill, 2 h after the oral administration of either placebo or pyridostigmine bromide (45 mg), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. One observer, who was blind to the experimental condition, measured RR and QT intervals over the 12 electrocardiographic leads

Renata R. T. Castro; Salvador M. Serra; Graciema Porphirio; Fernanda S. N. S. Mendes; Leonardo P. J. Oliveira; Antonio C. L. Nóbrega

2006-01-01

398

Interval Generalization of the Bayesian Model of Collective Decision-Making in Conflict Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructive interval model of making a collective decision by an independent group of experts is developed. The model is based on a priori information about the frequency of experts' errors in estimating a random state of an object using a finite sample.

O. A. Zhukovskaya; L. S. Fainzil'berg

2005-01-01

399

Sample Size for Confidence Interval of Covariate-Adjusted Mean Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a way to determine adequate sample size for the confidence interval of covariate-adjusted mean difference in randomized experiments. The standard error of adjusted mean difference depends on covariate variance and balance, which are two unknown quantities at the stage of planning sample size. If covariate observations are…

Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

2010-01-01

400

Sensor Scheduling for Energy-Efficient Target Tracking in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the problem of tracking an object moving randomly\\u000athrough a network of wireless sensors. Our objective is to devise strategies\\u000afor scheduling the sensors to optimize the tradeoff between tracking\\u000aperformance and energy consumption. We cast the scheduling problem as a\\u000aPartially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), where the control actions\\u000acorrespond to the set

George K. Atia; Venugopal V. Veeravalli; Jason A. Fuemmeler

2010-01-01

401

Effects of signaled reward in instrumental conditioning: Enhanced learning on DRL and DRH schedules of reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of signaled reward were examined using DRL and DRH schedules of reinforcement. In each case, one group of rats\\u000a received a brief cue between the reinforced response and the reward, and a second group received brief cues at random times.\\u000a With the DRL schedule (Experiment 1), signaled reward decreased response rate, increased response efficiency (number of responses\\u000a per

Roger M. Tarpy; Jean E. Roberts

1985-01-01

402

A practical scheduling algorithm for Shuttle-based astronomy missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Astro mission series (initial flight planned for March, 1986), the Shuttle will be used as a dedicated stellar astronomy observatory. A modified Spacelab pallet is to be used for the Astro payload, which will consist of three ultraviolet (UV) telescopes and a wide field camera mounted together on a single gimbal mount called the Inertial Pointing System (IPS). Three flights of 7-10 days duration are to be made with the same payload at intervals of 8-9 months. Previous experience has shown that changes in design requirements are inevitable, and the evolution of operational concepts will effect changes in scheduling algorithm software. For these reasons, the design goals of the Astron algorithm and its family of auxiliary software modules have been related to functional modularity, constraint flexibility, user friendliness, and 'light' input requirements. Attention is given to hardware characteristics, environmental constraints, the basic criteria function, 'Cinderella' logic, counters and constraints, and scheduling trends.

Guffin, O. T.; Roberts, B. H.; Williamson, P. L.

1985-01-01

403

Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.  

PubMed

We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes. PMID:20866478

Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

2010-06-01

404

Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals ? between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q . The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

2010-06-01

405

CALCULATION OF NONLINEAR CONFIDENCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS FOR GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals.

Cooley, Richard, L.; Vecchia, Aldo, V.

1987-01-01

406

A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

2003-01-01

407

A logic of concrete time intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of: (1) a finite-state model for asynchronous systems in which the time delays between the scheduling and occurrence of the events that cause state changes are constrained to fall between fixed numerical upper and lower time bounds; (2) a branching-time temporal logic suitable for describing the temporal and logical properties of asynchronous systems, for which the

Harry R. Lewis

1990-01-01

408

Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

1988-01-01

409

A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

1996-01-01

410

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

Bisping, L.E.

1991-01-01

411

ESCAPE RATES FORMULAE AND METASTABLILTY FOR RANDOMLY PERTURBED MAPS  

E-print Network

ESCAPE RATES FORMULAE AND METASTABLILTY FOR RANDOMLY PERTURBED MAPS WAEL BAHSOUN AND SANDRO VAIENTI Abstract. We provide escape rates formulae for piecewise expanding interval maps with `random holes maps. We show that our escape rates formulae can be used to approximate limits of invariant densities

412

Probability Distributions in Periodic Random Environment and Their Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic random environments and mechanisms of their effect on imbedded random variables are discussed. The variables under consideration represent either waiting time until some event occurs or the number of events within a given time interval. Their probability distributions have periodic residual lifetime functions and periodic failure rates. The form of the corresponding cumulative distribution functions is derived. Equivalent representations

Boyan Dimitrov; STEFANKA CHUKOVA; DAVID GREEN

1997-01-01

413

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

Bisping, L.E.

1997-01-01

414

Evaluation of prediction intervals for expressing uncertainties in groundwater flow model predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the accuracy of 95% individual prediction intervals for hydraulic heads, streamflow gains, and effective transmissivities computed by groundwater models of two Danish aquifers. To compute the intervals, we assumed that each predicted value can be written as the sum of a computed dependent variable and a random error. Testing was accomplished by using a cross-validation method and by using new field measurements of hydraulic heads and transmissivities that were not used to develop or calibrate the models. The tested null hypotheses are that the coverage probability of the prediction intervals is not significantly smaller than the assumed probability (95%) and that each tail probability is not significantly different from the assumed probability (2.5%). In all cases tested, these hypotheses were accepted at the 5% level of significance. We therefore conclude that for the groundwater models of two real aquifers the individual prediction intervals appear to be accurate.

Christensen, Steen; Cooley, Richard L.

1999-09-01

415

Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

Zi?ba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

2014-07-01

416

Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

2009-01-01

417

A planning and scheduling lexicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

1989-01-01

418

Epidemiology and reporting of randomized trials employing re-randomization of patient groups: a systematic survey.  

PubMed

Trials employing re-randomization of some or all participants provide opportunities for determining optimal dosing and dosing schedules, potential disease modifying effects, direct comparisons between drugs, and salvage therapy for patients failing their assigned treatments. To date, no data exists about their prevalence, epidemiology, or quality. We undertook a systematic review of all trials re-randomizing patients. Using explicit search criteria, we searched 11 electronic databases independently, in duplicate. We additionally searched pharmaceutical company websites for unpublished studies. We extracted data on the epidemiology of trials, year published, characteristics of the purpose of the re-randomization, what groups of patients were re-randomized, and methodological issues, including allocation, concealment, sequence generation, blinding, intention to treat, and appropriate sample size calculations. We found 65 trials. All trials were reported in English. Of these, 21 employed re-randomization to determine optimal dosing, 8 for optimal dose-scheduling, 3 for salvage therapy, 0 for estimating disease modifying effects, 24 as direct comparison trials, 9 as standard efficacy trials--that did not require re-randomization, and 3 as withdrawal of treatment trials. The median sample size of the period prior to re-randomization is 180 [interquartile range (IQR) 83-480] and after re-randomization is 104 [IQR 36 to 246]. Studies lost a median of 8% of eligible patients from period 1 to period 2 [IQR 0 to 17]. Studies were published between 1975 and 2005, with the vast majority (71%) published since 1995. The findings of our review indicate that trials employing re-randomization are relatively rare, have poor reporting of important methodological features, and, in some circumstances, fail to take advantage of the benefits that re-randomization can permit. PMID:17067857

Mills, Edward J; Kelly, Steven; Wu, Ping; Guyatt, Gordon H

2007-05-01

419

77 FR 75075 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule IV  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEA-369] Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule...Administration (DEA) proposes placing the substance lorcaserin, including its salts, isomers...into Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This proposed action...

2012-12-19

420

HIV Intertest Interval among MSM in King County, Washington  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We examined temporal trends and correlates of HIV testing frequency among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, WA. METHODS We evaluated data from MSM testing for HIV at the Public Health - Seattle & King County (PHSKC) STD Clinic and Gay City Health Project (GCHP) and testing history data from MSM in PHSKC HIV surveillance. The intertest interval (ITI) was defined as the number of days between the last negative HIV test and the current testing visit or first positive test. Correlates of the log10-transformed ITI were determined using GEE linear regression. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2010, the median ITI among MSM seeking HIV testing at the STD Clinic and GCHP were 215 (IQR: 124–409) and 257 (IQR: 148–503) days, respectively. In multivariate analyses, younger age, having only male partners, and reporting ?10 male sex partners in the last year were associated with shorter ITIs at both testing sites (p<0.05). Among GCHP attendees, having a regular healthcare provider, seeking a test as part of a regular schedule, and inhaled nitrite use in the last year were also associated with shorter ITIs (p<0.001). Compared to MSM testing HIV-negative, MSM newly diagnosed with HIV had longer ITIs at the STD Clinic (median of 213 versus 278 days; p=0.01) and GCHP (median 255 versus 359 days; p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS Although MSM in King County appear to be testing at frequent intervals, further efforts are needed to reduce the time that HIV-infected persons are unaware of their status. PMID:22563016

Katz, David A.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Swanson, Fred; Buskin, Susan; Golden, Matthew R.; Stekler, Joanne D.

2012-01-01

421

Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function PQ(r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability WQ(t; ?t) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next ?t heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Kireenkov, Igor S.; Nifontov, Eugene M.; Bunde, Armin

2009-06-01

422

1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1996-10-01

423

The relation of multiple-schedule behavioral contrast to deprivation, time in session, and within-session changes in responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeons’ keypecking was reinforced by food on baseline schedules of multiple variable interval (VI)x VIx and on contrast schedules of multiple VIx VIy. Deprivation of food was varied by maintaining subjects at 75%, 85%, and 95% (±2%) of their free-feeding weights. Positive\\u000a and negative behavioral contrast were observed. The size of the contrast was not systematically altered by changes in

Frances K. McSweeney; Samantha Swindell; Eric S. Murphy; Benjamin P. Kowal

2004-01-01

424

Retrieval practice over the long term: Should spacing be expanding or equal-interval?  

PubMed

If multiple opportunities are available to review to-be-learned material, should a review occur soon after initial study and recur at progressively expanding intervals, or should the reviews occur at equal intervals? Landauer and Bjork (1978) argued for the superiority of expanding intervals, whereas more recent research has often failed to find any advantage. However, these prior studies have generally compared expanding versus equal-interval training within a single session, and have assessed effects only upon a single final test. We argue that a more generally important goal would be to maintain high average performance over a considerable period of training. For the learning of foreign vocabulary spread over four weeks, we found that expanding retrieval practice (i.e., sessions separated by increasing numbers of days) produced recall equivalent to that from equal-interval practice on a final test given eight weeks after training. However, the expanding schedule yielded much higher average recallability over the whole training period. PMID:24744260

Kang, Sean H K; Lindsey, Robert V; Mozer, Michael C; Pashler, Harold

2014-12-01

425

Mechanism of intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations and interspike interval distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration exhibits oscillations with a wide range of periods. It was suggested in recent years by several modelling studies that these oscillations do not result from an oscillatory local dynamics but that fluctuations drive the formation of spatial and temporal structures in a non-oscillatory dynamic regime. Fluctuations arise from the random opening and closing of release channels on the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Consequently, the interspike interval (ISI) has not a sharp value as with regular oscillations but distributions of ISI arise. We present these distributions and relate them to underlying processes. Oscillations with long average ISI can be comprehended as repetitive wave triggering. The standard deviation of the ISI approximates the inverse of the triggering rate. Oscillations with short average ISI are often complex oscillations consisting of base line oscillations and intermittent oscillations on an elevated cytosolic Ca 2+ level.

Falcke, M.

2007-06-01

426

Limit of random walks of random trees  

E-print Network

Limit of random walks and of random trees -------------------- Elements -------------------- Graz (quantum physics, magnetism, polymer, DNA, genealogical tree, random walk, Markov chain, etc.); in computer physics, biology, a lot of objects hav- ing a discrete nature appear for various reason. In statistical

Marckert, Jean-François

427

Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

428

User requirements for a patient scheduling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

Zimmerman, W.

1979-01-01

429

New Algorithms for Disk Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Processor speed and memory capacity are increasing several timesfaster than disk speed. This disparity suggests that disk I\\/O performancecould become an important bottleneck. Methods are neededfor using disks more efficiently. Past analysis of disk scheduling algorithmshas largely been experimental and little attempt has beenmade to develop algorithms with provable performance guarantees.

Matthew Andrews; Michael A. Bender; Lisa Zhang

2002-01-01

430

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

Bisping, L.E.

1996-02-01

431

Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

Corley, Edward L.

432

Shift scheduling for tank trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we deal with shift scheduling of tank trucks for a small oil company. Given are a set of tank trucks with different characteristics and a set of drivers with different skills. The objective is to assign a feasible driver to every shift of the tank trucks such that legal and safety restrictions are satisfied, the total working

Sigrid Knust; Elisabeth Schumacher

2011-01-01

433

Online Scheduling with Bounded Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the classical online scheduling problem where jobs that arrive one by one are assigned to identical parallel ma- chines with the objective of minimizing the makespan. We general- ize this problem by allowing the current assignment to be changed whenever a new job arrives, subject to the constraint that the to- tal size of moved jobs is bounded by

Peter Sanders; Naveen Sivadasan; Martin Skutella

2004-01-01

434

Schedule of Classes Spring 2012  

E-print Network

Raj Beri Scott C.James Political Science 88SB Controversies in College Athletics: Race, PoliticsSchedule of Classes Spring 2012 Spring Deadlines March 20 Last day to pay fees March 29 Classes (USIE) is an innovative program designed to provide a select group of juniors and seniors in the College

Grether, Gregory

435

Middle School Organization and Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

McGinley, Nancy J.

436

Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College  

E-print Network

#12;6 Porter/Kresge Dining Hall Hours 7:15 am - 7 pm Porter College Bring your ID/temporary meal card1 2011 Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College University of California Santa Cruz September 16 - 26 60 05 1 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Kresge College our time is now #12;#12;3 1 Orientation Week Planner

California at Santa Cruz, University of

437

Preemptive scheduling with position costs  

E-print Network

Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems ... an integer solution of the following transportation problem (see for instance [1, ...... a sorted list: each quadratic piece of the function is encored by a cell of the list.

438

Status and future plans for the VieVS scheduling package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the new VLBI2010 network, which uses smaller and fast-slewing antennas observing at broader bandwidths, is progressing rapidly with several new radio telescopes currently being constructed or planned. The new VLBI2010 operating modes will require a scheduling strategies different from today. The VieVS scheduling package (VIE_SCHED) is a new scheduling software in Matlab which has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of the Vienna University of Technology since 2010. Algorithms and models of source structure, slewing time calculation, SNR calculations, and cable wrap have been developed. We generate different schedules and test these through simulations in order to evaluate what is the best observing strategy for the next generation VLBI network. These schedules differ in terms of number of observations and scans, slew time intervals, sky coverage at the individual stations, as well as coverage of the celestial sphere with sources. We also compare the schedules generated by VIE_SCHED with schedules generated with the SKED software, and the differences are analyzed. The planned future developments of VIE_SCHED include an option to analyze the covariance information and allow to consider sites with multiple antennas. We also plan to develop the graphical interface to make it easy to use.

Sun, J.; Pany, A.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

2011-07-01

439

Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules  

PubMed Central

Background Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep/wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Methods Twenty-one participants were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week for each subject based upon estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour “blue” light (?max = 470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning “dim” light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as previous week at the end of the second week. Results We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep/wake schedule advancement and morning “blue” light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 young adults during a two week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the “blue” and “dim” light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian time. Conclusions This wholesale change in circadian clock gene expression may reflect significant advances in circadian time (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures. PMID:23562184

Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Rea, Mark S.

2013-01-01

440

Interpretation of inequality constraints involving interval coefficients and a solution to interval linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern trend in Operations Research methodology deserves modelling of all relevant vague or uncertain information involved in a real decision problem. Generally, vagueness is modelled by a fuzzy approach and uncertainty by a stochastic approach. In some cases, a decision maker may prefer using interval numbers as coefficients of an inexact relationship. As a coefficient an interval assumes an

Atanu Sengupta; Tapan Kumar Pal; Debjani Chakraborty

2001-01-01

441

Rest Interval between Sets in Strength Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength training has become one of the most popular physical activities for increasing characteristics such as absolute muscular strength, endurance, hypertrophy and muscular power. For efficient, safe and effective training, it is of utmost importance to understand the interaction among training vari- ables, which might include the intensity, number of sets, rest interval between sets, exercise modality and velocity of

Belmiro Freitas de Salles; Roberto Simão; Fabrõ ´ cio Miranda; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Adriana Lemos; Jeffrey M. Willardson

2009-01-01

442

The Bootstrap Bayesian Statistics Interval Estimation  

E-print Network

The Bootstrap Bayesian Statistics Topic 16 Interval Estimation The Bootstrap and the Bayesian Approach 1 / 9 #12;The Bootstrap Bayesian Statistics Outline The Bootstrap Bayesian Statistics 2 / 9 #12;The Bootstrap Bayesian Statistics The Bootstrap · The confidence regions have been determined using

Watkins, Joseph C.

443

An Interval Classifier for Database Mining Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are given a large population database that containsinformation about population instances. The populationis known to comprise of m groups, but the population instances are not labeled with the group identification. Also given is a population sample (muchsmaller than the population but representative of it)in which the group labels of the instances are known.We present an interval classifier (IC) which

Rakesh Agrawal; Sakti P. Ghosh; Tomasz Imielinski; Balakrishna R. Iyer; Arun N. Swami

1992-01-01

444

Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which are…

Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

2011-01-01

445

Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

2013-01-01

446

Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

2012-01-01

447

Minimal proper interval completions Ivan Rapaport1  

E-print Network

-Conicyt (I.R., I.T). #12;graph is fixed parameter tractable. The problem is adressed as the "proper inMinimal proper interval completions Ivan Rapaport1 , Karol Suchan23 , and Ioan Todinca2 1, Chile, irapapor@dim.uchile.cl 2 LIFO, Universit´e d'Orl´eans, 45067 Orl´eans Cedex 2, France, Karol

Todinca, Ioan

448

Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

Foster, Colin

2014-01-01

449

Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…

Zou, Guang Yong

2007-01-01

450

TIME POINTS AND INTERVALS KAMAL LODAYA  

E-print Network

of water drops (time points). Natural language shares this ambiguity: in ``We spend a lot of time togetherTIME POINTS AND INTERVALS KAMAL LODAYA 1. Time Here are some ``bookish'' examples of temporal and then it moves downwards for a while (the predicate P ositiveHeight(t) is true for some times t and false

Lodaya, Kamal

451

Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics  

E-print Network

Interval Analysis and Reliability in Robotics J-P. Merlet INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France Abstract: A robot is typical of systems that are inherently submitted to uncertainties although they should be highly reliable (i.e. for a robot used in surgical applications). The sources of uncertainties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced delays as compared to FCFS, and the magnitude of the savings depends on the queue and departure fix structure. The MILP assumes deterministic aircraft arrival times at the runway queues. However, due to taxi time uncertainty, aircraft might arrive either earlier or later than these deterministic times. Thus, to incorporate this uncertainty, we present a method for using the MILP with "overlap discounted rolling planning horizon". The approach is based on valuing near-term decision results more than future ones. We develop a model of taxitime uncertainty based on real-world data, and then compare the baseline FCFS delays with delays using the above MILP in a simple rolling-horizon method and in the overlap discounted scheme.

Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

2009-01-01

453

Effects of schedule of reinforcement on a pentobarbital discrimination in rats.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the schedule of reinforcement on a pentobarbital discrimination in rats. Five rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a multiple fixed-interval 180-s fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. During both saline and pentobarbital training sessions, subjects emitted a higher percentage of correct responses under the fixed-ratio component as compared to the fixed-interval component of the multiple schedule. Determination of the pentobarbital dose-response curve under the fixed-ratio component resulted in a steep curve characterized by responding on the saline lever at low doses and on the drug lever at higher doses. Under the fixed-interval component, a graded dose-effect curve was produced, with considerable responding on both levers after intermediate doses of pentobarbital. The administration of phencyclidine and MK-801 resulted in an intermediate level of drug-lever responding for some subjects. Administration of d-amphetamine resulted in saline (nondrug) appropriate responding. The results of this study demonstrate that the schedule of reinforcement is a determinant of drug stimulus control, just as it is a determinant of other drug effects. PMID:1955819

Snodgrass, S H; McMillan, D E

1991-01-01

454

Exact and Asymptotic Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data: The interval R package  

PubMed Central

For right-censored data perhaps the most commonly used tests are weighted logrank tests, such as the logrank and Wilcoxon-type tests. In this paper we review several generalizations of those weighted logrank tests to interval-censored data and present an R package, interval, to implement many of them. The interval package depends on the perm package, also presented here, which performs exact and asymptotic linear permutation tests. The perm package performs many of the tests included in the already available coin package, and provides an independent validation of coin. We review analysis methods for interval-censored data, and we describe and show how to use the interval and perm packages.

Fay, Michael P.; Shaw, Pamela A.

2014-01-01

455

Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526

Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

2014-01-01

456

Effect of Isometric Exercise on QTc Interval  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The QTc interval is affected by heart rate, autonomic nervous system and diseases like diabetes. However, the affect of exercise which alters autonomic nervous system activity, on QTc is not clear. On the other hand, the incidence of sudden cardiac death increases many fold post exercise. These events may be better explained by studying the effect of exercise on QTc. Aim: This study was designed with an aim to record the QTc interval changes in response to isometric exercise in a group of normal individuals with or without parental history of diabetes mellitus. Also the QTc duration was correlated with the LF-HF ratio. Materials and Methods: Twenty nine, healthy medical students were subjected to isometric hand grip test for 5min. ECG was recorded pre-exercise and at various time intervals post-exercise. Statistical Analysis: All data are expressed in mean ± SD. Intra group comparison was done using paired t-test and unpaired t-test was used for comparison among group I and group II subjects, and among males and females. Result: The difference in the pre and post exercise QTc values both within and between groups was statistically significant with group I subjects recording lower values. The post exercise LF: HF values were significantly increased when compared to pre exercise values in both the groups. There was no correlation between LF: HF and QTc. Conclusion: A longer than normal QTc interval predisposes to arrhythmia. Exercise brings about detectable changes in the QTc interval after a period of isometric exercise in normal individuals which in high risk individuals may predispose to sudden cardiac death. In addition women may be more susceptible to post-exercise arrhythmia owing to a longer QTc even at rest. PMID:25302185

Meher, Arati; Bhattacharjee, Manasi; Rampal, Parikha; Kapoor, Raj

2014-01-01

457

48 CFR 49.602-3 - Schedule of accounting information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Schedule of accounting information. 49...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS...602-3 Schedule of accounting information. Standard Form 1439, Schedule of Accounting Information, shall...

2011-10-01

458

Transportation Routing and Scheduling: Alternatives and Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two basic approaches offered in current computerized transportation routing and scheduling programs: the mathematical programming approach and the intuitive optimization approach. Lists questions that an informed buyer should ask of the routing and scheduling company. (MLF)

Dembowski, Frederick L.

1988-01-01

459

76 FR 46856 - Mail Classification Schedule Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MC2011-26; Order No. 777] Mail Classification Schedule Change...language in the Mail Classification Schedule (MCS...to the proposed classification change identified...publication of this order in the Federal...

2011-08-03

460

Registrar's Office Announcements Student Class Schedule Planner  

E-print Network

the Plans tab in Course Guide ­ Manage Plans. The Schedule Planner is a web based class scheduling system of choice and import it directly to their Student Center Shopping Cart and proceed with the course

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

461

Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

Coleman, Richard M.

1989-01-01

462

40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.  

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....

2014-07-01

463

40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....

2011-07-01

464

40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....

2010-07-01

465

40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....

2012-07-01

466

40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements...schedule adopted lake county Commonwealth Edison Co. of Indiana, Inc. (State Line Station) Hammond APC 13 Jan....

2013-07-01

467

A Scheduling Problem for Hospital Operating Theatre  

E-print Network

This paper provides a classification of real scheduling problems. Various ways have been examined and described on the problem. Scheduling problem faces a tremendous challenges and difficulties in order to meet the preferences of the consumer. Dealing with scheduling problem is complicated, inefficient and time-consuming. This study aims to develop a mathematical model for scheduling the operating theatre during peak and off peak time. Scheduling problem is a well known optimization problem and the goal is to find the best possible optimal solution. In this paper, we used integer linear programming technique for scheduling problem in a high level of synthesis. In addition, time and resource constrained scheduling was used. An optimal result was fully obtained by using the software GLPK/AMPL. This model can be adopted to solve other scheduling problems, such as the Lecture Theatre, Cinemas and Work Shift.

Sufahani, Suliadi F; Ismail, Zuhaimy

2012-01-01

468

Optimal scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance  

E-print Network

The effective scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance in the Air Force is crucial to overall mission accomplishment. An effective maintenance scheduling policy maximizes the use of maintenance resources and aircraft ...

Cho, Philip Y

2011-01-01

469

Declarative configuration applied to course scheduling  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a course scheduling system that models planning as a satisfiability problem in relational logic. Given a set of course requirements for a degree program, our system can find a schedule of courses that ...

Yeung, Vincent S. (Vincent Shu Hang)

2006-01-01

470

Reinforcement by an imprinting stimulus versus water on simple schedules in ducklings  

PubMed Central

Ducklings (5 to 28 days old) were trained to peck a pole on fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, and multiple schedules using brief presentation of an imprinting stimulus as the response-contingent event. Other ducklings of the same age were trained similarly except that reinforcement consisted of access to water. With water reinforcement the typical fixed-ratio (“break-run”), fixed-interval (“scallop”), and multiple schedule response patterns were readily established and consistently maintained. With the imprinting stimulus these schedule effects were inconsistent in some subjects and virtually nonexistent in others, despite extended training. Schedule control with the imprinting stimulus was not improved by the use of a reinforcement signaling procedure which enhances responding reinforced by electrical brain stimulation on intermittent schedules. However, the overall rates of responding and the extinction functions generated after reinforcement with water versus the imprinting stimulus were comparable. These findings imply that control by temporal and discriminative stimuli may be relatively weak when a young organism's behavior is reinforced by presentation of an imprinting stimulus. PMID:16812237

DePaulo, Peter; Hoffman, Howard S.

1981-01-01

471

Real-time scheduling using minimum search  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

1992-01-01

472

Dynamic Scheduling Strategies for Avionics Mission Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avionics mission computing systems have traditionally been scheduled statically. Static scheduling provides assurance of schedulability prior to run-time and can be implemented with low run-time overhead. However, static scheduling does not support distributed processing effectively, handles non-periodic processing inefficiently, and treats invocation-to- invocation variations in resource requirements inflexibly. As a consequence, processing resources are underutilized and the resulting systems are

Christopher D. Gill; David L. Levine; Douglas C. Schmidt

1999-01-01

473

AGGRESSION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN MICE UNDER VARIOUS RATIO- AND TIME-BASED REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES  

PubMed Central

There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident–intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules. PMID:19794833

May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

2009-01-01

474

Eliminating Migration in MultiProcessor Scheduling *  

E-print Network

Eliminating Migration in Multi­Processor Scheduling * Bala Kalyanasundaram y and Kirk R. Pruhs z We investigate the power of migration in real­time multi­processor schedul­ ing with preemption. We show, the ability of the scheduler to migrate jobs is of only limited advantage. Our proof is constructive, and can

Pruhs, Kirk

475

19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs...Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines. The aircraft commander or agent...permission to depart for aircraft of scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a)...

2011-04-01

476

19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs...Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines. The aircraft commander or agent...permission to depart for aircraft of scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a)...

2013-04-01

477

19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs...Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines. The aircraft commander or agent...permission to depart for aircraft of scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a)...

2012-04-01

478

19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.  

... 2014-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs...Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines. The aircraft commander or agent...permission to depart for aircraft of scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a)...

2014-04-01

479

Managing overload via adaptive scheduling Seagate Research  

E-print Network

.iren@seagate.com ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a new adaptive disk scheduling algorithm that assists a disk to maintain- age subsystem, particularly in a disk drive, by proposing a new efficient and adaptive disk scheduling algorithm. [1, 2] provide a comprehensive analysis of both traditional and ef- ficient disk scheduling

Riska, Alma

480

Integrated online job-shop scheduling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of information technology and e- commerce requires fast response form scheduling systems. Based on the Lagrangian relaxation approach for job shop scheduling, this paper present an integrated system that will generate schedules quickly. The Lagrangian relaxation approach is an iterative optimization process, where dynamic programming is solved in each iteration. Since dynamic programming is computational expensive especially

Xing Zhao; Kuan H. Chen; Peter B. Luh; T. D. Chiueh; S. C. Chang; Lakshman S. Thakur

1999-01-01

481

Online Hierarchical Job Scheduling on Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address non preemptive online scheduling of parallel jobs on a Grid. The Grid consists of a large number of identical processors that are divided into several machines. We consider a Grid scheduling model with two stages. At the first stage, jobs are allocated to a suitable machine while at the second stage, local scheduling is applied

Andrei Tchernykh; Uwe Schwiegelshohn; Ramin Yahyapour; Nikolai Kuzjurin

2008-01-01

482

Preemptive online scheduling with reordering Gyorgy Dosa  

E-print Network

the semi-online variant where jobs arrive sorted by non-increasing processing time requirements Scheduling of jobs arriving one by one (or over list) is a basic model in online scheduling [17]. The system and semi-online preemptive scheduling of jobs. An arriving job can be split into parts, which need

Epstein, Leah

483

History-Dependent Scheduling for Cryptographic Processes  

E-print Network

of the state-space explosion problem. In this paper we present history-dependent scheduling, a new reductionHistory-Dependent Scheduling for Cryptographic Processes Vincent Vanack`ere Laboratoire d@cmi.univ-mrs.fr Abstract. This paper presents history-dependent scheduling, a new tech- nique for reducing the search space

Parrow, Joachim

484

Batch Scheduling with Deadlines on Parallel Machines  

E-print Network

Batch Scheduling with Deadlines on Parallel Machines Peter Brucker Mikhail Y. Kovalyov, Yakov M of scheduling G groups of jobs on m parallel machines is considered. Each group consists of several identical) and to schedule the batches on the machines. It is possible for different batches of the same group

Magdeburg, Universität

485

A Hybrid Method for Planning and Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and constraint programming (CP) to solve planning and scheduling problems. Tasks are allocated to facilities using MILP and scheduled using CP, and the two are linked via logic-based Benders decomposition. Tasks assigned to a facility may run in parallel subject to resource constraints (cumulative scheduling). We solve minimum cost problems, as well as

John N. Hooker

2004-01-01

486

NUDGE, A Knowledge-Based Scheduling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional scheduling algorithms (using the techniques of PERT charts, decision analysis or operations rrsrarrh) require well-defined, quantitative, complete sets of constrainls*. They are insufficient for scheduling situations where the problem description is ill-defined, involving incomplete, possibly inconsistent and generally qualitative constraints. The NUDGE program uses an extensive knowledge base to debug scheduling requests by supplying typical values for qualitative constraints,

Ira P. Goldstein; R. B. Roberts

1977-01-01